Britannia, by William Camden

Lincolnshire.

Big T THE County of Lincoln borders upon Rutlandshire on the East; being call’d by the Saxons Saxon Lincollscyre, by the Normans, at their first entrance into this Island (by a transposal of Letters) Nicolshire; but commonly now, Lincolnshire. It is a very large County, * * 64.almost sixty miles long, and in some places † † 38.above thirty broad; the Soil very fit for the producing of corn, and feeding of cattel: adorn’d also with many towns, and water’d with many rivers. On the East-side, it shoots out into a †  Supercilium.foreland of great compass, which bounds upon the German Ocean; on the North, it reaches as far as the Abus or Humber, an arm of the sea; on the West, it joyns to Nottinghamshire; and on the South, it is parted from Northamptonshire by the river Welland. The whole County is divided into three parts, Holland, Kesteven, and Lindsey.

Lincoln Shire map, left Lincoln Shire map, right

Lincoln Shire

Holland,Holland. which Ingulphus calls Hoiland, is next the sea: and, like Holland in Germany, is so very moist in many places, that a deep print of one’s foot remains, and the surface it self shakes, if stamp’d on: From whence it may seem to have taken the name; unless with Ingulphus one should call it Hoiland, and derive it from plenty of Hay.

⌈This, and Holland in the Low Countries, agreeing so exactly in their situation, soil, and most other circumstances; the original of the name, is (without doubt) one and the same. Mr. Butler’s conjecture drawn from the Saxon Saxon holt, a wood, and that other from hay; seem both to have one and the same objection against them, that the soil does not favour either; at least, not so much as to render the place eminent for either; especially, consider’d in it’s ancient state. I would not willingly go further for the original of this name, than to the Saxon Saxon heah deep; the remains whereof the Northern parts do still retain in their how, which they use for deep or low; and the breakings-in of the sea, with the banks made against it, sufficiently declare how much the nature of these places favour this conjecture. But in the last age, these low Marshes have been very much drain’d and improv’d.⌉

All this part lies upon the Estuary, which Ptolemy calls Metaris,Metaris. instead of Maltraith, and is call’d at this day, The Washes.The Washes. This Estuary is very large and noted, cover’d with water at every flow, and passable again at every ebb, tho’ not without danger; as King John found to his cost. For in the Barons war, attempting to pass here, he lost all his carriages and equipage, near Foss-dyke and Welstream, by a sudden inundation; as Matthew Westminster tells us. This part of the County, which the Inhabitants, from the great heaps of sand (call’d Silt) believe to have been forsaken by the sea, is so terribly assaulted on one side with the Ocean, on the other with a mighty flood of waters from the Upper Country, that all the winter they constantly watch it, and can hardly defend themselves with banks against those dangerous enemies. The ground produces very little corn, but much grass; and abounds with fish and sea-fowl; but the soil is so soft, that they work their horses unshod, and you shall not find so much as a little stone, which has not been brought from some other place: yet the Churches here are beautiful, and built of square-stone. It is very evident from certain banks, now distant two miles from the shore, and from the hills near Sutterton which they call Salt-hill,Salt-hills. that the sea came further up. ⌈And therefore Dugdale ranks Holland, with Marshland in Norfolk, and some other maritime places, which by great industry have been gained from the sea; and, before, were nothing but vast and deep fens.⌉ Here is great want of fresh water in all places; they having no other supply but the rainwater in pits; which, if deep, soon turn the water brackish, if shallow, are presently dry. Here are many quick-sands;Quick-sands. and the Shepherds and their flocks are often taught by dangerous experience, that they have a wonderful force in sucking in, and holding fast, whatever comes upon them.

This Hoiland is divided into two parts, the lower and the upper. The lower abounds with † † These are now much alter’d, by draining.filthy bogs and unpassable marshes, which the inhabitants themselves cannot go over, even with the help of their stilts. And because it’s situation is very low, it is defended on one side from the Ocean, on the other from the waters that overflow the upper part of the Isle of Ely, by huge banks. Southy-bankBy others call’d Southy-dike. is the most noted; which the inhabitants take great care of, being continually fearful lest a breach should be made by that great flood of waters which fall from the south-parts, when the rivers swell, and by their inundations lay all a-float. For the draining of these waters, the neighbouring inhabitants began in the year 1599. to dig a new chanel at Clows-cross.

⌈Upon the confines of Norfolk, lies Tydd,Tydd. a small village, but famous for the once Rector of it Nicholas Breakspear, who planted Christianity in Norway: for which good service to the Church, he was afterwards made Cardinal, and in the year 1154, Pope, under the name of Hadrian the fourth. And in the same tract is Sutton St. Maries,Sutton St. Maries. remarkable for the beauty of its Church, and of a Chapel belonging to the same; the first owing it to a Gentleman of the name of Allen, who was a generous benefactor thereto; the second, to Dr. Busby, the famous and worthy master of Westminster-School, and a native of this place. At Fleet, in this tract, hath been found a large earthen pot, cover’d with an oaken board, and in it about three pecks of Roman Copper Coins, piled down edgewise, most of them about the time of Gallienus.⌉

Near ⌈the foresaid⌉ Southybank, I saw Crowland,Crowland. call’d also Croyland, a very noted town among the Fenners; which (as Ingulphus, Abbot of the place, interprets it) signifies raw and muddy land: a place (as they write) haunted in times past with I know not what frightful apparitions, till Guthlacus, a very pious man, became a hermit there. To whose memory, and to the honour of God, Ethelbald King of the Mercians founded a Monastery at great charge in the year 716, very famous for religion and wealth; concerning which, take these verses of Felix, a pretty ancient Monk, in the life of Guthlacus:

Nunc exercet ibi se munificentia Regis,
Et magnum templum magno molimine condit.
At cum tam mollis, tam lubrica, tam male constans
Fundamenta palus non ferret saxea, palos
Præcipit infigi quercino robore cæsos,
Leucarumque novem spatio rate fertur arena;
Inque solum mutatur humus, suffultaque tali
Cella basi, multo stat consummata labore
.

Now here the Prince’s bounteous mind was shown,
And with vast charge a stately pile begun.
But when the trembling fenns, the faithless moor
Sinking betray’d the stony mass they bore;
At his command huge posts of lasting Oak
Down the soft earth were for a basis struck:
Nine leagues the labouring Barges brought the sand:
Thus rotten turf was turn’d to solid land;
And thus the noble frame does still unshaken stand.

If out of the same Author I should describe the Devils of CrowlandDevils of Crowland. (with their blubber lips, fiery mouths, scaly faces, beetle heads, sharp teeth, long chins, hoarse throats, black skins, hump shoulders, big bellies, burning loins, bandy legs, tail’d buttocks, &c.) which formerly haunted these places, and very much annoy’d Guthlacus and the Monks; you would laugh at the History, and much more at my madness in relating it. But since the situation and nature of the place is strange, and different from all others in England, and since the Monastery was particularly famous in former times; I shall give you the description of it somewhat more at large. † † So, ann. 1607; but the Country is now much better’d by Drains and Sluices.This Crowland lies in fenns, so enclos’d and encompass’d with deep bogs and pools, that there is no access to it but on the north and east-side, and there too only by narrow Causeys. This Monastery, and Venice (if we may compare small things with great) have the same sort of situation. It consists of three Streets, separated from each other by water-courses, planted with willows, and raised on piles driven into the bottom of the pool; having communication by a triangular bridge of curious Workmanship, under which the Inhabitants say there was a very deep pit, that was dug to receive the concourse of waters there. Beyond the bridge (where, as one words it, * * In solum mutatur humus.a bog is become firm ground,) stood formerly that famous Monastery, though of a small compass; about which, unless on that side where the Town stands, the ground is so rotten and boggy, that a pole may be thrust down thirty foot deep; and there is nothing round about, but reeds; and, next the Church, a grove of alders. However, the Town is pretty well inhabited; but the Cattle are kept at some distance from it, so that when the owners milk them, they go in boats (which will carry but two) call’d by them Skerrys. Their greatest gain, is from the fish and ¦ ¦ Anatum aquatilium.wild Ducks that they catch; which are so many, that in August they can drive into a single net three thousand Ducks at once, and they call these Pools their Cornfields; † † Ann. 1607.there being no corn growing within five miles of the place. For this liberty of fishing and fowling they formerly paid yearly to the Abbot, as they do now to the King, three hundred pounds sterling.

⌈ThusPhilos. Trans. N.223. was the ancient state of this place, and of the neighbouring Country; but of later years, the Soil hath been exceedingly improved by Dreins and Sluices, and the greatest part of the Ponds are now turned into Corn-fields.⌉

It is not necessary to write the private History of this Monastery, for it is extant in Ingulphus, which is now printed; yet I am willing to make a short report of that which Petrus Blesensis, † Vice-Cancellarius.Vice-chancellor to King Henry the second, has related at large concerning the first building of this Monastery in the year 1112, to the end that from one single precedent we may learn by what means, and by what assistances, so many stately Religious-houses were built in all parts of this kingdom. Joffrid the Abbot obtain’d of the Arch-bishops and Bishops of England, to every one that helped forward so religious a work, an Indulgence of the third part of the Penance enjoyn’d for the sins he had committed. With this, he sent out Monks every where to make Collections; and having enough, he appointed St. Perpetua’s and Felicity’s Day to be that on which he would lay the foundation, to the end the work, from those fortunate names, might be auspiciously begun. At which time, the Nobles and Prelates, with the common People, met there in great numbers. Prayers being said and Anthems sung, the Abbot himself laid the first corner-stone on the East-side; after him, every noble man, according to his degree, laid his stone: and, upon it, some laid money, and others, Writings, by which they offer’d Lands, advowsons of Churches, tenths of their Sheep, and other tythes of their several Churches, certain measures of wheat, or a certain number of workmen or masons. On the other side, the common people no less zealous, offer’d with great devotion, some of them money, and some one day’s work every month till it should be finish’d; some to build whole pillars, and others, pedestals, and others, certain parts of the walls. The Abbot afterwards made a Speech, commending their great zeal and bounty, in contributing to so pious a work, and by way of requital made every one of them a * * Fraterni­tatem.member of that Monastery, and gave them a right to partake in all the spiritual blessings of that Church. At last, having entertain’d them with a plentiful feast, he dismiss’d them in great joy. But I will not stay longer upon these things.

From Crowland, between the river Welland and the deep marshes, there is a Causey with willows on each side, leading to the North; on which, two miles from Crowland, I saw the fragment of a Pyramid with this Inscription.

