Britannia, by William Camden

Cambridgeshire.

Big M MORE into the in-land Country, lies the County of Cambridge, by the Saxons called ⌈ Saxon: Grantabrycgscyr and⌉ Saxon: Grentbrigg-scyre, ⌈by later Writers, according to the several ages wherein they lived, Cantebrigesire, Grantebridgescire, Cantebriggeschire.⌉ It is now commonly called Cambridgeshire; and is stretch’d length-ways to the north; and borders upon Norfolk and Suffolk on the east, Essex and Hertfordshire on the south, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire on the west, and Lincolnshire on the north. The river Ouse, running from west to east, crosses, and divides it into two parts. The south and lower part is more improv’d, better planted, and consequently more rich and fertile, than the other; sufficiently plain, but not quite level; chiefly, or indeed wholly (setting aside that part which produces plenty of Saffron) consisting of Cornfields, abundantly stor’d with the best Barley, of which they make great quantities of Byne, Malt.Byne or Malt, by steeping it till it sprout again, and then drying it over a Kiln: and this the English make their Beer of. The Inhabitants drive a gainful trade with it, into the neighbouring Counties. The north and farther part, by reason of the floods, fens, and the many Islands, is call’d the Isle of Ely; abounds with rich pastures, exceeding fresh and pleasant, but hollow and spungy, by reason of the waters that undermine the Soil; which also sometimes overflow, and drown the greatest part of it.

⌈This County hath of late years had two very considerable improvements, of its soil, and air: the first by planting great quantities of Saintfoine (which is brought from foreign parts, and thrives only in very dry and barren ground;) the second by draining the fens in the Isle of Ely, a work that was carry’d on at vast expence, but has at last turn’d to double account, both in gaining much ground, and mending the rest; and also in refining and clearing the air of this Country.⌉

Cambridge Shire map, right
Cambridge Shire map, left

Cambridge Shire

One of the Roman high-ways (call’d Erming-streatErming-street. in the Ely-book) runs along the west-side of the lower part, and carries us directly to Huntingdon, by Royston,Royston. a town on the borders of the County, of some note, but of no antiquity, ⌈lying partly in HertfordshireSee Hertfordshire. and partly in this County;⌉ of which we have spoken before: and likewise through Caxton,Caxton. formerly the Barony of Stephen de Eschallers, from whose posterity it descended to the Frevills in the time of Henry the third, and from them, by the Burgoins, to the Jermins. Nor is Gamling-hay far off, the habitation formerly of the Avenells, whose estate came by marriage to the ancient family of St. George; a family, that since Henry the first has produc’d many worthy Knights, who liv’d at Hatley, from them call’d Hatley St. George.Hatley St. George.

More westward, there is a little river which runs through the middle of this part, from South to North, to mix with the Ouse; rising at Ashwell, and passing with many windings by ShengayShengay. (where are the most pleasant meadows of the County,) formerly, a Commandery of the Knights Templars, given to them by Sibyl, daughter of Roger Mont-gomery Earl of Shrewsbury and wife of J. de Raines, in the year 1130. A little way off, is ⌈Wimple,Wimple. a seat of the Lord Harley, by marriage with the heiress of John late Duke of Newcastle; and⌉ Burne-castle,Burne-castle. which was anciently the BaronyBarons of Burne. of one Picot, Sheriff of this County, and also of the Peverills, by one of whose daughters the Inheritance and Honours came to Gilbert Peche;Barnwell-Hist. the last of which family, after he had advanced his second wife’s children, made King Edward the first his heir. In those days, the English Nobility brought up the ancient Roman custom in the time of their Emperors, of making their PrincesThe King heir to private persons. their heirs, whenever they were out of favour. This Castle was burnt down in the Barons war in Henry the third’s time; being set on fire, by one Ribald de Insula, or L’Isle; at which time, Walter of Cottenham, a great man, was hang’d for rebellion.

⌈Near the same river, is Trumpington,Trumpington. where, in a place call’d Dam-hill,Dam-hill. have been discover’d Roman Urns, Patera’s, and other antiquities of that People; together with great numbers of human bones.⌉

It is uncertain, by what name former writers call’d this river; some will have it to be Grant, but others Cam; which last to me seems most probable, both because it is so crooked (for so the British word CamCam riv. signifies; whence a crooked river in Cornwal is call’d Camel;) and also, because old Camboritum (a town mention’d by Antoninus in his third Journey in Britain) stood upon it, as I am perswaded both by its distance and name, and also by the great number of Roman Coins, found nigh the bridge. For CamboritumCamboritum.
Rith, its signification in British and Gaulish.
signifies a ford over Cam, or a crooked ford; the word rith in the British language signifying a ford. I mention this, that the French may better understand the meaning of Angustoritum, Darioritum, Rithomagus, &c. in their own Country. However the Saxons chose to useGrantcester. Saxon: Grant-ceaster, and Saxon: Gront-ceaster for our Camboritum; which name it still retains, but I cannot yet find the derivation of it. To derive it from a Saxon word * * The meaning of Gron.
Hov. f.251.
Flor. Wig. p.402.
Gron (a fenny place,) might prove a mistake; and yet Asserius, more than once, has call’d some fenny grounds in Somersetshire, Gronnas paludosissimas, which is a mixture of Saxon and Latin; and it is well known, that a city in West-Friezland, of the like situation, is call’d Groneingen. But let others hunt after the Etymology of it. About the year 700, Bede saith, This was a little desolate city, when he tells us, that just by its walls, was found a little trough or coffin of white marble delicately wrought, with a lid of the same, exactly fitted for it. Now, it is a small village; part whereof Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, gave to his bastard-son Henry; on condition that his posterity (which have been long since extinct) should take no other name but Henry. King Henry the sixth of the House of Lancaster, to whom the estate of Earl Lacie fell, settled the other part upon his own College, call’d King’s, in Cambridge;Cambridge. which town was either a Limb, or the daughter of the ancient Camboritum; it is so nigh it in name and situation. Nor am I apt to believe, that Cam was ever form’d out of Grant; for this is a change too forc’d and strain’d, where all the letters are lost but one. I should rather think, that the common people might keep to the old name of Camboritum, or the river Cam, tho’ Writers more commonly us’d the Saxon word Grantbridge;Usser. Primord. p.33. ⌈and it is suppos’d by some to be the Cair-Grauth, otherwise Grant, mention’d by Ninnius among the twenty-eight British Cities. The Saxons also name it Saxon: Grantanbrycge, Saxon: Grantabricge, and Saxon: Grantebrige.⌉

This City, the other University, the other Eye, and Stay, of the Kingdom, this famous Magazine of Learning and Religion, stands on the river Cam; which, after it has made several pleasant little Islands on the west-side of it, turns to the east, and divides the town into two parts; so that it is joyn’d by a bridge, which hath given it that newer name of Cambridge. Beyond the bridge, are, a large old castle (well-nigh destroy’d by Age;) and Magdalen-College. On this side the bridge (where lies the far greatest part of the town) there is a pleasant prospect of well-contriv’d Streets, of a good number of Churches, and of sixteen fair Colleges, wherein great numbers of worthy and learned men are maintain’d, and where the studies of Arts and Languages do exceedingly flourish; so that they may deservedly be term’d the Fountains of Religion and Learning, which scatter their wholesom streams, through the Gardens of Church and State. Nor is there any thing wanting, that is requir’d in the most flourishing University; were not the Air a little too gross, by reason of its fenny situation. But perhaps the first founders of it were of Plato’s opinion; who being of a strong constitution himself, made choice of the Academy for his studies (which was a very unwholesom place in Attica) the better to keep under the body, that it might not too much clog the brain. However, our Ancestors, men of great wisdom, did, not without the divine Direction, dedicate this place to Learning and Study, and adorn it with many noble buildings.

That we may not seem guiltyColleges. of the worst sort of ingratitude to those eminent Patrons of Learning, or (to use Eumenius’s words) those Parents of our Children; let us briefly, out of the Cambridge-History, make mention of them, and their Colleges, which they consecrated to Literature and their own immortal Fame. The story goes, that Cantaber a Spaniard, three hundred and twenty-five years before Christ, first founded this University, and that Sebert King of the East-Angles restor’d it in the year of our Lord 630. Afterwards, it lay a long time neglected, and was overthrown by the Danish Storms, till all things reviv’d under the the Norman Government. Soon after, Inns, Hostels, and Halls were built for Students, tho’ without Endowments.John Caius. But Hugh BalshamFuller, p.26.
Peter-house.
Bishop of Ely, founded the first College, call’d Peter-house, in the year 1284, and endow’d it. ⌈When he was only Prior of Ely, he began the foundation of this house (about the year 1257,) without Trumpington-gate near the Church of St. Peter; from whence it seems to have taken the name. But all the advantage which the Scholars had at first, was only the convenience of Chambers, which exempted them from those high rents that the Townsmen had us’d to exact of them. The endowment (as we have said) was settled by the same Hugh when Bishop, in 1284, for a Master, fourteen Fellows, &c. which number might be increas’d or diminish’d, according to the improvement or abatement of their revenues.

