Britannia, by William Camden

Suth-Sex.

Big N NEXT to Suth-rey, lies Suth-sex, in a long tract on the south-side of that County. It was anciently the seat of the Regni, and call’d in Saxon Saxon: Suth-sex, now Sussex as much as to say, the Country of the South-Saxons. A word, compounded of the Southerly situation, and of the Saxons, who, in the Heptarchy, plac’d the second Kingdom here. It lies all to the south, upon the British Ocean, with a streight shore, and in an oblong figure; but it has but few ⌈good⌉ Ports, the sea being very dangerous by reason of Shelves and Sands, which make it rough; and the shore also is full of Rocks. The sea-coast of this County ⌈about the middle,⌉ has very high green hills, call’d the Downs,Downs. which, consisting of a fat chalky soil, are very fruitful. The middle-part, chequer’d with meadows, pastures, corn-fields, and groves, makes a very fine show. The hither-most and north-side, is shaded pleasantly with woods, as anciently the whole Country was, which made it unpassable. For the wood Andradswald,Anderida sylva. in British Coid Andred, so nam’d from Anderida an adjoyning city, ⌈and now commonly called the Weild or Wild,⌉ took up in these parts 120 miles in length, and 30 in breadth, (memorable for the death of Sigebert King of the West-Saxons; who being depos’d, was ⌈in a place calledÆthelw. l.2. c.17. Pryfetesflodan,⌉ stabb’d to death by a Swine-herd.) ⌈By consequence, Andradswald must, in its way to Hamshire, take up a considerable tract of this Shire; from whence we may infer, that the Inhabitants (as to that part) were very few, and thin-plac’d, for a long time. Which is plain from the two * * Lambard Perambulat. p.224. Somner’s Forts and Ports, p.107.Kentish Antiquaries; affirming, that, for a great while, the whole Weald was scarce any thing else, besides a desert and vast wilderness; not planted with towns, nor peopled with men, but stuff’d with herds of deer, and droves of hogs only. For no part of the Weald appears by the Grants to have been let-out by the King (the only Lord and Proprietor of it) in Manours, but in so many Dens, which imply’d only a woody place yielding covert and feeding for cattle; and there is no other use of them express’d, but only Pannage for hogs; by one of the Keepers whereof, Sigebert (as we just now observed) was slain.⌉

This County has many little rivers; but those that come from the north-side, presently bend their course to the sea, and so do not carry vessels of burden. It is full of Iron-minesIron. all over; for the casting of which, there are Furnaces up and down the Country, and abundance of wood is yearly spent; many streams are drawn into one chanel, and a great deal of meadow-ground is turned into Ponds and Pools, for the driving of Mills by the † Suo impetu.flashes; which, beating with hammers upon the iron, fill the neighbourhood round about, night and day, with continual noise. But the iron wrought here, is not every where of the same goodness, yet generally more brittle than the Spanish; whether it be from it’s nature, or tincture and temper. Nevertheless, the Proprietors of the mines, by casting of Cannon and other things, make them turn to good account. But whether the nation is any way advantag’d by them, is a doubt ¦ ¦ So said, ann. 1607.which the next age will be better able to resolve. Neither * * Doth, C.did this County want Glass-houses;Glass-houses. but the glass (by reason of the matter, or making, I know not which) † † Is not, C.was not so clear and transparent; and therefore was only us’d by the ordinary sort of people. ⌈So that now (whether it was, that it turn’d to little account, or that they found themselves out-vy’d by other places) there are no Glass-houses in the whole County. At present (as formerly,) they continue most famous for the Iron-Works, which are still in several places of the County; some whereof have both a Furnace and Forge, others a Forge only, and others only a Furnace. Near HastingsHastings. also are two powder-mills, where is made very good Gun-powder; and in that end of the County, where the Iron-works are, namely the East, Char-coalChar-coal. is made in great abundance.⌉

Sussex map, left. Note overlap. Sussex map, right. Note overlap.

Sussex

This whole County, as to it’s Civil Partition,Civil-Division. is divided into six parts, which by a peculiar term they call Rapes, that is, of Chichester, Arundell, Brembre, Lewes, Pevensey, and Hastings: every one of which, besides their Hundreds, has a Castle, River, and Forest of it’s own. But because I have little knowledge of their several Limits ** They are now duly divided in the Maps., I design to steer my course along the shore, from west to east: for the inner parts have only a Village here and there, and scarce any thing worth the mentioning.