Saxon text

This rock I say is Guthlack’s utmost bound.

Higher up, on the same river, is Spalding,Spalding. a Town enclos’d on all sides with rivulets and canals; ⌈it is a handsome and large Market,⌉ and indeed neater than can be reasonably expected in this County, among so many lakes. Here Ivo Talbois, who is call’d somewhere in Ingulphus, Earl of Anjou, granted to the Monks of Anjou an ancient Cell. From hence, as far as Deeping, which is ten miles off, Egelrick Abbot of Crowland, afterwards Bishop of Durham, made a firm Causey for travellers, through the midst of a vast forest and deep marshes (as Ingulphus writes,) of wood and gravel; which was call’d, from his name, Elrich road: but at this day nothing of it appears.

In the Upper-Hoiland, which lies more to the north, the first place is Kirkton,Kirkton. so call’d from the Church, which is indeed very beautiful: After this, where the river Witham,Witham, riv. enclos’d on both sides with artificial banks, runs with a full Chanel into the sea, stands the flourishing Town of Boston,Boston. more truly Botolph’s Town; for it took that name from Botolph a pious Saxon, who (as Bede says) had a Monastery at Icanhoe. It is a famous Town, built on both sides the river Witham, over which there is a very high wooden-bridge. It has a commodious and well frequented harbour, a great market, and a beautiful and large Church, the tower of which is very high, and as it were salutes travellers at a great distance, and is a Landmark to the Seamen; ⌈being two hundred eighty two foot in height; also of a most exquisite and surprising fineness in the workmanship.⌉ This Town was miserably ruin’dRobbers under the disguise of Monks. in Edward the first’s reign; for in that degenerate age, and universal corruption of manners throughout the kingdom, certain Warriors, whilst a tournament was proclaiming at Fair-time, coming hither under the disguise of Monks and Canons, set the Town on fire in many places, broke in upon the Merchants with sudden violence, and carry’d away great quantities of goods, but burnt more: insomuch that our Historians write (as the Ancients did of Corinth, when it was demolish’d) that veins of gold and silver ran mix’d together in one common current. Their Ringleader Robert Chamberlain, after he had confessed the fact, and express’d his detestation of the crime, was hanged; but could not by any means be brought to discover his accomplices. However, better times succeeding, Boston recover’d it self, and a Staple for Wooll was settled here; which very much enrich’d it, and drew hither the Merchants of the Hanse-Company, who fix’d their Gild in this place. * * Ann. 1607.At present, it is a fair-built, and trading rich Town; for the Inhabitants apply themselves both to merchandise and grazing: ⌈but in point of trade, they seem of late to be on the declining hand. Here, the famous John Fox, Author of the Acts and Monuments, was born.⌉

Near this was the Barony de CroeunCroeun. or Credon; of which family, Alanus de Croeun foundedRegist. de Freston. the Priory of Freston: and at length, Barons of Burton Croeune.Petronilla, the heiress of the family, being twice married, brought no small inheritance, first to the Longchamps, from whom the Pedwardins, and secondly to John Vaulx, from whom the Barons of Roos, are descended. This Hoiland reaches scarce six miles farther: it was entirely given by William the first to Yvo Talbois of Anjou, whose insolences were such, that HerwardHerward, the Englishman. the Saxon could not bear them. This Herward was a person of an excellent disposition and great Valour, the son of Leofrick Lord of Brane or Burne;Ingulphus. and seeing his own and his Country’s safety now at stake,Crowlandensis. and having a Soldier’s belt girt on him by Bran Abbot of Peterborough (who was also enrag’d against the Normans,) he broke out into open war against the foremention’d Yvo, and often conquer’d him, and at last took him prisoner, and would not suffer him to be ransom’d, unless himself might be receiv’d into the King’s favour, and live and die in his Allegiance and Protection. And indeed his Valour, which is a quality that we honour in our very enemies, deserv’d this. His daughter was married to Hugh Enermeve Lord of Deping, and enjoy’d his possessions; which afterwards, as I have been informed, came to the Barons de Wake;Barons of Wake. a family who being much enrich’d by the Estate of the Estotevills, were very eminent in these parts, till Edward the second’s time; but then, by an heir female, their inheritance came in right of marriage to Edmund of Woodstock Earl of Kent, youngest son to King Edward the first. From † E filius junioribus.a younger branch, is descended the ancient and famous family of the Wakes of Blisworth in Northamptonshire, still remaining.

⌈And so much for Holland, which as well as Lindsey-division, has had its Earls, and gave title to Henry Rich Lord Kensington, created Earl of Holland, Apr. 3. 22 Jac. 1. He was succeeded by Robert his son, who had the additional title of Earl of Warwick by the death of Charles Rich, Earl of that place, his Cousin-german. Whereupon, both titles were enjoy’d by Edward Rich, stil’d Earl of Warwick and Holland; and, he dying, both descended to his son Edward-Henry, the present Earl.⌉

The other part of this County, commonly call’d Kesteven,Kesteven. but by Ethelwerd an ancient author Ceostefne-wood, borders upon Hoiland on the west, and is happy in an air much more wholsome, and a soil no less fruitful. ⌈The reason why Æthelwerd calls it Ceostefne Sylva, i.e. the wood Ceostefne (whereas, at present, no such thing appears,) is, because there was formerly a great Forest at this end of the division, where now are the large fenns, call’d Deeping-Fenns, &c. A plain argument whereof is, that the trunks of trees are dug-up in several ditches thereabouts, which lie cover’d some two foot, with a light black mold.AEthelwerd And * * Mr. Neale.a curious person (to whom the world is indebted for this and other discoveries in this County) affirms, that in a ditch of his own, at the edge of the fenns, there were several trunks of trees lying in the bottom, and in another place as many acorns turn’d out of one hole, as would fill a hat; very firm and hard, but colour’d black: and yet now, there is no tree standing near that place by a mile, except here and there a willow lately set. The same worthy person adds, that he has by him the copy of the Exemplification of the † † Dat. West. Feb. 1. ann. 5 Angl. & Scot. 41.Letters Patents of Jac. 1. wherein he recites by way of Inspeximus, the ¦ ¦ Dat. Portsmouth, Apr. 23. regni 14.Letters Patents of Henry the third, who thereby disafforested the said forest of Kesteven for ever, which was also confirm’d by Letters Patents of * * 20 Edw. 3.Edward the third; wherein the said forest is butted and bounded, to extend on one side from Swaston to East-Deeping, as Caresdike extends it self (which is a dike, running cross the top of the Fenns, not only of Deeping-Fenn, but also of that great fenn beyond the river Glen, call’d Lindsey-level;) and on the other side, to the division call’d Holland. This Cares-dike,Morton, Northampt. p.513. or Caerdike, is a broad, deep, artificial Chanel, which formerly extended from the river Nen, a little below Peterborow, to the river Witham, about three miles below Lincoln; being almost forty miles in length, and supposed by some to have been the work of the Romans, and navigable.⌉

This Kesteven-Division is larger than the other, and is in all parts adorn’d with more Towns. On the border, upon the river Welland, stands Stanford,Stanford. in Saxon Saxon steanford, ¦ ¦ E saxo structili.built of stone, from which it has it’s name. It is a populous Town of good resort, endow’d with divers privileges, and wall’d about. It paid Geld (as Domesday-book has it) for twelve Hundreds and a half to the army, and towards the navy, and Danegeld; and had in it six Wards. ⌈As to the Antiquity of it; our English Historians afford us very large testimonies. Henry HuntingdonLib.5 p.203. in his description of the wars between Edmund Ironside and the Danes, calls it an ancient City;Pag.515. and Ingulphus, tells us, there were Terms held at Stamford; and Hoveden in the book of Crowland,Pag.249. calls it Stamfordshire, being a County-town: and very commodious it is for that use; this end of Lincolnshire adjoyning to it, being thirty six miles from Lincoln, and the end of Northamptonshire next it on that side, no less from Northampton; which distance is a great inconvenience to the Inhabitants, as often as their business calls them to the publick Assizes.⌉ When King Edward the Elder fortified the southern banks of the Rivers, to hinder the Danish inroads from the north; he built on the south bank over-against this Town, a very strong castle, call’d now Stanford-Baron,Stanford-Baron. as Marianus has it. ButVid. Burghley, in Northamptonshire. at this day † † Probably, on the west-side, a little above the Spittal.nothing of it is to be seen; for the common report is, and the foundation-plot it self witnesses, that the castle which Stephen fortified in the Civil wars against Henry of Anjou, stood in the very town. ⌈Stow also tells us, that there was a Mint for coyning of money in Stamford-Baron, in the time of King Athelstan; but this probably was a privilege granted to the Abbots of Peterburrow; for this is that Parish which is in Northamptonshire, and is within a distinct liberty, granted to them.⌉ Afterwards, when Henry of Anjou was King of England, he gaveLib. Inq. in the Exchequer. the whole Village of Stanford (being his Demesne,) excepting the fees of the Barons and Knights of the said Village, to Richard de Humez or Humetz who was Constable to our Lord the King, to hold of him by homage and other service. And afterwards, The same was held by William Earl of Warren, by the favour of King John. University of Stamford. In Edward the third’s reign ⌈(not to mention what the fragment of an old Manuscript History says, concerning an University here, long before our Saviour,)⌉ an University for the study and profession of liberal Arts and Sciences, was begun here; which the Inhabitants look upon as their greatest glory. For when the hot contests at Oxford broke out between the Students of the North, and the South, a great number of them withdrew and settled here. However, a little while after, they return’d to Oxford, and put an end to the new University which they had so lately begun; and from thence-forward it was provided, by an Oath to that purpose, that no Oxford-man should Profess at Stanford. ⌈Here are still the remains of two Colleges, one call’d Black-hall,Black-hall and Brazen-nose Colleges. and the other Brazen-nose; on the gate whereof is a great brazen Nose and a ring through it, like that of the same name at Oxford. And it is evident, that this did not take its pattern from Oxford, but Oxford from it; inasmuch as that at Oxford, was not built before the reign of Henry the seventh, and this is at least as old as Edward the third, and probably older.⌉ Notwithstanding the loss of their University, Trade it self supported the Town, till in the heat of the Civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York, the Northern Soldiers storm’d and utterly destroy’d it with fire and sword. Since that, it could never perfectly recover and come up to its former glory; though it is in a good condition at this day; ⌈being the fairest built and best compacted Town in the County, and finely seated for pleasure and convenience.⌉ It is govern’d * * By an Alderman, and 24, &c. C.by a Mayor, twelve Aldermen, and twenty four Burgesses: ⌈But when this begun, is not so certain; being much older than the first Charter that they have. For there is a List of sixty upon the Court-Roll, sworn there, before the Incorporation, viz. from 1398. to 1460. the first year of Edward the fourth. So that Edward the fourth by his Charter, seems rather to have confirm’d an old custom, than to have establish’d a new one. It is very observable here, that they have the Custom, which Littleton, the famous Common-Lawyer, calls Burrough English, i.e. the younger sons inherit what Lands or Tenements their fathers die possess’d of, within this Manour.⌉ It has † † About 7, C.five Parish-Churches; ⌈the fourteen which it anciently had, being reduced, by Act of Parliament,2 Ed.6. n.50. in the 2d year of King Edward the sixth; one also hath been turned into a Free-School, and another united to the Church of All-Saints.⌉ It hath likewise a very fair old Hospital, founded by William Brown an Inhabitant; besides another on this side the bridge, ¦ ¦ Lately built, C.built by the Nestor of Britain, William Cecil Baron of Burghley, upon his fixing that stately Seat at Burghley, of which I have already spoken in Northamptonshire. He lies buried in a splendid tomb, in * * St. George’s, C.St. Martin’s Parish-Church ⌈in Stamford-Baron;⌉ a person, to say no more, who lived long enough to Nature, and long enough to Glory, but not long enough to his Country. ⌈After the death of William Earl of Warren, the manour, burrough, and castle of Stamford were granted to John Earl Warren by Edward the first; and by his death reverted to the Crown. After five or six re-grants from the Crown to several of the greatest Nobility, and as many returns to it, either by forfeiture or for want of heirs-male; Queen Elizabeth granted them to William Cecil, first Lord Burghley: from him they descended to Anne, daughter and coheir of William Earl of Exeter, who was marry’d to Henry Grey first Earl of Stamford; advanc’d to that dignity by King Charles the first, in the third year of his reign. He was father of Thomas Lord Grey of Grooby, who dy’d in his father’s life-time, having marry’d Dorothy daughter and coheir of Edward Bourchier Earl of Bath; by which match, Thomas, the present Earl of Stamford, is descended from Thomas of Woodstock Duke of Glocester, and from the Bohuns Earls of Essex, Hereford, and Northampton, and several other noble Families.⌉Gausennae Durobrivae