His example was imitated by the following persons; Richard Badew, with the help of the Lady Elizabeth Clare Countess of Ulster, founded Clare-hall,Clare-hall. in the year 1340; ⌈having before, built a house call’d University-hall,University-hall. wherein the Scholars liv’d upon their own expence for sixteen years, till it was burnt down by a casual fire. The founder, finding himself unequal to the charge of rebuilding it, had the assistance of the said Elizabeth, third sister and coheir of Gilbert Earl of Clare, through whose liberality it was built again, and endow’d. It is, at present, one of the neatest and most uniform Houses in the University: having been lately new built, all of Free-stone.⌉

The Lady Mary St. Paul Countess of Pembroke, founded Pembroke-hall,Pembroke-hall. in the year 1347: ⌈She was third wife to Audomare de Valentia Earl of Pembroke; and her husband being unhappily slain at a Tilting on the wedding-day, she entirely sequester’d her self from all worldly delights; and, devoting her self to God, amongst other pious acts built this College, which was afterwards much augmented by the benefactions of others.⌉

The Society of Friars in Corpus Christi founded Corpus Christi College, call’d also St. Benet’s College,St. Bennet’s-College. ann. 1346: ⌈This arose out of two Guilds or Fraternities: one of Corpus-Christi, and the other of the Blessed Virgin. These, after long emulation, being united into one Body, did by a joint interest build this College, which has its name from the adjoyning Church of St. Benedict. Their greatest modern Benefactor was Matthew Parker, once Master of the College, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, who, by his prudent management, recover’d several Rights of the College; and, besides two Fellowships and five Scholarships, gave a great number of excellent Manuscripts to their Library.⌉

William Bateman Bishop of Norwich, founded Trinity-hall,Trinity-hall. about the year 1353. ⌈It was built upon a place, which once belong’d to the Monks of Ely; and was a house for Students before the time of Bishop Bateman, who, by exchange for the Advowsons of certain Rectories, got it into his own possession. He was a great Master of Civil and Canon Law; whereupon, the Master, two Fellows, and three Scholars (the number appointed by him at the first Foundation,) were oblig’d to follow those two Studies. It has been, since, much augmented by benefactions; and the number of its members is proportionably encreas’d.⌉

Edmund Gonevil ann. 1348, and John Caius Doctor of Physick in † † So said, ann. 1607.our time, founded Gonevil and Caius-College:Caius College. ⌈This was first call’d Gonvil-hall, and was built upon the place, where now are the Orchard and Tennis-Court of Bennet-College. But within five years, it was remov’d into the place where it stands at present, by Bishop Bateman. Some time after, John Caius, Doctor of Physick, improv’d this Hall into a new College, since call’d after his own name.⌉

Henry 6. King of England, founded King’s-CollegeKing’s-College. (with a Chapel, deservedly reckon’d one of the finest buildings in the world,) in the year 1441: ⌈This College was at first but small; being built by the said King for a Rector and twelve Scholars. There was near it a little Hostel for Grammarians, built by William Bingham, which was granted by the Founder to King Henry, for the enlargement of his College. Whereupon, he united these two, and, having enlarged them by addition of the Church of St. John Zachary, founded a College for a Provost, seventy Fellows and Scholars, three Chaplains, &c.⌉

The Lady Margaret of Anjou his wife, founded Queen’s-College,Queen’s College. ann. 1448; ⌈but the troublesom times that follow’d, would not give her leave to compleat her fabrick. The first Master of it Andrew Ducket, by his industry and application, procur’d great sums of money from well-dispos’d persons, towards the finishing of this work; and so far prevail’d with Queen Elizabeth, wife to K. Edward the 4th, that she perfected what her profess’d Enemy had begun.⌉

Robert Woodlark founded Katharine-hall,Katharine-hall. in the year 1459: ⌈He was third Provost of King’s-College; and the Hall was built over-against the Carmelites house, for one Master and three Fellows; and the numbers were encreas’d, together with the Revenues. About one half of it is lately new-built; and, when it is finish’d, it will give place to none, in point of beauty and regularity.⌉

John Alcocke Bishop of Ely, founded Jesus-College,Jesus-College. ann. 1497, ⌈out of an old Nunnery dedicated to St. Radegund; the Nuns whereof were so notorious for their incontinence, and so generally complain’d of, that King Henry the seventh, and Pope Julius the second, bestow’d it upon John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, to convert it into a College; who establish’d in it a Master, six Fellows, and six Scholars. But their numbers, by the great benefactions they have had, are much encreas’d.⌉

The Lady Margaret Countess of Richmond, and mother to K. Henry 7, founded Christ-CollegeChrist-College. ⌈about the year 1506, upon the place where God’s-house formerly stood. She settled there, a Master, and twelve Fellows, &c; which number, being complain’d of as savouring of Superstition by alluding to our Saviour and his Apostles, King Edward the sixth alter’d, by the addition of a thirteenth Fellowship; with some new Scholarships. This College, within the present Century, or thereabouts, hath been adorn’d with a very fine new building.⌉

She also founded St. John’sSt. John’s College. about the year 1506, ⌈upon the place, where ann. 1134. Nigel or Neal, second Bishop of Ely, founded an Hospital for Canons Regular; which by Hugh de Balsham was converted into a Priory dedicated to St. John; and by the Executors of the said Countess of Richmond, into a College, under the name of the same Saint. For she dy’d before it was finish’d, which retarded the work for some time; but it was afterwards carry’d on by her said Executors.⌉ It is now † † So said, ann. 1607.greatly enlarg’d with fair new buildings.

Thomas Awdley, Lord Chancellor of England, founded Magdalen-College,Magdalen-College. ann. 1542, since enlarg’d and endow’d by Sir Christophey Wrey, Lord Chief Justice of England: ⌈This College is cut off from all the rest, and stands by it self on the North-west-side of the river; and hath been improv’d and adorn’d by a handsom piece of new building, not many years since.⌉

The most potent and mighty Prince Henry the 8th founded Trinity-College,Trinity-College. ann. 1546, out of three others, St. Michael’s-College, built by Hervie of Stanton in Edward the second’s days; King’s-hall, founded by Edward the third; and Fishwick’s-Hostel. And that the Students might have a more delightful habitation, this College was repair’d, or rather new-built, by the great care of T. Nevill its worthy Master, and Dean of Canterbury, with that spendour and magnificence, that it is, for spaciousness, and for uniformity and beauty in the buildings, scarce inferior to any in Christendom; and he himself may be counted truly Greek (magnificent) in the Judgment even of the greatest Philosopher, for neglecting his own private Interests, and laying out such large sums on the publick. ⌈All which have since been improv’d by a most noble and stately Library, begun under the government of the late famous and learned Dr. Isaac Barrow: a building, for the bigness and design of it, perhaps not to be match’d in these kingdoms.⌉

* * I cannot but congratulate Learning, and the present age, in that, That–C.That worthy and prudent person, Sir Walter Mildmay, † † Has founded, C.founded a new CollegeEmanuel-College. dedicated to Emanuel, ⌈in a place where was formerly a Convent of Dominicans founded in the year 1280, by the Lady Alice Countess of Oxford. After the suppression of Monasteries, this Convent came into the possession of Mr. Sherwood, of whom Sir Walter Mildmay seems to have purchas’d it. It has a very neat Chapel, not long since built by the bounty of William Sancroft, late Archbishop of Canterbury, and others.⌉

Also the Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex,Sidney-College. by her last Will gave a Legacy of five thousand pounds for the founding of a College to be call’d Sidney-Sussex. ⌈But tho’ this College owes its rise to the Charity of the said Lady, and the care of her Executors; it is exceedingly improv’d by the benefactions of Sir Francis Clerk, who (besides a set of new-buildings by him erected,) augmented the Scholarships, and founded four Fellowships with eight Scholarships more; and of Sir John Brereton, who left to it above two thousand pounds, by will.

