Britannia, by William Camden

Kent.

Big T THIS Country, which we now call Kent, is not altogether uniform: to the west it is more plain, and shaded with woods; but to the east, rises with hills of an easie ascent. The Inhabitants, according to it’s situation, from the Thames southward, distinguish it into three plots or portions (they call them Degrees;) the upper, lying upon the Thames, they look upon to be healthy, but not altogether so rich; the middle, to be both healthy and rich; the lower, to be rich, but withal unhealthy, * * Rumney marsh.because of the wet marshy Soil in most parts of it: it is, however, very fruitful in grass. As for good meadows, pastures, and corn-fields, it has these in most places, and abounds with apples beyond measure;Plin. l.15. c.25.
Cherries brought into Britain, about the year of Christ 48.
as also with cherries, which were brought out of Pontus into Italy, 680 years after the building of Rome; and 120 years afterwards, into Britain. They thrive exceeding well in those parts, and take up great quantities of ground, making a very pleasant show by reason † In quincuncem directæ.they are planted square, and stand one against another, which way soever you look. It is very thick-set with villages and towns, and has pretty safe harbours, with some veins of iron: but the air is a little thick and foggy, because of the vapours rising out of the waters. The Inhabitants at this day may justly claim that commendation for humanity, which Cæsar bestow’d upon those in his time; not to mention their bravery in war, which a certain Monk has observ’d to be soThe warlike courage of the Kentish-men. very eminent in the Kentish-men, that in their engagements among the rest of the English, the front of the battle was look’d upon to belong properly to them, as to so many * * These were always in the rear. Rosin. Ant. Rom.Triarii; ⌈who, among the Romans, were always the strongest men, and upon whom the stress of the Battle lay.⌉ This is confirm’d by John of Salisbury in his Polycraticon. As a reward (says he) of that signal courage which our Kent, with great might and steadiness, shew’d against the Danes, they do to this day lay claim to the honour of the first Ranks, and the first Charge in all Engagements. And Malmesbury too has written thus in their praise. The country people and the Citizens in Kent, retain the spirit of that ancient nobility, above the rest of the English; being more ready to afford respect and kind entertainment to others, and less inclinable to revenge injuries.

CæsarJulius Cæsar. (to speak something by way of Preface, before I come to the places themselves) in his first attempt upon our Island, arriv’d on this coast; and, the Kentish Britains opposing his landing, there was a hot dispute, before he got to shore. In his second Expedition also, he landed his army here; and the Britains, with their horse and their † † Essedis.chariots, receiv’d him Caesar Praesentalis AEthelstan warmly at the river Stour; but being quickly repuls’d by the Romans, they retir’d into the woods. Afterwards, they had some hot skirmishes with the Roman Cavalry in their march; but still the Romans were upon all accounts too hard for them. Some time after, they attack’d the Romans again, broke through the midst of them, and, having slain Laberius Durus a Tribune, made a safe retreat, and See the general part, under the title Romans in Britain.next day surpris’d the forragers, &c. all which I have before related out of Cæsar. At this time, Cyngetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus, and Segonax, were Governours of Kent, whom he therefore calls Kings, because he would be thought to have conquer’d Kings; whereas they were really no more than * * Reguli.Lords of the Country, or Noble-men of the better sort. After the Roman government was establish’d here, Kent was under the Governour of Britannia Prima. But the sea-coast, which they term’d Littus Saxonicum; or the Saxon shore, had (like the opposite shore, from the Rhine to Xantoigne) a peculiar Governour from the time of Dioclesian, call’d by Marcellinus, Count of the Saxon-shore.Count of the Sea-coast, and by the Notitia.Notitia, The honourable, the Count of the Saxon-shore in Britain; whose particular business it was, to fix garrisons upon the sea-coast in places convenient, to prevent the plunders of the Barbarians, especially the Saxons, who heavily infested Britain; ⌈to which end, he had under him two thousand two hundred foot and horse.⌉ He was under the command of the Illustrious, the Master of the foot, whom they stil’d Præsentalis, Calv. Lex.⌈(from his constant Presence in the Army,)⌉ and who, besides the particular garrisons for the ports, did put under him the Victores Juniores Britanniciani, the Primani Juniores, and the Secundani Juniores (these are the names of so many Companies,) to be in readiness upon all occasions. His Office or Court he had in this manner; Principem ex officio Magistri praesentalium à parte peditum, Numerarios duos, Commentariensem, Cornicularium, Adjutorem, Subadjuvam, Regendarium, Exceptores, Singulares, &c, i.e. A Principal or Master out of the Masters or Generals relating to the foot, two Accountants, ⌈(one for the Emperor’s Gifts, another of his Privy purse;)⌉ a Gaoler, a Judge-Advocate ⌈who wrote and published the Sentences of the Magistrates, and was called Cornicularius, from a Horn, by the winding of which he commanded Silence in the Court,⌉ an Assistant ⌈to * * Brady, Præf. & p.41.officiate in case of the absence or infirmity of the proper Officer,⌉ an Under-Assistant, a Register, the particular Receivers, ⌈such as kept the Accounts of the Army, belonging to the Pay-Office; from which the Singulares seem to be different, and to signify some particular and singular Employments, as Informers, &c. To which, the Notitia adds, & reliquos Officiales, i.e. all the Under-Officers, &c.⌉ And I no way doubt, but it was in imitation of this method of the Romans, that our Ancestors set over this coast a Governour or Portreve, commonly call’d Warden of the Cinque-Ports.Warden of the Cinque-Ports, because, as the Count of the Saxon-shore presided over nine, so does he over five ports.

Kent map, left. Kent map, middle. Kent map, right.

Kent

But after the Romans had quitted Britain, Vortigern who had the Government of the greatest part of it, Kent deliver’d to the Saxons.set over Kent a Guorong, i.e. a Vice-Roy or Free-man; without whose knowledge, he frankly bestow’d this Country (as Ninnius, and Malmesbury have it) upon Hengist the Saxon, on the account of his daughter Rowenna ⌈as is generally said⌉ with whom he was passionately in love. ⌈But the Saxon Chronicle (which says nothing of that Rowenna) shews us, that Hengist rather got it by force of arms, having worsted Vortigern in two pitch’d battles: one, at Aylesford; and the other at Crayford, where he kill’d four thousand Britains, and put the rest to flight.⌉ Thus was the first kingdom of the Saxons settled in Britain, in the year of Christ 456, call’d by them Saxon cantwara-ryc, i.e. the kingdom of the Kentish-men; which, after three hundred and twenty years, upon Baldred the last King’s being conquer’d, came under the jurisdiction of the West-Saxons, and continu’dChron. Sax. ann. 830. so till the Norman Conquest: ⌈although indeed Baldred’sChron. Mailros, p.142. leaving that kingdom to his son Æthelstan, seems to imply that he was not so entirely conquer’d, as to be the very last King of this Country.)⌉

At the Norman Conquest (if we may believe Thomas Spot the Monk, no ancient Writer saying any thing of it,) the Kentish-men, carrying boughs before them, surrender’d themselves to William the Conqueror at Swanescombe (a small village, where they tell us that Suene the Dane had formerly encamp’d,) upon condition, that they might have the Customs of their Country preserv’d entire; that especially, which they call Gavel-kind.Gavel-kind. By which, all lands of that nature, are divided among the males by equal portions; or, in default of issue-male, among the females. By this, they enter upon the estate at fifteen years of age, and have power to make it over to any one, either by gift or sale, without consent of the Lord. By the same, the sons succeed to this sort of lands, though their parents be sentenced for theft, &c. So that what we find in an ancient Book, is very true, tho’ not elegantly written: The County of Kent urges, that that County ought of right to be exempt from any such burthen, because it affirms that their County was never Conquer’d as was the rest of England, but surrender’d it self to the Conqueror’s power upon Articles of agreement, by which it was provided that they should enjoy all their liberties and free customs which they then had, and us’d. ⌈The foregoing relation is oppos’d by † † Somner Gavelkind, Præf. & p.63.Mr. Somner and others, and yet it must be confess’d to have some remains in their present Constitution. And whoever opposes it, will be obliged to find some other fair account, how they in particular come to retain that custom of Gavelkind, which once prevail’d all over Britain, as it does still in some parts of Wales? and why the Heirs particularly in Kent succeed to the Inheritance, though their Father suffer for felony or murder?⌉

William the Conqueror afterwards, to secure Kent, which is look’d upon to be the Key of England, set a Constable over Dover-castle; and constituted the same Person (in imitation of the ancient Roman custom) Governour of five ports, stiling him Lord Warden of the 5 Ports.Warden of the Cinque-ports. Those are Hastings, Dover, Hith, Rumney and Sandwich; to which Winchelsey and Rie are added as Principals, and some other little towns as members only. And because they are oblig’d to serve in the wars by sea, they enjoy many and large immunities: For instance, from payment of See in Sussex.Subsidies, and from Wardship of their children as to body ⌈(while that continu’d a Law in England;)⌉ as also not to be su’d in any Courts but within their own town. And † Ex incolis qui Baronum nomine gaudent.such of their inhabitants as have the name of Barons, do, at the Coronation of the Kings and Queens of England, support the Canopy, and for that day have their table spread and furnish’d upon the King’s right hand, &c. And the Lord Warden himself, who is always some one of the Nobility of approv’d loyalty, has within his jurisdiction, in several cases, the authority of Admiral, and other privileges. But now let us come to the Places.

caesar Vagniacae

The Thames, the chief of all the British rivers, runs (as I observ’d just now) along the north part of this County; which, leaving Surrey, and by a winding course almost returning to the Chanel above, ⌈receives the river Ravensbourn.Ravensbourn, riv. Upon this river, there yet remains a large fortification, the area whereof is enclos’d with treble rampires and ditches of a vast height and depth, near two miles in circuit; which must certainly have been the work of many hands, but of whose, is uncertain. * * Philpot’s Villare Cant. p.203.Some would have it to be the Camp which Cæsar made, when the Britains gave him the last battle, with their united forces, just before he past the Thames in pursuit of Cassivelaun. But it is not probable, either that Cæsar had time to cast-up such a work, or that he should not have mention’d a thing so considerable, in his Commentaries. Much more likely is it (if at all the work of the Romans) to have been done some time after, when they had reduc’d the Nation into a Province, and made them stations at certain distances for the better quartering their Armies; and (to offer a Conjecture) this possibly is what remains of the old Noviomagus, which seems to be hereabouts, betwixt London and Maidstone. It is indeed a little too far distant from London, and so likewise from Maidstone, the old Vagniacæ (the stations on each hand of it;) being about twelve miles from London in a straight line, and twenty at least from Maidstone; whereas in the Itinerary it is but ten, and eighteen. But so also is WoodcotWoodcot. in Surrey, ¦ ¦ See Camden in Surrey.where Noviomagus hath been placed; for tho’ that be but ten miles from London, as the Itinerary sets it, it is at least thirty from Maidstone. And this opinion of it’s being here, is favour’d both by † † Antiq. Cant. p.24.Mr. Somner, and our * * Orig. Brit. p.63.learned Bishop Stillingfleet; who conclude from the course of the Itinerary, that it must necessarily be somewhere in Kent. But yet Dr. Gale, in his late Learned Comment on the Itinerary, continues it at Woodcot; upon that exact distance of ten miles from London.

Somewhat lower, near the same River, lies Bromley,Bromley. remarkable not only for the Bishop of Rochester’s Palace, but for a College or Hospital erected there, in the reign of Stat. 22 Car. 2. n.15.King Charles 2, by Dr. John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, for the maintenance of twenty poor Ministers widows, with the allowance of twenty pounds per Ann. to each, and fifty to their Chaplain; which is the first of this kind that was ever erected in England; and was the Pattern whereby George Morley Bishop of Winchester, and Seth Ward Bishop of Salisbury, did both proceed, in the like Endowment at their respective Sees. Near the place where Ravensbourn falls into the Thames,⌉ it sees Depford,Depford. a most noted Dock, where the Royal Navy is built, and repair’d: There is also settled a famous Store-house; ⌈and the whole area of the Yard, is now widened to more than double what it formerly was, with a wet dock, of two Acres, for Ships, and another of an Acre and half for Masts; besides an Enlargement of it’s Store-houses, Dwelling-houses, Launches, &c. suitable thereto, and to the greatness of the present Service.⌉ Here is a settled Corporation, something like a * * Holy Trinity house.College, for the purposes of the Navy, ⌈as some have said; but more truly, for the use of the Seamen. For by a Grant, 4 Henry 8, made to the Ship-men and Mariners of this Realm, they were enabled to begin (to the honour of the Blessed Trinity and S. Clement) a Guild or Brotherhood Perpetual concerning the Craft or Cunning of Mariners, and for the increase and augmentation of the Ships thereof; which, as the body Corporate of the Seamen of England, still continues (and this the Seat of it,) under the stile of the Trinity-house of Depford Strond; but without the least share, either of Trust or Authority, in the Navy Royal.⌉

It was formerly call’d West Greenwich, and upon the Conquest of England fell to the share of Gislebert de Mamignot,Mamignot. a Norman ⌈Baron;⌉ whose grandchild by a son, Walkelin by name, ⌈(and Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports)⌉ defended Dover-castle against King Stephen; ⌈ or (as Mr. Lambard reporteth it)Peramb. p.125. delivered it to him, and for that reason, after the King’s death, abandoned the charge, and fled into Normandy.⌉ He left behind him one only sister, who, upon the death of her brother, brought by marriage a large estate, call’d the Honour of Mamignot, into the family of the Says; ⌈from whom it receiv’d the name of Sayes-Court,Sayes-Court. which it still retains, tho’ now enjoy’d by the ancient family of the Evelyns.⌉

From hence the Thames goes to Grenovicum, commonly Greenwich,Greenwich. i.e. the green creak (for the creak of a river is call’d in German Wic;) formerly noted for being the harbour of the Danish fleet, and for the cruelty that that people exercis’d upon Ealpheg Archbishop of Canterbury (whom they put to death, by most exquisite torments, in the year 1012.) His death, and the occasion of it, Ditmarus Mersepurgius, who liv’d about that time, has thus describ’d, in the eighth book of his Chronicle. By the relation of Sewald, I came to know a very tragical, and therefore memorable act: How a treacherous company ofNorthmanni, signifying the Danes.Northern-men, whose Captain Thurkil now is, seized upon that excellent Archbishop of Canterbury, Ealpheg, with others; and, according to their barbarous treatment, fetter’d him, and put him to the extremities of famine, and other unspeakable pains. He, overpower’d by human frailty, promises them money, fixing a time against which he would procure it; that, if within that time no acceptable ransom offer’d itself whereby he might escape a momentary death, he might however purge himself by frequent groans, to be offer’d a lively sacrifice to the Lord. When the time appointed was come, this greedy gulf of Pirates call forth the servant of the Lord, and with many threatenings presently demand the tribute which he had promis’d. His answer was, Here am I like a meek lamb, ready to undergo all things, for the love of Christ, which you shall presume to inflict upon me; that I may be thought worthy of being an example to his servants. This day, I am no way disturb’d. As to my seeming to deceive you, it was not my own will, but the extremity of want that forc’d me to it. This body of mine, which in this * * Exilio.Pilgrimage I have lov’d but too much, I surrender to you as a criminal; and I know it is in your power to do with it what you please: but my sinful soul, over which you have no power, I humbly commend to the Creator of all things. While he spake these things, a troop of profane villains encompass’d him, and got together several sorts of weapons to dispatch him. Which when their Captain Thurkil perceiv’d at some distance, he ran to them in all haste, crying, I desire you will not by any means do this; I freely divide among you my gold, silver, and whatever I have or can procure (except the ship only,) on condition you do not offend against the Lord’s ¦ ¦ Christum.Anointed. But this fair language did not soften the unbridled anger of his fellows; harder than iron and rocks, and not to be appeas’d but by the effusion of innocent blood, which they presently and unanimously spilt, by pouring upon him Ox-heads, and showers of stones and sticks. This place * * Is, C.was famous for a Royal seat, which was built by Humfrey Duke of Glocester, and call’d by him Placentia.Placentia. King Henry 7. very much enlarg’d it, added a small house of Friars Mendicants, and finish’d that tower, begun by Duke Humfrey on the top of a high hill, from which there is a most pleasant prospect down to the winding river, and the green meadows. It was ⌈finish’d by King Henry the 8th; and afterwards⌉ much enlarg’d and beautify’d; for which it was indebted to it’s new inhabitant Henry Howard Earl of Northampton. ⌈But that house now is in a manner quite demolish’d, and another was begun in the place by King Charles the second, which stands imperfect. The Castle also, or Tower, is now quite ras’d, and a Royal Observatory set in the place by the same King Charles the second, furnish’d with all sorts of Mathematical Instruments fit for Astronomical Observations; such as Clocks, Telescopes, Quadrants, and a deep dry well for observation of the Stars in the day time: all which have been for many years most diligently and skilfully us’d by the learned Mr. Flamsted, the King’s Mathematician. The same Earl of Northampton built also an Hospital here; endowing it with lands for the maintenance of a Governour and twenty poor men: he built likewise two others in Shropshire and Norfolk, as appears by the Epitaph on his magnificent tomb in the south isle of the Church in Dover-Castle; where he lies, not interr’d, but in a marble coffin, which is supported above the marble table of his tomb, about five foot from the ground. The Epitaph is this:

Henricus Howardus, Henrici Comitis Surriæ filius; Thomæ, secundi Norfolciæ Ducis, Nepos; & Thomæ tertii frater; Comes Northamptoniæ; Baro Howard de Marnhill; privati Sigilli Custos; Castri Durovernensis Constabularius; quinque Portuum Custos, Cancellarius, & Constabularius; Jacobo magnæ Britanniæ Regi ab intimis Consiliis; Ordinis Periscelidis Eques auratus, & Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Cancellarius; inter Nobiles literatissimus; in spem resurgendi in Christo hic conditur.

Obiit 15° die Junii MDCXIV.

Inclytus hic Comes tria Hospitalia fundavit & latifundiis ditavit, unum Greenwici in Cantio, in quo xx egeni & Præfectus; Alterum Cluni in Comitatu Salopiæ, in quo xii egeni cum Præfecto; Tertium ad Castrum Rising in Com. Norfolciæ, in quo xii pauperculæ cum Gubernatrice, in perpetuum aluntur.

The latter part whereof, in relation to the foresaid Charities, runs thus in English:

This renowned Earl founded three Hospitals, and endow’d them with Lands; one at Greenwich in Kent, in which a Governour and twenty poor men; another at Clun, in Shropshire, in which a Governour and twelve poor men; a third at the Castle of Rising in Norfolk, in which a Governess with twelve poor women; are maintained for ever.

Here Queen Mary was born, and here Edward the sixth died.⌉

But the greatest ornament by far that Greenwich has had, is our Elizabeth, who, being born here, by the goodness of Providence, did so enlighten Britain, nay, and even the whole world, with the rays of her royal virtues, that no praise can equal her merit. But as to what concerns Greenwich, take also the verses of our Antiquary Leland,

Ecce ut jam niteat locus petitus,
Tanquam sydereæ domus cathedræ.
Quæ fastigia picta? quæ fenestræ?
Quæ turres vel ad astra se efferentes?
Quæ porro viridaria, ac perennes
Fontes? Flora sinum occupat venusta
Fundens delicias nitentis horti.
Rerum commodus æstimator ille,
Ripæ qui variis modis amœnæ,
Nomen contulit eleganter aptum
.

How bright the lofty seat appears!
Like Jove’s great palace pav’d with stars.
What roofs, what windows charm the eye?
What turrets, rivals of the sky?
What constant springs? what smiling meads?
Here Flora’s self in state resides,
And all around her does dispence
Her gifts and pleasing influence.
Happy the man, who’ere he was,
Whose lucky wit so nam’d the place,
As all it’s beauties to express.