Though there are in this place some remains of Antiquity, and the Roman High-way, (which you see as soon as you are out of this Town, northward,) clearly shews, that there was formerly a Ferry here;High-dyke. yet they do not prove, that this was that GausennæGausennæ. which Antoninus places at some small distance from hence. But since the little village BrigcastertonBrigcasterton. (which by its very name appears to be ancient) is but a mile off, where the river Gwash or Wash crosses the military way; the nearness of the name Gwash to Gausennæ, and the distance, not inconsistent, makes me believe, till time † † Dr. Gale, at Nottingham, as better answering the distances: he makes this, Durobrivæ.produce some more probable conjecture, that Gausennæ is at present call’d Brigcasterton. If I should think Stamford sprang from the ruins of this Town, and that this Gausennae part of the County is call’d Kesteven from Gausennæ, as the other part is nam’d Lindsey from the City Lindum, I would have the reader take it as a bare Opinion, and pass what judgment upon it he thinks fit. It is the current belief, that this Gausennæ was demolish’d (as Henry Archdeacon of Huntingdon relates) when the Picts and Scots ravag’d this Country as far as Stanford; where our Hengist and his Saxons, with great Resolution and Gallantry, stop’d their progress, and forc’d them to fly in great disorder; leaving many dead, and many more prisoners, behind them. ⌈Between Stamford and Lincoln, in the Kesteven-division, are many SpawsThe Spaws. or mineral chalybiate Springs; as, at Bourne, Walcot by Folkingham, Pickworth, Newton, Aunsby, Aserby, and, as is said, in the grounds east of Dunsby-hall, three miles north of Sleeford: * * Vid. infrà.Those chiefly celebrated and us’d, are Bourne and Walcot.⌉ But to proceed.

In the east part of Kesteven, which lies towards Hoiland, as we travel to the north, the first Town we meet with, is Deping,Deping. that is, as Ingulphus has it, a deep meadow, where Richard de Rulos Chamberlain to William the Conqueror, by throwing up a great bank, shut out the river Wailand,Deping-fenns. which us’d often to overflow; and built on the said bank many houses, which in all made a large village. This Deping, or deep meadow, is indeed very properly so call’d; for the plain which lies beneath it, many miles in compass, is the deepest in all this marshy Country, and the rendezvous of many waters; and what is very strange, the chanel of the river Glen, which is pent in by its banks, and runs from the west, lies much higher than this plain. ⌈The manour came to the Crown by the black Prince’s marrying Joan the Fair Maid of Kent, who was daughter to Edmund of Woodstock Earl of Kent, and of Margaret sister and heiress to Thomas Wake, the last of that line. It is very remarkable, that she had been twice marry’d before, and twice divorced.⌉ Next, is Burn,Burn. ⌈which by the same marriage came to the Crown, together with Deping, and is⌉ remarkable for the † † This was rather at Buers, in Suffolk, which see.Inauguration of King Edmund, and for a castle of the Wakes; who obtain’d for it of King Edward the first, the privilege of a Market. ⌈Leland’s account of it, is, That in his time, there appeared great ditches, and the Dungeon-hill of it against the west-end of the Priory, somewhat distant from it, as on the other side of the street back-ward; That it belong’d to the Lord Wake, and, That much service of the Wake-fee was done to it, and every Feodary knew his station, and place of service. The medicinal Spring arising here in a farm-yard, is as strong as that at Astrop in Northamptonshire, and is much drunk in summer-time. That other also, seven miles farther to the north, near the edge of the fenns at WalcotWalcot. by Folkingham, is much frequented by the Gentry of late years, and is something stronger than in the other; purging both by urine and stool. Not far from Bourn, is Grimsthorp,Grimsthorp. the seat of his Grace the Duke of Ancaster, Lord Great Chamberlain of England.⌉

More to * * The north-west. the east, stands Irnham,Irnham. heretofore the Barony of Andrew Lutterell: And then Sempringham, † † Now famous, C.famous for a very fine houseLutterell. built by Edward Baron Clinton, afterwards Earl of Lincoln, ⌈which is now ruinous;⌉ but heretofore, for theSempringham. Religious Order of the Gilbertines,Fryers Gilbertines. instituted by one Gilbert Lord of the place. For he, as they write, being an admirable person, and singularly skilled in the education of women, did, by authority of Pope Eugenius the third, ann. 1148 (contrary to the Constitutions of Justinian, which forbad all double Monasteries, that is, of men and women promiscuously) introduce an Order of men and women; which encreased to that degree, that he himself founded 13 Convents of this Order, and liv’d to see in them seven hundred Gilbertine Fryers and eleven hundred Sisters: but their Chastity was not to be brag’d of, if we may believe Nigellus a Satyrist of that age, who thus upbraids them;

Harum sunt quædam steriles, quædam parientes,
Virgineoque tamen nomine cuncta tegunt.
Quæ pastoralis baculi dotatur honore,
Illa quidem melius, fertiliusque parit.
Vix etiam quævis sterilis reperitur in illis,
Donec eis ætas talia posse neget
.

Some are good breeders here, and others fail,
But all is hid beneath the sacred veil.
She that with pastoral staff commands the rest,
As with more zeal, so with more fruit is blest,
Nor any one the courtesie denies,
Till age steals on, and robs them of their joys.

Next is Folkingham, which also † † Belongs, C. belong’d to the Clintons; but was once a BaronyLords of Folkingham. of the Gaunts, descended from Gilbert de Gandavo or Gaunt, ¦ ¦ Nepote.nephew to Baldwin Earl of Flanders, on whom William the Conqueror, very liberally, bestow’d great Possessions; for thus an old Manuscript has it, Memorandum, That there came-in with William the Conqueror one Gilbert de Gaunt, to whom the said William (having dispossess’d a woman nam’d Dunmoch) granted the Manour of Folkingham, with the appurtenances thereunto belonging, and the Honour annex’d to it. The said Gilbert had Walter de Gaunt, his son and heir, who had Gilbert de Gaunt, his son and heir, and Robert de Gaunt his younger son; and the said Gilbert, son and heir, had Alice, his daughter and heir, who was marry’d to Earl Simon, and gave many Tenements to Religious Houses, but dy’d without issue by her. Then, the Inheritance came to the aforesaid Robert de Gaunt her uncle, who had Gilbert his son and heir, who had another Gilbert his son and heir, who had also another Gilbert his son and heir, by whom the Manour of Folkingham, with its appurtenances, was given to Edward,Pl. 27 H. 3. Rot. 13. Linc. son of Henry King of England. This Gilbert, as it is in the Pleas of the Crown, from which this Genealogy is prov’d, sued for service, against William de Scremby. At last, the King gave it to Henry de Bellomonte; for nothing is more clear, than that he held it in EdwardInq. 4 Ed. 2. the second’s reign. Near this, is Skrekingham,Skrekingham. remarkable for the death of Alfric the second Earl of Leicester, kill’d by Hubba the Dane. Which place, it is very probable that Ingulphus speaks of, when he writes thus, In Kesteven, three Danish petty Kings were slain; and they inter’d them in a certain village heretofore call’d Laundon, but now Tre-king-ham, from this burial of the three Kings.

More to the east, is Hather,Hather. famous for nothing but the † † Now, the Newtons.Bussy.Busseys or Busleys, who live here, and derive their pedigree from Roger de Busley, who was contemporary with the Conqueror. And then Sleford,Sleford. a castle of the Bishops of Lincoln, erected by Alexander, Bishop; where also John Hussy,Baron Hussy. the first and last Baron of that name, built himself a seat, but lost his head for engaging in that Insurrection of 1537, when the feuds and differences about Religion first broke out in England. A few miles off, stands Kime,Kime. from whence a noble family, call’d de Kime, had their name; but the Umfranvils (three of whom were summon’d to Parliament, by the name of Earls of Angus.Earls of Angus in Scotland) became at last possessors of it. The Sages of the Common Law would not allow the first of these (forasmuch as Angus was not within the bounds of the Kingdom of England) to be an Earl, till he produced in open Court, the King’s Writ by which he was summon’d to Parliament under the title of Earl of Angus. From the Umfranvils, it came to the Talbois; one of which family, named Gilbert, was by Hen. 8. created Baron Talbois; whose two sons dy’d without issue, and so the inheritance went by females to the families of the Dimocks, Inglebies, and others.