The SchoolsSchools. of this University were at first in private houses, hir’d from ten years to ten years for that purpose, by the University; in which time they might not be put to any other use. Afterwards, Publick Schools were built at the charge of the University, in or near the place where they now stand. But the present fabrick, as it is now built of brick and rough stone, was erected partly at the expence of the University, and partly by the contributions of several Benefactors.

The LibraryLibrary. was built by Rotheram Archbishop of York, who (together with Tonstal, Bishop of Durham) furnish’d it with choice Books; few whereof are to be found at present. But it hath been exceedingly augmented by the bounty of King George; who, having purchas’d a very large and most valuable Collection of Books, made with great Judgment by Dr. John Moor, late Bishop of Ely, did bestow it, as a mark of his Royal favour, upon this University.⌉

I shall say nothing of the little Monasteries and Religious houses; since they were but of small note: except Barnwell-Abbey,Barnwell-Abbey. which Sir Payne Peverell, a famous Soldier, and Standard-bearer to Robert Duke of Normandy in the Holy-war in Henry the first’s reign, remov’d from St. Giles’s Church (where Picot the Sheriff had instituted Secular Priests,) to this place, and introduced thirty Monks, according to the years of his age at that time. If you please, you may know the reason of the name from the private History of this place. Barnwell-History. Payne Peverell obtain’d a grant of Henry the first of a spot of ground without the burrough of Cambridge: in the midst of it, were extraordinary clear fountains or wells, call’d Barnwell, that is, the wells of Children, or Barns; for young men and boys met here once a year, upon St. John’s Eve, for wrestling, and the like youthful exercises us’d in England, and also to make merry, with singing, and other musick. By this concourse of boys and girls, who met here for sport, it grew to be a custom for a great many buyers and sellers to repair hither at the same time; ⌈and it is now commonly call’d Midsummer-Fair.⌉

Tho’ Cambridge was consecrated to the Muses, yet it has not always escap’d the fury of Mars; for when the Danes ravaged up and down, they often took their Winter-quarters here: and in the year 1010, when Sueno the Dane, with that desperate rage and tyranny, bore down all before him; neither its Fame nor the Muses could protect it (tho’ we read that Athens met with a better fate from Sylla;) but it was barbarously laid in Ashes. However, at the coming-in of the Normans, it was reasonably well peopled; for we find, in Domesday-book, that the Burrough of Grentbridge is divided into ten Wards, and contains three hundred and eighty-seven dwelling-houses, but eighteen of them were pull’d down to build the Castle; when William the first determin’d to erect Castles in all parts, to be a curb to his new-conquer’d English. ⌈This Castle was strong and stately, having in it, among other rooms, a most magnificent Hall. * * Caius l.2. p.117.The stones and timber were afterwards beg’d of Henry the fourth by the Masters and Fellows of King’s-hall, towards the building of their Chapel. Nothing is † † Fuller, p.2.now standing but the Gate-house, which is the Prison; and an artificial high hill deeply entrench’d about, of a steep ascent, and level at the top.

Afterwards Roger of Montgomery destroy’d this Town with fire and sword, to be reveng’d of William Rufus; but King Henry the first, to repair those damages, bestow’d many Privileges upon it; particularly, he freed it from the power of the Sheriff, making it a Corporation, upon the payment of an hundred and one marks yearly into the Exchequer; which sum the Sheriff paid before, for his profits out of the town, when it was under his jurisdiction. And, what seems to have been of most consequence, the Ferry over the river (which before was left at large) began to be fix’d near this place; which probably might have some thing of the same effect, as the building of new bridges, and turning the course of roads, have had in ¦ ¦ See Salisbury in Wiltshire, Walingford in Berks, &c.other parts of England.⌉ It suffer’d very much afterwards, in the Barons wars, by those Out-laws from the Isle of Ely. Wherefore Henry the third, to put a stop to their incursions, order’d a deep ditch to be thrown-up on the East-side of the town, which still goes by the name of King’s-ditch;King’s-ditch. ⌈where-of there are now but very little remains (houses being built on both sides of it;) and, among the inhabitants, the name it self seems to be clean forgotten.⌉

Here, possibly some may expect my opinion concerning the antiquity of this University; but I shall not intermeddle in that point. Nor am I willing to make comparisons between our two flourishing Universities; which have none to rival them, that I know of. I am afraid, those men have built castles in the air, who have made Cantaber the founder of this University, immediately after the building of Rome, and long before the time of Christ; straining the antiquity of it beyond all possibility of Credit. This is undeniable (let its original be when it will) that it began to be a Nursery of Learning, about the reign of King Henry the first; as appears by an old Appendix of Peter Blesensis, to Ingulf: Abbot JoffredJoffred made Abbot of Crowland, 1109. sent over to his manour of Cotenham nigh Cambridge, Gislebert his fellow-Monk and Divinity-Professor, with three other Monks, who follow’d him into England; and being well furnish’d with Philosophical Learning and other ancient Sciences, they daily repair’d to Cambridge: where they hir’d a publick barn, made open profession of the Sciences, and in a little time drew a great number of Scholars together. In less than two years, their number increas’d so much, out of all that country as well as the town, that there was not a House, Barn, or Church, big enough to hold them all. Upon which, they dispers’d themselves into several parts of the town, imitating the University of Orleans. Betimes, in the morning, Frier Odo an excellent Grammarian and Satyrick-Poet, read Grammar to the boys and younger sort, who were assign’d him; according to the Doctrine of Priscian, and Remigius upon him. At one a clock, Terricus a subtle Sophist, read Aristotle’s Logick to the elder sort, according to Porphyry’s and Averroe’s Introductions and Comments. At three of the clock, Frier William read Lectures in Tully’s Rhetorick and Quintilian’s Institutions; and Gislebert, the principal Master, preach’d to the people, upon all Sundays and Holy-days. From this small fountain, we see large flowing streams, making glad the City of God, and enriching the whole kingdom with many Masters and Teachers, who come out of Cambridge as from the holy Paradice, &c.

Concerning the time when it was first made an University, Robert of Remington shall speak for me. In the reign of Edward the first, Grantbridge, * * De Studio.from a Study, was made an University like Oxford, by the Court of Rome. ⌈Before which time, notwithstanding, in the 52dSeld. MS. not. Memb. 25. of Henry the third, it is call’d Universitas Scolarium, in the Records of the Tower.⌉

But why do I so inconsiderately run into the lists, where two such learned old men have formerly encounter’d? to whom I freely deliver up my arms; paying the utmost respect and honour to such venerable persons. Cambridge is in longitude, 23 degr. 25 min. in latitude, 52 degr. and † † 17, more truly.11 min.

⌈A mile north of Cambridge, is ArburyArbury. or Arborough (in the territories of Chesterton,) where * * Aubr. MS.is a large camp, of a figure inclining to a square. There have been Roman Coins found in it; one particularly of silver, with the head of Rome on one side, and, on the reverse, Castor and Pollux on horseback. The adjoyning Chesterton has probably its name from this Camp or old Castrum.⌉

Hard by Cambridge to the South-east, are certain high hills, by the Students call’d Gogmagog-hills,Gogmagog Hills. and by Henry of Huntingdon, the most pleasant hills of Balsham, from a village at the foot of them; where, as he adds, the Danes committed all the Barbarities imaginable. On the top of all, I saw an Entrenchment of considerable bigness, fortified with a threefold rampire, and impregnable in those days (according to the opinion of several judicious warriors) were it not for its want of water; and some believe, it was a Summer-retreat, of the Romans, or the Danes. ⌈But others think, it was rather a British work. It has two graffs between the three rampires (as the usual way was;) being rudely circular: and the Diameter is no less than two hundred and forty-six paces. It is on the hill (as the British way of encampment was;) and it is probable enough, that the antagonist to it might be at Arborough; which, from the form, coins, and nearness of water (a thing that that people was always particularly careful of) must have been the work of the Romans. Near the Camp, there runs a Roman high-way from the brow of the hill southwards: which, I suppose (together with the Roman Coins, found there in digging, ann. 1685.) induced the Author of the late Commentary upon Antoninus, to reckon it a work of the Romans; not regarding the circular figure: inasmuch as it appears, both from Vegetius, and from several instances in other parts of England, that the Romans did not confine their Camps to a Square, but departed from that, according as the nature and conveniences of the ground required.⌉

This Camp seems to be the place that Gervase of Tilbury calls Vandelbiria; Below Cambridge,Wandlesbury. says he, there was a place call’d Vandelbiria, because the Vandals, when they ruin’d some parts of Britain, and cruelly destroy’d the Christians, did encamp there; pitching their tents on the top of a little hill, where lies a Plain, surrounded with trenches, with only one entrance, and that like a gate. As for the Martial Ghost walking here, which he there mentions; I shall say nothing of it, because it looks like an idle story of the common people. It is none of my business (as a certain Author expresses it) to tickle mens ears with plausible stories. In a Vale nigh these hills, lies Salston,Salston. which came to Sir John Nevill, Marquiss of Mont-acute, from the Burghs of Burgh-green, by Walter de la Pole and the Ingoldthorps; and by his daughter, and heir, to the Huddlestons, who liv’d here in great repute.