I have nothing further to observe in this place, unless it be (not to suffer the memory of deserving and worthy persons to perish) that William Lambard, a person of great learning and singular piety, built a hospital here for relief of the poor, which he call’dQueen Elizabeth’s College. Queen Elizabeth’s College for the poor; ⌈and that John Duke of Argyle, a person of distinguish’d Figure and Abilities, was created a Peer of Great Britain in the fourth year of Queen Anne, by the titles of Baron of Chatham, and Earl of Greenwich. Near Greenwich, is Leusham,Leusham. for the erecting in which place, two Free-schools and an Alms-house, by Abraham Rolfe, Clerk, an Stat.16 Car.2. n.14.Act of Parliament was made in the 16th year of King Charles the second.⌉

Behind Greenwich, scarce three miles distant, lies Eltham,Eltham. which was also a retiring place of the Kings; built by Anthony Bec Bishop of Durham and Patriarch of Jerusalem, and bestow’d by him upon Eleanor wife to King Edward 1, after he had craftily got the estate of the Vescies, to whom it formerly belong’d. For it is said, that this Bishop, whom the last Baron of Vescy made his Book of Durham.Feoffee in trust (that he might keep the estate for William de Vescy his young son, but illegitimate) did not deal so fairly by this Orphan, as he ought to have done.

Below Greenwich, the ThamesThe Breach. throwing down it’s banks has laid several acres of ground under water: and some persons having for many years endeavour’d to keep it out at vast expence, scarce find their works and walls able to defend the neighbouring fields against the Violence of the Stream. There is great plenty of Cochlearia or ScurvygrassScurvygrass. growing here, which some Physicians will have to be Pliny’s Britannica; and upon that account I mention it in this place. ⌈But Mr. Ray the great Botanist of this age, affirmed, that this was not Cochlearia rotundifolia sive Batavorum, which we call Garden-Scurvygrass, (tho’ that also be found in many places on our coasts, and on some mountains in the midland;) but Cochlearia Britannica, or Sea-Scurvygrass; and so cannot be the Britannica of Pliny, tho’ it may have the same virtues. What the true Britannica of Pliny and the Ancients is, Abraham Muntingius thinks he has found out. He makes it to be the great waterdock, Hydrolapathum maximum, Ger. Park.⌉ But, Caesar in relation to this Britannica take Pliny’s own words: In Germany, when Germanicus Cæsar remov’d his Camp forward beyond the Rhine; in the maritime tract, there was one fountain (and no more) of fresh water, which if one drank of, his teeth would drop out in two years time, and the joints of his knees become loose and feeble. Those Evils the Physicians term’d Stomacace, and Sceletyrbe. The herb Britannica. For remedy hereof, the herb call’d Britannica was found out, as not only good for the sinews and mouth, but also against the Squinsie, and stinging of serpents, &c. The Frisians, where our Camp was, show’d it to our soldiers: and I wonder for what reason it should be so called, unless the Inhabitants of the sea-coasts gave it the name of Britannica, as lying so near Britain. See in the British Isles concerning the Armamentarium Britannicum. But the learned Hadrianus Junius, in his Nomenclator, gives another, and indeed more probable, reason of the name; whom for your satisfaction please to consult; for this word Britannica has drawn me too far out of my road already.

⌈From Greenwich the Thames goes on to Woolwich;Woolwich. which, how it came to be overlook’d by the Historians of this County, is much to be wonder’d; and the more, for it’s having contributed to the number of our Ships-Royal equally with any other two: besides it’s Right, by seniority, to the title of Mother-Dock to them all. Witness her * * So, ann. 1695.having given birth to

The { Harry Grace de Dieu. 3 Hen. 8.
Prince Royal. 8 Jac. 1.
Soveraign Royal. 13 Car. 1.
Nazeby, afterwards the Charles. 7 }Car. 2.
Richard, afterwards the James. 10
St. Andrew. 22

But, whatever that Omission was owing to, Woolwich must be owned to serve the Crown, among those of the greatest Importance, at this day.⌉

The Thames growing narrower, is met by the river Darent;Darent, riv. which, coming out of Surrey, flows with a gentle chanel ⌈by Westram, where is a seat of the Earl of Jersey, and⌉ not far from Seven-oke,Seven-oke. so call’d (as they say) from seven Oaks of an exceeding height; ⌈and only remarkable for a Lord Mayor of that name, who gratefully built an Hospital and School there; See Stat.39 Eliz.and for the defeat given by Jack Cade and his followers to Sir Humphrey Stafford, whom the King sent against them. Adjoining to which, is Knoll,Knoll. the seat of the Earls of Dorset.⌉ Then it runs to ⌈Chevening,Chevening. not long since the seat ofVid. Shelford, in Nottinghamshire. Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex; now, the seat of James Stanhope, Earl Stanhope, Viscount Mahone, and Baron Elvaston; which Honours have been most deservedly confer’d upon him by King George, in consideration of the signal Services perform’d by him to his Country, as well in the Camp, as in the Court and the Senate; and particularly that of Viscount Mahone, in testimony of his gallant Behaviour in the Spanish War. Then to⌉ Saxon: Ottan ford, now Otford,Otford. ⌈where Offa, King of the Mercians, so compleatly subdu’d Ealhmund King of Kent, and his whole Country, Ann. 773, that he endeavour’d to transfer (as it were in triumph) the Archiepiscopal Chair into his own dominions; which he effected so far, that he got Lichfield exempted from the jurisdiction of Canterbury, obtaining a Pall for it of Pope Adrian 1. Ann. 766: the Sees of Worcester, Legecester, Sidnacester, Hereford, Helmham, and Dunwich, being also erected into a Province for it; in which state it continu’d from theAnn. 766. 794, 795-797. year 766, to 797, in all thirty one years. And in that time (as Matthew of Westminster tells us) there sat three Archbishops at Lichfield, viz. Ealdulphus, Humbertus, and lastly Higbertus; in whose time the See of Canterbury was restor’d to it’s former dignity, by Kinulf or Kenwolf who was likewise King of the Mercians. It was further⌉ famous for a bloody defeat of the Danes in the year 1016; and proud of it’s noble Palace, built by Warham Archbishop of Canterbury for him and his successors, with such splendour and magnificence, that Cranmer his immediate successor, to avoid envy, was forc’d to exchange it with Henry 8. Lullingston,Lullingston. where was formerly a castle, the seat of a noble family of the same name, lies lower down upon the Darent, ⌈which runs next, to Derwent, otherwise Darent, giving it’s name to the place; where Vortimer the son of Vortiger (who was depos’d, as Nennius tells us, not for * * See towards the beginning of this County.marrying Hengist’s, but his own daughter) set upon the Saxons, and kill’d many of them;⌉ and at it’s mouth gives name to Darentford, commonly Dartford,Dartford. a large and throng market, ⌈infamous for the rebellion of Wat Tylar and Jack Straw, which began here. But now of late re-ennobled by giving title to Sir Edward Villiers, who, March 20. 1690, was created Baron Villiers of Hoo in this County, and † † See Jersey.Viscount Villiers of Dartford.⌉ Below this place, Darent receives the little river Crecce.Crecce, riv. At Creccanford, now Creyford,Creyford. a ford over this river, Hengist the Saxon, eight years after the coming-in of the Saxons, engag’d the Britains; where he cut off their Commanders, and gave them such a bloody defeat, that afterwards he quietly establish’d his kingdom in Kent, without fear of disturbance from that quarter.

From Darent to the mouth of Medway, the Thames sees nothing but some small towns; the omission whereof would be no damage either to their reputation, or anything else. However, the most ⌈noted and⌉ most considerable of them are these. ⌈Green-hithe,Green-hithe. where, as Mr. LambardMr. Lambard’s Peramb. p.482. tells us, Swane King of Denmark landed and encamp’d himself: but it seems rather to have been higher up in the Country, at the town call’d Swanscombe;Swanscombe. there appearing no remains of any such fortification now at Green-hithe, nor any tradition of it; whereas Swanscombe seems to have taken it’s name from some such occasion.⌉ Graves-end,Graves-end. as noted as most towns in England, for being a sort of station between Kent and London; where King Henry 8. fortify’d both sides of the river. On the back of this, a little more within land, stands Cobham,Cobham. for a long time the seat of the BaronsBarons of Cobham. of Cobham, the last whereof John Cobham built a College here, and a Castle at Couling, leaving one only daughter, wife of John de la Pole, Knight:See Stat. 39 Eliz. who had by her one only daughter Joan, marry’d to several husbands. But she had issue only by Reginald Braybrooke. Her third husband John de Oldcastle, was hang’d, and burnt, for endeavouring Innovations, ⌈or more truly Reformations,⌉ in Religion. But the only daughter of Reginald Braybrooke, nam’d Joan, was marry’d to Thomas Brook of the County of Somerset: from him, the sixth in a lineal descent was Henry Brook Baron Cobham, who, because fortune did not humour him in every thing, was driven by his ungovernable Passions to throw off his Allegiance to the most gracious of Kings: for which he had the sentence of death pass’d upon him; but his life was spared, for a monument of the clemency of his Prince.†† See Stow, in Buckinghamshire.

From Graves-end, a small tract, like a Chersonese, call’d Ho,Ho. shoots it self out a long way to the east, between the Thames1603. and the Medway: AEthelbald fossils Vagniacae the situation of it not very wholsom. In it is Cliffe,Cliffe. a pretty large town, so nam’d from the Cliff upon which it stands. But whether this be that Clives at Ho, famous for a Synod in the infancy of the English Church, I dare not (as some others are) be positive; partly because the situation is not very convenient for a Synod, and partly because the old Clives at Ho seems to have been in the kingdom of Mercia. ⌈According to the opinions of Sir Henry Spelman, and Mr. Talbot, both eminent Antiquaries, three several Councils were held in this place; the first call’d by Cuthbert Archbishop of Canterbury, at which was present Æthelbald King of Mercia, An. 742; the second under Kenulph, also King of Mercia, An. 803; and the third under Ceolwulf his successor, An. 822: upon which account Mr. Lambard also doubts whether Cloveshoo were not in Mercia rather than in Kent, the Kings of Mercia being either present at them, or the Councils call’d by their Authority; neither of which would probably have been at a place so remote from them, or so incommodious for such a purpose. Nevertheless Mr. Lambard, upon the authority of Talbot (yet reserving a power of revoking upon better information) agrees that Cliff at Hoo must be the place; and the rather, because he finds no such place as Cloveshoo within the precincts of Mercia, altho’ there be divers places there, that bear the name of Cliff as well as this. But a later conjectureNom. Locorum Explicat. in verbo Clofeshoo: Somner’s Saxon Dict. seems to come nearer the truth, placing it at Abbandun, now Abbington, in the Kingdom of Mercia, near the middle of the Nation; and therefore most convenient for such an Assembly. This place anciently, before the foundation of the Abbey there, was call’d Sheovesham, which might either by corruption of Speech, or carelessness of the Scribes, be easily substituted instead of Clovesham or Cloveshoo, as any one, moderately skill’d in these affairs, will easily grant.⌉

The river Medwege, now MedwayMedway. (in British, if I mistake not, Vaga, whereunto the Saxons added Med; ⌈for the making of which navigable in Kent and Sussex, a Statute passed in the 16th year of King Charles the second;)⌉ rises in the wood Anderida, call’d WealdeWealde. (i.e. a woody country,) which for a long way together covers the south part of this County. At first, being yet but small, it runs by Pens-hurst,Pens-hurst. the seat of the ancient family of the Sidneys, descended from William de Sidney,Sidney. Chamberlain to Henry 2. Of which family was Henry Sidney, the famous Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, who, by the daughter of John Dudley Duke of Northumberland and Earl of Warwick, had Philip and Robert. Robert was honour’d, first with the title of Baron Sidney of Pens-hurst, and then with that of * * Vicecomes insulæ.Viscount Lisle by King James ⌈the 1st, to which the title of See in Barkshire.Earl of Leicester was also added by the same Prince.⌉ But PhilipSir Philip Sidney. (not to be omitted here without an unpardonable crime, the great glory of that family, the great hopes of mankind, the most lively pattern of virtue, and the darling of the learned world) hotly engaging the enemy at Zutphen in Gelderland, lost his life bravely and valiantly. This is that Sidney, whom as Providence seems to have sent into the world, to give the present age a specimen of the Ancients; so did it on a sudden recall him, and snatch him from us, as more worthy of heaven than of earth. Thus, when Virtue is come to perfection, it presently leaves us; and the best things are seldom lasting. Rest then in peace, O Sidney! (if I may be allowed this address;) we will not celebrate thy memory with tears, but with admiration. Tacitus of Agricola. Whatever we lov’d in thee (as the best of Authors speaks of that best Governour of Britain,) whatever we admir’d in thee, continues, and will continue in the memories of men, the revolutions of ages, and the annals of time. Many, as inglorious and ignoble, are bury’d in oblivion; but Sidney shall live to all posterity. For, as the Greek Poet has it, Virtue’s beyond the reach of fate.

From hence the river Medway goes on to Tunbridge,Tunbridge. where is an old Castle built by Richard de Clare, who had it by exchange for Briony in Normandy; his grandfather Godfrey, natural son to Richard 1, Duke of Normandy, being Earl of Ewe and Briony. For after a long contest about Briony, Richard (as we are told by Gulielmus Gemeticensis) in recompence for the same castle, took the town Tunbridge in England. For they affirm that the * * The Lowy of Tunbridge, Leuca.Lowy of Briony was measur’d about with a line, and that he receiv’d an equal quantity of ground at Tunbridge, measur’d by the same line, which was brought over into England. But his successors, Earls of Glocester, † † Clientelari jure.held the manour of Tunbridge, of the Archbishops of Canterbury; upon condition, that they should be Stewards at the Instalment of the Archbishops, and should grant them the Wardship of their children. ⌈For the better maintenance of a Free-School here, we find ¦ ¦ 14 Eliz.
31 Eliz.
two Statutes, expressly assuring certain Lands and Tenements for that purpose. This place hath given the title of Viscount, to William Henry of Nassau, nearly ally’d to his Majesty King William the third, and created by him, in the seventh year of his reign, Baron of Enfield, Viscount Tunbridge, and Earl of Rochford; to whom succeeded William his eldest son, the present possessor of the Honours aforesaid. South from hence, at about four or five miles distance, lie the famous Chalybiat springs call’d Tunbridge-wells,Tunbridge-wells. so happily temper’d with martial salt, and so useful in carrying off many radicated distempers, and procuring impregnation; that they have been frequented of late to that degree, as to cause the building of a great number of houses all about the place, together with a fair Chapel, wherein there are prayers read twice a day during the season; most of which Houses being situate in the parish of Tunbridge, the whole are stiled Tunbridge-wells, tho’ the Wells themselves are in Spelhurst, the neighbouring parish.⌉

Then, Medway glides forward, ⌈near Hunton,Hunton. where, in the year 1683,Philosoph. Trans. N.155. was found in digging, about six yards deep, a hard floor or pavement, composed of Shells or shell-like stones, about an inch deep, and several yards over. They are of the sort called Conchites, and resemble Sea-fish of the testaceous kind; but yet it appears not, upon enquiry, that in the memory of man, any floods from the river have reached so far as this place. Then the Medway runs on, not far from Fair-lane,Fair-lane. the seat of the Lord Bernard;⌉ nor far from Mereworth,Mereworth. where is a house like a little Castle, which from the Earls of Arundel came to the Nevils Lords of Abergevenny, and to Le Despenser; whose heir, in a right line * * Is, C.was Mary Fane, to whom and her heirs, King James ⌈the 1st,⌉ in his first Parliament, restor’d, gave, granted, &c. the name, stile, title, honour, and dignity of Baroness le Despenser;Baroness le Despenser. and that her heirs successively be Barons le Despenser for ever. The Medway hastens next to Maidstone, which (because the Saxons call’d it MedwegstonOut of the Letters Patents. and Saxon: Medweageston) I am inclin’d to believe was the VagniacæVagniacæ. mention’d by Antoninus, and to be called by Ninnius in his Catalogue of Cities Caer Megwad, corruptly for Medwag.Maidstone. Nor do the Distances gainsay it, on one Vagniacae cemetery hand from Noviomagus, and on the other from Durobrovis; of which by and by. ⌈And this perhaps is as near the mark, or nearer (if similitude of sound be of any importance) as the conjecture of Archbishop Usher, who would have the Caer Meguaid or Megwad of Ninnius, rather to be Meivod in Montgomeryshire; which also he would have to be the Mediolanum of Antoninus, and not our Vagniacæ. This, doubtless, was so nam’d from the River Vaga, and that so stil’d from it’s extravagant stragling and winding, as it does hereabout.⌉ Under the later Emperors (as we learn from the Peutegerian Table publish’d * * So said, ann. 1607.lately by M. Velserus) it is call’d Madus.Madus. And thus we see the change of Ages, is the change of Names. This is a neat and populous town, stretch’d out into a great length; ⌈and, ever since the Roman times, it hath been esteem’d considerable in all ages, having had the favour and protection of the Archbishops of Canterbury:⌉ In the middle, is their Palace, begun ⌈as is said⌉ by John Ufford, and finished by Simon Islip. ⌈But if Archbishop Ufford begun it, he must certainly be very early in it, † † Anglia Sacr. vol.1. p.42. & 118, 119.not living after his Election much above six months, and never receiving either his Pall or Consecration; insomuch, that he is seldom number’d among the Archbishops. Archbishop Courtney was also a great friend to this town; who built the College here, where he ordered his Esquire, John Boteler, to bury him, in the Cemitery of this his Collegiate Church, and not in the Church it self; where yet he has a tomb, and had an Epitaph too, which is set down in ¦ ¦ Fun. Mon. p.285.Weaver: but this seems rather to have been his Cenotaph, than his real place of burial; it having been customary in old time for persons of eminent rank and quality, to have tombs erected in more places than one. For Mr. Somner tells us, that he found in a Lieger-book of Christ-Church, that King Richard the second, happening to be at Canterbury when he was to be bury’d, commanded his body (notwithstanding his own order) to be there interr’d, * * Somner’s Hist. of Cant. pag.265, 266.where he still lies at the feet of the Black Prince in a goodly tomb of Alabaster yet remaining.⌉ Here is likewise one of the two common Gaols of this County; and it is beholden for a great many Immunities to Queen Elizabeth, who made their chief Magistrate a Mayor instead of a Portgreve,Portgreve. which they had till that time; a thing I the rather take notice of, because this is an ancient Saxon word, and to this day, among the Germans, signifies a Governour, as Markgrave, Reingrave, Landtgrave, &c. ⌈Nor has it yet much fallen from it’s ancient dignity, it remaining to this day the Shire-town (as they call it,) where the Assizes for the County are usually kept. It is also a Burrough, sending two Burgesses to Parliament. In short, it is a large, sweet, and populous town, and is of later years render’d more remarkable, by giving the title of Viscount Maidstone to the honourable family of the Finches, Earls of Winchelsea (Elizabeth, wife of Sir Moyle Finch, sole daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Heneage, being first advanc’d to the dignity of Viscountess Maidstone, July 8. 21 Jac. 1. with remainder to the heirs males of her body;) and for a fight which happen’d here June 2. 1648, between Sir Thomas Fairfax General for the Parliament, and some Kentish Gentlemen, who had taken Arms in defence of King Charles 1, and posted themselves in this town. Which they so well defended, tho’ unequal in number (the streets being well man’d, and the houses well lin’d within,) that General Fairfax, with an army of near ten thousand men, could not gain it from them till after three assaults by storm, which it endured with such obstinacy, that the veteran soldiers confess’d, that whatever they got was by inches and dearly bought, and that they had never met with the like desperate service during all the war.⌉