More to the west, stands Temple Bruer,Temple Bruer. that is, as I interpret it, Temple in the Heath: it seems to have been a Preceptory of the Templars, for there are still the ruinous walls of a demolish’d Church, not unlike those of the New Temple in London. Near it, is Blankeney, once the Barons Deincourt.Barony of the Deincourts, who flourish’d in a continu’d succession, from the coming-in of the Normans to the time of Henry the sixth, and then the heir-male fail’d in William, whose two sisters and heirs were marry’d, the one to William Lovel, the other to Ralph Cromwell. I was the more willing to take notice of this Family, that I might in some measure answer the desire of Edmund Baron Deincourt, who was so very earnest to preserve the memory of his name, that having no issue-male, he petition’d Inq. 21 H. 6. Pat. 10. Ed. 2.King Edward the second, for liberty To make over his Manours and Arms to whomsoever he pleas’d; for he imagin’d that both his Name and Arms would go to the grave with him, and was very sollicitous to have them survive, and be remember’d. Accordingly, the King comply’d, and he had Letters Patents for that end. Yet this sirname, for ought I can find, is now quite extinct, and would have been forgotten for ever, if the memory of it had not been preserv’d in Books.

In the west-part of Kesteven, where this County borders on Leicestershire, on a steep, and as it seems artificial hill, stands Belvoir or Beauvoir-castle,Belvoir, or Beauvoir-castle. so call’d (whatever the name was formerly) from its pleasant prospect; which (with the little Monastery adjoyning, ⌈and belonging to Leicestershire, as Mr. Burton pleads,)⌉ is said to have been built by Todeneius a Norman; from whom, by the Albenies Britons, and by the Barons Roos, it came by inheritance to the Mannours, † † Now Dukes.Earls of Rutland. ⌈Mr. Burton differs somewhat from this account; being willing to have it rais’d by one of the House of Albeney; whose first name indeed he does not deny might be Totney, or Todeney. He grounds his opinion upon some ancient Records about the time of King Henry the first, or elder, proving the Albenies to be then resident here; who were true Natives of this land, and no Normans or Strangers, as appears by the addition to their name, viz. Willielmus de Albiniaco, Brito.⌉ By the first of the Mannours (Thomas) as I have heard it, it was rebuilt, after it had lain in ruins for many years. For William Lord Hastings, in spight to Thomas Lord Roos who sided with Henry the sixth, did almost demolish it, and, upon the attainder of the Lord Roos, had it granted him by Edward the fourth, with very large possessions. But Edmund Baron Roos, son of Thomas, did by the favour of Henry the seventh regain this his hereditary Estate. About the castle, are found the stones call’d Astroites,Astroites. which resemble little stars, mix’d one with another, having five rays in every corner, and in the middle of every ray a hollow. This stone among the Germans had its name from Victory; for they think, as Georgius Agricola writes in his sixth book of Minerals, that whosoever carries this stone about him, shall certainly be successful against his enemies. But I have not yet had an opportunity to make the experiment, whether this stone of our’s, when put in vinegar, will move out of its place and whirl round, like that in Germany. The Vale beneath this castle, commonly call’d from it, The Vale of Belvoir,The Vale of Belvoir. is pretty large, and render’d exceeding pleasant by corn-fields and pastures. It lies, part in Leicestershire, part in Nottinghamshire, and part in Lincolnshire.

If not in this very place, yet certainly very near it, stood formerly that MargidunumMargidunum. which Antoninus mentions next to Vernometum; as appears plainly enough, both by its name, and by the distances from Vernometum and the Town Ad Pontem, otherwise Paunton; for Antoninus places it between them. It seems to have taken this ancient name from Marga, and from the situation. For Marga, among the Britains, was a sort of earth with which they manur’d their grounds; and Dunum, which signify’d a hill, is applicable only to high places. But I do for all that question this etymology, † † See Market-Overton, in Rutlandshire; suppos’d to be the old Margidunum.seeing there is but little Marle found in this place (the not searching for it, being perhaps the reason;) except the Britains by the name of Marga understand ¦ ¦ Gypsum.Plaister-stone, which, as I am inform’d, is dug-up not far from hence, and (as Pliny declares in his Natural History) was in great request among the Romans, who us’d it in their Plaisteringsplaster ceiling and * * Sigillus.Cielings.

Thro’ this part of the Shire, runs Witham,Riv. Witham. a little river, but very full of Pikes; and the northern parts of the Division are bounded by it. It’s head is at a little town of the same name, not far from the ruins of Bitham-castle,Bitham. which, as we find in an old Pedigree, was given by William the first to Stephen Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, to enable him to feed his son, as yet a little infant, with fine white bread; for at that time nothing was eaten in Holderness, but oat-bread, altho’ it is now very little us’d there. This castle, in the reign of Edward the thirdMatt. Par. (at what time William de Fortibus Earl of Albemarle, rebelliously fortify’d it, and plunder’d the whole neighbourhood) was laid almost level with the ground. Afterwards, it became the seat, and as it were the head of the Barony of the Colvills,Colvill. who liv’d for a long time in very great honour, but failing in Edward the third’s time, the Gernons and the Bassets of Sapcot, had this Inheritance in right of their wives.

A little way from the head of the river Witham, ⌈at a small distance from it, lies Boothby-pannel,Boothby-pannel. upon which Dr. Robert Sanderson, particularly famous for his great knowledge in Casuistical Divinity (who was for some years Rector there) has entail’d a lasting name and honour: as he did afterwards upon the Regius-Professor’s Chair at Oxford, and the See of Lincoln. The reason of the name we learn from † † Lel. MS. p.17.Leland, who tells us, there was one Boutheby of very ancient time, whose Heir-general was marry’d to Paynelle.⌉

Hard by, upon the river, stands Paunton,Paunton. which boasts much of its antiquity: chequer’d pavements of the Romans are often dug-up in it, and here was formerly a bridge over the river. For both the name Paunton, and its distance, not only from Margidunum, but also from Ad Pontem.Croco-calana, shew that this is that * * East-Bridgeford, in Nottinghamshire, Gale, p.101.Ad pontem, which Antoninus places seven miles from Margidunum. For Antoninus calls that town Croco-calana which we now call † Collingham, in Nottinghamshire, Gale, p.102.Ancaster, being at present only one direct street along the military way; one part of which not long since belong’d to the Vescies, and the other to the Cromwells. In the entrance on the South-side, I saw a trench, and it is very evident it was a * * Castrum.Camp formerly; as on the other side towards the West, we see certain summer-camps of the Romans. It seems to have had that British name from it’s situation, for it lies under a hill, and we read in Giraldus Cambrensis and Ninnius, that among the Britains Cruc maur signify’d a great hill, and Cruc-occhidient, a mount to the west; but I leave others to find out the meaning of the word Colana. The antiquity of this town appears by the Roman coins ⌈(some of which † † Itinerar. MS. p.20.Leland found to have been discover’d before his time;)⌉ as also by the vaults that are often met with, by it’s situation on the military-way, and by the fourteen miles distance between this and Lincoln (the road lying over a green plain, call’d Ancaster-heath;) for just so many, Antoninus makes it to be, between Croco-calana and Lindum. But let us follow the river.

Near Paunton, we see Grantham,Grantham. a pretty populous town, ⌈and a large market, and Corporation;⌉ adorn’d with a School, built by Richard Fox Bishop of Winchester, and with a fair Church having a spire steeple ⌈two hundred and eighty foot in height;⌉ of which abundance of stories are told. ⌈At this place, a weekly Lecture,See Wakefield, in Yorkshire. very well endow’d, was founded by the munificence of the pious Lady Camden. Henry, eldest son of Henry d’Nassau Seignior d’Auverquerque a descendant from Maurice of Nassau Prince of Orange, was, in the 10th year of William the third, advanced to the title of Earl of Grantham, being created at the same time Viscount Boston and Baron of Alford. Within a mile of this town, stands Belton,Belton. a new-built house, belonging to the family of the Brownlows (now Lords Tyrconnel in Ireland;) one of the most regular and beautiful seats in this County. Over-against Belton, is Sedgbrook;Sedgbrook. in the Church whereof, is a particular burying-place of the family of the Markhams, to whom this Lordship, till very lately, belong’d. Of this family, was the famous Judge Markham, who being displaced on a very honourable account, and having thereby deservedly obtain’d the name of the Upright Judge, retir’d hither, and built this burying-place, and over it a Chamber, where he lodg’d, and spent his latter days in great piety and devotion. Here also he was bury’d in a fair marble tomb, which still remains, not much defaced.⌉

Beneath Grantham, near the little village Herlaxton,Herlaxton. was a brazen vessel plow’d up in the last age ⌈save one;⌉ wherein they found an old-fashion’d gold helmet,A golden Helmet. studded with jewels, which was presented to Katharine of Spain, Queen Dowager to King Henry the eighth. ⌈In the same Pot (as Leland saith) they found also beads of silver, and writings corrupted.⌉ From hence, Witham (in a long course northward), runs near Somerton-castle,Somerton. built by Anthony BecLib. Dunelmensis. Bishop of Durham, by whom it was given to Edward the first; and a little after to William de Bellomont,Lords of Bellomont. who about that time came into England: from him did descend the family of the Viscounts de Bellomonte, which, in the last age ⌈save one,⌉ was in a manner extinct, when the sister and heir of the last Viscount was marry’d to John Lord Lovel of Tichmersh; but we have spoken already of this family, in Leicestershire. From hence, the river winds towards the South-east, through a fenny country, and discharges it self into the German Ocean a little below Boston, after it has bounded Kesteven to the North. Altho’ this river falls from a steep descent and large chanel, into the sea, yet by reason of the great floods in winter, it overflows the fenns on each side, with no small loss to the Country; however, these waters are drain’d in the spring by sluices, which they call Gotes.