More Eastward, we meet with Hildersham,Hildersham. belonging formerly to the Bustlers, and † † But now, C.after that by marriage to the Parises; and next the Woods, stands Horsheath,Horsheath. known, for many descents, to have belong’d to the ancient and noble families of the Argentons and Alingtons, which I mention’d in * * Hertfordshire.another place; and now the seat ¦ ¦ Of the Alingtons, C.of the Bromlies. Next this, lies Castle-camps,Castle-camps. the ancient seat of the Veres Earls of Oxford, held by Hugh Vere (says an old Inquisition) on condition that he should be Chamberlain to the King. However, it is most certain, that Henry the first granted this Office to Aubrey de Vere, in these words, — Chief ChamberlainCameraria Angliæ.Lord great Chamberlain. of England in fee and hereditarily; with all the powers, privileges, and honours belonging thereunto, as freely and honourably, as ever Robert Mallet held it, &c. But our Kings, at their own pleasure, have appointed sometimes one, and sometimes another, to execute this Office.Angliae Not far from hence, are those great and long ditches which were undoubtedly thrown-up by the East-Angles to keep out the Mercians, who us’d by sudden Incursions to ruin all before them. The first begins at Hinkeston,Flems dyke and others. and runs eastward by Hildersham towards Horsheath for five miles together. The second, next to it, call’d Brent-ditch, runs from Melborne by Fulmer. But it is now time to return, since these and the like frontier-fences will be spoken of in their proper places.

Nigh Cambridge to the east, by a small brook call’d Sture, there is every year in September the most famous FairSturbridge-Fair. in the whole Kingdom, both for resort of people and proportion of wares. Hard by, where the ways were exceeding troublesom and almost impassable, that worthy right-honest Gentleman † † G. Camd.
Vid. Suffolk at Halesworth, and at Wimondley.
Henry Hervy, Doctor of Laws and Master of Trinity-hall in Cambridge, with vast charge, and a very pious and commendable design, ¦ ¦ Lately made, C.made a fair rais’d Causey about three miles long, leading to New-market.

At the end of this Causey, there is a third Ditch,Ditches. thown-up in ancient times; beginning at the east-side of the Cam, and running in a strait line by Fenn-Ditton (or rather Ditchton from the foremention’d Ditch,) between great Wilberham and Fulburn, as far as Balsham. At present, it is commonly call’d Seven-mile-dyke, because it lies seven miles from New-market: formerly it was call’d Fleam-Dyke,Fleamditch. that is, Flight-Dyke, as it seems from some remarkable flight at this place. The same Wilberham, anciently Wilburgham, was formerly the seat of the Barons L’Isle of ¦ ¦ De rubeomonte.Rougmount, a very ancient family, of which, John, for his warlike valour, was made one of the Knights of the Garter, in the first Institution, by King Edward the third. There is † † So said, ann. 1607. but the Lisles here are extinct.now an heir-male of the same family (a reverend old man with a good stock of children, nam’d Edmund L’Isle,) Lord of this place.

Five miles more inward to the east, ⌈and a mile and half from New-market,⌉ is the fourth Fortification or Ditch with a Rampart, ⌈and the Graff towards Cambridge. This is⌉ the largest of all; call’d Devils-DykeDevil’s-Dyke. by the common people, because they look upon it as the work of Devils rather than Men: and Rech-Dyke by others, from Rech, a little market-town at the beginning of it. Without doubt, this is the same, that Abbo Floriacensis speaks of, in his Description of the East-Angles: On that side where the Sun declines to the west, this Province joins to the rest of the Island, and consequently there is a clear open passage; but to prevent the enemies frequent incursions, it is defended by a bank, like a lofty wall, and by a deep ditch. This, for many miles together, crosses that Plain call’d Newmarket-heath, a place very much expos’d to invasions; beginning at Rech, beyond which the Country is fenny and impassable; and ending hard by Cowlidge, where the Woods stop all marches. It was then the bounds of the Kingdom, as well as of the Bishoprick of the East-Angles; ⌈whereupon, the Parishes on the East-side of it (about ten or eleven in number) do still belong to the Bishoprick of Norwich, tho’ placed within the County of Cambridge.⌉

It is uncertain who was the founder of this mighty work; some later writers ascribe it to King Canutus the Dane; tho’ in truth Abbo,Abbo dy’d in the year 1003. Sigebertus. Canutus began his reign in 1018. who mentions it, dy’d before Canutus began his reign; and the Saxon Chronicle, where it treats of Athelwolf’s Rebellion against Edward the Elder, calls it simply the Ditch, and says, that King Edward destroy’d all the Country between the Ditch and the Ouse, as far as the North-fens, and that Athelwold the Rebel, and Eohric the Dane, were at that time slain there in battel. But Writers since Canutus’s time, have call’d it St. Edmund’s Liberty, and St. Edmund’s Ditch, supposing that Canutus made it; who was a most devout adorer of St. Edmund the Martyr, and, to make amends for his father Swane’s horrid cruelty to the Religious of St. Edmundsbury, granted them vast privileges, as far as this very ditch; whence William of Malmesbury, in his book of the Prelates, says, That the Customs-Officers in other places fall out madly, without considering right or wrong; but on this side St. Edmund’s Ditch, the modest Suppliants immediately put a stop to all quarrels. Sure enough, the two last mention’d Bulwarks were call’d St. Edmunds Ditches; for Matthew Florilegus declares, that that battel against Athelwolf, was fought between St. Edmund’s two Ditches.

Near Rech, lies Burwell, Burwell.where was a Castle, which in those troublesom times of King Stephen was bravely attack’d by Geoffry ¦ ¦ De magna villa.Mandevil Earl of Essex (a person who lost much honour by his unjust invasions of other mens rights,) till an arrow, shot through his head, freed those Countries from the fears and terrors they had long been under. Scarce two miles off, stands Lanheath,Lanheath. for † † So said, ann. 1607.many years the seat of that worthy family of Knights the Cottons: and, at a little distance from that, lies Isleham,Isleham. a town formerly belonging to the Bernards, which came by marriage to the knightly family of the Peytons, from whose male-line sprang the Uffords (from whom are the Uffords Earls of Suffolk,) as appears by their Coats of Arms; tho’, indeed, they took the sirname of Peyton, according to the custom of those times, from Peyton a little town in Suffolk; which was their seat for many years.

Upon the same Ditch, stands Kirtling,Kirtling. call’d also Catlidg; remarkable for being the principal seat of the BaronsBarons North. North, of which family, Edward North was the first, whom Queen Mary, for his extraordinary wisdom, invested with that title. It is famous for a great Synod ⌈said to be⌉ held here, when the Clergy had that mighty Contest977. about the celebration of Easter, ⌈if indeed it was held here, and not (as others contend) at Kirtleton in the County of Oxford. For the Saxon Annals place it at Saxon: Kyntlingtune, by a mistake from Saxon: Kyrtlingtune; which is infer’d, not only from the similitude of n and Saxon r, but also from the Copyist’s not understanding the language (for it is taken out of the Canterbury-Copy;) and from our later Historians calling it Kyrtlinege, Kirding, and Kirling. As to the difference then between the old and new name, that is inconsiderable; and ¦ ¦ Chron. Sax. an. 977.we are told that Sideman Bishop of Devonshire (for so he is there stil’d) dy’d at this Synod, and was bury’d at St. Mary’s at Abingdon. Now, say they, he had no relation to that Church, and therefore we may imagin, the only reason why King Edward and Archbishop Dunstan pitch’d upon it for his burial, was the nearness of the Place; especially, seeing they did it contrary to his own express desire when alive, which was, that he might be inter’d at his own Church of Cridiantun or Kirton. But, they add, that if he had dy’d at Catlidge, they might have found a more convenient Monastery for that purpose, I mean Peterborough, no less eminent and much nearer; unless Abingdon might be more eligible upon this account, that it was within the kingdom of the West-Saxons.⌉

The upper and north-part of this ShireThe fens and Isle of Ely. is all-over divided into river-isles (branch’d-out by the many flowings of ditches, chanels, and drains,) which all the summer-long afford a most delightful green prospect; but in winter are almost all laid under water, further every way than one can see, and in some sort resembling the sea it self.