Here, * * Below, C.at Maidstone, the Medway is joyn’d by a small river from the east, which rises, ⌈saith Lambard, at Bygon, others at Ewel, in a little wood less than a mile † † At Lenham, C. west of Lenham;⌉ very probably the Durolenum of Antoninus, writ falsly in some Copies Durolevum. For DurolenumDurolenum. in British, is, the water Lenum;Leneham. and, besides the remains of the name, the distance from Durovernum and Durobrovis confirms this to be the Durolenum; not to mention it’s situation upon a Consular way of the Romans, which formerly (as Higden of Chester affirms) went from Dover, through the middle of Kent. ⌈But others will not allow this to be the Aqua-Lena; thinking rather that that is the spring, in the town call’d Street-well, perhaps from the Strata of the Romans that led hither heretofore; which (as it is pleaded) might give name to the Station here, call’d Durolenum, ¦ ¦ Burton’s Comment. on the Itin. p.213.it having the true distance in the Itinerary from Durobrovis or Rochester according to Aldus’s copy, which is sixteen miles; but not so from Durovernum or Canterbury; which in all the copies I have yet seen is but twelve from Durolevum, whereas it is distant from Lenham at least sixteen. It is pleaded further, that no Roman Antiquities were ever found about Lenham, to confirm that opinion. The distances then disagreeing so much, and no Antiquities appearing, it is plain there is little else left beside the similitude of names to support it. What then if we should pitch upon Bapchild, a place lying between Sittingbourn and Ospringe, the ancient name whereof is Saxon: Baccanceld, afterwards contracted into Beck-child, and now corruptly call’d Bap-child.Bap-child. For as Dur denotes water, so Bec in the Saxon answers that; or at least the termination celd, implying a pool, will in some measure suit the old name. But what is of more consequence in this matter, is, it’s being in the Saxon-times a place of very great note; insomuch that Archbishop Brightwald, An. 700, held a Synod at it. Now, it is a general remark made by Antiquaries, that the Saxons particularly fix’d upon those places, where the Romans had left their Stations; from whence at present so many of our towns end in Chester. And even at this day, here are the ruins of two old Churches or Chapels, besides the Parish Church. Moreover, if the Roman-road betwixt the Kentish cities was the same with the present, then Durolevum (which, by the by, is only read Durolenum to reconcile it to Lenham) must be somewhere about this Parish; because no other place in the present road is of so agreeable a distance, between the said Cities. Now, there cannot be a shorter cut between Rochester and Canterbury, than the present, unless one should level hills, or travel through bogs; and yet by this, the distance between is about twenty five miles, the same with the * * Iter. 2. & 4.Itinerary; as also where Durolevum comes between, thirteen to it from Rochester, and twelve from it to Canterbury, make exactly the same number. That there are no visible remains of the old Road, may be very well attributed to this, that having been all along one of the most frequented Roads in England, and us’d probably ever since the Roman works were made, it is now levell’d with the adjacent earth, and only serves for a good bottom. The old Causey indeed between Canterbury and Lemanis does still in part remain, and is call’d Stone-Street,Stone-Street. being the common way into those quarters. But then for these thousand years, that has been private and inconsiderable with respect to this other; and the soil also may make a difference. For that which goes to Lemanis has a foundation all of natural rock and hard chalk, and the adjoyning fields afford sufficient quantity of most lasting materials. Whereas from Rochester to Canterbury, the soil is of it self soft and tender, and the neighbouring parts yield no such supply of durable materials.

As to it’s having been a constant road, it may be thus made probable. In Bede’s time the distance between Rochester and Canterbury was * * Pag.116. Edit. Wheel.twenty four miles (and so some call it at this day twenty four, others twenty five,) so that it could not be alter’d then. In the 12th Century, there was a Maison Dieu erected at Ospringe, for the receiving Knights Templars coming into and going out of the Kingdom. And † † Poems, p.54.Chaucer, going in Pilgrimage to St. Thomas, pass’d thro’ Boughton to Canterbury; as they still do.

However, it must be owned, that Durolenum may be placed with greater probability at Lenham, than, with * * History of Canterbury, p.25. Itin. p.179. 180, &c.Mr. Somner or Mr. Burton, at Newington near Sittingbourn; where it is true many Roman Antiquities have been found: yet being but eight miles from Rochester, and seventeen from Canterbury, it is altogether out of distance on both sides. But though no Antiquities (as hath been said) do appear at Lenham, there is a thing exceeding remarkable, mention’d on the Tomb of Robert Thompson Esq; in the Church there, who was grandchild to that truly religious matron Mary Honywood wife of Robert Honywood of Charing Esq;. “She had at her decease, lawfully descended from her, three hundred sixty seven children; sixteen of her own body, one hundred and fourteen grand-children, two hundred twenty eight in the third generation, and nine in the fourth: her renown liveth with her posterity; her body lieth in this Church, and her monument may be seen in Marks-Hall in Essex, where she died.”⌉

Hard by Lenham, at Bocton Malherbe,Bocton Malherb. the noble family of the Wottons * * Has dwelt, C.dwelt a long time; of which † † So said, ann. 1607.within our memory flourish’d Nicholas Wotton Doctor of Laws, Privy-Counsellor to King Henry 8, Edward 6, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth; Embassador to foreign Courts nine times, and employ’d thrice in a Treaty of Peace between the English, French, and Scots; and so he run through the course of a long life, with great commendation both for piety and prudence: as also, Edward Wotton the son of his nephew by a brother, whom, for his great experience and knowledge, Queen Elizabeth made Lord Controller, and King James ⌈the first⌉ created Baron Wotton of Merlay.Baron Wotton. ⌈Afterwards, this Estate came by marriage to the Family of the Stanhopes, Earls of Chesterfield. In the second year of King Charles the second, Charles Henry Kirkhoven was created Lord Wotton of Bocton Malherbe.⌉

Nor hath this river any other thing memorable upon it, besides Leeds-castle,Leeds-castle. built by the noble Crevequers,Family of the Crevequers. call’d in ancient Charters de Creuecuer, and de Crepito Corde. Afterwards, it was the unfortunate seat of Bartholomew Baron of Badilsmer, who treacherously fortify’d it against King Edward the second, who had given it him; but afterwards he found the rewards of his treachery, upon the gallows. Take, if you please, the whole relation, out of a little history of Thomas De-la-More, a Noble Person who liv’d in the same age, which I * * So said, ann. 1607.lately publish’d. In the year 1321, came Queen Isabel to the castle of Leeds about Michaelmas, where she had design’d to lodge all night, but was not suffer’d to enter. The King highly resenting this, as done in contempt of him, call’d together some neighbouring inhabitants out of Essex and London, and gave them orders to besiege the Castle. Bartholomew de Badilsmer was he who own’d it; and having left his wife and sons in it, was gone with the rest of the Barons to spoil the estate of Hugh De Spenser. The besieg’d in the mean time despairing of succour, the Barons with their Associates came as far as Kingston, and, with the mediation of the Bishops of Canterbury and London, and the Earl of Pembroke, petition’d the King to raise the Siege, promising to surrender the Castle into his hands, after the next Parliament. But the King, considering that the besieg’d could not hold out long, and moreover, incens’d at this their contumacy, would not listen to the petition of the Barons. After they had dispersed themselves to other parts, he gain’d the Castle, tho’ with no small difficulty; and sending his wife and sons to the Tower of London, hang’d the rest that were in it.

Thus the Medway, after it has receiv’d the little river Len,Len. passes through fruitful Cornfields; and by Allington-CastleAllington. (where Tho. Wiat senior, a learned Knight * * Restauravit.built a fair house) runs to Ailesford,Ailesford. in Saxon Saxon: Eaglesford, call’d by Henry Huntingdon Elstre, and by Ninnius Epifford; who has also told us, that it was call’d Saissenaeg-haibail by the Britains, because of the Saxons being conquer’d there; as others have in the same sense call’d it Anglesford. For Guortimer the Britain, son of Guortigern, fell upon Hengist and the English Saxons here; and, having disorder’d them so at the first onset, that they were not able to stand a second charge, he put them to flight; and they had been routed once for all, had not Hengist, by a singular art of preventing dangers, betaken himself to the Isle of Thanet, till that resolute fierceness of the Britains was a little allay’d, and fresh forces came out of Germany. In this battle, the two Generals were slain, Catigern the Britain, and Horsa the Saxon; the latter was buried at Horsted,Horsted. a little way from hence, and left his name to the place; the former was bury’d in great state,Catigern’s grave. as it is thought, near Ailesford, where those four vast stones are pitch’d on end, with others lying cross ways upon them; much of the same form with that British monument call’d Stone-henge. And this the common people do still, from Catigern, call Keith-coty-house.Keith-coty-house. ⌈Hither also, King Edmund Ironside pursu’d the Danes, and slew many of them, and from hence drove them into Shepey, where, had he not been stop’d by the treachery of Duke Eadric, he had finally destroy’d them. Here also Radulphus Frisburn, under the patronage of Richard Lord Grey of Codnor, with whom he return’d from the wars of the Holy Land, founded a house for Carmelites in Aylesford-wood, An. 1240, in imitation of those, whose lives he had observed in the wilderness of Palestine; * * Pits. de Script. p.345, 354.and they throve so well, that quickly after in the year 1245, there was a general Chapter of the order held here, in which John Stock (so call’d from his living in a hollow tree) was chosen General of the Order, throughout the world. We will only add, that this Place gives the title of Earl to Heneage Finch (second son of Heneage Earl of Nottingham,) who hath been successively honour’d with the Titles of Baron of Guernsey, and Earl of Ailesford, in consideration as well of his noble Descent, as his great knowledge in the Laws and Constitution of this Kingdom.⌉

Nor must we forget Boxley,Boxley. hard by, where William de Ipre, a Fleming, Earl of Kent, built Durobrivae Duroprovae Durobrovae AEthelred aethelbert a monastery in the year 1145, supplying it with Monks from Clarevalle in Burgundy. And not far from the opposite bank, just over-against this, is Birling,Birling. formerly the Barony of the Maminots, and then of the Saies, whose estate at last came by females to the families of Clinton, Fienes, and Aulton.

On the east-side of Medway (after it has pass’d by Halling,Halling. where Hamo de Heath, Bishop of Rochester, built a seat for his Successors, ⌈and where Mr. Lambard, the first Historiographer of this County, sometime liv’d in the Bishop’s house;)⌉ a little higher up, is an ancient City, call’d by Antoninus Duro-brus, Duro-brivæ, and in some other places more truly, Duro-provæ, or Durobrovæ. Bede has it Durobrevis;Durobrevis. and in the decline of the Roman Empire, time had so contracted this name, that it was call’d Roibis;In an ancient table publish’d by Velser, Roibis. whence, with the addition of Saxon: CeasterCeaster, what. (which, being deriv’d from the Latin castrum, was us’d by our Ancestors to signify a city, town, or castle,) they call’d it Saxon: hroueceaster, and by contraction Rochester;Rochester. as the Latins call’d it Roffa, from one Rhoffus as Bede imagines, though to me there seems to be some remains of Roffa in the old Duro-brovis. And as to the name, there is no reason to doubt of that; since (besides the course of the Itinerary and Bede’s authority) in the Foundation-Charter of the Cathedral Church it is expresly call’d Durobrovis. Only, this I would have to be observ’d, that the printed Copies of Bede read Darueruum, where the Manuscripts have Durobrovis. It is plac’d in a Vale, and on some sides encompass’d with walls, but not very strong; and (as Malmesbury says) is pent within too narrow a compass: so that it was formerly look’d upon as a Castle, rather than a City; for Bede calls it Castellum Cantuariorum, i.e. the Castle of the Kentish-men. But now it runs out with large suburbs, towards west, east, and south. It has had a great many misfortunes. In the year of our Lord 676, it was destroy’d by Æthelred the Mercian; and after that, was more than once plunder’d by the Danes. ⌈It was sacked by them in the days of King Ethelred, An. 839, and besieg’d by them again in An. 885, when they cast-up works round it, but it was reliev’d by King Alfred; and all the lands of the Bishoprick were laid waste by King Ethelred, An. 986.⌉ For Æthelbert, King of Kent, had built a stately Church in it, and honour’d it with an Episcopal See, making Justus the first Bishop; but when that Church was decay’d with age, Gundulphus repair’d it about the year 1080, and turning out the Priests, put Monks in their stead; who are themselves now ejected, and a Dean, with six Prebendaries, and * * Scholastici.Scholars fill their places. Near the Church, there hangs over the river, a Castle, fortify’d very well both by art and nature; which, according to the common Tradition, was built by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux and Earl of Kent. But without all doubt, William 1. was Founder of it. For we read in Domesday, The Bishop of Rovecester holds in Elesforde, for exchange of the ground upon which the castle stands. It is certain however, that Bishop Odo, depending upon an uncertain Revolution, held this against William Rufus; and that at last, for want of provisions, he did not only surrender it, but was † De gradu dejectus.degraded also, and quitted the Kingdom. As to the repairing of the Castle, take this out of the Textus Roffensis.Textus Roffensis; an ancient MS. book of that Church. When William 2. would not confirm Lanfranck’s Gift of the mannour of Hedenham in the County of Buckingham, to the Church of Rochester; unless Lanfranck, and Gundulph Bishop of Rochester, would give the KingCentum libras Denariorum.one hundred pounds of Deniers: At last, by the intercession of Robert Fitz-Hammon, and Henry Earl of Warwick, the King yielded, that instead of the money which he demanded in consideration of the Grant of the mannour, Bishop Gundulph (because he was well vers’d in architecture and Masonry) should build for him the Castle of Rochester, all of stone, and at his own proper charge. At length, when the Bishops, tho’ with some difficulty, were brought to a compliance in the presence of the King, Bishop Gundulph built the castle entirely at his own cost. And a little while after, King Henry 1. (as Florence of Worcester has it) granted to the Church of Canterbury and the Archbishops, the Custody and Constableship of it for ever; and liberty to build a tower in it for themselves. Since which time, it has undergone one or two sieges; but then especially, when the Barons wars allarm’d all England, and Simon de Montefort vigorously assaulted it, though in vain, and cut down the wooden bridge. Instead of which, a curious arch’d stone-bridge ⌈(one of the finest, if not the very best in England)⌉ was afterwards built with money rais’d out of the French spoils, by John Cobham, and Robert * * Call’d Canolius by the French.Knowles; the latter whereof rais’d himself by his warlike courage, from nothing, to the highest pitch of honour. ⌈Of late years, it gave an additional title to the Lord Wilmot of Adderbury in Com. Oxon. who, in consideration of his great and many signal services done to the Crown at home and abroad, was created Earl of Rochester by Letters Patents, bearing date at Paris, Dec. 13. 1652. 4 Car. 2. Who dying An. 1659, was succeeded in his Honour by his only son John, a person of extraordinary wit and learning. He dying without issue July 26. 1680; Lawrence Hyde, second son to Edward Earl of Clarendon, Viscount Hyde of Kenelworth, and Baron of Wotton Basset, was created Earl of Rochester Nov. 29. 1682. 34 Car. 2.⌉ The Medway posts thro’ the foresaid bridge with a violent course like a torrent; but presently growing more calm, affords a DockChatham. to the best appointed FleetThe Royal Navy. that ever the Sun saw, ready for Action upon all occasions, and built at great expence by the most serene Queen Elizabeth for the safety of her Kingdoms, and the terror of her enemies; who also, for the security of it, rais’d a fort upon the bank. ⌈This Yard was at first confin’d to a narrow slip on the edge of the river, beneath the Church; and furnish’d only with one small Dock. Which, becoming too streight for the then growing Service, was assign’d to the use of the Office of the Ordnance (where it still remains,) while that for the Navy was, about the year 1622, remov’d to the place where it now is, accommodated with all the Requisites of a Royal Arsenal, and those since augmented by additions of Docks, Launches, Store-houses (one, no less than six hundred sixty foot long) Mast-houses, Boat-houses, &c. all of late erection, exceeding what had ever been before known in the Navy of England. All which being so well fenced with new Forts, such as those at Gillingham,7 Ann. c.26. Cockham-wood, the Swomp, &c. and order’d to be further fortified by an express Law to that purpose; perhaps there may not be a more compleat Arsenal than this, in the whole world. To these, add the Royal Fort of ShirenessShireness. in the Isle of Shepey (where, by the way, there hath been also established a Yard, as an Appendix to Chatham, furnished for answering all occasions of Ships of lower rates, resorting thither in time of Action:) which fort was built at the mouth of this river by King aelfredi Charles the second, and stands more commodiously for the security of the River, than the Castle of Queenborough did, which was built there for that purpose by King Edward 3, but is now demolish’d.

At Chatham also is reposited that solemn and only yet establish’d Fond of Naval Charity for the relief of Persons hurt at Sea in the service of the Crown, under the name of The Chest at Chatham, instituted An. 1588. When, with the advice of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and others, the Sea-men serving the then Queen, did voluntarily assign a portion of each man’s Pay to the succour of their then wounded Fellows: which method, receiving Confirmation from the Queen, has been ever since maintain’d, and yet continues. Here also was erected an Hospital, for the like pious use, at the private Costs of Sir John Hawkins, in the 36th of the same Queen.

And now, having touched upon all the Yards and Docks in this County, in such order as their situation required; and this one County having contributed more than the whole number beside, to the Building, Repairing, Safe-harbouring, and Equipping of the Navy of England, we will here give the Reader a short view of the vast Growth and Improvement of the said Navy in this and the last age, according to the Calculation made † † 1695.some years since by Samuel Pepys Esq; a Person of great skill and experience in Naval Affairs; and to whose Informations the Reader is also indebted for the fore-mentioned Accounts.

The different States of the Royal Navy. In Mr. Camden’s time. At this day.
1. The number of Ships and Vessels, from 50 tons and upwards — but — 40 Ships above — 200 Ships.
2. The general Tonnage of the whole— under 23600 Tons above 112400 Tons.
3. The number of Men requir’d for manning the same— under 7800 Men above 45000 Men.
4. The medium of it’s annual charge during the last—
5 years of { Peace—
War—
under 15500 l. above 400000 l.
under 96400 l. above 1620000 l.

Now Medway, grown fuller and broader, makes a pleasant show with it’s curling waves; and passes through fruitful fields, till, divided by Shepey-Island (which I fansy is the same that Ptolemy calls Toliatis) it is carry’d into the River of Thames by two mouths; the one whereof, westward, is call’d West-swale;West-swale. and the eastern one, which seems to have cut ShepeyShepey. from the Continent, East-swale;East-swale. but by Bede Genlad and Yenlett. This Island, from the Sheep (a multitude whereof it feeds,) was call’d by our Ancestors Shepey, i.e. an Island of sheep: it is exceeding fruitful in corn, but wants wood; and is twenty one miles in compass. Upon the northern shore, it had a small Monastery, now call’d Minster,Minster. built by Sexburga, wife to Ercombert King of Kent, in the year 710. Below which, a certain Brabander† So said, ann. 1607.lately undertook to make brimstone and coperas, of stones found upon the shore, by boyling them in a furnace. Upon the west side, it * * Hath, C.had a very beautiful and strong castle, built by King Edward the third, and was (as he himself expresses it) pleasant in situation, the terror of his enemies, and the comfort of his subjects. To this he added a Burgh, and in honour of Philippa of Hainault his Queen, call’d it Queenborough,Queenborough. i.e. the burgh of the Queen. ¦ ¦ The present Constable, is, C.One of the Constables of it, was Edward Hoby, a person highly deserving honour and respect, as having very much improv’d his own excellent Wit, with the ornaments of Learning. To the east is Shurland,Shurland. formerly belonging to the Cheineys, * * Now, C.afterwards to Philip Herbert (second son to Henry Earl of Pembroke) whom King James ⌈the first,⌉ the same day, created Baron Herbert of Shurland, and Earl of Montgomery; ⌈which still remains in the same Family.

