Britannia, by William Camden

South-Folk or Suffolk.

Big S SUFFOLK (which is first to be describ’d) in Saxon Saxon: Suthfolc, i.e. a southern people, with respect to Norfolk; has on the west, Cambridgeshire; on the south, the river Stour, which divides it from Essex; on the east, the German Ocean; and on the north, two little rivers, Ouse the least, and Waveney. These two, flowing almost out of the same fountain, run contrary ways, and divide it from Norfolk. It is a country pretty large, and well stor’d with harbours; the soil (except to the west) is very fat, as being a compound of clay and marle. By this means, the fields are every-where fruitful, and the pastures exceeding good for fatting of cattel; ⌈not to mention the vast Improvement made in the estates of this County, by employing great quantities of ground, in Turnips.⌉ They make also vast numbers of Cheese,Cheese. which, to the great advantage of the inhabitants, are carry’d into all parts of England; nay, into Germany also, with France and Spain, as Pantaleon Medicus has told us, who scruples not to compare them with those of Placentia, both in colour and taste: But he was not one of Apicius’s nice-palated scholars. Nor do they want woods, and parks; of the latter of which, several are joyn’d to Noblemen’s houses, and are well stock’d with Deer.

Suffolk map, left Suffolk map, right

Suffolk

The County,Division. according to its political Division, hath been branch’d into three parts: the first call’d the Geldable, because it pays geld or tribute; the second, the Liberty of St. Edmund, because it belong’d to his Monastery; the third, the Liberty of St. Ethelred, because it belong’d to Ely-Monastery; to which our Kings formerly granted several parcels of ground with Sach and Soch (as the Ely-book expresses it) without any reserve either of ecclesiastical or secular jurisdiction.

⌈But it is to be observ’d, as to Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that that was not usually granted, in those ancient times, by the Kings, but by the Popes; and, in fact, there appear not the least foot-steps, nor any pretences, of Exemption from the ordinary Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Norwich, in any of the Churches or Estates belonging to the Church of Ely in this County. The present general Division, is, The Franchise or Liberty of St. Edmund, and the Geldable; the first containing the western part of the County, and the second the eastern: And these Divisions are the more remarkable, because at the Assizes each of them furnishes a distinct Grand-Jury.

But now let us take a survey of the particulars; and beginning at the west, give an account of the more noted places.exning

On the west, where it joyns Cambridgeshire, and in the very limits, lies Ixning,Ixning. a place, formerly of greater note, than at present. For it was made eminent, first by the birth of Ethelred the Virgin (daughter of King Anna) who was canoniz’d; then, by the conspiracy of Ralph Earl of the East-Angles against William the Conqueror; and lastly, by the Way, which Harvey first Bishop of Ely, made between this place and Ely. But now it goes to decay by the nearness of New-market,New-market. whither all commodities are carry’d in great abundance. That this town of Newmarket is of late date, the name it self witnesses. It is so situated, that the south-part belongs to Cambridgeshire, and the north to Suffolk; each whereof has * * Ecclesiolam.a small Church of its own, the latter † † Belonging to Ixning, C.Parochial and Institutive; but the former belonging to Ditton or Dichton, as the Mother-Church. I have met with nothing about it in my reading, but that under Henry the third Robert de Insula or L’isle gave one half of it to Richard de Argenton (from whom the Alingtons are descended) in Frank-marriage with his daughter Cassandra.

⌈The Town hath not grown up by any manufacture, or particular commodity; but by the convenience for Passengers, and the advantage of the Court. For it stands in a Plain, very commodious for hunting and horse-races; which diversions very often draw the Court thither: and on Cambridge-side, there is a house built on purpose for the reception of our Kings.⌉

All round, as we have hinted, is the large Plains ⌈just now mention’d,⌉ call’d from the town New-market-heath,New-market-heath. the soil whereof is sandy and barren, but the surface green. Along this, runs that wonderful Ditch, which the vulgar (as if it had been drawn by the Devil) call Devil’s-dike;Devil’s-dike. whereas, it is plain, it was one of those, wherewith (as Abbo informs us) the inhabitants guarded themselves against the incursions of the enemy. But of this we will speak more at large, when we come to Cambridgeshire. Only, here let the Reader note thus much, that the least of all these Fosses or Ditches is to be seen within two miles of this place, being drawn between Snailwell and Moulton.

More inward, is the famous St. Edmundsbury,St. Edmunds­bury. call’d in the Saxon age Saxon: Bederics-gueord, and in the British (as it should seem) Villa Faustini;Villa Faustini. which is mention’d by Antoninus. For that was the opinion of Talbot, a very good Antiquary, and particularly acquainted with this part of England; ⌈as being Prebendary of the Church of Norwich.⌉ The distances too in Antoninus, both from Iciani and Colonia, answer well enough; and as Villa among the Latins imply’d the house of a Nobleman within his own grounds, so did Saxon: gueordGueord or weorth. among the Saxons. For the above-mention’d Abbo interprets Bederics-gueord by Bederici cortis, or villa, i.e. Bederick’s court, or his ville or farm. Besides, the Saxons seem to have express’d the sense and meaning of the word, in their own language: for as Faustinus in Latin implies Prosperity, so does Bederick in German; as the learned Hadrianus Junius has observ’d, where he interprets the name of Betorix (who, according to Strabo, was the son of Melo Sicamber) as if one should say, Full of happiness and favour. But if these two be different, I frankly confess my self ignorant, either who that Faustinus, or this Bedericus, was. One thing I am sure of, that this was not the Faustini Villa describ’d by Martial in the third book of his Epigrams. And if I should say, that it was the Ville of that Bericus,Bericus the Britain. who (as Dio observes) was driven out of Britain, and persuaded Claudius the Emperor to make war upon the inhabitants; I should not believe my self. But whether this place was the Villa

Faustini or not, it seems to have been very eminent; since at the first planting of Christianity in those parts, King Sigebert built a Religious house here; and Abbo calls it a Royal Ville. But when the body of the most Christian King Edmund (whom the Danes had barbarously rack’d and tortur’d to death) was translated hither, and a large Church with a wonderful cover of wood was built in honour of him; then it began to be call’d St. Edmundsbury, and, for shortness, Bury; and flourish’d exceedingly. But most of all, after King Canutus (to expiate the sacrilegious violence done to this Church by his father Sueno) built it anew, very much enrich’d it, offer’d his own Crown to the Holy Martyr, brought-in the Monks with their Abbot, and bestow’d upon it many fair Estates, and, among others, this town entire. Whereupon, the Monks governed here and administer’d Justice by their Steward. For this reason, Joscelin de * * Banklond, C.Brakeland, Monk of the place, says: The men, as well without the burrough as within, are ours, &c. and all within the Banna Leuca enjoy the same liberty. Afterwards, Hervey an Abbot of Norman descent ⌈is said to have⌉ encompass’d it with a wall, some small remains whereof are still to be seen; ⌈but a person well versed in the Antiquities of this place, affirms that there never was any such Abbot, as Hervey. Indeed, in Abbot Anselm’s time, there was a SacristMonast. Vol.1. p.300. of that name in this Monastery.⌉ The Popes granted it very large Immunities;Malmesbury. and among other things, That this place should not be in anything subject to the Bishop, but in lawful cases should obey the Archbishop† Which is observ’d to this day, C.. ⌈But, ever since the Reformation, it hath been under the Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Norwich; and it may be question’d, whether the Jurisdiction of the Archbishop was provided for, in that manner, when the Bishop’s was given away, so long before the Reformation; seeing the Bulls of Exemption belonging to this Abbey are as much against the Jurisdiction of the Archbishop, as the Bishop; and it appears, that when some of the Archbishops, as Legates, made attempts upon their privileges, the Monks obtain’d other Rescripts, restraining the Archbishops even under that character, and subjecting the Abbey immediately to the Court of Rome.⌉