The inhabitants of this and the rest of the FennyGirvii. Country (which reaches sixty-eight miles from the border of Suffolk to Wainfleet in Lincolnshire, containing some * * Myriada jugerum.millions of acres in the four Counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, and Lincoln) were call’d Girvii in the time of the Saxons, that is, as some interpret it, Fen-men; a sort of people (much like the place) of rugged unciviliz’d tempers, envying others whom they term Upland-men, and usually walking aloft upon a sort of stilts: they all keep to the business of grazing, fishing, and fowling. All this Country, in the winter-time, and sometimes for the greatest part of the year, is laid under-water by the rivers Ouse, Grant, Nen, Welland, Glene, and Witham, for want of sufficient chanels and passages. But when these keep to their proper chanels, it so strangely abounds with grass and a sort of rank hay (by them call’d Lid,) that when they have mow’d enough for their own use, in November they burn the rest, to make it come again the thicker. About which time, one sees all this moorish Country in a flame, to his great wonder and surprise. Besides, it affords great quantities of Turf and Sedge for firing, and Reeds for thatching; and Elders also and other water-shrubs, especially Willows in great abundance, either growing wild, or set on the banks of rivers to prevent overflowing: which being frequently cut down, † Innumero bærade profuerunt.rise again (to use Pliny’s expression) with a very numerous offspring. It is of these that baskets are made, both here and in other places: and, since the Britains call’d them Baskades, I here observe by the way, that I do not understand Martial in that place of his Apophoreta, if he mean not these:

Barbara de pictis veni Bascauda Britannis,
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam
.

From Britain’s farthest Isle the Baskets come,
Which now are challeng’d, as her own, by Rome.

Besides, there grow large quantities of ScordiumScordium. or Water-Germander, upon the banks of the Ditches. As for these fenny Isles, Felix, an ancient writer, has describ’d them thus; There is a wonderful large Fen, beginning at the banks of the river Gront, and abounding, here with Sedge, there with dusky springs, at a third place with woody Isles; and it takes a long course by many crooked banks, from south to north, as far as the sea. It is the same, that William, a Crowland-Monk, has thus describ’d in his life of Guthlake:

Est apud Angligenas à Grontæ flumine, longo
Orbe per anfractus stagnosos, & fluviales,
Circumfusa palus, orientalisque propinqua
Littoribus pelagi, sese distendit ab Austro
In longum versus Aquilonem, gurgite tetro
Morboso pisces vegetans, & arundine densa
Ventorum strepitus, quasi quædam verba, susurrans
.

In British Lands where Gront’s old streams surround
The trembling marshes and unfaithful ground,
From south to north is stretch’d a spacious moor
Near to the Ocean on the eastern shore;
Where pois’nous fish the stinking water breeds,
And rustling winds still whistle in the weeds.

If you please, add thus much out of Henry of Huntingdon: This fenny Country is mighty rich and delightful, plentifully water’d by rivers, sufficiently garnish’d with Lakes of all sorts, and as much adorn’d with Woods and Islands. — Take also, for a conclusion, this short account out of William of Malmesbury: Here is such vast store of fish, as astonishes all strangers; for which the Inhabitants laugh at them: nor is there less plenty of water-fowl; and for a single half-penny, five men may have enough of either, not only to stay their stomachs, but for a full meal.

I shall say nothing of the sound and wholsome advice concerning the draining of these fens (which yet was perhaps nothing but a specious pretence of doing good to the publick for private Ends) that has been so often consider’d, and debated in Parliament. It is to be fear’d, that they would soon return to their old state, as the Pontine Marshes in Italy have often done since their draining. So that some think it the safest way, to follow the Oracle’s advicePausanius in Corinth. in the like case, Not to venture too far, where heaven has put a stop.

The natural strength of this Tract, with the great plenty of Provisions, has often made it a retreat for rebels; not only for the English against William the Conqueror; but the Barons also, whenever they were out-law’d, from hence molested our Kings; but were always unsuccessful, though they erected forts at Eryth and Athered, now Audre,Audre. where is an easy open passage into the Isle. And to this day, there is a rampire nigh Audre, not high, but very large, call’d Belsar’s-hills, from one Belisar; but who or what he was, I know not.

The more southerly and the largest part of that fenny Country which belongs to this Shire,Isle of Ely. was call’d by the Saxons Saxon Elig, now the Isle of Ely, from the chief of these Islands. Bede derives it from Eels, and therefore some have call’dFuller. it the Isle of Eels, ⌈and we find, that in the year 1221, King Henry the third, being at Oxford, sent to the Bailiff of Cambridge, as living near Ely (the Staple for Fish) to send him a certain proportion of Eels for the provision of his Court, promising that it should be discounted to him out of the Exchequer.⌉ Yet Polydore Virgil fetches it from Greek text, which signifies a Marsh; and others from Helig, a British word signifying Willows or Sallows, which it bears in abundance; and indeed they are the only thriving trees here. We find, that one Tombert King of the South-Girvii, setled the greatest part of this Country upon his wife Etheldred for a joynture;St. Etheldred, commonly St. Audry. who after she had left her second husband Egfrid King of Northumberland, for the sake of Religion, founded a Nunnery in that chief Isle that was properly call’d Saxon Elyg, and was then valu’d after the rate of six hundred families; of which place she her self was the first Abbess.Foelix However, this was not the first Church in this Fenny Country; for the Ely-book mentions our St. Austin as the founder of a Church at Cradiden,Cradiden. which afterwards was pull’d down by Penda the Mercian; and Malmesbury says, that Fœlix, Bishop of the East-Angles, had his first seat at Soham,Soham. which is still in Norwich-diocese. Soham, says he, is a Village situated by a Lake, formerly very dangerous to water-passengers from thence to Ely, but now passable on foot, by reason of a causey made through the marshes and reeds. There are still the marks of a Church demolish’d by the Danes, wherein the Inhabitants were overwhelm’d, and burnt with it. At the same time, St. Audry’s Nunnery was pull’d down by the Danes; but was rebuilt by Ethelwold Bishop of Winchester, who, by agreement with the King, bought the whole Isle, ejected the Priests, and fill’d it with Monks; to whom King Edgar, as we find in his Letters Patents, gave jurisdiction in secular causes over two Hundreds in the fens, and over five Hundreds and a half, out of the fens, in the Wicklaw, in the Province of the East-Angles, which to this day is call’d St. Audry’s Liberty.St. Audry’s Liberty. After that, our Kings and Noblemen endow’d it with large revenues; especially Earl Brithnoth, who being about to engage the Danes in the year 999,Ely-book. gave to the Church of Ely, Somersham, Spaldwic, Trumpinton, Ratindum, Heisbury, Fulburn, Timerston, Triplestow, and Impetum, in case he dy’d in that battel; because these Monks had treated him nobly. But he was kill’d at Maldon, after he had fought with the Danes fourteen days together. It was so rich a Monastery, that the Abbot (says Malmesbury) put fourteen hundred pounds yearly in his pocket. And Richard the last Abbot, Earl Gislebert’s son (intoxicated, as it were, with wealth, and disdaining to be under the Bishop of Lincoln,) endeavour’d to perswade the King with golden promises (as the Monks write) and with great applications, to erect a Bishoprick at this place; but his death hinder’d that design. Soon after, Henry the first got leave of the Pope, and made Hervy (Bishop of Bangor in Wales, who had been ejected by the Welsh) the first Bishop of Ely; to whom and his successors, he assign’d Cambridgeshire for the Diocese, which before was part of that of Lincoln; and likewise settled upon them certain marks of Soveraignty in these Islands. ⌈So that here the Bishop hath all the rights of a County-Palatine, and beareth chief sway therein: for by his own power he appointeth a Judge to hear and determine all Causes arising within the said Isle. He holdeth Assizes, Gaol-delivery, and Quarter-Sessions of the Peace for the said Liberty, and hath his chief Bailiff, and Under-Bailiffs for the execution of Process.⌉ The same Henry the first gave the Bishops of Lincoln the manour of Spaldwic, to make them amends for the loss of Cambridgeshire and this Isle; or, as the Ely-book has it, The manour of Spaldwic was settled upon the Church of Lincoln for ever, † Pro commutatione Episcopalis Curæ.in lieu of the episcopal care over Grantbridgeshire. Assoon as Hervy was settled in his Bishoprick, he made it his chief care to raise the grandeur of his Church. He got it to be made toll-free in all places (saith Ely-book,) and freed it from that burthen of watching and warding; which was the duty that it ow’d to Norwich-castle: He made the way from Exning to Ely, about six miles, through the fens, and purchas’d many fair estates for the Church’s use. His successors, by lessening the number of Monks (for from seventy they reduc’d them to forty) abounded with plenty of every thing, and overflow’d with wealth, untill the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age; and their Holidays and Festivals were always celebrated with such mighty Preparation and Pomp, that, in that point, they exceeded all the Monasteries in England. Whence a Poet in those times not improperly says,

Prævisis aliis, Eliensia festa videre,
Est, quasi prævisa nocte, videre diem
.