The right honourable Elizabeth Lady Dacres, mother to Thomas Earl of Sussex, was enobled with the title of Countess of Shepey during life, Sept. 6. 1680, the 32d of Car. 2. Since whose death, in consideration of many eminent services done the Crown by the honourable Henry Sidney Esq; fourth son of Robert Earl of Leicester, the titles of Viscount Shepey and Baron of Milton, near Sittingbourn, were both confer’d on him by King William the third, April 9. 1689, who was also afterwards created Earl of Romney, and made Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and Master of the Ordnance.⌉

This Island belongs to the Hundred of Midleton, so called from the town of Midleton, now Milton;Milton. ⌈and (as we just now observed) erected into a Barony.⌉ It was formerly a Royal Vill, and of much more note, than at present; tho’ Hasting the Danish pyrate fortify’d a Castle hard by, in the year 893, with a design to do it all the mischief he could; ⌈the footsteps whereof do yet remain at Kemsley-downs, beyond the Church. This they now call (as being overgrown with bushes) the Castle-ruff,Castle-ruff. whither King Alfred coming against him, fortified himself on the other side of the water the ditches of which fortification, and some small part of the stone-work also, still remain by the name of Bavord-Castle, * * Æfredi vita, p.44, 45, 46.secus fontes Cantianos, near unto Sittingbourn. But the Dane never did the town of Milton so much real mischief, as did Godwin Earl of Kent; who being in rebellion against Edward the Confessor, in the year 1052, enter’d the King’s Town of Midleton, and burnt it to the ground †† Chron. Sax. An. 1052.; which, in all probability, stood in those days near the Church, and near a mile from the present town, and was, upon the rebuilding, remov’d to the head of the Creek, where it now stands.⌉ Near this, is Sittingbourn,Sittingbourn. a town well stor’d with Inns; ⌈once both a Mayor and Market-Town, but now, through disuse, enjoying neither:⌉ and the remains of Tong-castle,Tong. do also appear in the neighbourhood: This last was the ancient Seat of Guncellin de Badilsmer,The Family of Badilsmer. a person who enjoy’d great Honours; whose son Bartholomew was the father of that Guncellin, who by the heiress of AEthelstan Fibulae Ralph Fiz-Bernard, Lord of Kingsdowne, had that seditious Bartholomew mention’d before. He again, by Margaret Clare, had Giles, who dy’d without issue; Margery, wife of William Roos of Hamlak; Mawd, of John Vere Earl of Oxford; Elizabeth, of William Bohun, Earl of Northampton, and afterwards of Edmund Mortimer; and Margaret, of John Tiptoft: from whence descended a splendid race of Princes and Noblemen. ⌈Not far from Sittingbourn, is Tenham,Tenham. from which place Sir John Roper, in the time of King James the first, was created a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Tenham; which is still enjoyed by the same family.⌉

Next, I saw Feversham,Feversham. which is very commodiously situated: for the most plentiful part of this Country lies round it, and it has a bay very convenient for importation and exportation; by which means it flourishes at this day above it’s neighbours. And it seems formerly also to have made a good figure; seeing King Æthelstan held a * * Prudentum Conventus.Meeting here of the Wise men of the Kingdom, and made several Laws, in the year of our Lord 903; and that Stephen who usurp’d the Crown of England, built a Monastery for Cluniacs; wherein himself, his wife Mawd, and his son Eustace were all bury’d. ⌈And that this was founded for the Monks of Clugny, appears to be true by his foundation-Charter printed in the † † Vol.1. p.688.Monasticon; he taking his first Abbot and Monks out of the Abbey of Bermondsey of the same Order: But yet ¦ ¦ Hist. of Cant. p.244.Mr. Somner, and * * Monasticon Fevershamiense, p.7, 8.Mr. Southouse, from the absolutory Letters of Peter Abbot of Bermondsey, and of the Prior and Monks of S. Mary de Caritate, finding Clarembaldus the first Abbot of Feversham, and his Monks, releas’d from all obedience and subjection to the Church of Clugny, and to the Abbot and Prior aforesaid †† Monast. Angl. p.689., are inclin’d to believe that the Abbot and Monks of Feversham (pursuant to their absolution) presently took upon them the rule and habit of S. Bennet. Notwithstanding, it is clear they were still esteem’d of the Order of Clugny for several years after; as farther appears by the Confirmation-Charters of King Henry 2, King John, and Henry 3, all printed in the ¦ ¦ Ibid. p.687, 688, 689.Monasticon; and by the Bulls of Pope Innocent 3, Gregory 10, and Boniface 9, all in a * * MS. inter Munimenta Ecclesiæ Christi Cantuar.MS. book in Christ-Church Canterbury. So that I guess, the mistake must lie on Mr. Somner’s and Mr. Southhouse’s side; the absolutory Letters in all probability tending only to their absolution from those particular Houses making any claim upon them, and not from the Order it self: tho’ it cannot be deny’d †† Monast. Angl. vol.1. p.417., but that the Abbot and Monks of Reading were at first Cluniacs, and after became Benedictines, as perhaps these might do some years after their first foundation. And thus much for the Ecclesiastical state of this Town. As for Secular matters, it has of late days been honour’d by giving title to Sir George Sands of Lees Court in this County, Knight of the Bath, who, in consideration of his faithful services to King Charles 1, was, by King Charles 2, advanced to the degree and dignity of a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Baron of Throwley, as also of Viscount Sands of Lees Court, and Earl of Feversham, by Letters Patents bearing date at Westminster April 8. 28 Car. 2, which he was only to enjoy for term of life; with remainder to Lewis Lord Duras Marquess of Blanquefort in France, and Baron of Holdenby in England; who marrying the Lady Mary, eldest daughter of the said George Earl of Feversham, who dy’d Apr. 16. 1677, the said Lord Duras, being naturalized by Act of Parliament, An. 1665, succeeded his Father-in-law in all his titles †† Dudg. Bar. vol.2. p.488.; by whose death, that of Earl of Feversham is now extinct; and Lees-Court aforesaid is become a seat of the Earl of Rockingham, by marriage with Catharin the sister of Mary, and (since the death of the Earl of Feversham) sole heir of that Estate.⌉

Near this place (as also in other parts of the County) they discover here and there pits of great depth; which tho’ narrow at the top, yet more inward are very capacious, having as it were distinct chambers, with pillars of Chalk. Several opinions have been broach’d about them.To what end the pits in Kent might be made. For my part, I have nothing to offer as my own conjecture; unless they were those pits out of which the Britains dug Chalk to manure their ground, as they are said to have done by Pliny. For (says he) they us’d to sink pits a hundred foot deep, narrow at the mouth, but within, of great compass: and just such, are those pits we describe; nor are they met with any where, but in chalky grounds. Unless some will imagine, that the English-Saxons might dig such holes for the same uses the Germans did, from whom they were descended. They were wont (says Tacitus) to dig holes under-ground, and to cover them with great quantities of dung; thus, they prov’d a refuge against winter, and a garner for their corn; for the bitterness of the cold is allay’d by such places. And if at any time the enemy surprise them, he plunders only what’s open and expos’d; the secret corners and pits being either altogether unknown, or safe upon this account, that they are to be fought for.

From thence, upon an open shore abounding with shell-fish, and particularly Oysters (the pits of which are very common,) we see Reculver,Reculver. in Saxon Saxon: Reaculf, but formerly by the Romans and Britains Regulbium,Regulbium. as it is call’d in the Notitia; which tells us, that the Tribune of the first Cohort of the Vetasians lay here in garrison, under the Count of the Saxon shore (for so in those times were the sea-coasts here-abouts, stil’d.) And it justifies this it’s Antiquity, by the coins of Roman Emperors dug-up in it. ⌈This is the first Roman Watch-tower, that comes in our way: And these Castles or Watch-towers being usually built upon the highest ground that was near the place, where it was thought convenient they should be set; we may conclude, that this stood in that square-plot of rising ground, within which, afterwards, King Ethelbert’s Palace, and after that, the Monastery, stood, and now the Minster or Church only stands; encompass’d with the foundations of a very thick wall: Which may possibly be the remains of this ancient Roman Fort; it being of the same figure with the rest, that are still more perfect. However, that it was somewhere hereabouts, the great number of Cisterns, Cellars, &c. daily discover’d by the fall of the cliff, amply testify; together with the great quantities of Roman brick or tile, Opus Musivum, Coins, Fibulæ, Gold-wire, Ear-rings, Bracelets, &c. daily found in the sands. Which yet do all come from the land-ward, upon the fall of the cliffs; the earthen parts whereof being wash’d away by the Sea, these metalline substances remain likewise behind in the sands, whence they are constantly pick’d out by the poor people of the place. And these they find here in such great quantities, that we must needs conclude it to have been a place heretofore of great extent, and very populous; and that it has one time or other underwent some great devastation either by war or fire, or both. I think I may be confident of the latter, there being many patterns found of metals run together, whereof the Reverend Dr. Batteley, late Arch-Deacon of AEthelbert Caesar fossil AEstuarium Canterbury (a curious and skilful Collector of such like Antiquities) had a cogent proof, viz. of a piece of Copper and Gold thus joyned in the melting, which he had from thence. About half a mile off, there appears in the Cliff, a StratumPhilosoph. Transact. N.268. of shells of the white Conchites, in a greenish Sand, not above two foot from the beach.⌉ Æthelbert King of Kent, when he gave Canterbury to Austin the Monk, built here a palace for himself; Basso a Saxon adorn’d it with a Monastery, out of which Brightwald, the eighth in the See of Canterbury, was call’d to be Archbishop. Whereupon, it was from the Monastery call’d also Raculf-minster,Raculf-minster. when Edred, brother to Edmund the Elder, gave it to Christ-Church in Canterbury. At this day, it is nothing but a little Country-village, and the small reputation it has, is deriv’d from that Monastery, the towers whereof in the form of Pyramids, are of use to sea-men for the avoiding of sands and shelves in the mouth of the river Thames. For as a certain PoetHadrianus Junius. Hol. in marg. has it in his Philippeis:

Cernit oloriferum Tamisim sua Doridi amaræ
Flumina miscentem
.—

Sees Thames renown’d for Swans, with brackish waves
Mix her pure stream.—

⌈The Sea hath got all the Town, except a very few houses, and the Church it self is in great danger to be lost; for the preserving of which, there are men almost continually employ’d to make good the Walls or Banks.⌉

Now we are come to the Isle of Thanet; which is divided from the Continent by the small chanel of the river Stour,Stour. called by Bede Wantsum,Wantsum. and made up of two different rivers in that woody tract nam’d the Weald;Weald. ⌈near one of which, stands Hothfield,Hothfield. a Seat of the Earl of Thanet.⌉ Assoon as the Stour gets into one chanel, it visits AshfordAshford. and Wy,Wy. noted market-towns, but small. Both of them had their College of Priests; that at the latter was built by John Kemp Archbishop of Canterbury, a native of the place; ⌈Wy had a lofty Steeple in the middle, the Spire whereof was formerly fired by lightning, and burnt down to the Stone-work or Tower; which too, of late, for want of timely repair, fell down of it self, and beat down the greatest part of the Church; where it now lies in it’s ruins.⌉ It had also a peculiar Well, into which God was moved to infuse a wonderful virtue by the Prayers of a certain Norman Monk; if we may believe Roger Hoveden,Pag. 457. whom I would by all means recommend to you, if you are an admirer of Miracles. Next, the Stour ⌈leaving East-well,East-well. the Seat of the Earl of Winchelsea, and passing by OlanigeOlanige. or Olantigh, i.e. an Eight or Island,⌉ comes to Chilham,Chilham. or as others call it Julham, where are the Ruins of an ancient Castle, that one FulbertFulbert of Dover. of Dover is said to have built; which family soon ended in an heir female, marry’d to Richard, natural son of King John, to whom she brought this Castle and very large possessions. He had two daughters by her, Lora, wife of William Marmion; and Isabel, wife of David de Strathbolgy Earl of Athole in Scotland, and mother to that John Earl of Athole, who, having been sentenc’d1306. for repeated treasons (to make his punishment Exemplary and publick, in proportion to the greatness of his birth) was hang’d at London upon a gallows fifty foot high, and taken down when half-dead and beheaded; and the trunk of his body thrown into the fire: a punishment too inhuman, and very rarely practis’d in this kingdom. Hereupon, his goods being confiscate, King Edward the first gave this Castle with the Hundred of Felebergh to Bartholomew de Badilsmer; but he also, within a short time, forfeited both for Treason; as I observ’d but just now.

It is a current Opinion among the Inhabitants, that Julius Cæsar encamp’d here in his second expedition against the Britains, and that thence it was call’d Julham, as if one should say, Julius’s station, or house; and, if I mistake not, they have truth on their side. For Cæsar himself tells us, that after he had march’d by night twelve miles from the shore, he first encounter’d the Britains upon a River; and, after he had beat them into the woods, that he encamp’d there; where the Britains, having cut down a great number of trees, were posted in a place wonderfully fortify’d both by nature, and art. Now, this place is exactly * * It is said to be more.twelve miles from the sea-coast; nor is there a river between: so that of necessity his first march must have been hither; where he kept his men encamp’d for ten days, till he had refitted his Fleet (which had been shatter’d very much by a Storm,) and got it to shore. Below this town, is a green barrow, said to be the burying-place of one Jul-Laber many ages since; who, some will tell you, was a Giant, others a Witch. For my own part, imagining all along that there might be something of real Antiquity couch’d under that name, I am almost perswaded that Laberius DurusLaberius Durus the Tribune. the Tribune, slain by the Britains in their march from the Camp we spoke of, was buried here; and that from him the Barrow was call’d Jul-Laber.

⌈Below Chilham is Chartham,Chartham. where, in the year 1668, in the sinking of a Well, was found, about seventeen foot deep, a parcel of strange and monstrous Bones, together with four teeth, perfect and sound, but in a manner petrified and turned into Stone: each almost as big as the hand of a man. They are supposed by * * Mr. Somner, and Dr. Wallis, Philos. Trans. N.272, 275, 276.learned and judicious Persons, who have seen and considered them, to be the bones of some large Marine Animal which had perished there, and that the long Vale of twenty miles or more, through which the river Stour runs, was formerly an Arm of the Sea (the river, as they conceive, being named Stour from Æstuarium;) and lastly, that the Sea, having by degrees filled up this Vale with Earth, Sand, Ouse, and other matter, did then cease to discharge it self this way, when it broke through the Isthmus between Dover and Calais. Another opinion is, that they are the bones of Elephants; abundance of which were brought over into Britain by the Emperor Claudius, who landed near Sandwich, and who therefore might probably come this way in his march to the Thames; the shape and bigness of these teeth agreeing also with a † † Dr. Mullins’s Anatom. Account.late description of the Grinders of an Elephant; and their depth under-ground, being (as is conceived) probably accounted-for, by the continual washings-down of earth from the Hills.⌉

At five miles distance from Chilham aforesaid, the Stour (dividing it’s chanel) runs with a swift current to Durovernum,Durovernum. the chief City of this County, to which City it gives the name; for Durwhern signifies in British a rapid river. It is call’d by Ptolemy, instead of Durovernum, Darvernum; by Bede and others, Dorobernia; by the Saxons Saxon Cant-wara-byrig, i.e. the City of the people of Kent; by Ninnius and the Britains Caer Kent, i.e. the City of Kent; by us, Canterbury, and by the Latins, Cantuaria.Canterbury. A very ancient City it is, and no doubt was famous in the times of the Romans. Not very large (as Malmesbury says) nor very little; famous for it’s good situation, for the richness of the neighbouring soil, for the entireness of the walls enclosing it, for it’s conveniences of water and wood: and besides all this, by reason of the nearness of the Sea, it has fish in abundance. While the Saxon Heptarchy flourish’d, it was the Capital city of the Kingdom of Kent, and the seat of their Kings: till King Ethelbert gave it with the Royalties to Austin,Austin the English Apostle. when consecrated Archbishop of the English nation; who here fix’d a See for himself and Successors. And though the Metropolitan-dignity, together with the honour of the Pall What a Pall is.(this was a Bishop’s vestment, going over the shoulders, made of a sheep’s skin, in memory of him who sought the Lost sheep, and when he had found it, lay’d it on his shoulders; and was embroider’d with Crosses, and taken off the body or coffin of St. Peter) were settled at London by St. Gregory, Pope, for the honour of S. Augustine; it was remov’d hither. For Kenulfus King of the Mercians writes thus to Pope Leo.An. 793. Because Augustine of blessed memory (who first preach’d the word of God to the English nation, and gloriously presided over the Churches of Saxony in the city of Canterbury) is now dead, and his body bury’d in the Church of St. Peter Prince of the Apostles (which his Successor Laurentius consecrated;) it seemeth good to all Wise-men of our nation, that that City should have the Metropolitan honour, where his body is bury’d who planted the true faith in those parts. But whether or no the Archiepiscopal See and Metropolitical Dignity of this Nation, were settled here by authority of the Wise-men, i.e. (to speak agreeably to our present times) by authority of Parliament; or by Austin himself, in his life-time, as others would have it: it is certain, that the Popes immediately succeeding, fix’d it so firm to this place, that they decreed an Anathema, and hell-fire, to any one that should presume to remove it. From that time, it is incredible how the Place flourish’d, both by the Archiepiscopal Dignity, and also a School which Theodore the seventh Archbishop founded there. And though it was much shatter’d in the Danish wars, and has been several times almost quite destroy’d by the casualties of fire; yet it has always risen again with greater beauty.

After the coming-in of the Normans, when William Rufus (as it is in the Register of S. Augustine’s Abby) had given the City of Canterbury entirely to the Bishops, which they had formerly held only by courtesie; by the relation which it bore to Religion, and by the bounty of it’s Prelates (especially of Simon Sudbury, who repair’d the walls,) it did not only recruit, but on a sudden grew up to such splendour, as even for the beauty of it’s private buildings to be equal to any City in Britain; but for the magnificence of it’s Churches, and their number, to exceed the best of them. Amongst these, there † † Are, C.were two peculiarly eminent, Christ’s and S. Austin’s; both instituted for Benedictine Monks. As for Christ-Church, it is in the very heart of the City, and rises with so much Majesty, that, even at a distance, it imprints upon the mind a sort of Religious veneration. The same Austin that I spoke of before, repair’d this Church, which (as Bede tells us) had formerly been built by the Romans that were Christians; he dedicated it to Christ, and it became a See for his Successors, which * * 73, C.80 Archbishops have now in a continu’d Succession been possess’d of. Of whom, Lanfrank and William Corboyl, when that more ancient fabrick was burnt down, rais’d the upper part of the Church to that Majesty wherein it now appears; as their Successors did the lower part: both done at great charges, to which the pious superstition of former ages, very liberally contributed. For numbers of all sorts (of the highest, middle, and lowest ranks,) flock’d hither with large offerings, to visit the Tomb of Thomas Becket Archbishop. He was slain in this Church by the Courtiers, for opposing the King too resolutely and warmly in Defence of the Liberties of the Church; and was register’d on that account by the Pope in the Kalendar of Martyrs, and had divine honours pay’d him, and was so loaded with rich offerings, that gold was one of the meanest Treasures of his Shrine. All (says Erasmus, who was an eye-witness) shin’d, sparkl’d, glitter’d with rare and very large jewels; and even in the whole Church appear’d a profuseness above that of Kings. ⌈And, at the dissolution, † † Monast. Angl. vol.1. p.18.the Plate and Jewels filled two great Chests, each whereof required eight men to carry them out of the Church.⌉ So that the name of Christ ⌈to whom it was dedicated⌉ was almost laid aside, for that of S. Thomas. Nor was it so much fam’d for any other thing, as the memory and burial of this Man; tho’ it has some other Tombs that might deservedly be boasted of, particularly that of Edward Prince of Wales, sirnam’d the Black (a heroe, for his warlike Valour, almost a miracle,) and of that potent Prince, King Henry the fourth. But King Henry 8. dispers’d all this wealth which had been so long in gathering, and drove out the Monks; in lieu whereof, Christ-Church has a Dean, Archdeacon, twelve Prebendaries, and six Preachers, whose business it is to plant the word of God in the neighbouring Places. It had another Church below the City to the East, which disputed pre-eminence with this, known by the name of St. Austin’s,St. Augustine’s, commonly St. Austin’s. because St. Austin himself, and King Ethelbert by his advice, founded it to the honour of St. Peter and St. Paul, for a burying-place both of the Kings of Kent and the Archbishops (for it was not then lawful to bury in Cities:) It was richly endow’d by them; and the Abbot there had a Mint granted him, and the Privilege of Coyning.