And now the Monks abounding with wealth, built a stately new Church, which they were continually enlarging. In the reign of Edward the first, in laying the foundation of a new Chapel, there were found (as Eversden,Eversden. Monk of the place, has told us) the walls of an old round Church; so built, that the Altar had been about the middle; and we are of opinion (so he adds) that it is the very same which was built at first ¦ ¦ Ad opus.to the service of St. Edmund. But what sort of town this is, and how large the Monastery was while it stood, learn of Leland, an eye-witness. A City more neatly seated the Sun never saw, so curiously doth it hang upon a gentle descent, with a little river on the east-side; nor a Monastery more noble, whether one considers the endowments, largeness, or unparallel’d magnificence. One might think even the Monastery alone, a City; so many gates it has (some whereof are of brass,) so many Towers, and a Church, than which nothing can be more magnificent: as appendages to which, there are three more, of admirable beauty and workmanship, in the same Churchyard. ⌈Now, there are but two Churches entire, St. Mary’s and St. James’s; and the vast ruins of a third, which was the great Church in the Monastery.⌉

If you enquire after the extent of it’s wealth, it will be hard to give an account of the value of those Gifts which were offer’d at the single tomb of St. Edmund; besides the Rents and Estates, to the yearly value of one thousand five hundred and sixty pounds. If I should particularly reckon up the quarrels that rose now and then between the Inhabitants and Monks (who by their Steward govern’d the Town,) and with what virulence they sought the destruction of each other, the strangeness of the relation would destroy it’s credit. But all this Work, which had been so long in growing, and all that Wealth, which had been so many years in getting, was destroy’d and dispers’d, upon the dissolution of Monasteries by King Henry the eighth; who was mov’d to that Dissolution by a set of men, that (under the specious pretence of reforming Religion,) prefer’d their own private interest and profit, before that of their Prince and Country, yea, and even before the glory of God. Yet the very carcass of it’s ancient greatness hath something of beauty, and the very ruins are splendid; which, when you see, you cannot but both admire and commiserate. And (to take notice of this by the way,) if England ever suffer’d by the loss of any man, it was in this place. For that true Father of his Country, HumfreyHumfrey Duke of Glocester. Duke of Glocester (a strict patron of Justice, and one who had improv’d his excellent natural Endowments by a course of severe studies, ) after he had govern’d the Kingdom under Henry the sixth, for twenty five years together, with so great applause and commendation, that neither the good could find reason for complaints, nor the bad for calumnies; was cut off in this place by the malice of Margaret of Lorain: who, observing her husband King Henry the sixth to be of a low and narrow Spirit, set about this villanous contrivance, to get the management of the government into her own hands. But in the issue, it was the greatest misfortune that could have befallen either her or the Kingdom. For Normandy and Aquitain were presently lost upon it, and a most lamentable Civil war rais’d in England.

⌈The Town is pleasantly situated, and is much resorted to by the Gentry of these parts; and (to the great advantage and convenience of the Inhabitants) an Act of Parliament pass’d in the reign of 11, 12 W.3. c.22.King William the third, to make the river Lark navigable, as far as this place.⌉

Near St. Edmundsbury, we see ⌈Great Welnetham,Great Welnetham. where, a few years since, were found, in digging, abundance of Potsherds and Platters of Roman Earth, some of which had Inscriptions upon them; as also Coals, Bones of Sheep, Oxen, &c. with many horns, a sacrificing Knife, and Ashes and Urns: And also⌉ Rushbrok,Rushbrok. the seat of the famous and Knightly Family of the Jermins ⌈(advanced in the reign of King Charles the first to the title of Barons, and in that of King Charles the second to the higher Honour of Earls:) and now the Seat of Sir Robert Davers Baronet, by marriage with one of the daughters of that Family.⌉ At a little distance from thence, is Ikesworth,Ikesworth. where was an old Priory founded by Gilbert Blund,Blund. a person of great Honour, and Lord of Ikesworth: his issue-male in the right line fail’d in William, slain in Henry the third’s time at the battle of Lewes; who left his two sisters, Agnes wife of William de Creketot, and Roisia wife of Robert de Valoniis, his heirs. The other Ikesworth or Ickworth, north-east from hence, is the Seat of the Hervies, and gives title to John Lord Hervey, created a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Hervey of Ickworth, and afterwards advanced to the more honourable title of Earl of Bristol. This is reckon’d before, among the places, which still retain somewhat of the name of the Iceni. And what the late learned * * Dr. Battley.Archdeacon of Canterbury observ’d, confirms the Antiquity of the place, namely, that in his memory a large pot of Roman money had been found there. About Icklingham also, much of the same sort is discover’d; and it is said, that in digging through the Devil’s-ditch on New-market-heath, near Ixning, they met with some ancient pieces. If they are still preserv’d, they might probably afford us some light, who were the Authors of that vast work. A late Writer affirms, that they bore the Inscriptions of divers Roman Emperors; but upon what authority, I know not.⌉

More to the north, is Fernham S. Genovef;Fernham. memorable upon this account, that Richard Lucy Chief Justice of England,1173. did here engage Robert Earl of Leicester in a pitch’d battle, and slew above ten thousand Flemings, whom he had invited over for the destruction of his Country. In this neighbourhood, I observ’d two very neat seats: one built by the Kitsons Knights, at Hengrave,Hengrave. formerly the possession of Edmund de Hengrave a famous Lawyer under Edward the first; and the other at Culfurth,Culfurth. built by Sir Nicholas Bacon Knight,N. Bacon. son of that Nicholas Bacon Keeper of the Great Seal of England, who for his singular Wisdom, and Judgment, was, whilst he liv’d, deservedly accounted † Altera è destinis.
 
one of the two Supports of this Kingdom; ⌈but it is now the Seat of the Lord Cornwallis.⌉ Not far from hence is Lidgate,Lidgate. a small Village, but not to be omitted, because it gave birth to John LidgateJohn Lidgate. the Monk, whose Wit seems to have been form’d and model’d by the very Muses; the Beauties and Elegancies of all kinds are so lively express’d in his English Poetry. And these are the places of note on the west-side of Suffolk.