On the other side of Witham, lies the third part of this County, call’d Lindsey,Lindsey. and by Bede Lindissi, from the chief city of this shire: It is bigger than Hoiland, and Kesteven; jetting out into the Ocean with a large front, which has the sea continually playing upon it to the East and North; on the West, is the river Trent, on the South it is parted from Kesteven by the Witham and by the Foss-dikeFoss-dike. (seven miles in length) which wasHoveden. cut by Henry the first between the Witham and the Trent, for the convenience of Carriage in these parts. At the entrance of this Dike into the Trent, stands Torkesey,Torkesey. in Saxon Saxon Turcesig, now a little mean town, but heretofore very noted: for there were in it before the Norman times (as it is in Domesday-book)Domesday-book. two hundred Burgers, who enjoy’d many privileges, on condition, that they should carry the King’s Ambassadors, as often as they came that way, down the river Trent, in their own barges, and conduct them as far as York. ⌈Their ancient Charter is still preserv’d here; and they enjoy thereby the privilege of a toll, from strangers who bring cattel or goods this way; as also the privilege of a Fair on Monday in Whitsun-week, much resorted to by those parts.Tyrsagetae Our Countryman Sheringham seems to strain too hard, when he endeavours to make the name of this place favour his conjecture, which he grounds upon Mela, that the Turks were the same nation with the Tyrsagetæ and the rest of the Goths, from whom our Ancestors were descended: Unless this were countenanc’d by some peculiar passage in history, there is nothing but the bare similitude of names; and that too can contribute nothing, if Mr. Somner’s opinion may be taken, who derives it from Saxon troge, a cockboat, and Saxon ige an island. Two miles west from Lincoln, is Skellingthorpe,Skellingthorpe. the Lordship whereof (of great * * About 520 l. per an.value) was † † Jun. 26. 1693.bequeath’d to Christ’s-Hospital in London by the Lord of it, Henry Stone. This worthy person gave also, along with it, his whole ¦ ¦ 4000 l.personal estate to the same pious use.⌉

At the joyning of the Dike to Witham, stands the Metropolis of this County, call’d by Ptolemy and Antoninus Lindum,Lindum. by the Britains Lindcoit from the woods (instead of which it is in some places falsely written Luitcoit;) Bede calls it Lindecollinum,Lincoln. and the city Lindecollina, but whether from it’s situation on a hill, or because it was formerly a Colony, I will not undertake to determin; the Saxons call’d it Saxon Lindocollyne, and Saxon Lind-cyllancearsten, the Normans Nichol, we Lincoln, the Latins Lincolnia. From whence Alexander Necham in his Treatise de Divina Sapientia:

Lindisiæ columen Lincolnia, sive columna,
Munifica fœlix gente, repleta bonis
.

Her pillar thee, great Lincoln, Lindsey owns,
Fam’d for thy store of goods, and bounteous sons.

⌈Mr. Twyne, in his † † Fol. 24. b.Breviary of Britain, says, he has observ’d the name Nichol many times in ancient Charters, and in the Records of the Earls thereof, written in the French tongue. And even as low as Edward the fourth’s time, William Caxton,Pag.141. 275. in his Chronicle, calls it Nichol.⌉ Others believe, it had its name from the river Witham, which, say they, was formerly call’d Lindis; but for that they have no authority. For my part, I cannot agree with them; for Necham himself, who wrote * * Four, C.five hundred years ago, calls this river, Witham, in the following verses;

Trenta tibi pisces mittit, Lincolnia, sed te
Nec dedigneris, Withama parvus adit
.

Trent, Lincoln, sends the fish that load thy halls,
And little Witham creeps along thy walls,
And waits on thee himself: ah! be not proud,
Nor scorn the visit of the humble flood.

I should rather derive it from the British word Lhin, which with them signifies a Lake; for I was inform’d by the citizens, that formerly the Witham has been wider at Swanpole below the city; altho’ at this day it is pretty broad. I need take no notice of Lindaw in Germany (standing by the Lake Acronius,) nor of Linternum in Italy, situated upon a Lake; since Tallhin, Gian-lhin, Linlithquo, are towns in Britain, standing upon Lakes. The City is very large and noted; built on the side of a hill, where the Witham winds about to the East, and, being divided into three small chanels, watereth the lower part of it. That the ancient Lindum of the Britains stood on the very top of the hill, which is of very difficult ascent, and ran much farther in length northward than the gate, Newport; is evident, by the plain marks of a rampire and deep ditches remaining to this day. ⌈Leland says,Itiner. p.21. that beyond old Lincoln, much money was found in the north-fields; and I know not any one who removes Lindum from hence, except Talbot, who fixes it at Lenton in Nottinghamshire; which opinion is consider’d in it’s proper place.⌉ Vortimer, that warlike Britain, who had so often worsted the Saxons, dy’d in this City, and was here inter’d, altho’ he left commands to the contrary: For he (as it is related by Ninnius, the disciple of Eluodugus) hop’d and believ’d, that, ⌈like Scipio’s,⌉ his Ghost would defend Britain from the Saxons, if he should be bury’d on the Sea-shore. But the Saxons, after they had demolish’d this old Lindum, first inhabited the South-side of the hill, and fortified it with the ruins of the former town; then, they went down to the river, and built in a place call’d Wickanforde, and wall’d it where it was not guarded by the water. ⌈Of this it is that LelandItiner. p.21. tells us, he heard say, that the lower part of Lincoln was all marish, and won by policy, and inhabited for the convenience of the water hard by; that in it he saw eleven Parochial Churches, besides one in ruins; and that the White-Friers was on the west side of the High-street here.⌉ The Saxons being seated here, Paulinus, as BedeBede. affirms, preach’d the word of God in the Province of Lindesey, and first of all converted the Governour of the city Lindcolnia (whose name was Blecca) with his family. He also built in this city a curious Church of stone, the roof whereof is either fall’n down for want of repairing, or beaten down by some enemy; but the walls are in great measure standing.AEthelred Afterwards, the Danes won it twice by assault; first, when those pillaging Troops took it, out of whose hands Edmund Ironside recover’d it by force; secondly, when Canutus took it, from whom it was retaken by Æthelred, who, on his return out of Normandy, valiantly drove Canutus out of this town, and beyond all expectation recover’d England, when it was well-nigh lost. In Edward the Confessor’s reign, there were in it, as it is set down in Domesday-book, one thousand and seventy mansions inhabited, and twelve Lagemen having Sac and Soc. In the Norman times, as Malmsbury relates, it was one of the more populous cities of England, and a mart for all goods coming by land and water; for at that time, there were tax’d in it (as it is in the said Domesday-book,) Nine hundred Burgesses; and many dwelling-houses, to the number of one hundred sixty and six, were destroy’d for the Castle, with seventy four more without the limits of the castle, not by the oppression of the Sheriff and his Ministers, but by misfortune, poverty, and fire. William the first, to strengthen it and to keep the citizens in awe, built a very large and strong Castle on the ridge of the hill; and, about the same time, Remigius Bishop of Dorchester, for a further ornament, transfer’d his See hither from Dorchester, a little town in the furthest part of his Diocese. And when the Church which had been erected by Paulinus, was decay’d and fal’n, The aforesaid Remigius bought certain Lands in the very highest part of the city near the Castle, which overtops all (as Henry of Huntingdon notes) with its mighty towers, and built in a strong place a strong and fine Church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and endow’d it with forty four Prebends; at which the Archbishop of York was much offended, for he claimed the Jurisdiction of the Place. This Church being disfigured by fire, was afterwards repair’d (as the said Henry mentions) with very great perfection in point of workmanship, by Alexander that munificent Bishop of Lincoln, of whom the fore-said William of Malmsbury speaks thus; Seeing he was look’d on as a prodigy for the smallness of his Body, his mind strove to excel and to make the greater Figure: And among other things, a Poet of that age wrote thus;

Qui dare festinans gratis, ne danda rogentur,
Quod nondum dederat, nondum se credit habere
.

Still with frank gifts preventing each request,
What is not yet bestow’d he thinks not yet possess’d.

And not only these two, but Robert Bloet, who was predecessor to Alexander, and R. de Beaumeis, Hugo Burgundus, and their successors, contributed to bring this work (which was too much for one Bishop) to its present state and grandeur. The whole pile is not only very sumptuous, but very beautiful, and rais’d with exquisite art; especially, that † Propylæumè.porch on the West-end, which attracts and delights the Beholder’s eye. Although there be several Tombs of Bishops and others, in this Church, yet the only ones to be taken notice of here, are, that of brass in which the Entrails of the most excellent Queen Eleanor, wife to Edward the first, are inter’d; and that of Nicholas de Cantelupo, with one or two belonging to the family of Burghersh; also, that of Katharine Swinford, third wife to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, and mother of the Somerset-family; with whom lies buried her daughter Joan, second wife to Ralph Nevill the first Earl of Westmorland, who made her husband happy in a numerous issue.

The Diocese of the Bishops of Lincoln (of far greater extent, than that of the Bishops of Sidnacester, who in the primitive Saxon-Church Presided in this County,) contain’d under it so many Counties, that it sunk under it’s own weight: and although Henry 2. took out of it the Diocese of Ely, and Henry the eighth those of Peterborough and Oxford, yet it is still accounted the largest Bishoprick in England, both in jurisdiction and the number of shires, and contains no less than one thousand two hundred forty seven Parish-Churches. Many excellent Bishops have govern’d this See, since Remigius; but it is beside my design to enumerate them: And therefore I make no mention of Robert Bloet, on whom William Rufus set an amercement of fifty thousand pounds, alledging that the Bishop’s titleHoveden. to the city of Lincoln was invalid; nor, of that generous Alexander, who was so extravagantly fond of prodigious buildings; nor yet of Hugo Burgundius, who being canoniz’d, had his corps carry’d to the grave, on the shoulders of King John and his Nobles; out of respect and duty (as my Author says) to God, and the sainted Prelate. I must not however omit to mention two persons, the one, Robert Grostest,He died, ann. 1233. a much better Scholar and Linguist than could be expected from the age he liv’d in;Matth. Paris, and an anonymous Historian. an awful Reprover of the Pope, a Monitor to the King, a Lover of Truth, a Corrector of Prelates, a Director of Priests, an Instructor of the Clergy, a Maintainer of Scholars, a Preacher to the People, and a diligent Searcher of Scripture, a Mallet to the Romanists, &c. The other is the Right reverend Father Thomas Cooper, who hath highly deserved of the Common-wealth of Learning, and of the Church; and whom I am bound in particular to honour, as the Master in whose School I must gratefully own I had my education. The City it self also flourish’d for a long time, being made by Edward the thirdThe Staple. a Staple or Mart, for Wool, Leather, Lead, &c. Though it has not undergone any lasting or fatal Calamities; yet it has been once burnt; once besieged, but in vain, by King Stephen, who was there overthrown, and made a prisoner; and once taken by Henry 3, when it was held against him by his rebellious Barons, who had called-in Lewis of France, to take upon him the Government of England. However, it did not suffer much damage. Since that, it is incredible how it hath sunk by degrees under the weight of Time; for of fifty Churches that were remember’d in it by our * * So said, ann. 1607.grandfathers ⌈(Leland says, in his time, there was a tradition of fifty two;)⌉ there are † † Ann. 1607.now scarce eighteen remaining;Now, many ruinous. ⌈(to which number they were reduced by Act of Parliament, in the † † Stat.2 Ed.6. n.48.reign of Edward the sixth.)⌉ It is (that I may also add this) fifty three degrees and twelve minutes in Latitude, and twenty two degrees and fifty two minutes in Longitude.