⌈* * Now, C.After the Dissolution,⌉ tho’ the greatest part of it † † Lies, C.lay in ruins, and the rest * * Is, C.was turn’d into a house for the King, yet any one that ¦ ¦ Beholds it, may, C.beheld it, might from thence easily apprehend what it † † Has, C.had been. Austin himself was bury’d in the Porch of it, and (as Thomas Spot has told us) with this Epitaph:

Inclytus Anglorum præsul pius, & decus altum,
Hic Augustinus requiescit corpore sanctus
.

The Kingdom’s honour, and the Church’s grace,
Here Austin, England’s blest Apostle, lays.

But Bede, who is a better Authority, assures us, that he had over him this much more ancient Inscription,

Hic Reqviescit Dominvs Avgvstinvs Dorovernensis Archiepiscopvs Primvs, Qvi Olim Hvc A Beato Gregorio Romanae Vrbis Pontifice Directvs, Et A Deo Operatione Miracvlorvm Svffvltvs, Et Ethelberthvm Regem Ac Gentem Illivs Ab Idolorvm Cvltv Ad Fidem Christi Perdvxit, Et Completis In Pace Diebvs Officii Svi Defvnctvs Est Septimo Kalendas Ivnias, Eodem Rege Regnante.

That is,

Here resteth S. Augustine the first Archbishop of Canterbury, who being formerly sent hither by the Blessed Gregory, Bishop of Rome, and supported of God by the working of miracles; both converted Ethelbert with his kingdom from the worship of Idols to the faith of Christ; and also, having fulfilled the days of his Office, dy’d on the 7th of the Kalends of June, in the same King’s reign.

⌈Against the Authority of this Inscription, and the pretence thereof to so great Antiquity, it is justly objected, that the stile ArchiepiscopusStill. Orig. p.21, 22. could not then be in the Western Church; as not being commonly allowed to Metropolitans, (according to Mabillon and others) till about the ninth Century.⌉

With him, there were bury’d in the same porch the six Archbishops who immediately succeeded; and, in honour of the whole seven, namely, Austin, Laurentius, Mellitus, Justus, Honorius, Deus-dedit, and Theodosius, were these verses engraven in marble,

Septem Sunt Angli Primates Et Protopatres,
Septem Rectores, Septem Coeloqve Triones;
Septem Cisternae Vitae, Septemqve Lvcernae;
Et Septem Palmae Regni, Septemqve Coronae,
Septem Svnt Stellae, Qvas Haec Tenet Area Cellae.

Seven Patriarchs of England, Primates seven,
Seven Rectors, and seven Labourers in heaven,
Seven Cisterns pure of life, seven Lamps of light,
Seven Palms, and of this Realm seven Crowns full bright,
Seven Stars are here bestow’d in vault below.

It will not be material, to take notice of another Church near this; which (as Bede has it) was built by the Romans, and dedicated to S. Martin; and in which (before the coming of Austin) Bertha, of the blood Royal of the Franks, and wife of Ethelbert, was us’d to have divine Service celebrated in the Christian way. As to the Castle, which appears on the south-side of the City, with it’s decay’d bulwarks; since it does not seem to be of any great Antiquity, I have nothing memorable to say of it; but only, that it was built by the † † Rather by the Saxons.Normans. Of the dignity of the See of Canterbury, which was formerly exceeding great, I shall only say thus much; that as in former ages, under the Hierarchy of the Church of Rome, the Archbishops of Canterbury were Primates of all England, Legates of the Pope, and (so Pope Urban 2. express’d it) as it were Patriarchs of the other world; so when the Pope’s Authority was thrown off, it was decreed by a Synod held in the year 1534, that, laying aside that title, they should be still Primates and Metropolitans of all England. Primate and Metropolitan of all England. This dignity was * * So said, ann. 1607.lately possess’d by the most reverend Father in God, John Whitgift; who, having consecrated his whole life to God, and all his labours to the service of the Church, dy’d in the year 1604, extremely lamented by all good men. He was succeeded by Richard Bancroft, a person of singular courage and prudence in all matters relating to the Discipline and Establishment of the Church. ⌈As to it’s present State, it is a City of great trade; to which the Foreigners in it seem to have contributed very much. They are partly Walloons, and partly French; the first (being driven out of Artois, and other Provinces of the Spanish Netherlands, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, for adhering to the Reformed Religion) came and settled here, and brought along with them the Art of weaving Silk, into this Kingdom. And this is now improv’d to such perfection, that the silks woven at Canterbury, equal, if not exceed, any foreign silk whatsoever; great quantities being sent to London, where it is very much esteem’d by the Merchants. The settlement of the French is but of late date, only since the last persecution under Lewis the 14th, but they are numerous, and very industrious, maintaining their own poor, and, living frugally. In the Publick Service, they joyn with the Walloons, who have a large place allow’d them near the Cathedral; and these, together, make a very great Congregation.⌉ Canterbury is fifty one degrees, sixteen minutes in Latitude; and twenty four degrees, fifty one minutes in Longitude.

The Stour, having gather’d it’s waters into one chanel, runs by Hackington,Hackington. where Lora Countess of Leicester, a very honourable Lady in her time, quitting the pleasures of the world, sequester’d her self from all commerce with it, and devoted her whole life to the service of God. At which time, Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, begun a Church in this place to the honour of S. Stephen, and of Thomas of Canterbury; but, the Authority of the Pope prohibiting it, for fear it should tend to the prejudice of the Monks of Canterbury, he let the design fall. However, from that time the place has kept the name of S. Stephen’s;S. Stephens. and Sir Roger Manwood Knight, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, a person of great knowledge in our Common Law (to whose munificence the poor inhabitants are very much indebted,) was † † So said, ann. 1607.lately it’s greatest ornament; nor * * Is, C.was his son, Sir Peter Manwood (Knight of the Bath) a less honour to it, whom I could not but mention with this respect, since he † † Is, C.was so eminent an Encourager of virtue, learning, and learned men. From hence, the Stour, by FordichFordich. (which in Domesday-book is call’d the little burrough of Forewich) famous for it’s excellent trouts; passes on to Sturemouth,Sturemouth. where it divides it’s waters into two chanels; and, leaving that name, is call’d Wantsume, and makes the Isle of ThanetIsle of Thanet. on the west and south-sides, which on other parts is wash’d by the sea. Solinus call’d this Athanaton, and in some Copies Thanaton; the Britains Inis Ruhin (as Asser witnesses,) possibly for Rhutupin, from the City Rhutupium hard by; the Saxons, Saxon: Tanet and Saxon: Tanetland; and we, Tenet. Tenet. The soil is a white chalk, and very fruitful in corn and grass; it is eight miles in length, and four in breadth; and was reckon’d formerly to have some six hundred * * What was in English call’d a Hide, andfamilies in it; upon which, it is corruptly consisted (as ’tis thought) of 100 acres, was in Latin formerly Familia, Mansa, and Manens. read in Bede, milliarium sexcentorum, i.e. six hundred miles, instead of familiarum sexcentarum, * * Now, 15, or 1600.six hundred families. As to what Solinus observes, that there are no snakes in this Island, and that Earth carry’d from hence kills them; Experience has discover’d it to be an error. So that that Etymology Greek text, from the death of serpents, falls to the ground. Here was the first landing of the Saxons; here they first settled, by the permission of Vortigern; here was their place of refuge; and here it was, that Guortimer the Britain gave them that bloody defeat, when at the Lapis TituliLapis tituli. (for so Ninnius calls it, as we, almost in the same sense, Stonar; and it appears to have been a harbour,) he obliged them to make a hasty and disorderly retreat to their Pinnaces, or little boats. ⌈The only Objection against this Analogy between Lapis Tituli and Stonar, is, that in the same ancient Records it is written, not Stonar, but Estanore; which writing, however, shews it to have been a landing-place, as the same termination doth in Cerdicesore, Cymenesore, and other harbours.⌉ In this place (as the same Author tells us) Guortimer commanded them to bury him, as a means to curb the insolence of the Saxons: like Scipio Africanus, who order’d his Tomb to be so contriv’d, as to look towards Africa; thinking, that even the sight of it would cast a terror upon the Carthaginians. ⌈†† Forts and Ports, p.94, 95, 96, 97.Mr. Somner, and after him * * Orig. Brit. p.322.the Lord Bishop of Worcester, seem rather inclin’d, from some resemblance of the name, and the reasons following, to place this at Folkstone or Lapis populi; the present Stonar not being supra ripam Gallici maris (upon the bank of the French-sea,) as Ninnius describes his lapis tituli to be; nor standing high, but in a low place, apt to be overflow’d, and therefore unfit for erecting a conspicuous Monument, that was design’d to strike a terror at a distance; both which are more agreeable to Folkstone: and lastly, because Ninnius is not express, that Lapis Tituli was in Thanet, † † Cap.45, 46.as he is concerning three other battles before: whence they conclude (and perhaps rightly) that had it been in Thanet, he would have told us so, as he did in the rest; which yet, being a question too intricate to be debated here, is wholly left to the decision of the Reader.⌉ It was also in this Island, at WippedfleeteWippedfleete. (so call’d from Wipped a Saxon slain there,) that Hengist routed the Britains, after they were almost worn out with a long course of Engagements; ⌈and yet a defeat here (unless it may be an objection against fixing Wippedfleete in this place,) makes it look, as if the Saxons had been almost driven out of the Nation again: whereas they had defeated the Britains in many battles just before, and driven them out of Kent, as is evident from the Saxon Chronicle.⌉Ann.455, 457, 465. Many years after, Austin landed in this Island, to whose blessing the credulous Priests ascrib’d the fruitfulness of it; and Gotcelin, a Monk, cries out, Tanet, a land happy in fruitfulness, but most of all happy for it’s affording reception to so many guests who brought God along with them, or rather, to so many citizens of heaven. Egbert, ¦ ¦ Third, C.the eighth King of Kent, to appease the Lady Domneua, whom he had formerly very much injur’d, granted her a fair estate here,596. ⌈(as much as a Hind should run over at one course, which amounted to no less than forty eight plough-lands, about a third part of the Island; as appears by the Map in the Monasticon,Vol.1. p.34. and the Course delineated in it,)⌉ upon which she built a Minster.Nunnery for seventy Virgins: Mildred was Prioress there; who for her sanctity was kalender’d among the Saints. The Kings of Kent were very liberal to it; especially Withred, who (to show the Custom of that age, from this particular Donation) in order to complete his Grant, laid a turf of the ground he gave, upon the holy Altar. Afterwards, this Island was so harrass’d by the plundering Danes (who by all kinds of cruelty polluted this Monastery of Domneua) that it did not recover, before the settlement of the Norman Government.

Nor must I here omit the mentionThe great industry of these parts. of a thing very much to the honour of the Inhabitants, those especially who live near the roads or harbours of Margat, Ramsgate, and Brodstear: namely, That they are exceeding industrious, and are as it were Amphibious creatures, and get their living both by sea and land: they deal in both elements, are both fishers and ploughmen, both husbandmen and mariners; and the self same hand that holds the plough, steers the ship. According to the several seasons, they make nets, fish for * * Asellos.Cod, Herring, Mackarel, &c. go to sea themselves, and export their own commodities. And those very men also dung their ground, plough, sow, harrow, reap, inne; being quick and active in both employments: and so, the course of their Labours runs round. And when there happen any shipwracks, as there do here now and then (for those shallows and † † Pulvini.shelves so much dreaded by sea-men, lie over-against it; namely, the Godwin, of which in its proper place among the Islands, the Brakes, the Four-foot, the Whitdick, &c.) they are extremely industrious to save the Lading. ⌈Of late years, this Island hath been advanced to the Honour of an Earldom; the title of Earl of Thanet being deservedly given to Sir Nicholas Tufton, Baron Tufton of Tufton in Com. Sussex (4 Car. 1.) who, dying the 30th of June, An. 1632, was succeeded by his eldest surviving son John, who, by his wife Margaret, eldest daughter and coheir of Richard Earl of Dorset, having six sons, Nicholas, John, Richard, Thomas, Sackvill, and George; and dying May the 7th 1664, ¦ ¦ Dudg. Bar. vol.2. p.454.hath been already succeeded by four of them; his fourth son Thomas, a person of great honour and vertue, and of most exemplary Charity, being now Earl of Thanet.⌉ Rhutupiae rutupiae On the south-side of the mouth of Wantsum, (which they imagine has chang’d it’s chanel) and over-against the Island, was a City, call’d by Ptolemy Rhutupiæ;Rhutupiæ. by Tacitus Portus TrutulensisPortus Trutulensis. for Rhutupensis, if B. Rhenanus’s conjecture holds good; by Antoninus Rhitupis portus; by Ammianus Rhutupiae statio; by Orosius the port and city of Rhutubus; by the Saxons (according to Bede) Reptacester, and by others Ruptimuth; by Alfred of Beverley Richberge; and at this day Richborrow:Richborrow. Thus has time sported in varying one and the same name. ⌈But whether Rhutupiæ was the same with the Portus Rutupensis, Rutupiæ statio, or the old Ruptimuth, is (I confess) a question among the learned. * * Ports and Forts, p.3, 4.Mr. Somner, it is plain, would have them to be two places, contrary to the opinion of Leland, Lombard, and others; wherein, in the general he may be right; but it is by no means probable, that our Portus Rutupensis was Sandwich, but rather Stonar, which he himself allows to have been an ancient Port. Sandwich indeed lies well-nigh as near to the old Rutupium, as Stonar does, and consequently might as deservedly have assum’d the name of Portus Rutupensis, as Stonar could, had it had the same conveniencies in point of situation for such a purpose, that Stonar once had; for this, evidently, was the road where the ships lay, that came ad urbem Rutupiæ, as Ptolemy calls it, which was Rhutupiae Moesian AEthelstan a little mile higher in the Country: just as Leith in Scotland is the Port to Edenburgh, and Topsham in England to Exeter. And this too was afterwards the Lundenwic,Lundenwic. or the Port to which all such as traded either to London from foreign parts, or from London into foreign parts, had their chief resort.⌉ What the original of the name might be, is not certainly agreed on. But since Sandwich and Sandibay, places near this, ⌈(if there was the port,)⌉ have their name from Sand, and Rhyd Tufith in British signifies a sandy ford; I would willingly derive it from thence. The City was stretch’d out along the descent of a hill; and there was a tower upon a high ground, that over-look’d the Sea: which now the sands have so entirely excluded, that it scarce comes within a mile of the place. Under the Government of the Romans, it was exceeding famous. From hence they commonly set sail out of Britain for the Continent, and here the Roman fleets arriv’d. Lupicinus, who was sent over into Britain by Constantius, to stop the excursions of the Scots and Picts, landed here the Herulian, the Batavian, and the Mœsian * * Numeros.Regiments. And Theodosius, father of Theodosius the Emperor (to whom, as Symmachus tells us, the Senate decreed statues on horse-back for having quieted Britain) came to land here with his Herculii, Jovii, Victores, Fidentes (which were so many Cohorts of the Romans.) Afterwards, when the Saxon pirates stop’d up all trade by sea, and infested our coasts with frequent robberies; the second Legion, call’d Augusta, which had been brought out of Germany by the Emperor Claudius, and resided for many years at the Isca Silurum in Wales, was remov’d hither, and had here a † † Præpositus.Commander of it’s own under the Count of the Saxon shore. Which office was possibly born by that Clemens Maximus, who, after he was saluted Emperor by the soldiery in Britain, slew Gratian, and was himself afterwards slain by Theodosius at Aquileia. For Ausonius, in his Verses concerning Aquileia, calls him Rhutupinum Latronem, i.e. the Rhutupian Robber:

Maximus armigeri quondam sub nomine lixæ.
Fœlix quæ tanti spectatrix læta triumphi,
Fudisti Ausonio Rhutupinum Marte latronem
.

Vile Maximus, at first a knapsack rogue.
O happy you who all the triumph view’d,
And the Rhutupian thief with Roman arms subdu’d!

There was also another President of Rhutupiæ, Flavius Sanctus, whose memory the same Poet has preserv’d in his Parentalia, speaking thus of him;

Militiam nullo qui turbine sedulus egit,
Præside lætatus quo * * Some are of opinion, that Rhutupinus in this place signifies all Britain.Rhutupinus ager
.

Ausonius likewise bestows an Elegy upon his uncle Claudius Contentus, who had a great stock of money at usury among the Britains, and mightily encreas’d the principal by interest; but, being cut off by death, left it all to foreigners, and was bury’d here.

Et patruos Elegeia meos reminiscere cantus,
Contentum, tellus quem Rhutupina tegit
.

And let my Uncle grace the mournful sound,
Contentus, buried in Rhutupian ground.

This Rhutupiæ flourish’d likewise after the coming-in of the Saxons. For Authors tell us, it was the Palace of Ethelbert King of Kent; and Bede honours it with the name of a City. But from that time forward, it decay’d; nor is it so much as mention’d by any writer, except Alfred of Beverley, who has told us how Alcher with his Kentish-men routed the Danes, then encumber’d with the spoil, about this place; call’d at that time Richberge. But now, age has eras’d the very tracks of it; and to teach us that Cities die as well as Men, it is at this day a corn-field, wherein, when the corn is grown up, one may observe the draughts of Streets crossing one another, (for where they have gone, the corn is thinner,) and such crossings they commonly call there, S. Augustine’s Cross.S. Augustine’s Cross. Nothing now remains, but some ruinous walls of a square tower, cemented with a sort of sand, extremely binding. One would imagin this had been the Acropolis; it looks down from so great a height upon the wet plains of Thanet, which the Ocean, withdrawing it self by little and little, has quite forsaken. But the plot of the City, now plow’d, has often cast-up the marks of it’s Antiquity, gold and silver coins of the Romans; and shews its daughter a little below, call’d, from the Sand, by the Saxons Saxon: SOndwic, and by us Sandwich.Sandwich. This is one of the Cinque-Ports; fenc’d on the north and west-sides with walls: on the rest, with a rampire, a river, and a ditch. ⌈It is an ancient Town; being mention’d († † Ports and Forts, p.15.says Somner) in one of the Chartularies of the Church of Canterbury in the year 979. But the * * Chron. Sax.Saxon Chronicle tells us, that above a hundred years before, Æthelstan King of Kent, and a certain Duke call’d Ealcher, overthrew the Danes in a Sea-fight at Saxon: Sondwic in Kent; from which time it grew greater and greater, upon the decay of Richborough and Stonar, till the days of Edward the Confessor; when, at the first institution of the Cinque-Ports which now are, it was thought fitter to be esteem’d one of the five, than Stonar then was. Since when, it has still retain’d that title, being the second port in order, and has always been esteem’d a Town of trade and repute.⌉ As it formerly felt the fury of the Danes, so did it in the * * So said, ann. 1607.last age the fire of the French. Now, it is pretty populous; though the haven (by reason of the sands heap’d in, and of that great ship of Pope Paul the fourth’s, sunk in the very chanel) has not depth enough to carry vessels of the larger sort. ⌈Edward Mountague, having gotten the sole Command of the English Fleet in the late Usurpation, with singular prudence so wrought upon the Seamen, that they peaceably deliver’d up the whole Fleet to King Charles the second; for which signal service he was (July 12. 12 Car. 2.) advanc’d to the honours of Lord Mountague of S. Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrook, and Earl of Sandwich; who, dying at Sea the 28th of May, 1672, was succeeded in his honours by his eldest son Edward, who is now Earl of Sandwich. Not far from hence, is Wingham,Wingham. which hath lately been honoured, by giving the title of Baron to the Right Honourable the Lord Cowper, who, for his great Eloquence, Wisdom, and knowledge in the Laws, was also advanced to the honour of Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (being the first, who bore that high Office, after the happy Union of the two Kingdoms;) and who hath since been advanced by King George to the higher titles of Viscount Fordwiche, and Earl Cowper.⌉

Rhutupiae Caesar Cygnaea Athenaeus Scaeva magnificae

Cantium Prom. Below Rhutupiæ, Ptolemy places the Promontory Cantium, as the utmost cape of this Corner: read corruptly in some Copies, Nucantium, and Acantium; and call’d by Diodorus Carion, and by us at this day, the Fore-land. Notwithstanding which, the whole shore here-abouts is called by the Poets the Rhutupian shore, from Rhutupiæ. Agreeable to which, is that of Juvenal (where he Satyrically inveighs against Curtius Montanus, a nice delicate Epicure,) concerning the oysters carry’d to Rome from this shore.