To the south, the river Stour, immediately after it’s rise, enlarges it self into a great Fen call’d Stourmere:Stourmere. but presently gathering it’s waters within the banks, it runs first by Clare, a noble Village, which, besides it’s Castle, now demolish’d, gave the name of ClareStoke-Clare. to a very honourable family, descended from Gislebert a Norman Earl; and the title of Duke to Leonel son of Edward the third, who, having taken a wife out of this family, had the title of Duke of Clarence bestow’d upon him by his father. For from this place he was call’d Duke of Clarence (as, before, the posterity of Gislebert were stil’d Earls of Clare) and dying at † † Alba Pompeia.Longuevill in Italy, after he had taken for his second wife the daughter of Galeacius Viscount of Milan, lies bury’d here in the Collegiate Church; as doth also Joanna de Acres daughter of Edward the first, wife to Gilbert the second de Clare who was Earl of Glocester. It is possible, the Reader may expect, that I should here give an account of the Earls of ClareEarls of Clare. and Dukes of Clarence, considering they have always made an honourable figure in this Kingdom; and I will do it in short, for fear any should seek it in vain. Richard, son of Gislebert Earl of * * Aucensis.
Augy.
Ewe in Normandy, was a soldier under William the Conqueror, when he came over into England, from whom he had the villages of Clare and Tunbridge. He had four sons, Gislebert, Roger, Walter, and Robert from whom the Fitz-Walters are descended.Guil. Gemetic. l.7. c.37. Gislebert, by the daughter of the Earl of Clermont had Richard, who succeeded him, and Gislebert, from whom was descended the famous Richard Earl of Pembroke, Conqueror of Ireland; and Walter. RichardRob. Montensis. the eldest being slain by the Welsh, left two sons, Gilbert and Roger. Gilbert, under King Stephen, was Earl of Hertford; notwithstanding which, both he and his successors, from this their chief seat, were commonly stil’d, and wrote themselves, de Clare. He dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother Roger, whose son Richard marry’d Amicia daughter and coheir of William Earl of Glocester; and, in her right, his posterity were Earls of Glocester; whom you may find in their proper place. But at last, upon default of heir-male, Leonel third son of Edward the third (who had marry’d Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of William de Burgo Earl of Ulster by Elizabeth Clare) was honour’d by his father with the new title of Duke of Clarence. But he having one only daughter call’d Philippa, wife of Edmund Mortimer Earl of March, and no issue-male; King Henry the fourth created his younger son Thomas Duke of Clarence,Dukes of Clarence. who was Governour of Normandy, and, in an Engagement of the Scots and French, was slain in Anjou, leaving no issue behind him. A considerable time after, Edward the fourth conferr’d this honour upon George his brother, whom,1421. after bitter quarrels and a most inveterate hatred, he had receiv’d into favour: yet for all that, he at length dispatch’d him in prison, ordering him to be drown’d (as the report commonly goes) † † In dolio vini Cretici.in a butt of Malmesey. Thus is it in the nature of man, to hate for ever those they fear and those they contend with to such degrees of Violence; even though they be Brethren. ⌈This place hath of later days given the title of Earl to Sir John Holles Lord Houghton of Houghton, advanc’d to this dignity Novem. 2. 22 Jac. 1. He was succeeded by John his son, and Gilbert his grandson, whose eldest son John, by the favour of King William the third, enjoy’d this dignity under the title of Marquess of Clare. Not far from Clare, is Honedon, where,Philosoph. Trans. No. 189. 203.
Honedon.
in the year 1687, the Sexton (digging a Grave in the Church-yard) met with a great quantity of Saxon Coins.⌉

From Clare, the Stour runs by Long-Melford,Long-Melford. a beautiful Hospital * * So said, ann. 1607.lately built by that excellent person Sir William Cordall Knight, Master of the Rolls; to Sudbury,Sudbury. i.e. the Southern burrough, which it almost encompasses. The common opinion is, that this was once the chief town of the County, and that it had the name given it with respect to Norwich, i.e. the northern Village. And indeed, at this day it has no reason to give place to any of it’s neighbours. For it ⌈has not only the pre-eminence of giving title to one of the two Archdeaconries of the County, and is the first in place; but⌉ is populous, and thrives exceedingly by the Cloathing-trade: it’s chief Magistrate also is a Mayor, who is annually chosen out of the seven Aldermen. ⌈In the fourth year of Queen Anne, aStat.4 Ann. c.15. Statute pass’d in Parliament, to make the river navigable from the Town of Maningtre, to this place.⌉ Not far from hence is Edwardeston,Edwardeston. a place of no great note at present, but, formerly, it had Lords of great honour its Inhabitants, call’d de Monte Canisio, and commonly Mont-chensy. Of which family,Barons de Montchensy. Guarin marry’d the doughter and co-heir of that most powerful Earl of Pembroke, William Marshal, and had by her a daughter, Joanna, who brought to her husband William de Valentia, of the family of Lusigny in France, the title of Earl of Pembroke. This Guarin Mont-chensy,Minor. Hist. Matth. Par. as he had great honours, so likewise had he a very plentiful fortune; insomuch that in those times he was call’d the Crassus of England, his Will amounting to above two hundred thousand marks. ⌈Not far from hence, upon the river Stour, is Buers, the place where King Edmund was crown’d, as ¦ ¦ MS. in Bibl. publ. Cant.Galfridus de Fontibus tells us: His words are these: Being unanimously approved, they bought him to Suffolk, and, in the Village called Burum, made him King; the Venerable Prelate Hunibert assisting, and anointing and Consecrating Edmund to be King. Now, Burum is an ancient Royal Vill, the known bound beween East-Sexe and Suffolk, and situate upon the Stour, a river most rapid both in summer and winter. Which passage is the more observable, because it shews what we are to understand by Burva in Asserius’s life of Alfred: that it is not Bury, as the Chronicle under Bromton’s name supposes; nor yet Burne in Lincolnshire, as hath been asserted; but this Bures, or Buers, as Matthew Westminster calls it. This Galfrid to whom we owe the discovery, wrote before the year 1156.⌉

A few miles from hence, the Stour is encreas’d by the little river Breton, which within a small space runs by two Towns of Antiquity. At the head of it, we see Bretenham, a little inconsiderable Town, without any appearance almost * * Urbis. of a City: and yet that it is the Combretonium,Combretonium. mention’d by Antoninus in those parts, is evident, both from the sound and signification of the name. For as BretenhamBretenham. in English implies a town or mansion upon the Breton; so does Combretonium, in Welsh, a valley or low place upon the Breton. But this, in the Peutegerian Tables, is falsly call’d Comvetronum and Ad Covecin. A little way from hence to the east, is Nettlested, from whence came the Wentworths,Barons Wentworth. whom King Henry the eighth See Yorkshire.honour’d with the dignity of Barons: and neighbour to it is Offton, i.e. the town of Offa King of the Mercians; where, upon a chalky hill, lie the ruins of an old Castle, which they tell you was built by King Offa, after he had villanously cut off Ethelbert King of the East-Angles, and seiz’d his Kingdom. Below this, is Hadley,Hadley. in Saxon Saxon: headlege, famous at this day for making of woollen Cloaths, but mention’d by our ancient Historians on account of GuthrumGuthrum, or Gormo the Dane. or Gormo, the Dane’s, being buried here. For when Alfred had brought him to such terms, that he embrac’d Christianity, and was baptiz’d, he assign’d him this tract of the East-Angles, that he might (to use the words of my Author)Malmsb. saith Seld. MS. by a due Allegiance to the King, protect those Countries as his own Inheritance, which he had before over-run with ravage and plunder.

From hence, the Breton runs into the Stour; whose united streams flowing not far from Bentley,Bentley. where the Talmaches, a famous and ancient family, flourish’d a long time; do in a few miles run near Arwerton,Arwerton. formerly the seat of the famous family of the Bacons; now of the Parkers, who by the father are descended from the Barons Morley, and by the mother from the Calthrops, a very eminent family. Then they flow into the Ocean; and the river Orwell or Gipping, joyning them just at the mouth, discharges it self along with them.

This rises in the very middle of the County, out of two Springs, one near Wulpett, the other at a little Village call’d Gipping. WulpettWulpett. is a Market-town, and signifies in Latin Luporum fossa, i.e. a den of Wolves, if we believe Neubrigensis, who has patch’d up as formal a story about this place, as is the * * Vera narratio.True Narration of Lucian: Namely, how two little green boys, † † Ex Satyrorum genere.of the Satyr-kind, after a long and tedious wandering through subterraneous Caverns from another world (i.e. from the Antipodes, and the Land of St. Martin) at last came up here. If you would have the particulars of the story, I refer you to the Author himself, * * Omnibus risionibus ridenda propinabit.who will tell you a set of the most ridiculous Stories you ever heard or read. ⌈From the foresaid derivation of Wulpett, and the British Cidwm signifying also a den of Wolves, the late † † Dr. Gale.learned Annotator chooses rather to place the ancient Sitomagus here, than at Thetford; alledging moreover, that the numbers are better reconcil’d to this place, than to Thetford; and that here are large and deep * * Fossæ.ditches, which he conjectures to have been the Work of the Romans.⌉ I know not whether I should here take notice, into what vain and groundless hopes of finding gold at NortonNorton. hard by, King Henry the eighth was drawn, by a credulous kind of Avarice. But the diggings there speak for me. Between the Gipping and Wulpett, on a high hill, are the remains of an old Castle call’d Hawghlee, in compass about two acres. Some will have this to have been call’d Hagoneth-Castle,Hagoneth-Castle. which belong’d to Ralph de Broc, and was in the year 1173. taken and demolish’d by Robert Earl of Leicester.