After all others see but Ely’s feast,
You’ll see glad day when tedious night is past.

The Cathedral also, which began to totter with age, they rebuilt by degrees, and brought it to the Magnificence we now see: It is a spacious, stately, and beautiful structure, but somewhat defac’d by breaking down and mangling the Noblemens and Bishops tombs, in a very shameful manner. At present, instead of the full Convent of Monks, there is a Dean, Prebendaries, and a Free-school for the teaching and maintaining of twenty-four boys, ⌈and, of later years, a stately Palace hath been built here, for the Bishops.⌉ There are four things about this Church, much talk’d of by the common people; The Lantern, on the top of all, just over the Quire, supported by eight pillars, built with singular art by John de Hothum the Bishop: St. Mary’s Chapel, standing under the Church to the North, a delicate piece of work, and built by Simon Montacute Bishop. A great round heap of earth and very high, call’d The Mount, on the South-side, where a Wind-mill stands: and lastly, a famous fruitful Vine; but now wither’d away. Which four were joyn’d together in these Rhimes by a certain Monk of the place:

Hæc sunt Eliæ, Lanterna, Capella Mariæ,
Atque Molendinum, necnon dans vinea Vinum
.

Saint Mary’s Chapel you at Ely see,
The lofty Lantern rival of the sky,
The Mill and Vine that bread and drink supply.

As for Ely it self, it is a pretty large City, but not remarkable either for beauty or populousness, by reason of its fenny situation and unwholesom air.

⌈In the Parish of Sutton,Sutton. some few miles from Ely, an. 1694, several pieces of antiquity were discover’d in ploughing. The share of the plough laid hold of a thin plate of Lead, and brought up with it several small ancient Coins: this led to a further search, and one of the labourers thrusting his hand into the earth (for it was a light moorish soil,) he found three silver plates. The two biggest were fasten’d with a round silver wire that ran through the midst of them, and lock’d them together. One of the plates has a Dano-Saxon Inscription round it, very slightly engrav’d.

The Inscription is thus:

Diagram

In EnglishHickes. Thesaur. p.187. inter Nummos. (the three first words excepted, which the learned person who read and explain’d it, ingenuously confesses he did not understand, but takes them to be Magical terms) it is thus:

O Lord, Lord, him always defend, who carrieth me about with him: Grant him whatever he desires.

This Inscription shews it to have been intended for a Charm; and the Knots and Figures, that are on the other side, are also suppos’d to be magical. With this, were found divers large Rings of Gold, suppos’d to be the treasure of some noble Person, who, in time of war, had retir’d into this fenny Country, for safety and defence.⌉

Amidst the same fens, to the North-west, was another famous Abby, call’d, from its standing among bushes and thorns, Thorney;Thorney-Abbey. and before that, Ankerige, from the Anchorites dwelling there; where Sexuulph, a very religious and devout man (as it is in the Peterborough-book) founded a Monastery, with Hermits Cells. It was afterwards destroy’d by the Danes, but Ethelwold Bishop of Winchester, to encourage the Monastick way of living, rebuilt it, stored it with Monks, and encompass’d it with trees. This place (says Malmesbury) is the very picture of Paradise; for pleasantness, resembling Heaven it self: amidst the very marshes, fruitful in trees whose strait tapering tallness mounts up to the skies; a Plain (smooth as water) charms your eyes with pleasing greens, where is no rub to stop or hinder the swiftest pace. There is not an inch of ground uncultivated; here, a place swelling with apple-trees, and there a field overspread with vines, either creeping upon the ground, or supported with poles. A mutual strife there is between nature and art, that one may always supply what the other forgets. What shall I say of the beauty of the buildings; much to be admir’d, if it were only for the fenns making such solid and unshaken foundations? It is a wonderful solitary and retir’d place; fit for Monks, as making them more mindful of heavenly things, and more mortify’d to things below. It is a prodigy, to see a woman here; but when a man comes, he is welcom’d like an Angel. So that I may truly call this Isle, a Lodge of Chastity, an Harbour of Honesty, and a School of Divine Philosophy.

Wisbich,Wisbich. the Bishop of Ely’s castle, stands about thirteen miles off, situated among fens and rivers, and in the * * Lately, C.last age a prison for the Romish Priests. And I have nothing more to say of it, but only, That this Town and Walepole were both given to Ely-Monastery by the owner of them, at the same time that he dedicated his young son Alwin to a monastick Life there; That William the first erected a castle here, when the out-laws made their incursions from these fenny parts; and, That in the year 1236, the tempestuous waves, for two days together, broke in upon this shore so violently, that they drown’d both land and people, all about.flood tsunami But the Brick-castle that is still there, was built by John Morton Bishop of Ely, in our † † So said, ann. 1607.grandfathers days; who also drew through this fenny Country a strait ditch, call’d Newleame,Newleame. for the better convenience of water-carriage, and thereby the encreasing the trade and wealth of this his town; tho’ it has fal’n out otherwise, for it is but of small use, and the neighbours complain that this has quite stop’d the course of the Avon or Nen into the Sea, by Clow-cross.Clowcross.

The first Earl of Cambridge,Earls of Cambridge. was William, brother of Ranulph Earl of Chester; as may be seen in a Patent of Alexander Bishop of Lincoln, dated 1139. After him, it is probable that those Earls of Huntingdon, who were of the blood royal of Scotland, were likewise Earls of Cambridge; for it appears from the publick records, That David Earl of Huntingdon receiv’d the third penny of the County of Cambridge. A long time after, John of Hainault, brother to William third Earl of Holland and Hainault, was advanc’d to this dignity by Edward the third, for the sake of his wife Q. Philippa, whose Kinsman he was. For her sake also, the same King honour’d 1399.William Marquiss of Juliers, her sister’s son, with the same title, after John had revolted and gone over to the French. After the decease of these Foreigners, King Edward the third settled this Honour upon his fifth son Edmund of Langley, which, after he had held it four years (my Authority is an old manuscript belonging to that admirable Antiquary Francis Thinn) The Earl of Hainault, Queen Philippa’s kinsman, came and openly claim’d in Parliament; * * Et placatus recessit.but he return’d satisfy’d at last. This Edmund of Langley, afterwards Duke of York, had two Sons, Edward Duke of York (for some time Earl of Cambridge, and slain in the battel of Agincourt;) and Richard, created Earl of Cambridge by the meer favour of Henry the fifth, and the consent of his own brother Edward. But after this perfidious and ambitious man had ungratefully conspir’d against the life of that best of Princes, and so lost his head; the title of Earl of Cambridge was either lost with him, or drown’d among the titles of his son Richard, who was afterwards Duke of York, and was restor’d to all his dignities, as being Kinsman and Heir to his Uncle Edward Duke of York. ⌈The same title was confer’d upon James Marquiss of Hamilton in the year 1619, who was succeeded by James his eldest son, and afterwards by William his second son; who receiv’d a mortal wound at Worcester-fight, and dy’d without issue-male surviving: so that the honour died with him. After the Restoration, this title was confer’d upon Charles Stuart (eldest son to James then Duke of York) who was stil’d Duke of Cambridge;Dukes of Cambridge. and afterwards upon his three brothers, James, Edgar, and Charles, who all died young. And, since, the title of Duke of Cambridge was confer’d by her Majesty Queen Anne, upon the Illustrious Prince George Augustus, Electoral Prince of Hanover, and now Prince of Wales.⌉

This Shire contains 163 Parishes.

More rare Plants growing wild in Cambridge-shire.

K. Acinos Anglicum Clus. English Stone-Basil, or common Stone-Basil; for these differ only accidentally. In the plowed lands on the borders of Gogmagog hills and Newmarket-heath.

S. Aloe palustris C. B. i.e. Militaris aizoides Ger. Water Sengreen, or Freshwater-Soldier. In the rivers and Fen-ditches in many places of the Isle of Ely: as in the river and ditches near Stretham-ferry, and about Audrey-causey.

Alsine tenuifolia J. B. Fine-leav’d Chickweed. In the corn-fields on the borders of Triplow-heath, and elsewhere.