—nulli major fuit usus edendi
Tempestate meâ, Circæis nata forent, an
Lucrinum ad saxum, Rhutupinóve edita fundo
Ostrea, callebat primo deprendere morsu
.

The exquisitest palate in my time.
He, whether Circe’s rocks his Oysters bore,
Or Lucrine Lake, or the Rhutupian shore,
Knew at first Taste: nay, at first look could tell
A crab or lobster’s country by the shell.

And Lucan:

Aut vaga cùm Thetis, Rhutupináque littora fervent.
Or when Rhutupian billows beat the shore.

From the Promontory Cantium, the shore, running southward for some miles, is indented with the risings of several hills. But when it comes to SandonSandon. (i.e. a sandy hill) and Deale, two neighbouring castles built by K. Henry 8, within the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.the last age, it falls, and lies plain and open to the sea. That Cæsar landed at this Deale, call’d by Ninnius Dole (and in my Judgment, very right; for so our Britains at this day call a low open plain upon the sea or upon a river,) is the current opinion †† Philosoph. Trans. N.193.; and Ninnius confirms it, when he tells us (in his barbarous stile,) that ¦ ¦ Cæsar ad Dole bellum pugnavit.Cæsar fought a war at Dole. A Table also, hung up in Dover-castle, says the same thing; and Cæsar adds strength to the opinion, when he says that he landed upon an open and plain shore, and that he was very warmly received by the Britains. Whereupon, our Country-man Leland in his Cygnæa Cantio,

Jactat Dela novas celebris arces,
Notus Cæsareis locus trophæis
.

And lofty Dele’s proud towers are shown,
Where Cæsar’s trophies grace the town.

For he (to take the liberty of a short digression) having,Cæsar’s attempt upon Britain. as Pomponius Sabinus tells us out of Seneca, subdu’d all by Sea and Land; cast his eye towards the Ocean: and,See the title of Romans in Britain. as if the Roman world were not sufficient for him, he began to think of another; and with a thousand sail of Ships (for so Athenæus has it out of Cota) enter’d Britain, fifty four years before Christ; and the next year after, a second time: either to revenge himself upon the Britains, for having assisted the Gauls, as Strabo will have it; or in hopes to find British Pearls, as Suetonius says; or inflam’d with a desire of glory, as others tell us. He had before-hand inform’d himself of the harbours and the passage, not, as * * In his Book of Art and Nature.Roger Bacon romances, by the help of magnifying glasses from the coast of France, and by Art Perspective; but by Spies, as both himself and Suetonius witness. ⌈The day of his Landing, was the 26th of August, in the afternoon; as hath been demonstrated by an ingenious person,Ed. Halley, Philosoph. Trans. N.193 from all the circumstances of the Story, and the ebbing and flowing of the tides.⌉ What he did here, himself has given us a pretty large account of, and I already out of him, and out of the lost monuments of Suetonius concerning Scæva, who particularly signaliz’d his valour at Dyrrachium, in the Civil wars; and whom our Country-man Joseph, the Poet, in those verses of his Antiocheis relating to Britain, will have to be of British extraction; tho’ I think it is not true.

Hinc & Scæva satus, pars non obscura tumultus
Civilis
, Magnum solus qui mole solutâ
Obsedit, meliorque stetit pro Cæsare murus
.

Hence mighty Scæva too derives his stem,
Scæva in Roman wars no vulgar name.
He, when he saw the batter’d turret fall,
Back’d with its ruins, stood himself a wall:
Unmov’d the vain assaults of Pompey bore,
A stronger fortress than had been before.

But as to Cæsar’s ActionsRomans in Britain. in this Country, learn them from himself, and from what we have said concerning them before. For it has not been my good fortune to converse with that old Britain, whom M. Aper (as Quintilian says) saw in this Island, and who confessed that he was in the battle against Cæsar when the Britains endeavoured to keep him from landing; and besides, it is not my present design to write a History.

Just upon this shore, are ridges, for a long way together, like so many rampires, which some suppose that the wind has swept up together. But I fansy, it was that fence (or rather Station, or a sort of Ship-camp,)Cæsar’s ship-camps. which Cæsar was ten days and as many nights in making, to draw into it his shatter’d ships, and so secure them both against Storms, and also against the Britains; who made some attempts upon them, but without success. For I am told, that the Inhabitants call this Rampire Romes-work,Romes-work. that is, The work of the Romans. And I am the rather inclin’d to believe that Cæsar landed here, because himself tells us, that seven miles from thence (for so an ancient Copy corrected by Fl. Constantinus, a person of Consular dignity, reads it) the Sea was so narrowly pent up between mountains, that one might fling a dart from the hills to the shore. And all along from Deale, a ridge of high rocks (call’d by Cicero Moles magnificæ, stately cliffs) abounding with Samphire, in Latin Crythmus and Sampetra,Sampetra. runs for about seven miles to Dover; where it gapes, and opens it self to passengers. And the nature of the place answers Cæsar’s character of it; as receiving and enclosing the sea between two hills. In this break of that ridge of rocks, lies Dubris,Dubris. mentioned by Antoninus; called in Saxon Saxon: Dofra, and by us Dover.Dover. Darellus tells us out of Eadmer, that the name was given it, from being shut up and hard to come to. For (says he) because in old time, the sea, making a large harbour in that place, spread it self very wide, they were put under a necessity of shutting it up within closer bounds. But William Lambard, with a greater show of probability, fetches the name from Dufyrrha, which in British signifies a steep place. The Town, which is seated among the rocks (where the Caesar harbour it self formerly was, while the sea came up farther; as may be gathered from the anchors and planks of ships dug-up) is more celebrated for the convenience of its harbour (though it has now but little of that left,) and the passage from thence into France; than either neatness, or populousness. For it is a famous passage; and it was formerly * * 4 Ed.3. c.8.
9 Ed.3. c.8.
4 Ed.4. c.10.
provided by Law, that no person going out of the Kingdom in Pilgrimage, should take shipping at any other Place. It is also one of the Cinque-Ports, and was formerly bound to find twenty one Ships for the Wars, in the same manner and form as Hastings; of which we have spoken before. On that part lying towards the Sea, (which is now excluded by the beach,) there was a wall, of which there is some part still remaining. It had a Church dedicated to St. Martin, founded by Wihtred King of Kent; and a house of Knights-Templars; nothing of which is now to be seen: it also affords a See to the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Suffragan,Archbishop of Canterbury’s Suffragan. who, when the Archbishop is taken up with more weighty affairs, has ⌈(as often as any Suffragan is appointed)⌉ the Administration of such things as concern Orders, but does not meddle in the business of Episcopal Jurisdiction. There is a large castle like a little city, with strong fortifications and a great many towers, which, as it were, threatens the sea under it, from a hill, or rather a rock upon the right hand; this Rock is on every side rugged and steep, but towards the sea it rises to a wonderful height. Matthew Paris calls it, The Key and Bar of England. The common people dream of it’s being built by Julius Cæsar: and I conclude, that it was really first built by the Romans, from those British bricks in the Chapel, which they us’d in their larger sort of buildings. When the Roman Empire began to hasten to it’s end, a * * Numerus Tungricanorum.Company of the Tungricans, who were reckon’d among the Aids Palatine, were plac’d by them here in garrison; part of whose armour those great arrows seem to have been, which they us’d to shoot out of † † Basiliscis.Engines like large Cross-bows, and which ¦ ¦ Are shown, C.were formerly shown in the Castle as miracles; ⌈but now, no such thing is to be seen.⌉ Between the first coming-in of the Saxons and the last Period of their government, I have not met with so much as the mention either of this Castle or the Town, unless it be in some loose papers transcrib’d from a Table hung up and kept here; which tell us, that Cæsar, after he had landed at Deale, and had beaten the Britains at Baramdowne (a Plain hard by, very fit to draw up an Army in,) began to build Dover-castle; and that Arviragus afterwards fortify’d it against the Romans, and shut up the harbour: and next, that Arthur and his men defeated here I know not what Rebels. However, a little before the coming-in of the Normans, it was look’d on as the great Strength of England; and upon that account, William the Norman, when he had an eye upon the kingdom, took an oath of Harold, that he should deliver into his hands this Castle, with the Well. And, after he had settled matters in London, he thought nothing of greater consequence, than to fortify it, and to assign to his Nobles large possessions in Kent, on condition that they should be in readiness at all times with a certain number of Soldiers for the defence of it; but that service is now redeem’d with certain Sums of money yearly. Castlegard chang’d. For when Hubert de Burgo was made Constable of this Castle (these are the words of an ancient writer) he, considering that it was not for the safety of the Castle to have new Guards every month, procur’d, by the assent of the King, and of all that held of the Castle, that every Tenant for one month’s Guard should send ten shillings; out of which, certain persons elected and sworn, as well horse as foot, should be maintain’d, for guarding the Castle. It is reported, that Philip sirnam’d Augustus, King of France (when his son Lewis made his attempts upon England, and had taken some Cities) should say, My son has not yet so much as footing in England, if he have not got into his hands the Castle of Dover; looking upon it to be the strongest place in England, and to lie most convenient for France. Upon another rock over-against this, and almost of equal height, there are the remains of some very ancient building. One Author, upon what grounds I know not, has call’d it Cæsar’s Altar; but John Twine of Canterbury, a learned old man, who in his youth had seen it almost entire, affirm’d to me that it was a Watch-tower, to direct Sailors by night-lights; ⌈some part whereof is yet remaining, now vulgarly called Bredenstone.⌉ Bredenstone. Such another there was over-against it at Bologne in France, built by the Romans, and repair’d a long time after by Charles the Great (as Regino tells us, who writes it corruptly Phanum for Pharum,) now call’d by the French Tour d’Order, and by the English, The old man of Bullen. Beneath this rock, within the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.the last age, the most potent Prince King Henry the 8th built a mole or pile (we call it the Peere)Dover-Peere. wherein Ships might * * Subsisterent.ride with greater safety. It was done with much labour, and at infinite charge, by fastening large beams in the sea, then binding them together with iron, and heaping on it great quantities of wood and stone. But the fury and violence of the sea was quickly too hard for the contrivance of that good Prince; and the frame of the work, by the continual beating of the waves, began to disjoint. For the repair whereof, Queen Elizabeth expended great sums of money, and, by † † Also, Stat. 11 W.3. 2 Ann.Act of Parliament, lay’d a Custom for seven years upon every English Vessel that either exported or imported Commodities. ⌈Here, the Lord Wardens of the Cinque Ports (since Shipway was antiquated) have been of late sworn; and indeed most of the other business, relating to the Ports in general, is done here. Here are all the Courts kept, and from hence is the most frequent passage out of England into France, which has render’d it famous throughout the world. It hath been the more so, by having given the title of Earl to the right honourable Henry Lord Hunsdon Viscount Rochfort, † † Dugd. Bar. vol.2. p.398.who on the 8th of March, 3 Car. 1. was advanced to the title of Earl of Dover. He, dying about the year 1666, was succeeded by his son John: who dying the year following without issue-male, this title lay extinct, till it was revived by King James 2, in the person of the honourable Henry Jermin Esq; Nephew to the right honourable Henry Earl of St. Albans, who was created Baron of Dover May 13. 1685. 2 Jac. 2. And being again extinct, Queen Anne conferr’d the title of Duke of Dover (together with those of Marquiss of Beverley and Baron of Rippon) upon his Grace James Duke of Queensberry; in consideration of his great and eminent Services.⌉

This Coast is parted from the Continent of Europe by a narrow sea; where, some are of opinion, it wrought it self a passage through. Solinus calls it Fretum Gallicum, or The French strait; Tacitus and Ammianus, Fretum Oceani and Oceanum fretalem, the strait of the Ocean, and, the Ocean-strait. Gratius the Poet terms it, quaest Euboea Boeotia

Freta Morinûm dubio refluentia ponto.

The narrow seas on Bullen-coast that keep uncertain tides:

The strait of Calais, or Narrow-seas. the Hollanders call it Dehofden, from the two Promontories; we, The strait of Calleis; the French, Pas de Callais. For this is the place, as a Poet of our own time has it,

gemini quà janua ponti
Faucibus angustis, latéque frementibus undis
Gallorum Anglorumque vetat concurrere terras
.

Where the two foaming mouths of boist’rous seas
Preserve a narrow, but a dreadful space,
And Britain part from Gaul.—

This narrow Sea (as Marcellinus hath truly observ’d) at every tide swells with terrible waves, and again ⌈in the ebb⌉ is as plain as a field: Between two risings of the moon, it flows twice, and ebbs as often. For, at the two times, when the moon mounts to our meridian, and, when it is at the point opposite to it; the sea swells here exceedingly, and a vast body of waters rushes against the shore with such a hideous noise, that the Poet had reason enough to say,

Rhutupinaque littora fervent.

And Rhutup’s shore doth boil and bellow.

Epist.2. ad Victricium. And D. Paulinus, where he speaks of the tract of the Morini, which he calls the utmost bound of the world, stiles this, an Ocean raging with barbarous waves.

Whether Britain was ever joyn’d to the Continent. Give me leave to start a question here, not unworthy the search of any learned person, that has a genius, and leisure; Whether in the place where this narrow sea parts Gaul and Britain, there ever was an Isthmus or neck of land that joyn’d them, which being afterwards split by the general deluge, or by the breaking-in of the waves, or some earth-quake, let the Sea through? For certainly, no one ought to doubt, but that the face of the earth has been chang’d, as well by the deluge, as by a long succession of Ages, and other causes; and that Islands, either by earth-quakes, or the retreat of the waters, have been joyn’d to the Continent. That they have likewise, by earth-quakes and the rushing-in of waters, been broke off from the Continent, is a point evident beyond dispute from Authors of the best credit. Upon which Pythagoras in Ovid,

Vidi ego quod quondam fuerat solidissima tellus
Esse fretum; vidi factas ex æquore terras
.

I’ve seen the Ocean flow where Lands once stood;
I’ve seen firm Land where once the Ocean flow’d.

For Strabo, inferring things to come from things past, concludes that Isthmus’s or necks of land have been wrought thorough, and will be again. Nat. Quæst.6.You see (says Seneca) that whole countries are torn from their places; and what lay hard by, is now beyond sea. You see a separation of cities and nations, as often as part of Nature either moves it self, or the winds drive the sea forward; the force whereof, as drawn from the whole, is wonderful. For though it rage but in some part, yet it is of the universal power that it so rages. Thus has the sea rent Spain from the Continent of Africa. And by that inundation so much talk’d of by the best Poets, Sicily was * * Resecta, al. Rejecta.cut off from Italy. From whence that of Virgil:

Hæc loca vi quondam, & vasta convulsa ruina
(Tantum ævi longinqua valet mutare vetustas)
Dissiluisse ferunt, cum protinus utraque tellus
Una foret, venit medio vi pontus & undis,
Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit, arvaque & urbes
Littore diductas angusto interluit æstu
.

These shores long since, as old traditions speak,
(Such strange disorders powerful time can make)
With violent fury did asunder break.
When battering waves collecting all their force,
Thro’ solid land urg’d their impetuous course,
While towns and fields on either side gave way,
And left free passage for a narrow sea.

Pliny also has taught us, that Cyprus was broke off from Syria, Eubœa from Bœotia, Besbicus from Bythinia; which before were parts of the Continent. But that Britain was so rent from the Continent, no one of the Ancients has told us; only those verses of Virgil and ClaudianPage i. (which I have quoted in the very beginning of this work) together with Servius’s conjecture, seem to hint so much. Notwithstanding, there are those who think this to be affirm’d by the Ancients; as, Dominicus Marius Niger, John Twine a very learned man, and who ever he was that wrested these verses concerning Sicily, to Britain:

Britannia quondam
Gallorum pars una fuit, sed pontus & æstus
Mutavere situm, rupit confinia Nereus
Victor: & abscissos interluit æquore montes

Once did the British touch the Gallick shore,
Till furious waves the cliffs in sunder tore;
Thus broke, they yielded to the conqu’ring main,
And Neptune still in triumph rides between.

⌈Of the same Opinion, were Mr. Somner,Philosoph. Trans. Pag.271, 275, 276.
v. Chartham.
and Dr. Wallis.⌉

Since therefore the Authority of Writers has left us no certain grounds in this matter; learned men, comparing such narrow seas one with another in order to discover the truth, propose these and the like heads to be observ’d and examin’d.

Whether the nature of the soil be the same upon both shores? Which, indeed, holds good here; for where the sea is narrowest, both coasts rise with high rocks, almost of the same matter and colour; which should imply that they have been broken through.

How broad the narrow Sea may be? And the Straits here are not much broader, than those Celtae Conte Caesar Rhutupiae of Gibraltar or Sicily, to wit, twenty four miles: so that one would imagine at first sight, that those two tracts were sever’d by the waves that now beat violently, first on one side, then on the other. For that it * * Subsedisse.was hollowed by Earth-quakes, I dare not once imagin or suspect, since this northern part of the world is very seldom shaken with Earth-quakes, and those but inconsiderable.

How deep such Straits may be? As that of Sicily does not exceed eighty paces, so this of our’s scarce exceeds twenty five fathom; and yet the sea on both sides of it, is much deeper.

How the bottom is, sandy, hilly, or muddy; and whether in several parts of such narrow seas there lie shelves of sand? As for our’s, I could not learn from the Seamen that there are any such, † † Frowen Shoale.except one in the middle of the chanel, which, at low water, lay hardly three fathoms deep; ⌈and now, no such is either to be heard of, or seen in the Sea-Charts.⌉

Lastly, whether there be any place upon either shore, that has it’s name in the ancient language of the place, from a breach, rent, separation, or the like? as Rhegium, upon the Straits of Sicily, is so call’d from the Greek Greek text, that is, to break, because at that place Sicily was broken off from Italy, by the violence of the waters. But I can think of none here, unless we may imagin, that Vitsan, upon the coast of France, took that name from Gwith, signifying in British a divorce or separation. ⌈Against which, however, two Arguments are plausibly alledged; the first that the Saxons call this place also Saxon: hwitsand, which signifies no more than a white sand, discerned, as we may suppose, from the Coast of Kent: the second,Sammes, Britan. that the name, implying a Breach, ought in reason to be sought-for in the lesser part of the Division, which is said properly to be rent from the greater, and not the greater from that; as, the name of Sicily was given to Trinacria, and not to Italy.⌉

They who contend, that Britain remained one Continent with France after the general Deluge, argue from the Wolves, which were formerly common in England, as they are still in Scotland and Ireland. How is it possible, say they, that they should be in Islands (since all living creatures that were not in the ark were destroy’d,) unless for a long time after, the whole earth had been one free continu’d passage, without any Islands? St. Augustine employ’d his thoughts about this question, and solv’d it thus:De Civitat.
Dei, l.16. c.7.
Wolves and other animals may be thought to have got into the Islands by swimming; but they must be such as are near (so Stags every year swim out of Italy into Sicily for pasture.) But then there are some at such distance from the Continent, that it does not seem possible for any beast to swim to them. If we suppose that men may have caught them, and carry’d them over, it suits well enough with the delight which they took in hunting; though it cannot be deny’d, but they might be carry’d over by Angels, at the express command of God, or at least by his permission. But if they sprang out of the earth, according to their first original, when God said, Let the Earth bring forth a Living Soul; it is far more evident, that all kinds were in the ark, not so much for the reparation of the species, as to be a type of the several nations, * * Propter Ecclesiæ sacramentum.because of the Sacrament of the Church; if the earth produc’d many animals in the Islands whither they could not pass. Thus he. Nor can any thing be said upon this subject, more perfect or more nice. Let it be enough for me to have propos’d it: the consideration of it I leave to the Reader; and he that sees farthest into the truth of this matter, shall have my vote for a person of true Quickness and Sagacity.