Upon the same river, are seen Stow and Needham, small Market-towns; and not far from the bank, Hemingston, wherein Baldwin le Pettour (observe the name) held Lands by Serjeanty (thus an ancient Book expresses it,)A merry Tenure. for which he was oblig’d every Christmas day to perform before our Lord the King of England, one Saltus, one Sufflatus, and one Bumbulus; or, as it is read in another place, he held it by a Saltus, a Sufflus, and Pettus: that is (if I apprehend it aright) he was to dance, make a noise with his cheeks, and to let a fart. Such was the plain jolly mirth of those days. It is also observ’d, that the Manour of Langhall belong’d to this Fee. Nearer the mouth, I saw Ipswich,Ipswich. formerly Gippewich, ⌈in Saxon Saxon: gypeswic,⌉ a little City, and of a low situation; but as it were the eye of this County. It has a pretty commodious harbour, has been fortify’d with a ditch and rampire, has a † † See below.great trade, and is very populous; * * Being, C.having been adorn’d with † † So said, ann. 1607.fourteen Churches, ⌈twelve whereof do still remain, with St. George’s Chapel, and the ruins of a Parish-Church now decay’d,)⌉ and also with large stately private buildings. I pass by the four Religious houses, now demolish’d: ⌈It is said, they shew the ruins of six or seven; one whereof, viz. Christ-Church, is converted into a mansion-house; another is employ’d for a place of Judicature, with a Gaol, where the Quarter-Sessions are held for Ipswich-Division; and another is made a Free-school (with an Hospital,) having also the conveniency of a very good Library.⌉ I also pass by the magnificent College begun by Cardinal Wolsey, a butcher’s son, and born in this place; whose vast Thoughts were always fill’d with extravagant Projects and Designs. The Body Politick of it (as I have been told) consists of twelve Burgesses (whom they call Portmen;) and out of them two Bailiffs are annually chosen for the chief Magistrates, and as many Justices out of twenty-four more. As to it’s Antiquity; as far as my observation has carry’d me, we hear nothing of the name, before the Danish Invasion, which it sufficiently felt. In the year of our Lord 991. the Danes plunder’d this place, and the whole coast, with such cruelty and barbarity, that Siricius Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Nobility of England, thought it most advisable to purchase a Peace of them with ten thousand pounds. But for all that, before nine years were at an end, they plunder’d this town a second time: whereupon, the English presently engag’d them with great resolution; but (as Henry of Huntingdon has it) by the cowardice of one single person, Turkil by name, our men were put to flight, and the victory as it were drop’d out of our hands. Thus, do very small Accidents give strange turns to the Events of war. In Edward the Confessor’s reign (as we find in Domesday-book) Queen Edeva had two parts of this town, and Earl Guert a third; and there were in it eight hundred Burgesses who paid Custom to the King. But when the Normans had possess’d themselves of England, they built a Castle here; which Hugh Bigod held, for some time, against Stephen the usurping-King of England; but at last surrender’d it. Now it is so entirely gone, that there is not left so much as the rubbish of it. Some are of opinion, that it stood in the adjoyning parish of Westerfeld, where appear the remains of a Castle; and tell you, that this was also the site of old Gippwic. I fansy, it was demolish’d, when Henry the second levell’d Waleton,Waleton. a neighbouring Castle, with the ground. For this was a harbour for the Rebels; and here the three thousand Flemings landed, who were invited over by the Nobility to assist against him, when he fell into that unlucky design of making his son Henry an equal sharer with him in the Government; and when the young man (who knew not how to stand so high without running headlong,) out of a furious desire of reigning, declar’d a most unnatural war against his own father. Though these Castles are now quite gone, the shore is very well defended by a vast ridge (they call it Langerston)Langerston. which, for about two miles, lies on the surface of the sea (as one words it,) not without great danger and terrour to Sailors. It is however of use to the Fishermen, for drying of their fish; and does also, in some measure, guard the spacious harbour of Orwell.Orwell-harbour. ⌈But as to Ipswich it self, its trade, depending upon the sea, hath in this and the last age receiv’d so much damage, that the number of their Ships is very considerably diminish’d.⌉ And thus much of the south-part of this County.

From hence a crooked shore (for all this eastern-part lies upon the Sea) running northward, presently opens it self to the little river * * Others call it Thredling.Deben. It rises near Rendlesham, to which the Lord of the place H. Fitz-Otho, or the son of Otho† Sculptoris cuneorum.the Mint-master, procur’d the privilege of a Market and Fair of Edward the first. By his heirs, a considerable Estate came to the Boutetorts,Boutetort. Lords of Wily in Worcestershire; and from them afterwards, in the reign of Richard the 2d, to Frevil, Burnel and others. ⌈It is said, that in digging here, about thirty years since, there was found an ancient silver Crown, weighing about sixty ounces, which was thought to belong to Redwald, or some other King of the East-Angles; but it was sold, and melted down.⌉ From hence the river Deben continues its course, and gives name to DebenhamDebenham. a small Market-town, which others will have to be more rightly call’d Depenham; because, the soil being moist and clayey, the roads all round it are deep and troublesom; ⌈tho’ the burrough it self is clean. In this Town, was the seat of the Gawdies, an ancient and Knightly Family, from whom it hath lately passed by sale, and is now the seat of the Pitts. From thence, the river passeth, thro’ Letheringham,Letheringham. by a Priory founded there by Sir John Boynet Knight, now the seat of the Nauntons, which Family came over with the Conqueror, and gave name to a manour in the neighbourhood, call’d to this day Naunton-hall.Naunton-hall. And in this Priory-Church (now used for the Parochial) are several stately Monuments erected to perpetuate the memory of the Nauntons, Boviles, and Wingfields, &c. Then the stream directs its course to Wickham, Wickham.where was anciently a market, but it is now lost. The Town however is still as big, as many Markets, and in it the Spiritual Courts are holden for the Archdeaconry of Suffolk.⌉ From thence it runs by Ufford,Ufford. formerly the seat of Robert de Ufford Earl of Suffolk; and on the opposite bank is Rendilis-ham,Rendilis-ham. i.e. as Bede interprets it, the home or mansion of Rendilus, where Redwald King of the East-Angles commonly kept his Court. He was the first of all that People, who was baptiz’d and receiv’d Christianity; but afterwards, being seduc’d by his wife, he had (as Bede expresses it) in the self-same Church, one Altar for the Religion of Christ, and another little Altar for the Sacrifices to Devils. Suidhelmus also, King of the East-Angles, was afterwards baptiz’d in this place by Cedda the Bishop.

From hence, the river Deben runs to Woodbridge,Woodbridge. a little town beautify’d with neat buildings, where at certain set-times is the Meeting for the Liberty of St. Etheldred; and, after a course of few miles, the River is receiv’d by the Sea at Bawdsey-haven.