Alysson Germanicum echioides Lob. Aparine major Ger. German Madwort or Great Goose-grass. It once grew plentifully at New-market (vid. Cat. Cant.) but being an annual plant, I hear it is now lost there: possibly it may appear again here-after.

K. Anagallis aquatica rotundifolia Ger. aquat. tertia Lob. Round-leaved Water-Pimpernel. On Teversham, Hinton, and Trumpington-moors in the ditches, and by the water-courses plentifully.foemina laeviore coeruleo laevi

Anagallis fœmina Ger. cœruleo flore C. B. Park. Female or blue-flower’d Pimpernel. In the corn on the left-hand of the way leading to Histon a little beyond the first closes.

Aparine minor semine læviore. Goose-grass with smoother seed. Very common among the corn, especially in chalky grounds. Q. An Aparine semine lævi Park.

E. Argemone capitulo longiore glabro Morison. Long smooth-headed bastard-poppy. In the corn.

Ascyron supinum villosum palustre C. B. Park. Marsh S. Peter’s-wort, with hoary leaves. On the boggy grounds near Gamlingay.

Auricula muris pulchro flore albo J. B. Caryophyllus holosteus Ger. holosteus arvensis hirsutus, flore majore C. B. holosteus arvensis hirsutus Park. Long-leaved rough Chickweed with a large flower. On heaths and dry banks among bushes, and in gravelly ground. See Cat. Cant.

Bifolium palustre Park. Marsh Twayblade. On the boggy and fenny grounds near Gamlingay.

Camelina Ger. Camelina sive Myagrum alterum amarum Park. Myagrum siliqua longa C. B. Myagro affinis planta siliquis longis J. B. cui & Erysimum Galeni & Theophrasti censetur. Treacle-Wormseed. In the Osier-holts about the bridge at Ely abundantly; and in all the other Osier-grounds by the river-side there. Chamaeleon

Carduus acaulis Lob. acaulis Septentrionalium Park. acaulis minore purpureo flore C. B. acaulis minor purpureo flore Ger. emac. Chamæleon exiguus Tragi J. B. Dwarf Carline-thistle. Upon the level near the new Pest-houses. This occurs in most Counties of England, but not very common.

Carduus tomentosus, Corona fratrum dictus Park. item Carduus tomentosus Anglicus ejusdem. Capite tomentoso J. B. eriocephalus Ger. emac. item globosus capitulo latiore ejusdem. capite rotundo tomentoso C. B. item tomentosus capitulo majore ejusdem. Woolly-headed Thistle. In many closes about Madingley, Childerley, Kingston, &c.

Caryophyllus minor repens nostras. An Caryophyllus Virgineus Ger. Maiden Pinks. On a little hill where Furze grows, next to Juniper-hill near Hildersham.

Caucalis arvensis latifolia echinata C. B. item lato Apii folio ejusdem. Apii foliis, flore rubente Ger. arvensis latifolia purpurea Park. item Anglica flore rubente ejusdem. item major saturè rubente flore ejusdem. Lappula canaria latifolia, sive caucalis J. B. Purple-flower’d great Bastard Parsley. Among the corn in many places of this County; as, between Cambridge and Cherry-Hinton, and near the Windmill in the way to Comberton. This is a beautiful Plant, and we have seldom found it in other Counties.

Chondrilla viscosa humilis C. B. Park. Ger. emac. Lactuca sylvestris laciniata minima Cat. Cant. The least cut-leaved wild Lettice. In a bank by a little lane-side leading from London-road to the river, a little beyond the Spittle-house-end at Cambridge.

Conyza foliis laciniatis Ger. emac. helenitis foliis laciniatis Park. Aquatica laciniata C. B. Great jagged Fleabane. In the Fen-ditches about Marsh and Chatteresse in the Isle of Ely.Virgae aureae angustifoliae

Conyza palustris Park. palustris serratifolia C. B. Virgæ aureæ sive solidagini angustifoliæ affinis, lingua avis Dalechampii J. B. Marsh Fleabane or Birds-tongue. In the Fen-ditches and banks in the Isle of Ely, but more rarely.

Convolvulus arvensis minimus. The least Bindweed. Among the corn between Harleston and little Eversden.

Crocus J. B. sativus C. B. True or manured Saffron. It is frequently planted and cultivated in this County. See Essex.

Cyperus longus inodorus sylvestris Ger. long. inod. vulgaris Park. long. inod. sylv. Lobelio J. B. long. inod. Germanicus C. B. Long Bastard Cyperus. In the watery places of Hinton-moor, and in divers Fen-ditches.Elaeagnus

Elæagnus Cordi Lob. Rhus myrtifolia Belgica C. B. Myrtus Brabantica Ger. Rhus sylv. sive Myrtus Brabantica aut Anglica Park. Gale frutex odoratus septentrionalium J. B. Sweet-willow, Gaul, Dutch Myrtle. In the fens in the Isle of Ely in many places abundantly. This is wont to be put among cloaths to communicate a sweet scent to them.

Enula campana Offic. Park. Helenium Ger. vulgare C. B. Helenium sive Enula campana J. B. In the pasture-fields about Madingley, Coton, Barton, &c. in great plenty. Elecampane. It is common to many Counties.

Equisetum palustre ramosum aquis immersum, seu Millefolium aquaticum equisetisolium. Horsetail water Milfoil. In slow or stagnating waters every where almost.Soleae haematodes

Ferrum equinum Germanicum siliquis in summitate C. B. equinum comosum Park. Ornithopodio affinis vel potiùs Soleæ aut Ferro equino herba J. B. Bush-headed Horse-shoe Vetch. On Gogmagog hills, New-market-heath, and the drier part of Hinton-moor, &c.

Geranium hæmatodes, foliis majoribus, palidioribus, & altiùs incisis. Bloody Cranes-bill, with larger, paler, and more deeply divided leaves. Found by Mr. Dale on the banks of the Devil’s-ditch towards Reche.

Glaux Dioscoridis Ger. Hispanica J. B. Hispanica Clusii Park. Ciceri sylvestri minori affinis si non idem C. B. Dioscorides his Milktare, or Clusius his Spanish Milkwort. On the drier part of Hinton-moor, and almost all over Gogmagog-hills and Newmarket-heath.Foenum Graecum

Glaux vulgaris Ad. Lob. vulgaris leguminosa, sive Glycyrrhiza sylvestris Park. Glyc. sylvestris floribus luteo-pallescentibus C. B. Fœnum Græcum sylvestre sive Glycyrrhiza sylvestris quibusdam J. B. Wild Liquorice, or Liquorice-vetch. About the castle-hill at Cambridge; by the lane’s-side that leads from Cambridge to Cherry-Hinton, and in many other places.

Glycyrrhiza vulgaris Ger. emac. vulgaris siliquosa Park. siliquosa vel Germanica C. B. radice repente Germanica J. B. Common-Liquorice. Planted in good quantity at Elme in the Isle of Ely. From its faculty of quenching or slaking of thirst it is by some call’d Adipson; and is thought to be the Radix Scythica of Theophrastus, which took away the sense of hunger and thirst from those who held it in their mouths.

Gnaphalium montanum album Ger. mont. flore rotundiore C. B. montanum sive Pes cati Park. Pilosella minor quibusdam, aliis Gnaphalii genus J. B. Mountain Cudweed or Catsfoot. On Newmarket-heath, on the right hand of the road from Cambridge to Newmarket, about a quarter of a mile from Bottesham-beacon, and in other places of the heath in great plenty.

Gratiola angustifolia Ger. emac. angustifolia sive minor Park. Hyssopifolia C. B. aquatica J. B. Small Hedge-hysop or Grass-Poley. In the corn-fields and shadowy lanes about Hoginton and Histon; and in many places about Cambridge.

K. Herba Paris Ger. J. B. Park. Herb-Paris or Herb True-love. In Kingston and Eversden woods.Pilosellae Pulmonariae luteae

Hieracium latifolium Pannonicum 1. Clus. 1. latifolium Glusii Ger. Pannonicum latifolium 1. Clusio, Pilosellæ majori, vel Pulmonariæ luteæ accedens, &c. J. B. Alpinum latifolium hirsutie incanum, magno flore C. B. Broad-leaved Hungarian Hawkweed. On the banks of the Devil’s-ditch near Reche not far from New-market.Stoebes

Hieracium minus Cichorei vel potius Stœbes folio hirsutum Cat. Cant. Hier. Castorei odore Monspeliensium. Small rough Succory-hawkweed smelling like Castor. In the pastures between Cambridge and Grantcester, not far from the river.