Over-against this place,Morini. in the Continent, were the Morini seated, so called in the ancient language of the Celtæ, as if one should say, maritime people, or, dwellers upon the sea-coast. Their Country is now call’d Conté de Guines, and Conté de Bolonois; and had formerly two most noted places, Gessoriacum, and Itium,Itius portus. from which last was the most convenient passage out of Gaule into Britain; as Cæsar tells us. Most are of opinion, that it is the same with Calais; but Hospitalius, the great and learned Chancellour of France, a very excellent Antiquary, affirms Calais not to be an ancient town; and that it was only a small village, such as the French call Burgado’s, till Philip Earl of Bologne wall’d it round, not many years before it was taken by the English. Nor do we read, that before those times any one set sail from thence into Britain. For which reason, I think Itium is to be sought for in another place, namely, a little lower near Blackness, at Vitsan, by us call’d Whitsan, a word which seems to carry in it something of Itium. For, that this was the common port from our Island, and the usual place also of setting sail hither from that Kingdom, may be easily observ’d from our Histories. Insomuch that Ludovicus Junior, King of France, when he came in pilgrimage to Thomas of Canterbury, humbly requested of that Saint, by way of intercession, that none might be shipwrack’d between Vitsan and Dover; implying, that, then, this was the most commodious passage to and again: and indeed, this StraitThe shortest passage between England and France. is not any where more contracted. Tho’ at the same time we must imagin, that the sea-men did not steer their course only by the shortest roads, but that they had an eye to the commodiousness of the harbours on both coasts. So, tho’ the sea be narrowest between Blackness in France and the Nesse in England, yet the passage now is between Dover and Calais; as in former ages, before Vitsan was stopp’d up, it was between that and Dover; and before, between Rhutupiæ and Gessoriacum,Gessoriacum. from whence Claudius the Emperour, and other Generals whom I have elsewhere mention’d, set sail into Britain. Pliny seems to call Gessoriacum, the British haven of the Morini, possibly from their setting sail thence for Britain; and Ptolemy (in whom it * * Hath crept, C.is thought by some to have crept into the place of Itium) Gessoriacum Navale, the harbour or dock, Gessoriacum; in which sense also, the Britains call it Bowling long; ⌈and a late ¦ ¦ Somner, de Portu Iccio.learned Author doubts not to affirm, (nay, seems to have abundantly proved) that Gessoriacum or Bologne, was the very place from whence Cæsar set sail.⌉ For, that Gessoriacum was the sea-port-town call’d by Ammianus Bononia, by the French Bologne,Bononia in Gaul. by the Dutch Beunen, and by us Bolen, I dare positively affirm against Boetius the Scotch Writer, and Turnebus; depending upon the authority of Rhenanus, who had the sight of an old military † † The Peutegerian Table now publish’d by M. Velser.Table, wherein it was written Gessoriacum quad nunc Bononia, i.e. Gessoriacum, which is now Bononia; as also upon the course of the Itinerary, which exactly answers the Distance that Antoninus has made between the Ambiani or Amiens, and Gessoriacum. But what convinces me beyond all the rest, is, that the Pirates in the faction of Carausius, which, by one Panegyrick (spoken to Constantius the Emperor) are said to be taken and shut up within the walls of * * Pag.271. of the Basil Edition.Gessoriacum; are, in another (spoken to Constantine the Great, his son) affirm’d to have been routed at † † Pag.251.Bononia: AEgypt so that Bononia and Gessoriacum must of necessity be one and the same town; and the older name of these two seems to have grown into disuse about that time. For we must not suppose, that Authors of that note could possibly make a mistake about the place, before so great Princes, and when the matter was so fresh in memory. But what have I to do with France? Those places, I confess, I mention’d the more willingly, because the Valour of our Ancestors has been often signaliz’d upon that coast; particularly, in their taking of Calais and Bolen from the French; the latter whereof they surrender’d, after eight years, for a certain sum of money, at the request of that Prince; but held the first, in spight of them, for the space of two hundred and twelve years. Now, let us return to Britain.

From Dover, the chalky rocks as it were hanging one by another, run in a continu’d ridge for five miles together, as far as Folkstone;Folkstone. which appears to have been an ancient town, from the Roman Coins daily found in it; but what name it had in those times, is uncertain. It was probably one of those Towers, which the Romans (under Theodosius the younger,) as Gildas tells us, built upon the south-coast of Britain at certain distances, to guard it against the Saxons. In the time of the Saxons, it was famous on the account of Religion, from a Nunnery built there by Eanswida, daughter of Eadbald King of Kent. Now, it is nothing but a little village, the sea having worn away the greatest part of it. It was, notwithstanding, a BaronyBarons of Folkstone. of the family de Abrincis, from whom it came to Hamon de Crevequer, and by his daughter to John of Sandwich, whose grandchild Juliana, by his son John, brought the same, as a portion, to John de Segrave. ⌈It hath beenPhilosoph. Transact. N.349. observ’d of some Hills in this neighbourhood of Folkstone, that they have visibly sunk and grown lower, within the memory of man.⌉

From hence, the shore turning westward, has SaltwoodSaltwood. near it, ⌈once⌉ a Castle of the Archbishops of Canterbury, enlarg’d by William Courtney Archbishop of that See; and Ostenhanger, where Edward Baron Poinings, who had many Bastard-Children, began a stately house. At four miles distance, is Hith,Hith, or Hide. one of the Cinque-Ports, from whence it had that name; Saxon: hith in Saxon signifying a Port or Station: though at present it can hardly answer the name, by reason of the sands heap’d in there, which have shut out the sea to a great distance from it. Nor is it very long since it’s first rise, dating it from the decay of West-hythe;West-hythe. which is a little town hard by to the west, and was a harbour, till in the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.our grandfathers the sea retir’d from it. But both Hythe and West-hythe owe their original to Lime,Lime. a little village adjoyning, and formerly a very famous port, before it was shut up with sands cast in by the sea. Antoninus and the Notitia call it Portus Lemanis;Portus Lemanis. Ptolemy Greek text, which being what we call a significative word, in Greek, the Librarians, to supply a seeming defect, writ it Greek text, and so the Latin Interpreters have translated it Novus Portus, i.e. the new haven, whereas the name of the place was Limen or Leman, as it is at this day Lime. Here the Captain of the Company of Turnacenses had his Station, under the Count of the Saxon shore: and from hence to Canterbury there is a Stony-street.pav’d military way, which you may easily discern to be a work of the Romans; as is also a Castle hard by call’d Stutfall,Stutfall. which included ten acres upon the descent of a hill; and the remains of the walls, built of British bricks and flints, are so closely cemented with a mortar of lime, sand, and pebbles, that they still bear up against Time. ⌈This, * * Ports and Forts, p.38. Mr. Somner allows to have been a Roman Fort, but not the old Portus Lemanis; since that lies, according to all the Copies of the Itinerary, sixteen miles from Canterbury; whereas Stutfall is but fourteen, about the same distance (says he) that Dover is from it: Wherefore, he rather supposes, that there was a mistake of the Librarians in setting a V for an X, and that the distance indeed should have been XXI, which sets it about Romney, the place that he would have to be the true Portus Lemanis. But this conjecture puts it more out of distance than before; and it is a much easier mistake in the Librarians to transpose a V and an I; which being supposed, sets it in a true distance again, according to Mr. Somner himself, viz. at XIV and no more. Or (to admit of no mistake in the Librarians at all,) if we set Lyme at the same distance from Canterbury that Dover is, which is fifteen miles, and the lower side of Stutfall Castle, where the port must be, near a mile below Lyme, as really it is (allowing too, that the Roman miles are somewhat less than the English;) we shall bring it again in true distance at XVI miles, without carrying it to Romney; which, in all probability, in those days lay under water, at least in Spring-tides: or if not so, the Marsh certainly did, betwixt Stutfall and Romney, which they could never pass, nor did they ever attempt it; for we find the Roman way ends here, as it was necessary it should, since it could not be carry’d further, through a Marsh, or rather sea, eight miles together; for so far it is from hence to the town of Romney.⌉ Tho’ Hythe is not a Port at this day, it † † This belongs now to Dover; which see before.retains a considerable badge of it’s ancient glory; for here, at a place call’d Shipway,Shipway. the Warden of the Cinque-Ports takes a solemn oath, when he enters upon his office; and here also, on certain days, Controversies were used to be decided between the Inhabitants of the Ports.

Some have been of opinion, that a large river did once empty it self into the sea at this place, because a Writer or two has mention’d the river Lemanus, and the mouth of Lemanis, where the Danish fleet arriv’d in the year of our Lord 892. But I believe they are mistaken in the description of the place, both because here is no such thing as a river, save a little one that presently dies; and also because ⌈HenryArchdeacon of Huntingdon, an Author of great credit tells us, that this fleet arriv’d at the Portus Lemanis; without one word of the River. Unless any one think (as, for my part, I cannot) that the river Rother,Rother, riv. which runs into the Sea below Rhy, had it’s chanel this way, and chang’d it by little and little, when that champain tract, Rumney-marsh,Rumney-marsh. grew into firm land. For this plain Level (which from Lemanis contains fourteen miles in length, and eight in breadth, and has two Towns, nineteen Parishes, and about forty four thousand two hundred acres of land, very fruitful, and exceeding good for the fatting of Cattle) has by degrees been joyn’d by the sea to the land. Upon which, I may as well call it the gift of the sea, as Herodotus has call’d Ægypt the gift of the river Nile, and as a very learned personPeter Nannius. has stil’d the pastures of Holland, the gifts of the north wind and the Rhine. For the sea, to make amends for what it has swallow’d up in other parts of this coast, has restor’d it here; either by retiring, or by bringing in a muddy sort of substance from time to time; by which it comes to pass, that some places which † † So said, ann. 1607.within the memory of AEthelwerd AElla our grandfathers stood upon the sea-shore, are now a mile or two from it. How fruitful the soil is, what herds of cattle it feeds that are sent hither from the remotest parts of England to be fatted, and with what art they raise walls to fence it against the incursions of the sea; are things which one can hardly believe, that has not seen them. For the better government of it, King Edward 4. made it a Corporation, consisting of a Bailiff, Jurates, and a Common-council. In the Saxon times, the inhabitants of it were call’d Saxon: Mersc-ware, i.e. * * Viri palustres.Marsh or Fen-men; the signification of which name agrees exactly to the nature of the Soil. And, for my part, I do not understand Æthelwerd (that ancient-Writer) when he tells us,795. that Kinulph, King of the Mercians, destroy’d Kent, and the country call’d Mersc-warum; and, in another place, that Herbythus, a Captain, was slain by the Danes in a place call’d Mersc-warum; unless he means this marshy little tract. Rumney, or Romeney,Romney. and formerly Romenal (which some conclude from the name to have been a work of the Romans,) is the chief town of these parts, and one of the Cinque-Ports, having Old-Romney and Lid as members of it; whichSee Sussex under the title Cinque-Ports. (in the form above-mention’d) are bound jointly to fit out five Ships for the wars. It is seated upon a high hill of gravel and sand, and on the west side of it had a pretty large harbour (guarded against most of the winds) before the sea retir’d from it. The inhabitants (as Domesday-book has it) on account of their Sea-service, were exempt from all customs; except robbery, breach of the peace, and Foristell. And about that time, it was at it’s height; for it was divided into twelve Wards;An. 1287. and had five Parish-Churches, and a Priory, and an Hospital for the sick. But in the reign of Edward the first, when the sea (driven forward by the violence of the winds,) overflow’d this tract, and for a great way together destroy’d men, cattle, and houses, threw down Prom-hillProm-hill. a little populous village, and remov’d the Rother (which formerly empty’d it self here into the sea) out of it’s chanel, stopping up it’s mouth, and opening it a nearer passage into the sea by Rhie; then it began by little and little to forsake this town, which has been decaying ever since, and has fal’n much from it’s ancient Populousness and Figure. ⌈But it hath afforded the title of Earl to Henry Sidney, youngest son of Robert Earl of Leicester; who dying unmarried, the title of Baron of Romney hath been lately conferr’d upon Sir Robert Marsham Baronet.⌉

Below this, the land shoots forth a long way to the east (we call it Nesse,Nesse. as resembling a nose;) upon which stands Lid,Lid. a pretty populous town, whither the Inhabitants of Prom-hill betook themselves after that Inundation. And in the very utmost Promontory, call’d Denge-nesse,Dengenesse. where is nothing but beech and pebbles, there grow † Ilices.Holme-trees with sharp pricky leaves, and always green, like a little low wood, for a mile together and more. Among those pebbles, near Stone-end,Stone-end. is a heap of large Stones, which the neighbouring people call the monument of S. Crispin and S. Crispinian, who, they say, were cast upon this shore by shipwrack, and call’d from hence into their heavenly Country. From hence, the shore turning it’s course, goes directly westward; and has a sort of pease which grow in great plenty and naturally, amongst the pebbles, in large bunches like grapes, in taste differing very little from field-pease; and so it runs forward to the mouth of the Rother, which for some space is the boundary between Kent and Sussex.

The course of this river, as to the Sussex-side, we have briefly spoken-to before. On the Kent-side, it has Newenden,Newenden. which, I am almost perswaded, was the haven so long fought for, call’d by the Notitia, Anderida,Anderida. by the Britains Caer Andred, and by the Saxons Saxon: Andredsceaster.Andredsceaster. First, because the Inhabitants affirm it to have been a town and harbour of very great Antiquity; next, from its situation by the wood Andredswald, to which it gave the name; and lastly, because the Saxons seem to have call’d it Brittenden, i.e. a valley of the Britains (as they also call’d Segontium, of which before,) from whence Selbrittenden is the name of the whole Hundred adjoyning. The Romans, to defend this coast against the Saxon Pirates, plac’d here * * Numerum.a band of the Abulci, with their Captain. Afterwards, it was quite destroy’d by the Fury of the Saxons. For Hengist having a design to drive the Britains entirely out of Kent, and finding it expedient to strengthen his party by fresh supplies, sent for Ælla out of Germany with great numbers of Saxons. Then, making a vigorous assault upon this Anderida, the Britains who lay in ambuscade in the next wood, disturb’d him to such a degree, that when, at last (after much blood-shed on both sides) he by dividing his forces had defeated the Britains in the woods, and at the same time had taken the town; his barbarous heart was so inflam’d with revenge, that he put the Inhabitants to the sword, and demolish’d the place. For many ages after (as Huntingdon tells us) there appear’d nothing but ruins; till under Edward the first, the Friars Carmelites, just come from Mount Carmel in Palestine, and, desiring solitary places above all others, had a little Monastery built here at the charge of Thomas Albuger Knight; upon which a Town presently sprung-up, and, with respect to the old one that had been demolish’d, began to be call’d Newenden, i.e. a new town in a valley. Lower down, the river Rother divides it’s waters, and surrounds Oxney,Oxney. an Island abounding with grass: and near its mouth has Apuldore,Apuldore. where that pestilent rout of Danish and Norman Pirates, after they had been preying upon the French-coasts under Hasting their Commander, landed with large spoils, and built a Castle; but King Alfred, by his great courage, forced them to accept conditions of peace. ⌈This, in the time of the Saxons, An. 894, stood at the mouth of the river Limene, as their * * An. 894.Chronicle tells us; whence, it is plain, that Romney, or at least Walland-Marsh, was then all a sea; for we never fix the mouth of a river, but at it’s entrance into the sea: now if the sea came so lately as An. 894, to the town of Apledore; in all probability five hundred years before, in the Romans time, it might come as far as Newenden, the place of the City and Castle of Anderida, erected here by the Romans to repel the Saxon rovers; the sea here, in all ages, having retired by degrees. Here also, Mr. Selden settles it; but ¦ ¦ Ports and Forts, p.104, 105.Mr. Somner rather inclines to believe, that either Hastings or Pemsey, on the coast of Sussex, must have been the old Anderida; founding his opinion upon what Gildas says concerning these Ports and Forts, viz. that they were placed in littore oceani ad meridiem. But I suppose, this ought to be understood in a large sense, every thing being to be taken for sea, whither such vessels could come as they had in those days; in which sense, no doubt, Newenden might be accounted a sea-town, and liable to such Pirates as the Saxons were, as well as either Pemsey or Hastings.⌉

Near, in a woody tract, are Cranbroke,Cranbroke.
Tenderden.
Benenden.
Tenderden, Benenden
, and other neighbouring towns, wherein the cloath-trade very much flourish’d since the time of Edward the third, who, in the tenth year of his reign, invited some of the Flemings into England, by promises of large rewards, and grants of several immunities, to teach the English theThe Cloath-Manufacture first in England. cloath-manufacture, which is now become one of the pillars of the kingdom. ⌈But the Cloathing-Trade in Kent, is very much decayed.⌉

To reckon up the Earls of KentEarls of Kent. in their order (omitting Godwin and others, under the Saxons, who were not hereditary, but only officiary Earls;) Odo, brother by the mother’s side to William the Conqueror, is the first Earl of Kent that we meet with, of Norman extraction. He was at the same time Bishop of Baieux; and was a person of a wicked and factious temper, always bent upon Innovations in the State. Whereupon, after a great rebellion that he had rais’d, his Nephew William Rufus depriv’d him of his whole estate and dignity, in England. Afterwards, when Stephen had usurp’d the Crown, and endeavour’d to win over persons of courage and conduct to his party, he confer’d that honour upon William of Ipres, a Fleming; who, being (as Fitz-Stephen calls him) * * Violentus Cantii incubator.an insupportable burthen to Kent, was forc’d by King Henry the second, to march off, with tears in his eyes. Henry the second’s son likewise (whom his father had crown’d King) having a design to raise a rebellion against his father, did, upon the same account, give the title of Kent, to Philip Earl of Flanders; but he was Earl of Kent no further, than by bare title, and promise. For, as Gervasius Dorobernensis has it, Philip Earl of Flanders promis’d his utmost assistance to the young King, binding himself to homage, by oath. In return for his services, the King promis’d him revenues of a thousand pound, with all Kent; as also the Castle of Rochester, with the Castle of Dover. Not long after, Hubert de Burgo, who had deserv’d singularly well of this kingdom, was for his good services advanc’d to the same honour by King Henry the third. He was an entire Lover of his Country, and, amidst the storms of adversity, discharg’d all the duties that it could demand from the best of subjects. But he dy’d, divested of his honour; and this title slept, till the reign of Edward the second. Edward bestow’d it upon his younger brotherAn.15 Ed.2. Edmund of Woodstock, who, being tutor to his nephew King Edward the third, fell undeservedly under the lash of Envy, and lost his head. The crime was, that he openly profess’d his affection to his depos’d brother, and after he was murther’d (knowing nothing of it) endeavour’d to rescue him out of prison; but his two sons Edmund and John, enjoy’d the honour successively: and both dying without issue, it was carry’d by their sister (for her beauty, call’d The fair Maid of Kent) to the family of the Hollands Knights. For, Thomas Holland her husband was stil’d Earl of Kent, and was succeeded in that honour by Thomas his son, who dy’d in the twentieth year of Richard the second. His two sons were successively Earls of this place; Thomas, who was created Duke of Surrey, and presently after, raising a rebellion against King Henry 4, was beheaded; and after him, Edmund, who was High Admiral of England, and, in the siege of † † Fanum Brioci.
Tho. Walsingham.
S. Brieu in Little Britain, dy’d of a wound in the year 1408. This dignity, for want of issue-male in the family, being extinct, and the estate divided among sisters; King Edward the fourth honour’d with the title of Earl of Kent, first William Nevil Lord of Fauconberg; and after his death Edmund Grey Lord of Hastings, Weisford, and Ruthyn, who was succeeded by his son George. He, by his first wife Anne Widevile, had Richard Earl of Kent, who, after he had squander’d away his estate, dy’d without issue. But by his second wife Catharine, daughter of William Herbert Earl of Pembroke, he had Henry Grey, Knight, whose grandchild Reginald by his son Henry, was made Earl of Kent by Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1572. He dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother Henry, a person plentifully endow’d with all the Ornaments of true Nobility: ⌈Who also dying without issue, An. 1625, was succeeded by his brother Charles; who by his wife Susan daughter of Sir Richard Cotton of Hampshire, had issue Henry; who dying without issue, An. 1639, the honour (by reason of the entail upon the heir male) descended to Anthony Grey Rector of Burbach in the County of Leicester, son of George, son of Anthony Grey of Barnspeth, third son to George Grey the second Earl of Kent of this family: which Anthony, by Magdalen his wife, daughter of William Purefoy of Caldicot in Com. Warwick Esq; had five sons and four daughters, whereof Henry the eldest son succeeded in the Honour, and had issue Henry (who dy’d young) and Anthony Earl of Kent; to whom succeeded Henry his son, who hath been honoured by divers great offices in the Court, and advanced to the title of Viscount Gooderick, Earl of Harold, and Marquiss of Kent; and afterwards to the more Honourable Title of Duke of Kent.⌉

This County hath 398 Parish-Churches.