Then the shore by little and little goes more easterly, to the mouth of the river Ore; which runs by Framlingham,By others call’d Winchel.
Framlingham.
formerly a Castle of the Bigods ⌈being given by King Henry the first to Roger Bigod;⌉ and presently on the west-side thereof it spreads it self into a sort of Lake. This hath been a very beautiful Castle ⌈of Saxon Work,⌉ fortify’d with a rampire and † † A Ditch, C.two large ditches, and a wall of great thickness with thirteen towers: within, it ¦ ¦ Hath, C.has had very convenient Lodgings; ⌈most of which are now pulled down; and yet still the place looks more like a Castle, than the Ruins of one.⌉ From hence it was, that, in the year of our Lord 1173. when the rebellious son of King Henry the second took up Arms against his father, Robert Earl of Leicester with his Stipendiaries from Flanders, harrass’d the Country all round; ⌈being invited thither by Hugh Bigod. But Roger Bigod, the last of this Family, and a man more turbulent than any of his Predecessors, was forced to resign the Castle to King Edward the first; and King Edward the second gave it to his half-brother Thomas of Brotherton, from whom it descended to the Mowbrays, and from them to the Howards Dukes of Norfolk, who generally resided here.⌉ From whence also it was, that in the year 1553. Queen Mary enter’d upon the government, notwithstanding the violent opposition of Dudley Earl of Northumberland against the daughters of King Henry the eighth. ⌈But King James the 1st granted this Castle to Thomas Howard Earl of Suffolk, and then (Audley-Inn being made his Seat) the glory of this place was thereby eclipsed, and his Son Theophilus Earl of Suffolk sold it to Sir Robert Hitcham Knight, who devised the same, with a considerable Estate in Framlingham, and Saxted, to the Master and Fellows of Pembroke-hall in Cambridge, for Charitable Uses. But the chiefest Ornament of this Town, is the Church, built by the Mowbrays, and the Chancel, by the Howards, wherein are several stately Monuments of this noble Family. And adjoyning to it, are two Alms-houses, one built by the Master and Fellows of Pembroke-hall, the other by Thomas Milles, and both well endowed.⌉ The river goes next to Parrham,Parrham. a little town, whose Lord, William Willoughby,Barons Willoughby of Parrham. had the dignity of a Baron confer’d on him by King Edward the sixth; and from thence, running by Glemham, which gave name to an ancient and noted family; to Oreford,Oreford. which takes its name from it; it falls into the sea. This was once a large and populous town, fortify’d with a Castle of reddish stone, which formerly belong’d to the Valoinies, and afterward to the Willoughbies. But now it has reason to complain of the ingratitude of the Sea, which withdraws it self by little and little, and † † So said, ann. 1607.begins to envy it the advantage of a harbour. ⌈It hath been honour’d, of late, by giving the title of Earl, to Edward Russel (son of Edward Russel, fourth son of Francis Earl of Bedford,) who, in consideration of his most signal Services by Sea (particularly in the year 1692, when the English Fleet, under his command, gave a total overthrow to that of the French;) was created by King William, Baron of Shingey, Viscount Barfleur, and Earl of Orford.⌉ And this is all I have to say of Oreford, unless you please to run over this short passage of Ralph de Coggeshall, an ancient Writer. In the time of Henry the first, when Bartholomew de Glanvile was Governor of the Castle of Oreford, some fishermen happen’d to catch a wild man in their nets. All the parts of his body resembled those of a man; he had hair on his head, and a long * * Pincatam.picked beard; and, about the breast, was exceeding hairy and rough. But at length he made his escape privately into the Sea, and was never seen more. So that the common Assertion may be very true, that Whatever is produc’d in any part of nature, is also in the sea; and that not at all fabulous, which Pliny has written about the TritonTritons and Sea-monsters. on the coasts of Portugal, and the Sea-man in the Straits of Gibralter.agincourt suffocatae foelix

⌈Opposite to Oreford, on the west-side of a small river, stands Butley,Butley. where a Priory was founded by Ralph Glanvile Chief Justice of England; and in the Church belonging thereto, was inter’d Michael de la Pole the third of that name who was Lord Wingfield and Earl of Suffolk, and was slain in the battel at Agin-Court.⌉

Not much higher, in a safe and pleasant situation, within the Vale of Slaughden, where the Sea beats upon it on the east, and the River on the west, lies Aldburgh,Aldburgh. which signifies an ancient Burrough, or, as others will have it, a burrough upon the river Ald. It is a harbour pretty commodious for sailors and fishermen; by which means the place is populous, and much favour’d by the Sea, which is a little unkind to other towns upon this coast. Hard by, when in the year 1555. all the corn throughout England was † Suffocatæ.blasted, the Inhabitants tell you, that in the beginning of Autumn there grew Pease,Pease growing out of the rocks. miraculously, among the rocks, without any earth about them, and that they reliev’d the dearth in those parts. But the more thinking people affirm, that Pulse cast upon the shore by shipwreck, us’d to grow there now and then; and so the miracle is lost. But that such as these grew every year among the pebbles on the coast of Kent, we have observ’d before; ⌈and a later Writer saith, that at the south-part of the Meer-Shingle, there still come-up yearly certain coarse grey Pease, and very good Coleworts, out of the stony heaps.⌉

From hence, keeping along the shore, at ten miles distance we meet with Dunwich,Dunwich. in Saxon Dunmoc, mention’d by Bede, ⌈and of most early note, of any town in this County; Bury (tho’ more considerable) having not its reputation, till a long time after.⌉ Here, Fœlix the Burgundian, who reduced the East Angles (then about to fall from the Faith,) fix’d an Episcopal See in the year 630; and his Successors for many years presided over the whole kingdom of the East-Angles. But Bisus, the fourth from Fœlix, when by reason of old age and a broken constitution, he found himself unable to manage so large a Province, divided it into two Sees. One he kept in this place, and fix’d the other at a little town called North-Elmham. ⌈This Dunwich, I am satisfy’d, is the same that the Saxon Annals call Domuc, and Bede Dommoc; answerable to which, in King Alfred’s translation it is Dommoc- Saxon: ceaster. The circumstances make the conjecture very probable; for Alfhun, who is said to have been bury’d there Anno 799, is likewise said to have died at Saxon: Suthberi, that is, Sudbury in this County. And where can we imagin, the Bishop should be bury’d, but at his own See, and in his own Church? In another place of Bede, we meet with Dunmoc, which, as it is undoubtedly Dunwich, so it differs not much from Domuc or Dommoc. And it is probable, that this place is yet more ancient; inasmuch as Roman Coins, among others, are sometimes found here; from whence we may probably infer, that it was a station of that People.⌉ In the reign of William the first, it had two hundred and thirty-six Burgesses and one hundred Poor: it was valued at fifty pounds, and sixty thousandAllectum for halecum.herrings by gift: So we read in Domesday-book. In the ¦ ¦ So said, ann. 1607.last age, it was very populous, and fam’d for its Mint; and in the reign of Henry the second, it was (as William of Newburrow has told us) a famous village, well stor’d with riches of all sorts. At which time, when the Peace of England was disturb’d with fresh commotions, it was fortify’d, on purpose to awe Robert Earl of Leicester, who insulted and over-ran all those parts; ⌈and there is still a square ditch-bank, or town-wall.⌉ But now by a private pique of Nature (which has set no fix’d bounds to the incursions of the Sea) the greatest part of it is swept away by the violence of the waves; and, the Bishops having many years ago transfer’d their See to another place, it lies in solitude and desolation. ⌈Upon enquiry after the state of this place, Sir Henry Spelman (as we find by a posthumous Paper) was inform’d by one of the inhabitants, that by report there had been fifty Churches in Dunwich, and that the foundations and Church-yards of St. Michael, St. Mary, St. Martin, and St. John’s were then to be seen, besides St. Peter and St. Nicholas, with a Chapel. But what number soever they formerly had, the Sea hath gained so much hereabouts, that all the Churches are now swallow’d up, except All-Saints; one, particularly, having fallen into the Sea, within these few years.⌉