Holosteum medium Eliense foliis rigidioribus glaucis. Caryophyllus holosteus foliis gramineis Mentzel. forte. The middle sort of Stichwort. It grows plentifully on the Fen-banks in the Isle of Ely.Jacobaea

Jacobæa montana angustifolia lanuginosa, non laciniata C. B. Pannonica folio non laciniato J. B. angustifolia Ger. emac. angustifolia Pannonica non laciniata Park. Narrow-leav’d mountain Ragwort. On Gogmagog-hills and Newmarket-heath.

Juncus palustris panicula glomerata ex rubro nigricante Cat. Cant. semine Lithospermi Bot. Mon. Round black-headed Marsh-Rush or Bog-Rush with Gromill-seeds. Every-where in the watery places of Hinton and Teversham-moors.

Lathyrus major latifolius Ger. emac. major perennis Park. major latifolia, flore purpureo speciosior J. B. latifolius C. B. Pease everlasting. In Madingley-wood, and other woods.Linariae

Linaria adulterina Ger. emac. montana flosculis albicantibus C. B. Linariæ similis J. B. Pseudo-linariæ montana alba Park. Bastard Toadflax. On Gogmagog-hills and Newmarket-heath, but scatteringly.

Linum sylvestre cæruleum perenne erectius flore & capitulo majore. Wild perennial blue Flax with larger heads and flowers. On the borders of the corn-fields about Gogmagog-hills, and in some closes about Cherry-Hinton.caeruleum

Linum sylvestro cæruleum procumbens, flore & capitulo minore. Wild perennial blue Flax with smaller heads and flowers. In the same places with the former, observ’d by Mr. Dale.

Lychnis noctiflora C. B. Park. Ocymoides non speciosum J. B. Night-flowering Campion. Found among corn between Newmarket and Wood-Ditton.spica reflexa

Lychnis sylvestris flore albo minimo. Lych. sylv. altera spicâ reflexâ Bot. Monsp. arvensis minor Anglica Park. Small Corn-Campion with a very small white-flower. Found among corn near the Devil’s-ditch.

Melampyrum cristatum flore purpureo. J. B. an luteum angustifolium C. B. Park? Purple-headed crested Cow-wheat. In Madingley and Kingston woods, and in almost all the other woods in this County. It also over-spreads all the pasture and common grounds you pass through going from Madingley to Dry-Drayton.

Millefolium palustre galericulatum Ger. emac. aquaticum flore luteo galericulato J. B. aquaticum lenticulatum C. B. Hooded Water-Milfoil. In the brook Stour by the Islet it makes: and in many of the great Fen-ditches in the Isle of Ely plentifully. There hath a lesser sort of this, with a small flower, been observed on Teversham-moor.viciae Zelandiae Bataviae chamaeorchis

Onobrychis Ger. vulgaris Park. foliis viciæ fructu echinato major C. B. Polygalon Gesneri J. B. Caput gallinaceum Belgarum Lob. Medick-vetchling, Cocks-head, commonly, but falsly call’d Saint Foine. On Gogmagog-hills, and the balks in the cornfields all thereabout.

Orchis lilifolius minor sabuletorum Zelandiæ & Bataviæ J. B. chamæorchis lilifolia C. B. Dwarf-Orchies of Zealand, or rather Marsh-bastard-orchies. In the watery places of Hinton and Teversham-moors.

Orchis myodes Ger. myodes galea & alis herbidis J. B. major muscam referens C. B. The Fly-Orchies. On the banks of the Devil’s-ditch, and in the closes about Hinton and Teversham.

Orchis sive Cynosorchis minor Pannonica Ger. militaris Pannonica Park. militaris pratensis humilior C. B. parvis floribus multis punctis notatis, an Orchis Pannon. 4. Clusii? J. B. Little purple flower’d Dogs-stones. On Gogmagog-hills, Newmarket-heath, and particularly on the Devil’s-ditch plentifully.

Orchis sive Testiculus sphegodes hirsuto flore J. B. fucum referens colore rubiginoso C. B. The green-winged Humble-bee Satyrion. In an old gravel-pit near Shelford by the foot-way from Trumpington to the Church.

Orchis odorata Moschata sive Monarchis C. B. pusilla odorata Park. parva Autumnalis lutea J. B. The yellow-sweet, or musk-orchies. In the chalk-pit-close at Cherry-Hinton, and in some pits about Gogmagog-hills.

Papaver corniculatum violaceum J. B. Park. C. B. cornutum flore violaceo Ger. Violet-colour’d horned Poppy. In the corn-fields beyond Swafham, as you go to Burwell.

Pimpinella saxifraga hircina major J. B. Park. saxifraga Ger. saxifraga major umbella candida C. B. Great Burnet-saxifrage. In the woods at S. George-Hatley, and in many other woods on the border of Bedfordshire.

Potamogiton ramosum caule compresso, folio Graminis canini. Small-branched Pondweed with a flat stalk. In the river Cam.

Potamogiton millefolium seu foliis gramineis ramosum. An gramineum ramosum C. B. J. B. Park. Millefolium tenuifolium Ger. emac. ico. Fine or Fennel-leav’d Pondweed. In the river Cam plentifully.

Pulsatilla Anglica purpurea Park. parad. flore minore Ger. minore nigricante C. B. flore clauso cæruleo J. B. Common or English Pasque-flower. On Gogmagog-hills on the left hand of the way leading from Cambridge to Haveril, just on the top of the hill, also about Hildersham six miles from Cambridge.

Ranunculus flammeus major Ger. palustrus flammeus major Park. longifolius palustris major C. B. longo folio maximus, Lingua Plinii J. B. Great Spear-wort. In some ditches at Teversham-moor, and abundantly in many great ditches in the fens in the Isle of Ely.

Ribes nigrum vulgo dictum folio olente J. B. fructu nigro Park. Grossularia non spinosa fructu nigro C. B. Black Currans, Squinancy-berries. By the river’s-side at Abington.

Rorella sive Ros solis foliis oblongis J. B. Park. folio oblongo C. B. Long-leav’d Rosa folis, or Sun-dew. On Hinton-moor about the watery places plentifully. subcaeruleis

Salix humilior, foliis angustis subcæruleis, ut plurimum sibi invicem oppositis. Salix tenuior, folio minore, utrinque glabro fragilis J. B. The yellow dwarf-willow. By the horse-way-side to Cherry-Hinton, in the close just by the water you pass over to go thither.

Scordium J. B. C. B. Ger. legitimum Park. Water-Germander. In many ditches in the Isle of Ely, and in the Osier-holts about Ely-city. Also in a ditch on the left hand of the road leading from Cambridge to Histon, about the mid-way.

S. Sesamoides Salamanticum magnum Ger. The greater Spanish Catchfly. Near the gravel-pits as you go to the nearest Windmill on the North-side of Newmarket-town. This place may be in Suffolk.

Solanum lethale Park. Ger. melanocerasos C. B. manicum multis sive Bella donna J. B. Deadly Nightshade or Dwale. In the lanes about Fulborn plentifully.Rutae male

Thalictrum minus Ger. Park C. B. minus, sive Rutæ pratensis genus minus, semine striato J. B. The lesser Meadow-Rue. About Newmarket, and also about Bartlow and Linton in the chalky grounds.

Trifolium echinatum arvense fructu minore C. B. Medica echinata minima J. B. echinata parva recta Park. malè; non enim erigitur. The smallest Hedge-hog-Trefoil. In an old gravel-pit in the cornfield near Wilborham Church; also at Newmarket where the Sesamoides Salamanticum grows.siliqa cornuta

Trifolium sylvestre luteum siliqâ cornutâ, vel Medica frutescens C. B. Medica sylvestris J. B. frutescens sive flavo flore Clusii Park. Yellow-medick with flat-wreathed cods. In many places among the corn, as between Linton and Bartlow by the road-sides; between Cambridge and Trumpinton near the river; about Quoy Church and Wilborham, &c.

Verbascum nigrum flore è luteo purpurascente C. B. nigrum flore luteo, apicibus purpureis J. B. nigrum Ger. nigrum salvifolium luteo flore Lob. Sage-leav’d black Mullein. In many places about Gogmagog-hills towards Linton, as by the lanes-sides, and in the closes about Abington, Shelford, &c.

Veronica picata recta minor J. B. Spicata minor C. B. mas erecta Park. assurgens sive spica Ger. Upright Male-Speedwell or Fluellin. In several closes on Newmarket-heath, as in a close near the beacon on the left hand of the way from Cambridge to Newmarket.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06