As that famous Roman high-way leads directly fromHigh-dike. Stanford to Lincoln; so from hence it goes Northward in a high and streight, but yet here and there discontinued, Causey, for about ten miles, to a little Village call’d The Spittle in the street;Phil. Trans. N.263. and further, ⌈to Hiberstow,Hiberstow. where (as also a mile beyond, to the north) are to be seen the foundations of Roman Buildings, with Tiles, Coins, and other marks of Antiquity; then through Scawby-wood, by Broughton (where have been found Roman Tiles and Bricks, ¦ ¦ Phil. Trans. N.665.and abundance of petrify’d Shells,fossil some with the Fish in them; and, near it, a petrifying Spring;) then, through Appleby-lane; and at some little distance from Roxby and Winterton (at the former of which was lately discovered a Roman Pavement, of Brick, Slate, and Cauk, set in curious figures and order; as at Winterton-Cliff,Winterton-Cliff. have been Roman Buildings; and at Alkburrow,Alkburrow. two miles to the west, there is still a small square-camp or entrenchment:) Then, the way (leaving Wintringham about half a mile) goes to the Humber. It is called all along by the Country-People, The High-Street, being cast-up to a great height, and some seven yards broad.⌉

About three miles from Lincoln, I observ’d another military high-way, call’d Ouldstreet,Ouldstreet. going out of this with a plain ridge to the west. I suppose, it is that which led to Agelocum the next garrison to Lindum. But I will follow the road that I am in.

The Witham being now past Lincoln, runs ⌈on one hand, at some distance from Nocton,Nocton. formerly a Religious House, where is a very beautiful seat built by Sir William Ellys; and, on the other hand, at about the same distance,⌉ by Wragbye, a member of a Barony call’d Trusbutt;Barons of Trusbutt. the title to which was convey’d by the Barons of Roos, to the Mannours now † † Earls, C.Dukes of Rutland. ⌈Here, Sir Edmund Turner founded an Hospital for Clergy-men’s Widows and others, in the year 1697; and here, in 1676. a woman brought forth a male-child with two heads, which liv’d some hours:⌉ After, it sees the old ruin’d walls of Saxon Beardena, or Peartaneu, commonly call’d Bardney,Bardney. heretofore a famous Monastery; where (as Bede writes) King Oswald was inter’d,Oswald’s-Banner. and had a banner of gold and purple over his tomb. The Historians of the foregoing ages, did not account it enough to extol this most Christian Hero Oswald, unless to his glorious exploits they added ridiculous miracles; all which I industriously omit. But that his Hand remained here, uncorrupted, for many hundred years, our ancestors believ’d, and a very ancient Poet has told us:

Nullo verme perit, nulla putredine tabet
Dextra viri, nullo constringi frigore, nullo
Dissolvi fervore potest, sed semper eodem
Immutata statu persistit, mortua vivit
.

Secure from worm and rottenness appears
The wondrous hand; nor cold nor heat it fears,
Nor e’re dissolv’d with cold or parch’d with heat,
Lives after death, and keeps it’s former state.

This Monastery,Appendix to Ingulphus. as Petrus Blesensis writes, being formerly burnt down by the fury of the Danes, and for many years together not inhabited; Gilbert de Gaunt the noble and devout Earl of Lincoln rebuilt it, and very bountifully annex’d to it the tithes of all his manours, wheresoever they were, in England, besides many other possessions. Afterwards, Witham is encreas’d by the little river Ban, which rising in the middle of Lindsey ⌈not far from Ludford, in the fields whereof Roman Coins are frequently ploughed-up,⌉ runs first by Hornecastle,Horne-castle. sometime belonging to Adeliza de Conde, but laid even with the ground in King Stephen’s reign: after that, it was a Barony of Gerard de Rodes, but now of the Bishops of Carlisle; ⌈and a Market-town of good note. This evidently appears to have been a Camp or Station of the Romans; as from the Castle which is Roman work, so also from the Roman coins; several whereof were found there in the time of King Charles the first, and some they meet with at this day (though not so commonly) in the field adjoyning. The compass of the Castle was about twenty Acres, which is yet plainly discernible, by the foundation of the whole, and by some part of the wall still standing. It is a Seignory or Soke of thirteen Lordships; and was given by King Richard the second, to the Bishop of Carlisle and his Successors, for his habitation and maintenance; when, by the frequent incursions of the Scots, he was driven from his castle of Rose in Cumberland, and spoil’d of his revenues. Three miles South-east from hence is Winceby,Winceby. where was a † Octob.5. 1643.battle fought between King Charles the first and the Parliament; (the forces of the King commanded by Colonel Henderson and the Lord Widdrington, and those of the Parliament by Colonel Cromwell:) The fight scarce lasted an hour, and the Victory fell to the Parliament.⌉ Then, Witham runs by Scrivelby a manour of the Dimocks,Dimock. who had it by descent from the Marmions,Inq.23 E.3. by J. Ludlow, and hold it by service of grand SerjeantyKing’s Champion. (as the Lawyer’s term it,)Fines Mic. An.1 H.6. viz. that whensoever any King of England is to be crown’d, the Lord of this manour for the time being, or some in his name if he be unable, shall come well arm’d, upon a good war-horse, into the presence of our Lord the King, on the day of his Coronation, and shall cause it to be proclaimed, That if any one shall say that our said Lord the King has not a right to his Crown and Kingdom, he is ready to defend with his body, the right of the King and Kingdom, and the dignity of his Crown, against him and all others whatsoever. The Ban, a little lower at TatteshallTatteshall. (a small town pretty commodiously situated, though in a marshy Country; noted for a Castle built for the most part of brick, and for it’s Barons,) runs into the Witham. It is related, that Eudo and Pinso, Norman Noblemen, having enter’d into a strict friendship, had by the bounty of William the first, large possessions given them in these parts, which they divided: and Tatteshall fell to Eudo, who held it by Barony; from whose posterity it came, by Dryby and the Bernakes, to Ralph de Cromwell,Cromwell. whose son of the same name was Lord Treasurer of England in Henry the sixth’s reign, and died without issue. ⌈In the front of the castle, not long since, were to be seen the Arms of the Cromwells, the ancient Lords of it. It afterwards came to be one of the seats of the Clintons, Earls of Lincoln; besides another at Sempringham, which is also mentioned in this County.⌉ And in the said division, Eresby,Eresby. which is not far off, fell to Pinso; from whose children the Estate came by the Bekes to the Willoughbies;Willoughbies. who had very large Accessions by marriages, not only from the Uffords, Earls of Suffolk, but also from the Lords de Welles,Lords Welles. from whom they had the great estate of the de Engains,Lords Engain. an ancient noble family, and which was of great power in this County from the first coming-in of the Normans. The most eminent of those Willoughbies, was Robert Willoughby in Henry the fifth’s reign, who for his great courage and bravery, was made Earl of Vandosme in France. From these, by the mother’s side, descended Peregrine Berty, Baron Willoughby of Eresby, a person famous for his great soul and warlike gallantry. ⌈Accordingly, this place gives the title of Baron, to the Marquiss of Lindsey (the third division of this County) who hath also a Seat here. The first that enjoy’d the title of Lindsey (under the name of Earl,) was Robert Lord Willoughby of Eresby, created Nov. 22. in the second year of K. Charles the first. He was son to that Peregrine Berty, whom Catharine Baroness of Willoughby and Dutchess of Suffolk bore to Richard Berty, while they made their escape into foreign parts in Queen Mary’s persecution. He was call’d Peregrine, eo quod in terra peregrina pro consolatione exilii sui piis parentibus à Domino donatus sit (as the publick Register of Wesel in the Dutchy of Cleve, where he was born, expresses it) i.e. because in a strange land he was bestowed by God on his pious Parents, for their comfort in an exiled State. At the request of the honourable Charles Berty (Envoy extraordinary to the Electors and other Princes of Germany) in his passage through that City, the Burgomasters, Aldermen, and Counsellors, took a copy of the evidences of his Birth and Christening, as they found it in their Register, and presented it to him under the common Seal of the City. This Robert the first Earl, Lord Great Chamberlain of England, was succeeded by his son and heir Mountague (who, upon the restoration of King Charles the second, was made Knight of the Garter,) and dying in the year 1666. was succeeded by Robert his eldest son. Which Robert, marrying Elizabeth daughter to Philip Lord Wharton, had by her Robert his eldest son; who hath been advanced to the more honourable Titles of Marquiss of Lindsey, and Duke of Ancaster.⌉

Witham, being now nigh the Sea, receives out of the north another nameless little river, ⌈near the head of which stands Hareby,Hareby. eminent for the death of Queen Eleanor, wife to King Edward the first, who being convey’d from thence to Westminster, had Crosses erected to her memory in several noted places. This is the more necessary to be observ’d, because our Chronicles tell us, she dy’d at a place call’d Hardby, and without giving us any hint where it stands.⌉ Lib. Stanlow. At the head of the same river, in a very low ground, lies Bollingbroke-Castle,Bollingbroke-Castle. built by William de Romara Earl of Lincoln, of a brittle sandy stone; and taken from Alice Lacy by Edward the second, for marrying against his will: It is famous for the birth of Henry the fourth, who from it had the name of Henry de Bollingbroke; in whose time it began to be accounted one of those manours, call’d Honours.Honours. ⌈Of this place, Oliver Lord St. John of Bletso was created Earl, 22 Jac. 1. Dec. 28. and was succeeded by his grandson Oliver St. John by Pawlet his second son; (Oliver Lord St. John the eldest, being slain at Edge-hill-fight:) who dying without issue, the title descended to his brother and heir, Pawlet St. John; and he also dying without issue, the title became extinct; and that of Viscount Bolingbroke was confer’d by Queen Anne upon Henry St. John, who hath since forfeited it by Attainder.⌉