A little higher, the river Blith discharges it self into the Sea; upon whose bank I saw a small town call’d Blithborow,Blithborow. memorable only for the burying-place of the Christian King Anna, whom Penda the Mercian slew in a pitch’d battle. ⌈For this place, how mean soever at present, seems to have been very ancient; as a testimony of which, not many years ago there were several Roman Urns dug-up among old buildings; and (besides the termination burh, which is one mark of antiquity) in the Saxon and following ages, it was of good note, as were most other places that the Romans had left. Which appears, in part, from its having the Gaol for the division of Beckles; an evidence that the Sessions have been formerly kept here.⌉ The Church became eminent for a College of Prebendaries founded by Henry the first, who granted it to the Canons of St. Osith. It has a market by the favour of John Lord Clavering; to whom King Edward the secondRegist. Monast. de Sibton. granted that Privilege, with a Fair. He was possess’d of a very large estate in those parts; as descended from the daughter and heir of William de Cassineto or Cheney, who held the Barony of Horsford in the County of Norfolk, and built a small Monastery at Sibton.

Here, the PromontoryExtensio Promont. Easton-nessEastonnesse. shoots a great way into the Sea Eastward; so that it is look’d upon ⌈by some⌉ to be further east, than any other part of Britain; ⌈but the Seamen tell you, that the most Easterly-part is at Lowestoft.⌉ By Ptolemy, Easton-ness is call’d Greek text, or Extension: and, to put it beyond all doubt, that this is the same with our Easton, Eysteney is the same in British, that Greek text is in Greek, and Extensio in Latin; tho’, indeed, the name might as probably be deriv’d from our own language, with regard to the easterly situation of the place. On the south-part of this Promontory, Southwold lies in a plain, low and open, and expos’d to the Sea; which the convenience of the harbour, made by the river Blith’s emptying it self there, has render’d a pretty populous town. At high-water, it is so encompass’d with the Sea, that you would take it for an Island, and wonder that it is not all overflow’d. Which brings to my mind that passage of Cicero;Lib. 3. De Nat. Deor. What shall we say of the Tides in Spain and Britain, and their ebbing and flowing at set-times? without a God they cannot be; a God, who hath set bounds to the sea. More inward, we see WingfieldWingfield. (with its half-ruinated Castle) which gave both name and seat to a numerous family in those parts, famous for their Knighthood and Antiquity. And Dunnington, which boasts of its Lord, John Phelipps,Phelipps. father of that William, who marry’d the daughter and heir of Baron Bardolph, and whose daughter and heir was marry’d to John Viscount Beaumont. But now, it is the seat of the ancient family of the Rouses. Not far from hence, is Huntingfield,Huntingfield. which, in the reign of Edward the third, had a noted Baron of that name: and near this, Heveningham,Heveningham. the seat of the knightly family de Heveningham, which is exceeding ancient, ⌈but never prosper’d (as the observation hath run) since one of them was upon the Jury of King Charles the first. The family is now extinct, and the Estate pass’d, by sale, to another hand.⌉ At a little distance from thence, is Halesworth,Halesworth. formerly Healsworda, an ancient town of the Argentons, and afterwards of the Alingtons, ⌈by whom it hath been lately sold;⌉ and for which Richard Argenton procur’d the Privilege of a Market, of King Henry the third.

On the north-part (as hath been already said) two little rivers, namely, Ouse the less, and Waveney,Little Ouse, and Waveney, riv. divide this County from Norfolk. They both rise out of a marshy ground about Lophamford, very near one to the other; and run quite contrary ways, with creeks full of shallow fords. On this side of the Ouse (which goes westward) there is nothing memorable, ⌈ but Euston,Euston. formerly belonging to a family of that name. It is seated on a flat, and in a fair pleasant Champian Country; which induced the Earl of Arlington to raise a noble Structure there, call’d by the name of Euston-hall; adorn’d with a large Nursery containing great quantities of Fruit-trees of several sorts, with artificial fountains, a Canal, a pleasant Grove, a large Warren, &c. It gave the title of Earl to Henry Fitz-Roy, created August 16. 1672. Baron of Sudbury, Viscount Ipswich, and Earl of Euston, upon his marriage with the only daughter of the Earl of Arlington; and the same person was afterwards, Sept. 11. 1675. created Duke of Grafton.

Upon Ouse also, another town is Downham,Downham. which, with the neighbourhood, hath suffer’d greatly, and hadPhilos. Trans. N.37. vast quantities of Land cover’d, by the blowing-in of sands, in an incredible manner, and by their resting there. And near it, is Brandon,Brandon. from which place the Dukes of Hamilton take also the title of Duke of Brandon, which was confer’d on James, the late Duke, by her Majesty Queen Anne.⌉

Upon Waveney, which runs eastward, we first meet with Hoxon,Hoxon. formerly Hegilsdon, made famous by the Martyrdom of King Edmund.martyrdom of King Edmund. For there, this most Christian King, because he would not renounce Christ, was by the most inhuman Danes (to use the words of Abbo) bound to a tree, and had his body all over mangled with arrows. And they, to increase the pain and torture, did, with showers of arrows, make wound upon wound, till the darts gave place to one another. And as a middle-ag’d Poet has sung of him:

Jam loca vulneribus desunt, nec dum furiousis
Tela, sed hyberna grandine plura volant
.

Now wounds repeated left no room for new,
Yet impious foes still more relentless grew,
And still like winter-hail their pointed arrows flew.

In which place was afterwards a very beautiful seat of the Bishops of Norwich, till they exchang’d it for the Monastery of St. Benedict. In the neighbourhood, at Brome, the Knightly family of CornwalleysCornwalleys.† Hath dwelt, C.dwelt a long time; of which, John was Steward of the Houshold to King Edward the sixth: and Thomas his son, for his great wisdom and fidelity, was made Privy-Councellor to Queen Mary, and Controller of her Houshold; ⌈and Frederick his grandson, for his signal services to King Charles the first, was advanced to the dignity of a Baron, by the title of Lord Cornwallis of Eye. For,⌉ below Brome is Eay,Eay. ⌈or Eye,⌉ that is, the Island, because it is water’d on all sides; where are seen the rubbish, ruins, and the decaying walls of a Monastery dedicated to St. Peter,Book of Inquisitions.
 
and of an old Castle which belong’d to Robert Mallet a Norman Baron. But when he was depriv’d of his dignity under Henry the first, for siding with Robert Duke of Normandy against that King, this Honour was bestow’d upon Stephen, Count of Bologne; who (afterwards usurping the Crown of England,) left it to his son William Earl of Waren. But after he had lost his life in the Expedition of Tholose, the Kings kept it in their own hands, till Richard the first gave it to Henry the fifth of that name, Duke of Brabant and Lorain, with the grandchild of King Stephen by a daughter (who had been a Nun.) A long time after, when it return’d to the Kings of England, Edward the third (as I have heard) gave it to Robert de Ufford Earl of Suffolk. Nor must we pass by BedingfieldBedingfield. in the neighbourhood, which gave name to a famous and ancient family, that receiv’d much honour by the heir of the Family of Tudenham. From thence, Foelix Fursaeus along by Flixton,Flixton. for Felixton (so nam’d among many other places in this County, from Fœlix the first Bishop) the river Waveney runs to Bungey,Bungey. and almost encompasses it. Here Hugh Bigod, when the seditious Barons set all England in a Flame, fortify’d a Castle; to the strength whereof Nature very much contributed. Of which he was wont to boast, as if it were impregnable,

Were I in my Castle of Bungey
Upon the River of Waveney,
I would ne care for the King of Cockeney.