More rare Plants growing wild in Kent.

Acinos Anglicum Clus. pan. Acinos Dioscoridis fortè ejusdem in Hist. Acin Anglica Clusii Park. Clinopodium 3. seu Ocimi facie alterum C. B. Clinopodium 4. Ger. emac. English wild Basil. This grows in chalky mountainous, barren, and gravelly grounds, not only in Kent (where Clusius found it) but in many other Counties of England. I take it to be only a variety of the common Acinos or Stone-Basil, differing in having a thicker, even-edged, or not-indented leaf. The Herb-Women were wont formerly to sell this Plant for Poley-mountain at London. I suppose now they are better informed.

Adiantum album Offic. Tab. Cam. Ruta muraria Ger. J. B. C. B. Ruta muraria sive Salvia vitæ Park. White Maiden-hair, Wall-Rue, Tent-wort. This grows in many places on old stone-walls, and in the chinks of rocks: as in this County on Rochester-bridge, on the walls of Sir Robert Barnham’s house at Bocton Munchelsey: at Cobham, where all the houses are cover’d with it. P. B. on Ashford-bridge and at Dartford. Park.

Alcea minor Park. The lesser Vervain-mallow. Parkinson for Synonyma of this gives Alcea Matthioli & Tragi, which others make synonymes of the common greater Vervain-mallow. He tells us also, that it grows in some places of Kent, but names no particular ones: Now Kent is a large spot of ground to seek out a plant in.

Alchimilla Ger. vulgaris C. B. major vulgaris Park. Pes leonis sive Alchimilla J. B. Ladies mantle. This is found frequently growing in mountainous meadows and pastures, especially in the North of England, where by the common people it is called Bears-foot. It grows also in the southern parts, but more rarely. I have found it in some pastures near my own dwelling in Essex; and therefore can easily believe Parkinson, that it may be found at Kinswood nigh Feversham, and elsewhere in Kent.

Alga fontalis trichodes C. B. Alga sive Conserva fontalis trichodes Park. Trichomanes aquaticum Dalechampii J. B. Water Maiden-hair. I happened to find this plant in the cistern or conduit-house at Leeds Abbey in Kent belonging then to Sir William Meredith: howbeit I do not think it peculiar to Kent, but common to the like places all England over; though it hath not yet been my hap to meet with it elsewhere.

Alopecuros altera maxima Anglica paludosa Ger. emac. altera maxima Anglica paludoso, sive Gramen Alopecuroides maximum J. B. Lob. Adv. part. alt. Alopec. maxima Anglica Park. Great English Marsh Fox-tail grass. In the salt marsh by Eriffe Church. P. B.

Cochleariae longae Alsine Cochleariæ longæ facie nondum descripta P. B. Chick-weed resembling the long-leaved Scurvy-grass. Between the two Parks at Eltham on the mud. What plant the Authors of Phytologia Britannica meant by this name, I cannot easily divine. Some have thought that they intended Alsine longifolia uliginosis proveniens locis J. B. However, no man that I have heard of hath as yet been able to discover any non-descript plant thereabout.

Alsine corniculata Clusii Ger. J. B. Park. Lychnis segetum minor C. B. Horned Chick-weed. This is a sort of Mouse-ear Chick-weed, and no Campion, as C. Bauhine would have it. In West-gate Bay in the Isle of Thanet. P. B. I do not believe that ever it grew there, unless in some garden, or of seed accidentally shed. It’s natural place is in Spain among corn.

The same Authors of Phyt. Brit. tell us, that Anchusa lutea is also to be found in the same Isle: I believe as much as the former.

Anagallis aquatica rotundifolia Ger. aquat. rotundifolia non crenata C. B. aquat. 3. Lobelii, folio subrotundo non crenato Park. Samolus valerandi J. B. Round-leaved Water-Pimpernell. This herb, growing in many watery and marsh-grounds, and about little rivulets and springs in most Counties of England, I should not have mentioned as a peculiar of Kent, but that it is no very common plant, and others have assigned places to it in this County. In the Salt marshes two miles below Gravesend. P. B.

foemina caerulea caeruleo Anagallis fœmina Ger. cærulea fœmina, J. B. terrestris cæruleo flore. C. B. Park. Female or blue-flower’d Pimpernell. This may likely enough be found in Rumney-marsh, as Parkinson tells us. We have observed it among the corn in other places of England, but more sparingly: beyond seas it is more plentiful in some Countries than the red. However, I take it to be, not a distinct species, but an accidental variety of Pimpernell, differing only in the colour of the flower.

Armeria sylvestris altera calyculo foliolis fastigiatis cincto Lob. Caryophyllus pratensis Ger. pratensis noster major & minor Park. barbatus sylvestris C. B. Viola barbata angustifolia Dalechampii J. B. Deptford-pink. This is so called, either because it grows plentifully in the pastures about Deptford, or because it was there first taken notice of by our Herbarists. It is not peculiar to Kent, but common to many other Counties in meadows and pastures, especially where the ground is sandy or gravelly.

Atriplex maritima laciniata C. B. maritima J. B. marina Ger. marina repens. Lob. Park. Jagged Sea-Orrache. At Queenborough and Margate in the Isle of Thanet, and in many other places on the sandy shores Ger. Though I have not observed it in these places, yet I believe it may there be found as well as on the coasts of Essex.

Brassica arborea seu procerior ramosa maritima Morison. An Brassica rubra vulgaris J. B? Perennial tree-Colewort or Cabbage. On the chalky cliffs at Dover, plentifully.

Brassica marina monospermos Park. marina multiflora, alba monospermos Lob. monospermos Anglica J. B. marina Anglica Ger. maritima C. B. English Sea-Colewort. This is common on sandy shores and stone-baiches not only in Kent, but all England over. The tender leaves of it are by the country-people eaten as other Coleworts, yea accounted more delicate than they.

Buxus J. B. Ger. arborescens C. B. arbor vulgaris. Park. The Box-tree. I find in the notes of my learned friend Mr. John Aubrey, that at Boxley in this County there be woods of them: as likewise at Boxwell in Coteswold, Glocestershire: which places took their denomination from them.

Castanea J. B. Ger. vulgaris Park. sylvestris, quæ peculiariter Castanea C. B. The Chesnut-tree. This I observed in some woods near Sitting-burn, whether spontaneous or formerly planted there, I cannot determine: I rather think spontaneous; it growing so frequent.

Baiae chamaepitys Centaurium minus luteum Park. Small yellow Centory. This differs little from the common purple Centory, save in the colour of the flower. Parkinson, who alone, so far as I yet know, mentions this kind, tells us it grows in a field next unto Sir Francis Carew’s house at Beddington near Croydon, and in a field next beyond Southflete-Church towards Gravesend. I never yet met with it in England; but in Italy I have found about Baiæ a small yellow Centory, differing from the Centaurium luteum minimum of Columna, and agreeing in all points with the common small purple Centory, save in the colour of the flower. Vide Park, p.273.

Chamæpitys vulgaris Park. vulgaris odorata flore luteo J. B. lutea vulgaris seu folio trifido C. B. mas Ger. Common Ground-pine. From Dartford along to Southflete, Cobham, and Rochester; and upon Chatham-Down hard by the Beacon, &c. Park. p.283.

Crithmum chrysanthemum Ger. Park. maritimum flore Asteris Attici C. B. marinum tertium Matthiolo, flore luteo Buphthalmi J. B. Golden-flower’d Sampire. In the miry marsh in the isle of Shepey, as you go from the King’s ferry to Sherland-house. Ger. p.534.

Crithmum spinosum Ger. maritimum spinosum C. B. maritimum spinosum seu Pastinaca marina Park. Pastinaca marina, quibusdam Secacul & Crithmum spinosum J. B. Prickly Sampire or Sea-Parsenip. Near the sea, upon the sands and baich, between Whitstable and the Isle of Thanet by Sandwich. Ger. p.534. That it groweth here I will not warrant, having no better authority than Gerard’s.

Cyperus rotundus litoreus inodorus Anglicus C. B. Park. rotundus litoreus inodorus Lob. J. B. rotundus litoreus Ger. Round-rooted bastard Cyperus. In divers places of Shepey and Thanet. Park. p.1265.

quaedam graecorum Equisetum seu Hippuris corolloides Ger. emac. An Hippuris lacustris quædam foliis mansu arenosis Gesn. Coralline Horse-tail. Found by Dr. Bowles on a bogg near Chisselhurst in this County.

Fagus C. B. Ger. Park. Fagus Latinorum, Oxya Græcorum J. B. The Beech-tree. It is Caesar Cinaraeformis praemisso common in this Country, as also in Sussex, Surrey, Hampshire, Hartfordshire, &c. Whence we cannot but wonder, that Cæsar should† Comm. de Bello Gallico.write that there were in Britain all sorts of trees for timber, excepting Firr and Beech. We may also take notice that the Horn-beam-tree is in this Country called the Horse-beech, whence some learned men have been deceived, and induced to believe, that there grew two sorts of Beech here.

Fungus perniciosus 25tus sive Cinaræformis Park. pag.1324. Artichoke Mushrome. At Ripton near Ashford, also on Bromley-green, and at a place in Rumney-marsh called Warborn. Park. loco præmisso.

Geranium columbinum dissectis foliis, florum pediculis longissimis. Doves-foot with jagged leaves, and flowers standing on long stalks. In the layes about Swanley near Dartford; and doubtless in many the like places.

dilute caeruleo Centaureae Gentianella fugax quarta Clus. fugax minor Ger. brevi folio C. B. fugax 4. Clusii, flore dilutè purpurascente & cæruleo elegantissimo J. B. Autumnalis Centaureæ minoris foliis Park. Autumnal Gentian with small Centory leaves. Clusius in his English Voyage observed this not far from Dover. I was once suspicious that it might be no other than our common dwarf Autumnal Gentian, but I am since assured by credible persons, that there is a sort of Autumnal Gentian growing in England, which is specifically different from the most common kind, and probably the same with that which Clusius found near Dover.

Gentianae perpetua Gentiana palustris angustifolia C. B. Pneumonanthe Ger. Gentianella autumnalis Pneumonanthe dicta Park. Gentianæ species, Calathiana quibusdam, radice perpetuâ, sive palustris J. B. Marsh Gentian or Calathian Violet. Near Longfield by Gravesend, as also Green-hithe and Cobham; about Sir Percival Hart’s House at Lellingston, and in a chalky pit, not far from Dartford, by a Paper-mill. Park. pag.407. I never yet found it but on boggy and heathy grounds and moist places in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.

Herba Paris Ger. J. B. Park. Solanum quadrifolium bacciferum C. B. Herb Paris, True-love, or One-berry. In shady woods and copses in many places; as in Hinbury-wood three miles from Maidstone, also in a wood called Harwarsh near to Pinneden-heath, one mile from the said Maidstone: in a wood by Chisselhurst called Longwood, and in the next wood thereto, called Iseets-wood, especially about the skirts of a hop-garden adjoyning: in a wood also over-against Boxley-Abbey, a mile from Maidstone, in great abundance, not far from the hedge side of that meadow through which runs a rivulet. Park. p.390. This is to be found in the like places all England over, but not commonly.

Chondrillae Hieracium montanum asperum Chondrillæ folio. C. B. Rough mountainous Hawk-weed with Gum-succory leaves. This was found in Kent by Mr. Newton, but I remember not the place where.

Lavendulae Horminum pratense Lavendulæ flore C. B. Park. Wild Clary with Lavender-like flowers. Found by Clusius nigh the riding-place at Greenwich. This is, without doubt, our common English wild Clary. For the Horminum pratense foliis serratis C. B. which Parkinson mistakes for our common wild Clary, grows not spontaneously with us in England, so far as I have yet seen or heard.

Hali geniculatum perenne fruticosius procumbens. Perennial procumbent Shrub-Glass-wort. Found near Shepey-Island by my learned friend Dr. Hans Sloane.

AEginetae Lepidium latifolium C. B. Pauli J. B. Piperitis seu Lepidium vulgare Park. Rhaphanus sylvestris Officinarum, Lepidium Æginetæ Lobelio J. B. Dittander, Pepper-wort, Poor-mans Pepper. On a bank between Feversham town and the haven. Parkinson tells us it grows wild on Rochester Common. pag.856.

Lychnis major noctiflora Dubrensis perennis Hist. nost. pag.995. Great Night-flowering Campion. Found on Dover Cliffs by Mr. Newton, who affirms it to be specifically different from the L. sylvestris alba 9 Clusii: and so I am inclined to believe it may, though the description of Clusius agrees in most particulars to this.

foemina Mercurialis mas & fœmina J. B. Ger. vulgaris mas & fœmina Park. testiculata seu mas Dioscoridis & Plinii, & spicata seu fœmina eorundem C. B. French-Mercury the male and female. It grows very plentifully by a village called Brookland in Rumney-marsh. Park. p.297.

Ophris bifolia palustris. Bifolium palustre Park. Marsh Tway-blade. In divers places of Rumney-marsh. Park. p.505.

Orchis myodes flore coccineo elegans P. B. In Swanscombe Wood. Though I know not which sort of Orchis the Authors of Phyt. Brit. mean by this name: yet because I remember, my very good Friend Mr. George Horsnell Surgeon in London, told me, That some of his Acquaintance did formerly shew him such a kind of elegant Fly-Orchis; I have given it a place in this Catalogue.

foetida latioreque Orchis barbata fœtida J.B. barbata odore hirci breviore latioréque folio C. B. Tragorchis maximus & Trag. mas. Ger. Trag. maxima & Trag. vulgaris Park. The lizard-flower or great Goats-stones. Observed by Dr. Bowles nigh the highway between Crayford and Dartford. Mr. Watts hath since found it also in Kent. It hath not been yet my hap to meet with it.

Orobanche affinis Nidus avis J. B. Orchis abortiva ruffa, sive Nidus avis Park. Orch. abort. fusca C. B. Satyrion abortivum sive Nidus avis Ger. Mishapen Orchis, or Birds-nest. I found it in some thickets at Bocton Munchelsey near Maidston. I never observed many of them together in one place.

Pisum marinum Ger. aliud maritimum Britannicum Park. English Sea-Pease. At Gilford in Kent over-against the Comber. Park. 1060. On the Sea-coast among the flints and pebbles near new Romney. Upon the beach running along the shore from Denge-nesse westward, Camden Brit. pag.257. See more of this sort of Pease in Suffolk Catalogue. Parkinson makes two sorts of English Sea-Pease: The first he calls Pisum spontaneum maritimum Anglicum, and the second Pis. aliud marit. Brit. No man that I have heard of besides him hath been as yet able to discover more than one.

sparsa panicula Plantago major paniculâ sparsâ J. B. latifolia spica multiplici C. B. paniculis sparsis Ger. emac. latifolia spiralis Park. Besome-Plantain, or Plantain with spoky tufts. Found by Dr. Johnson at Margate in the Isle of Thanet; and by Thomas Willisell at Reculver there.

vulgo Polygonatum Ger. vulgare Park. latifolium vulgare C. B. Polygonatum, vulgò Sigillum Solomonis J. B. Solomon’s Seal. At Crayford, Ger. In a wood two miles from Canterbury by Fishpool-hill; and in Chesson-wood on Chesson-hill, between Newington and Sittingbourn. Park. pag.699.

Rhamnus Salicis folio angusto, fructu flavescente C. B. secundus Clusii Ger. emac. primus Dioscoridis Lobelio, sive litoralis Park. Rhamnus vel Oleaster Germanicus J. B. Sallow-thorn or Sea-Buck-thorn. On the Sandy grounds about Sandwich and Deal, as also about Folkston on the other side of Dover.

Chamaerubus Rubus saxatilis Alpinos Park. Chamærubus saxatilis C. B. Rubus Alpinus humilis J. B. Saxatilis Ger. Stone-Bramble or Rasp. Parkinson tells us, it grows in the Isle of Thanet and other places in Kent. I never found it but among the Mountains in the North.

Salix pumila folio subrotundo, utrinque lanuginoso & argenteo. Dwarf-willow with round leaves, and a silver down on both sides. On the sandy grounds near Sandwich.

Satyrion abortivum v. Orobanche affinis. In the middle of a Wood near Gravesend.

Serpyllum citratum Ger. Park. Citrii odore J. B. foliis Citri odore C. B. Lemon-Thyme. Between South-fleet and Longfield-Downs, and between Rochester and Sittingbourn in the highway. Park. pag. 9.

Speculum Veneris majus Park. Veneris Ger. Onobrychis arvensis, vel Campanula arvensis erecta C. B. Avicularia Sylvii quibusdam J. B. The greater Venus’s Looking-glass. Parkinson tells us it grows among the corn at Greenwich and Dartford. I was never yet so happy as to espy it among corn. Possibly it might spring of seed, cast out among the weedings of gardens, and carried into corn-lands.

Spongia ramosa altera Anglica, S. Sp. marina Anglica planta nodosa Park. Fucus spongiosus nodosus Ger. emac. Sea-ragged staff. Near Margate in the Isle of Thanet.

Verbascum flore albo parvo J. B. Lychnites flore albo parvo C. B. Lychnites Matthioli Ger. mas foliis longioribus Park. White-flower’d Mullein. It is common in this Country by the way-sides.

Urtica Romana Ger. Park. Romana seu mas cum globulis J. B. urens, pilulas ferens, prima Dioscoridis, semine Lini C. B. Common Roman Nettle. Parkinson saith it hath been found growing of old at Lidde by Romney, and in the streets of Romney. caesar Of the original whereof he tells us a very pleasant story. It is recorded (saith he) that at Romney, Julius Cæsar landed with his Soldiers, and there abode for a certain time, whence the place (it is likely) was by them called Romania, and corruptly therefrom Romeny or Romney. But for the growing of this Nettle in that place, it is reported, That the Soldiers brought some of the Seed with them, and sowed it there for their use, to rub and chafe their Limbs, when through extreme cold they should be stiff and benumned; being told before they came from home, that the Climate of Britain was so extreme cold, that it was not to be endured without some friction or rubbing to warm their blood, and to stir up their natural heat: since which time, it is thought, it hath continued there, rising yearly of its own sowing.

This Story hath nothing of likelyhood in it, because the Roman Nettle is found not only here, but in divers other places on the Sea-coast; nor, had it been a stranger or exotick, would it likely have continued so long, coming up yearly of its own sowing. Outlandish Plants usually failing, and being lost, if not cultivated in gardens. Add hereto that Julius Cæsar landed not hereabouts.

ornament

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