The Witham, having receiv’d this river, discharges it self into the sea (as we have said) below Boston. From the mouth of Witham, as far as the frith of Humber, the shore runs out, with a large winding, into the German Ocean, and is chop’d all along by little arms of the sea. It has but few towns, because there are but few harbours, and many shelves of sand along the shore. Yet some of them are remarkable, particularly Wainfleet,Wainfleet. as being the birth place of William Wainfleet Bishop of Winchester, founder of Magdalen-College in Oxford, and a great Patron of learning; ⌈of whose Father, a fair Monument of Alabaster doth still remain in the Church here.⌉ Next, Alford,Alford. memorable for its Market, for which it is beholden to Leon Lord Welles,Barons Welles. who obtain’d that privilege of Henry the sixth. This family of Welles was very ancient and honourable: the last of whom marry’d King Edward the fourth’s daughter, and was made Viscount Welles by King Henry the seventh; but he dying without issue, the inheritance came by females to the Willoughbies, Dimocks, De la launds, Hois, &c. Then Louth,Louth. * * A little, C.a market-town of good resort, which takes its name from Lud, a rivulet that runs by Cockerington, heretofore the head of the Barony of Scoteney. ⌈Louth is a Town-Corporate, and has a Free-school founded by Edward the sixth, and a Church of a fair and large fabrick, with a beautiful Steeple, the highest in the County.⌉ And lastly, Grimsby,Grimsby. which our Sabines, Eulogium.lovers of their own conceits, will have so call’d from one Grime a Merchant, who brought up a little child of the Danish blood-royal (nam’d Havelock) that had been expos’d; for which he is much talk’d of, as is also Haveloc his Pupil, who was first a Scullion in the King’s kitchen, but afterwards for his eminent valour had the honour to marry the King’s daughter. He perform’d I know not what wonderful exploits; which are very proper Entertainment for tattling gossips in a winter night. ⌈At this Grimesby were formerly three Religious-houses, i.e. one Nunnery, and two Monasteries: and not far from the same coast, between Salflet-haven and Louth, is Salfletby,Salfletby. memorable for its late Minister, Mr. John Watson, who was incumbent seventy four years; during which time (as he himself reported it) he buried the Inhabitants three times over, save three or four persons; and dy’d Aug. 1693, being one hundred and two years old.⌉

Scarce six miles from hence, and further up in the Country, is the ancient castle call’d Castor,Castor. in Saxon Saxon duang-caster and Thong-caster,Thong castle. in British Caer-Egarry; in both languages taking it’s name from the thing, viz. from a hide cut in pieces; as Byrsa,Byrsa. the famous Carthaginian castle, did. For our Annals say, that Hengist the Saxon, having conquer’d the Picts and Scots, and got very large possessions in other places, beg’d of Vortigern as much ground in this place as he could encompass with an Ox’s hide cut in very small Thongs; upon which he built this castle. Whence one who has writ a Breviary of the British History in verse, transpos’d Virgil’s Verses in this manner,

Accepitque solum facti de nomine Thongum,
Taurino quantum poterat circundare tergo
.

Took, and call’d Thong, in memory of the deed,
The ground he compass’d with an Ox’s hide.

⌈Not far from this Castle, is Thoresway,Thoresway. from which place, Sir John Colepeper, in the reign of King Charles the first, had confer’d upon him the title of Lord Colepeper of Thoresway; in whose posterity it still remains.⌉

From Grimesby, the shore draws in, with a great winding (to make the æstuary Abus or Humber,) by Thornton,Thornton-College. heretofore a College for divine worship, founded by William Crassus Earl of Albemarle, ⌈the remains of which, are still very magnificent;⌉ and by Barton,Barton upon Humber. where is a famous Ferry into the County of York. aestuary estuary Near this, is Ankam, a little muddy river (and for that reason full of Eels,) which runs into the Humber. Near the head of it stands Market-Rasin,Market-Rasin. so call’d from a pretty throng Market there. ⌈At a little distance from which, it leaves Oumby,Oumby. where, in the fields joining to the great road between Hull and Stamford, there have been plough’d-up brass and silver Coins, with the figure of Rome on one side and this Inscription, Urbs Roma; and on the reverse, Pax & Tranquillitas.⌉ On the other side of the Ankam, stands Angotby ⌈otherwise Ossegobby, and Osgoteby,⌉ now corruptly Osgodby,Osgodby. belonging heretofore to the family of S. Medard, from whom the Airmoines had it by inheritance †Dugdale says, this relates to the other Osgodby in this County.; and Kelsay,Kelsay. which was sometime the estate of the Hansards, a very eminent family in this County; from whom it came to the Ashcoughs Knights, by marriage. Afterwards, the Ankam has a bridge over it at Glandford,Glandford. a little market-town, ⌈very ancient,⌉ and call’d by the common people Brigg,Brigg. from the bridge, the true name being almost quite forgotten. Near this town, within a Park, is Kettleby,Kettleby. the † † Ann. 1607.seat of the famous family of the TirwhittsTirwhitts. Knights, ⌈who now reside at Stanfield,⌉ but, formerly, the dwelling-place of one Ketell, as the name intimates; which was a very common one among the Danes and Saxons. For, in Saxon, Bye signifies an habitation, and Byan to inhabit; which is the reason why so many places all over England, and especially in this County, end in Bye.Bye. ⌈A little lower, stands Worlaby,Worlaby. from which place, in the 20th of K. Charles the first, John Bellasis was created Lord Bellasis of Worlaby.⌉

This Country is at certain seasons so stock’d with fowl (to say nothing of fish) that their numbers are amazing; and those, not the known ones, of greatest value in other Countries, Teal, Quails, Woodcocks, Pheasant, Partridge,Birds. &c. but such as no other language has names for, and are so delicate and agreeable, that the nicest palates and richest purses greatly covet them, viz. Puittes, Godwitts, Knotts, that is, as I take it, Canutus’s birds, for they are believ’d to come hither out of Denmark; and Dotterells,Dotterells. so call’d from their dotish silliness: for the mimick birds are caught at candle-light by the gestures of the Fowler; if he stretch out his arm, they stretch out their wing; if he hold out his leg, they do the same; to be short, whatever the fowler does they do after him, till at last they let the net be drawn over them. But these things are more proper for the observation of the Virtuosi, or Epicureans.

More westward, the river Trent (after a long course, and when it has bounded this County with its sandy banks, from the Fosse-dike) falls into the Humber; having first run pretty near Stow,Stow. where Godiva Earl Leofrick’s wife, built a Monastery, which, by reason of its low situation under the hills, is said by Henry of Huntingdon to lie under the Promontory of Lincoln. ⌈The Church here is a large building in the form of a cross, and very ancient. It was founded by Eadnoth, Bishop of Dorchester in Oxfordshire, before the See was remov’d to Lincoln; and rebuilt by Remigius, the first Bishop of Lincoln; * * Vid. infrà, Sidnacester.and also was afterwards made a Bishop’s seat, but there is little of the ancient ruins now to be seen. Near the Church, stood an Abbey, where (after the removal of the Monks by Robert Bloet, the succeeding Bishop, to Eynsham-Abbey, near Oxford,) was the seat of an ancient family de Burgh; the native place of Sir John Borough, a valiant Knight, who served under the Duke of Buckingham, and was slain at the Isle of Rhee. In the parish of Stow, is a village call’d Stretton,Stretton. from the old causey running that way, as if one should say the Street-town: and in a field belonging to that place, are a great many Ophites,Ophites. or stones roll’d up like serpents.⌉ammonites fossils

Then the Trent runs by Knath,Knath.† Now the seat, C.the seat of the Lord Willoughby of Parham; and before that, of the Barons of Darcy, who had a great accession of honour and estate by the daughter and heir of Meinill. This family of the Darcies came from ¦ ¦ Antiquiori.one more ancient, to wit, Norman de AdrecyDarcy de Nocton and Knath. or Darcy of Nocton, who was in high esteem under Henry the third. His posterity endow’d the little Monastery at Alvingham, in this County. But this honour was in a manner extinct; when Norman, the last of the right and more ancient line,Fines 29 Ed. 3. left only two sisters, one marry’d to Roger Penwardin, the other to Peter de Limberg.

Afterwards, the Trent runs to Gainsborow,Gainsborow. a † † Little Town, C.town, ⌈which hath a large and fine market, and is the most flourishing in the whole County for Trade and Business; which have much encreased of late years, to the detriment of Boston, and even of Hull it self. It was heretofore⌉ famous for being the harbour of the Danish ships, and for the death of Sueno Tiugskege, a Danish Tyrant; who when he had pillag’d the Country, as Matthew Westminster writes, was here stab’d by an unknown hand, and so at last suffer’d the punishment that was justly due to his wickedness. ⌈Leland says,Itiner. p.24. that upon the South-part of the town was an old Chapel of stone, wherein the inhabitants reported, that many Danes were bury’d; and that there were also the remains of another Chapel of Wood on the side of the Trent, quite demolish’d.⌉ Some ages after the Danes, it was the Possession of William de Valentia Earl of Pembroke, who obtain’d for it, of Edward the first, the privilege of a Fair. The Barons of BoroughBarons of Borough. who dwelt here (of whom we have spoken before, in Surrey) did descend from this Earl, by the Scotch Earls of Athol, and the Percies. ⌈In the year 1682, Edward Noel, Lord Noel of Ridlington and Viscount Campden, had confer’d upon him the additional title of Earl of Gainsburrow; in which honour he was succeeded by Wriothesley Baptist his son; who dying without issue-male, the title pass’d to his Cousin-german, Baptist, the present Earl.