Notwithstanding which, he was afterwards forced to compound with Henry the second, by a great sum of money and hostages, to save it from being demolish’d. Next, not far from the banks, we meet with Mettingham,Mettingham. where, on a plain, a square Castle with a College in it was built by the Lord of the place, John, sirnam’d de Norwich; whose daughter, afterwards heir of the family, was marry’d to Robert de Ufford Earl of Suffolk, to whom she brought a fair estate.

Now the Waveney drawing nearer the Ocean, while it tries in vain to break a double passage into it (one, with the river Yare, the other through the lake Luthing,) makes a pretty large Peninsula, call’d by some Lovingland, but by others more truly Luthingland;Luthingland. from that long and spacious lake Luthing, which, beginning at the Sea-side, empties itself into the river Yare. At the entrance into this, Lestoffe,Lestoffe. a little town, hangs (as it were) over the Sea; and, at the other end of it, is Gorlston, where I saw the Tower of a small ruinated religious House, which is of some use to the Sea-men. More inward, upon the Yare, there is Somerley,Somerley. formerly (as I was told) the seat of the Fitz-Osberts, from whom it came to the knightly and famous family of the Jerneganes, ⌈then to the Garnishes, and from them to the Allens.⌉ Higher up, where the Yare and Waveney joyn, stood Cnobersburg, i.e. (as Bede interprets it) the City of Cnoberus:Cnoberi urbs. we call it at this day Burghcastell. Which (as Bede has it) by the vicinity of woods and sea, was a very pleasant Castle, wherein a Monastery was built by Fursæus the Scot. By his perswasions, Sigebert King of the East-Saxons, was induced to quit the Throne, and betake himself to a Monastick life; and afterwards, being drawn against his will out of this Monastery ⌈as is said,⌉ to head his own men in battel against the Mercians, he was cut off ¦ ¦ Una cum suis.with all his company. ⌈But Thomas Eliensis names Bury or Betrichesworde, as the place,Act. Bened. vol.2. p.239. in which Sigebert betook himself to a Monastick life. And the same appears, not only by the * * Vol.1. p.291.Monasticon, and Caius’s † † P.74.Antiquities of Cambridge, but also by several Manuscript testimonies collected by the learned Dr. Battley. They have a tradition, that the Monastery there was afterwards inhabited by Jews; and an old way leading to the entrance, call’d the Jews-way,Jews-way. may seem to give it some colour of Truth.⌉ Now there is nothing in the place but broken walls, almost square, built of flints and British brick (a). It is quite overgrown with briars and thorns; amongst which they now and then dig-up Roman Coins: so that it seems to have been one of those Forts which the Romans built upon the river Gariensis against the Saxon-Piracies; or rather indeed, the very Garianonum, where the Stablesian horse had their station; ⌈if the rivers and marshy grounds round it may be suppos’d so fit to fix a station in. Ralph, the son of Roger de Burgh, held this castle by Sergeanty, and after him Gilbert de Weseham; but at last, when it was surrender’d into the hands of Henry the third, he (April 20. in the 20th year of his reign) gave it, with all the appurtenances, to the Monastery of Bromhelmes.⌉

(a) These Bricks are nigh a foot and half in length, and almost a foot in breadth; and so do agree pretty exactly with the account of Roman Bricks, given by Vitruvius, and (after him) by Pliny. The wall of the Castle looking to the east, remains still in its full length, being about 220 yards; the height about 17 or 18 foot, with 4 round towers, each about 14 foot diameter, and of equal height with the wall.
These towers are joyn’d with the wall: but yet jut out so far beyond it, that only a small part of the periphery is within: they are not hollow within, but solid. At north and south, are two other walls, now not above one hundred and twenty yards in length, the rest being laid in rubbish; as also the west-wall towards the river, if there ever was any such. For it is possible, the steepness of the hill, and a morass below, next the river, might be thought a sufficient security on that side.

Suffolk hath had Earls and Dukes,Earls and Dukes of Suffolk. of several Families. There are some modern authors, who tell us that the Glanvils were formerly honour’d with that title: but since they build upon no sure authority, † † Quia error obvius.and the mistake is also obvious, nor does any thing like it appear in the publick Records; they must excuse me if I suspend my assent, till they offer some better Arguments for my Conviction. Not but I own, the family of the Glanvils made a very great figure in these parts. But before Edward the third’s time, I could never yet find it vouch’d by good authority, that any one was honour’d with the title of Earl of this County. That King made Robert de Ufford (a person fam’d for great Exploits both at home and abroad, and son of Robert, Steward of the King’s house under Edward the 2d, by Cecilia de Valoniis Lady of Orford) Earl of Suffolk. To him succeeded his son William, whose four sons were snatch’d away by untimely deaths during his life; and himself, as he was going to report ¦ ¦ Sententiam.a Resolution of the Commons in Parliament, fell down dead. Robert Willoughby, Roger Lord of Scales, and Henry de Ferrariis of Grooby, as next heirs at Law,Inq. 5 Rich. 2. divided the estate. And Richard the second advanced Michael de la Pole, from a Merchant,Lel. Com. in Cygnæam Cant. to this honour, and to the dignity of Lord Chancellor of England. Who (as Thomas Walsingham tells us)Walsingham, p.358. Regist. Mon. de Melsa. was better vers’d in merchandise (as a Merchant himself, and the son of a Merchant,) than in martial affairs. For he was son of William de la Pole, the first Mayor of Kingston upon Hull, who, on account of his great wealth,See Hull in Yorkshire. had the dignity of a BaneretBrook’s Cat. p.305. and his Discovery, p.46. 57, 58, 59. confer’d upon him by Edward the third. But wanting a mind fit to bear such a flow of prosperity, he was forced to quit his Country, and dy’d in banishment. However, his being a Merchant does by no means detract from his honour: for who knows not, that even the sons of Noblemen have been Merchants? Nor will I deny, that he was nobly descended, tho’ a Merchant. Michael his son being restor’d, had a son Michael, slain in the battel of Agincourt; and another, William, whom Henry the sixth, from Earl of Suffolk, first advanced to be Marquiss of Suffolk, to him and the heirs-male of his body; that he and the heirs-male of his body, on the Coronation-day of the Kings of England, do carry a golden Verge with a dove on the top of it; and such another Verge of Ivory at the Coronation of the Queens of England. Afterwards, he advanc’d the same person, for his great merits, to the honour and title of Duke of Suffolk. And indeed he was a person truly great and eminent. For when his father and three brothers had lost their lives for their Country, in the French wars; he (as we read in the Parliament-Rolls of the 28th of Henry the sixth) spent thirty-four whole years in the same war. For seventeen years together, he never came home; once he was taken, while but a Knight, and pay’d twenty thousand pounds * * Nostræ monetæ.sterling for his ransom. Fifteen years he was Privy-Councellor; and Knight of the Garter, thirty. By this means, as he gain’d the entire favour of his Prince, so did he raise the envy of the people; and so, for some slight misdemeanours, and those too not plainly prov’d upon him, he was banish’d, and, in his passage into France, was intercepted by his enemies, and beheaded. He left a son, John, who marry’d Edward the fourth’s sister, and had by her John Earl of Lincoln. This Earl John, being declar’d heir apparent to the Crown by Richard the third, could not bridle his ambition, but presently broke out against King Henry the seventh, to his own destruction (for he was quickly cut off in the Civil war;) and to his father’s ruin also, who dy’d of grief; and lastly, to the ruin of the whole family, which expir’d with him. For his brother Edmund, stil’d Earl of Suffolk, making his escape into Flanders, began a Rebellion against King Henry the seventh; who, better pleas’d with repentance than punishment, had before pardon’d him for some very heinous Crimes. But a little after, he was by Philip of Austria Duke of Burgundy (against the Laws of Hospitality, as the Cry then run) deliver’d up to Henry, who solemnly promis’d him his life, but put him in prison. Henry the eighth, not thinking himself oblig’d by this promise of his father, when he had thoughts of going for France, cut him off, for fear of Insurrections in his absence. But Richard his younger brother, living under banishment in France, us’d the title of Duke of Suffolk; who was the last male of the family that I know of, and dy’d bravely in the midst of the enemy’s troops anno 1524, in the battel of Pavia, wherein Francis the first, King of France, was taken prisoner. In respect to his great Valour, his very enemy the Duke of Bourbon bestow’d on him a splendid Funeral, † † Atratusque intersuit.and was himself one of the Mourners. Afterwards, King Henry the eighth confer’d the title of Duke of Suffolk upon Charles Brandon, to whom he had given Mary his sister (widow of Lewis the twelfth, King of France) in marriage. He was succeeded by his young son Henry, and Henry by his brother Charles; but both dying of the ¦ ¦ Sudore Britannico.Sweating-sickness in the year 1551, Edward the sixth dignify’d Henry Grey Marquiss of Dorchester (who had marry’d Frances their sister) with that title. But he did not enjoy it long, before he was beheaded by Queen Mary, for endeavouring to advance his daughter to the Throne; and was the last Duke of Suffolk. From that time the title of Suffolk lay dead, till † † So said, ann. 1607.very lately King James ⌈the first,⌉ in the first year of his reign, created Thomas Lord Howard of Walden (second son of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk) Earl of Suffolk; whom, for his approv’d fidelity and valour, he had before made Lord Chamberlain. ⌈Thomas was succeeded by his son and heir Theophilus, who in his father’s lifetime bore the title of Lord Howard of Walden; and dying June 3. 1640, left this honour to James his son and heir; to whom succeeded George his brother, and then Henry, brother to the two last; whose son, Henry, created Earl of Bindon and Baron of Chesterford in the life-time of his father, became also Earl of Suffolk, and was succeeded by Charles, his son and heir, the present Earl.⌉