A little above Gainsburrow, through the end of a town call’d Marton,Marton. a Roman way goes into this County. It comes from Danum, i.e. Doncaster, to Agelocum, or Littleburrow, from whence it goes to Lindum, Lincoln. It is a great road for pack-horses, which travel from the west of Yorkshire, to Lincoln, Lyn, and Norwich. A quarter of a mile from Marton above-mention’d, there are yet remaining two or three considerable pieces of Roman pavement or causey, which may be easily observ’d by travellers of curiosity.⌉

In this part of the County stood formerly the city Sidnacester,Sidnacester. once the seat of the Bishops of those Parts, who were call’d Bishops of the Lindiffari; but this is now so entirely gone, that neither ruins nor name are in being. ⌈They who have been for setling it at Stow, have argu’d thus: That the See now at Lincoln, was once at Dorchester near Oxford, is agreed by all: that likewise Eadhed was made Bishop of Sidnacester in the year 678: and that he was succeeded by several other Bishops under the same title, is as plain. But after Eadulf’s death, when it had been vacant about eighty years, it was by Leofwin united to Dorchester, as that of Leicester had been before. The sixth from Leofwin was Eadnoth, who (as the intermediate Bishops had done) enjoy’d the title of Dorchester, and, under that, of Sidnacester and Leicester. This was that Eadnoth, who built the Church of our Lady in Stow, and dy’d Anno 1050. Now, where can we imagine a Bishop of Sidnacester should so probably build a Church as at Sidnacester? Or whence would he sooner take his pattern or platform, than from his own Cathedral of Dorchester? Between which, and that of Stow, there is a very near resemblance; and if they have been since rebuilt, we may probably conclude that the same form notwithstanding was still kept. The See of Legecester or Leicester is concluded to have been where St. Margaret’s now stands; and as that is a Peculiar, a Prebend, and an Archdeaconry; so is Stow too. Besides, the present Privileges of this place are greater than any hereabouts, except Lincoln; and they have formerly exceeded even that. For that it was famous, before Lincoln was a Bishop’s See, is beyond dispute; and it is a common notion in those parts, both of learned and unlearned, that Stow was the Mother-Church to Lincoln. The steeple of the Church (tho’ large,) has been much greater than it is: and Alfrick Puttock Archbishop of York Anno 1023, when he gave two great Bells to Beverley-steeple which he had built, and two others of the same mould to Southwell; bestow’d two upon this Stow. Here is likewise a place call’d yet by the name of Gallow-dale, suppos’d to have been the place of execution for malefactors; which (among other marks of antiquity) tho’ it has no relation to the affairs of the Church, is yet a testimony of the eminence of the place. But, they own, there is one thing that lies in their way; for in the * * Anglia Sacra, Part.2. p.411.Lives of the Bishops of Lincoln, written by Giraldus, it is said, that Remigius, removing his See to Lincoln, procur’d all Lyndesie to be taken from the Jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, and added to that of Canterbury. And if all Lindsey belong’d to the Archbishop of York till Remigius’s time (who liv’d since the Conquest,) the old Sidnacester, united afterwards to Dorchester, perhaps cannot be plac’d so reasonably, within that Division.

If it may, there is also another place that may probably enough be thought of, namely, the Hills above Ley and Gainesburrow, where have been taken-up many pieces of Roman Urns, and many Coins of those Emperors; for the addition of Cester to the name, makes it highly probable, that Sidnacester, wherever it may have been, was originally a Station of the Romans. The Castle-hill, eastward from Gainsborough-Church, is surrounded with entrenchments, containing (as is said) more than a hundred acres.⌉

I must not omit, that at Mellwood, there † † Flourishes, C.flourish’d the famous family of St. Paul,St. Paul. Knights, corruptly call’d Sampoll, which I always thought came from the ancient Castilion family of the Earls of St. Paul in France; but the Coat of Arms of Luxemburgh that they bear, is a proof that they came out of France, since the Castilion family of St. Paul was by marriage ingrafted into that of Luxemburgh, about † † Two, C.three hundred years ago.

Above this, the Trent, the Idell, and the Dan, sporting with their several streams (so Frontinus expresses it,) make a river-Island, call’d Axelholme,Axelholm. in Saxon Saxon Eaxelholme, which is part of Lincolnshire; in length, from south to north, ten miles, but not half so broad. The lower part near the rivers is marshy, and produces an odoriferous shrub, call’d Gall.Gall. The middle has a small ascent, and is rich and fruitful, yielding flax in great abundance, and also Alabaster;Alabaster. which being not very solid, is more proper for lime and plaister-work, than for other uses. The chief town was formerly call’d Axel, now Axey; and of that, and the Saxon word Holme (which with them signify’d a river-island) the name, without question, was compounded. It hardly deserves the name of a Town, it is so thinly inhabited; but there is the platform of a castle, that was demolish’d in the Barons war, and belong’d to the Mowbrays, who at that time were possess’d of a great part of the Island. In the year 1173 Roger de Mowbray (as the Author of an old Chronicle has it) forsaking his allegiance to the * * Henry 2, with respect to his son, the younger.Elder King, repair’d a castle formerly demolish’d, in the Isle Axelholme, near Kinard-ferry; which Castle, a great number of the Lincolnshire-men, passing-over in boats, besieg’d, and compell’d the Constable and all the soldiers to surrender, and then pull’d it down. Philos. Trans. N.67. ⌈In this fenny tract, part in Lincolnshire, and part in Yorkshire, there have been found, in digging, abundance of Oak, Firr, and other trees, lying near the roots, which stand as they grew; and it appears that some of them have been burnt, and not cut down.⌉ Higher up, lies Botterwic;Botterwic. the owner whereof, Edmund Sheffeld, was the first Baron of that name and family; created by Edward the sixth. He lost his life in the service of his Country against the Norfolk Rebels; having had by Anne Vere, a daughter of the Earl of Oxford, John the second Baron, father to Edmund, † † Who is now, C.Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter. ⌈Not far from hence, is Epworth,Epworth. a long straggling market-town, and now * * V. Sup. Axel.the best in the Isle.⌉ More to the north, on the other side of Trent, is Burton-Stather,Burton-Stather. of which I have not read any thing remarkable; ⌈and not far from it, Normanby,Normanby. from whence the Duke of Buckingham takes his title of Marquiss. At Alkborough,Alkborough. two miles north of Burton-Stather, near the water-side, old Fortifications, and other marks of antiquity, are to be seen.⌉

Earls of Lincoln. After Egga who liv’d in the year 710, and Morcar, both Saxons, who were only Officiary Earls; this County gave the title of Earl to William de Romara a Norman, after whose death (for the title was never enjoy’d by his son, who dy’d before him, nor by his grandson,) King Stephen confer’d it on Gilbert de Gaunt; but he dying, Simon de St. Lis, the younger, son of Earl Simon (you have the very words of Robert Montensis, who liv’d about that time)2 Hen. 2. wanting land, receiv’d from King Henry the second, his only daughter to wife, † † Cum honore ejus.together with the honour. Afterwards, Lewis of France, who was call’d into England by the rebellious Barons, created another Gilbert, of the de Gaunt family, Earl of Lincoln; but as soon as Lewis was forced home, and he found himself acknowledg’d Earl by no body, he quitted the title of his own accord. Then Ralph, the sixth Earl of Chester, had this honour granted him by King Henry the third, and a little before his death gave by Charter to Hawise his sister, wife of Robert de Quincy, the Earldom of Lincoln, so far forth as it appertain’d to him, that she might be Countess thereof; for so are the very words of the Charter. She in like manner bestow’d it on John de Lacy Constable of Chester, and the heirs he should have by Margaret her daughter. This John had Edmund, who dying before his mother, left this honour to be enjoy’d by Henry his son, the last Earl of that family. For his sons having dy’d young, he contracted Alice his only Child, when but nine years old, to Thomas son of Edmund Earl of Lancaster, on condition,Leiger-book of Stanlow. that if he should dye without issue of his body, or if they should dye without heirs of their bodies, his Castles, Lordships, &c. should come in remainder to Edmund Earl of Lancaster, and his heirs for ever. But this Alice having no children by her husband Thomas (who was beheaded) did afterwards much blemish her reputation by her light behaviour; and without the King’sEdw.2. consent marry’d Eubulo Le-Strange, with whom she had been very familiar before; upon which the offended King seiz’d her estate. But Alice being very old, and dying without issue, Henry Earl of Lancaster, grandchild to Edmund by his second son, had this noble estate by virtue of the foresaid conveyance; and from that time it became the inheritance of the house of Lancaster. Nevertheless, the Kings of England have confer’d on several the title of Earl of Lincoln; as, Edward the fourth on John De-la-pole, and Henry the eighth on Henry Brandon; who were both sons of the Dukes of Suffolk;See Dukes of Suffolk. and both dy’d without issue. Then Queen Elizabeth promoted to this honour, Edward Baron Clinton, Lord High-Admiral of England; † † Which his son, &c. now enjoys, C.to whom succeeded his son Henry, a person of great honour. ⌈After him, it was successively enjoy’d by Thomas, and Theophilus, of the same name. The latter of these was succeeded by Edward Lord Clinton (his grandchild by his eldest son Edward;) who dying without issue, this honour came to the issue of Sir Edward Clinton, Knight, second brother to Thomas Earl of Lincoln: whose son Francis first enjoy’d it; and after him, Henry, son of Francis, the present Earl.⌉

There are in this County about * * 630, C.685 Parishes.

More rare Plants growing wild in Lincolnshire.

Atriplex maritima, Halimus dicta, humilis erecta, semine folliculis membranaceis bivalvibus, in latitudinem expansis & utrinque recurvis, longo pediculo insidentibus clauso. Near Sairbeck, a village about a mile distant from Boston, plentifully. Dr. Plukenet.

Alsine Polygonoides tenuifolia, flosculis ad longitudinem caulis velut in spicam dispositis. Polygonum angustissimo gramineo folio erectum. Bot. Monsp. Chickweed-Knottgrass with very narrow leaves, and flowers set along the stalks as it were in spikes.

Garum vulgare Park. Caraways. In the marshes and fenny grounds plentifully.

Cannabis spuria flore amplo, labio purpureo. Fair-flower’d Nettle-Hemp. About Spalding plentifully.

Cochlearia major rotundifolia. Garden Scurvy-grass. In the marshes in Holland, and in many other places near the sea-side.

Oenanthe Staphylini folio aliquatenus accedens J. B. In the marsh-ditches and slow streams of water in the parish of Quaplod near Spalding.

Lapathum folio acuto, flore aureo C. B. Golden Dock. About Crowland, and in other places of the Fens.Gentianae

Pneumonanthe Ger. Gentianella Autumnalis Pneumonanthe dicta Park. Gentiana palustris angustifolia. C. B. Gentianæ species, Calathina quibusdam radice perpetua seu palustris. J B. Marsh Gentian or Calathian Violet. In a Park at Tatteshall, and on the heathy grounds thereabout: also on a heath a little beyond Wrauby in the way to Hull.

Rhamnus Salicis folio angusto, fructu flavescente C. B. Secundus Clusii Ger. emac. primus Dioscoridis Lobelio sive litoralis Park. Rhamnus vel Oleaster Germanicus J. B. Sallow-thorn. On the sea-banks on Lindsey-coast, plentifully.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06