There are in this County 575 Parishes.

More rare Plants growing wild in Suffolk.

Abrotanum campestre C. B. Park. Ger. Artemisia tenuifolia S. leptophyllos, aliis Abrotanum sylvestre. J. B. Wild Sothernwood or fine-leav’d Mugwort. At a place call’d Elden in Suffolk, twelve miles beyond New-market in the way towards Lynne, on the balks of the Corn-fields, and by the way-sides abundantly for a mile in length and breadth. Also a mile from Barton-mills, where a mark standeth in the way to Lynne to direct passengers, and among the Furze-bushes under the hill plentifully. Though this Plant be very common beyond Seas, yet hitherto I have not heard of any other place in England where it grows spontaneously.

Agrifolium baccis luteis nondum descriptum P. B. Yellow-berried Holly. At Wiston in this County not far from Buers.

Carduus tomentosus Corona fratrum Park. eriocephalus Ger. Woolly-headed Thistle. Near Clare in Suffolk plentifully. See the Synonymes in Cambridge-Catalogue.

Caucalis tenuifolia flosculis subrubentibus Hist. nost. arvensis echinata parvo flore C. B. Fine-leav’d bastard-Parsley with a small purplish flower. Amongst the Corn here at Notley, and in many other places.

Crithmum chrysanthemum Park. Ger. maritimum flore Asteris Attici C. B. marinum tertium Matthioli, flore luteo Buphthalmi J. B. Golden-flower’d Sampire. On the bank of the river just above Fulbridge at Maldon in Essex.

Ischaemon Gramen dactylon latiore folio C. B. Ischæmon sylvestre latiore folio Park. Plentifully in the plowed-fields about Elden aforesaid.

Lychnis viscosa flore muscoso C. B. Sesamoides Salamanticum magnum Ger. Muscipula Salmantica major Park. Muscipula muscoso flore seu Ocymoides Belliforme J. B. Spanish Catchfly. In and about the gravel-pits on the north-side of New-market town: also by the way-sides all along from Barton-mills to Thetford in Norfolk.

Lychnis noctiflora C. B. Park. Ocymoides non speciosum J. B. Night-flowering Campion. Among corn about Saxmundham, and between the two Windmills and Warren-lodge at Mewell.

Militaris Aizoides Ger. Stratiotes s. Militaris Aizoides Park. Aloe palustris C. B. Aizoon palustre sive Aloe palust. J. B.  The Freshwater-Soldier or Water-Aloe. In the lake in Loving-land.

Pisum marinum Ger. aliud maritimum Britannicum Park. Our English Sea-pease. On the stone-baich between Orford and Alburgh call’d the Shingle, especially on the further end toward Orford abundantly. Gesner. lib. de Aquatil. 4. p.256. from the Letters of Dr. Key; and from him Jo. Stow in his Chronicle tells us, That in a great dearth which happen’d in the year 1555, the poor people in this Part of the Country, maintain’d themselves and their children with these Pease, which, saith he, to a miracle sprung up in the Autumn, among the bare stones, no earth being intermix’d, of their own accord, and bore fruit sufficient for thousands of people. That these Pease did then spring up miraculously for the relief of the poor, I believe not: that there might be then, Providence so ordering it, an extraordinary crop of them, I readily grant. Yet do they not grow among the bare stones: but spread their roots in the sand below the stones, wherewith there may also perhaps be some ouze mixt, and are nourish’d by the Sea-water penetrating the sands, as are many other maritime plants. Neither did they owe their original to Shipwracks or Pease cast out of Ships, as Camden hints to be the opinion of the wiser; but without doubt sprung up at first spontaneously, they being to be found in several the like places about England. See Kent and Sussex.Erucae proxime

Sium alterum Olusatri facie Ad. Lob. Ger. Emac. majus alterum angustifolium Park. Erucæ folio. C. B. q. Cicuta aquatica Gesneri J. B. Long-leav’d Water-Hemlock or Parsnep. In the lake of Loving-land.

Trifolium cum glomerulis ad caulium nodos rotundis. Knotted Trefoil with round heads. I found this in gravelly places about Saxmundham in this County.

Trifolium flosculis albis, in glomerulis oblongis asperis, cauliculis proximè adnatis. An Trifolium rectum flore glomerato cum unguiculis J. B? White-flower’d knotted Trefoil with oblong rough heads. At New-market, where the Sesamoides Salamanticum grows, and in other places.

Trifolium cochleatum modiolis spinosis. Hedge-hog Trefoil with rundles resembling a thin segment of a cone. At Orford in Suffolk on the Sea-bank close by the Key plentifully.Rutae caerula

Veronica erecta, foliis laciniatis. Alsine foliis hederaceis Rutæ modo divisis Lob. recta triphyllos sive laciniata Park. triphyllos cærula C. B. recta Ger. folio profunde secto, flore purpureo seu violaceo J. B. Upright Speedwell with divided leaves. At Mewell between the two Wind-mills and the Warren-lodge: And in the gravel-pits two miles beyond Barton-mills on the ridge of a hill where a small cart-way crosseth the road to Lynne, and in the grass thereabout plentifully.

Urtica Romana Ger. Park. Romana seu mas cum globulis J. B. urens, pilulas ferens, prima Dioscoridis, semine lini C. B. Common Roman Nettle. About Aldburgh, and elsewhere on the Sea-coast plentifully.

Sedum minimum non acre flore albo. Small mild white-flower’d Stone-crop. In the more barren grounds all along between Yarmouth and Donewich. This differs specifically from the common Pepper-wort, and not in the colour of the flower only.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06