In the very confines of Hamshire and this County, stands Bosenham,Bosenham. commonly call’d Boseham, environ’d with woods and the sea together, where, as Bede saith, Dicul a Scotch Monk had a very small Cell, and five or six Brothers, living poorly, and serving God; which was, a long time after, converted into a private retreat of King Harold. From which place, as he once in a little Pinnace made to sea for his pleasure, he was by a sudden turn of the wind driven upon the coast of France, and there detain’d, till he had upon oath assur’d the Kingdom of England to William of Normandy after the death of King Edward the Confessor; by which means he drew upon himself his own ruin, and the kingdom’s overthrow. But how by subtilty and double-dealing that cunning catcher of syllables, GodwinEarl Godwin’s double meaning. Earl of Kent, and Father of Harold, got this place, and deluded the Archbishop by a captious change of letters, Walter Mapes, who liv’d not many years after, shall inform you in his own words, out of his book de Nugis Curialium. This Boseham below Chichester (says he) Godwin saw, and had a mind to; and being accompanied with a great train of Lords, came smiling and jesting to the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose town it then was; My Lord, says he, give me† Alluding perhaps to Basium, a Kiss, in times past us’d in doing homage.Boseam. The Archbishop wondering what he desir’d by that Request, I give you, says he, Boseam. He presently, with his company of Knights and Soldiers, fell down (as he had before design’d) at his feet, and kissing them, with a world of thanks, retired to Boseham, and by force of arms kept possession as Lord of it; and, having his followers as Witnesses to back him, gave the Archbishop in the King’s presence a great many commendations as the Donor; and so held it peaceably. Afterwards, as we read in Testa de Nevil (which was an Inquisition of lands made in King John’s time) King William who conquer’d England, gave this to William Fitz-Aucher and his heirs, in fee-farm, paying out of it yearly into the Exchequer forty founds of silver try’d and weigh’d; and afterwards William Marshall held it as his Inheritance.

Chichester,Chichester. in British Caercei, in Saxon Saxon cissanceaster, in Latin Cicestria, stands in a Plain farther inwards, ¦ ¦ Upon, C.near the same arm of the sea with Boseham; a pretty large city, and wall’d about. It was built by Cissa the Saxon, the second King of this Province, and took it’s name from him. For Cissan-ceaster is nothing else but the City of Cissa; whose father Ælla was the first Saxon that erected a kingdom here. Yet, before the Norman conquest it was of small reputation; noted only for St. Peter’s Monastery, and a little Nunnery. But in the reign of William 1. (as appears by Domesday-book) there were in it an hundred† Hagæ.houses, and it was in the the hands of Earl Roger ** De Monte Gomerico, i.e. Montgomery.; and there areIn iisdem mansuris.in the said place sixty houses more than there were before: It paid fifteen founds to the King, and ten to the Earl. Afterwards, when in the reign of William 1, it was ordain’d, that Bishops Sees should be translated out of little towns, to places of greater note and resort, and this city was honour’d with the Bishop’s residence (which was before at Selsey) it began thereupon to flourish. Not many years after, Bishop Ralph built a Cathedral Church, which (before it was fully finish’d) was by a casual fire suddenly burnt down. Notwithstanding, by his endeavours, and King Henry the 1st’s liberality, it was raised-up again; and now, besides the Bishop, has a Dean, a Chaunter, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, two Archdeacons, and thirty Prebendaries. At the same time, the City also began to flourish; and had certainly flourish’d apace, had not the haven been a little too far off, and less commodious; but † † So said, ann. 1607.now the citizens are about making it more convenient by a new Chanel. It is wall’d about in a circular form, and is wash’d on every side, except the north, by the little river Lavant;Lavant. ⌈the course of which stream is very unaccountable, being sometimes quite dry, but at other times (and that very often in the midst of Summer) so full, as to run with some violence.⌉ It hath four gates opening to the four quarters of the world, from whence the streets lead directly, and so cross in the middle; where the market is kept, and where Bishop Robert Read built a fine stone Piazza. As for the castle, which stood not far from the north gate, it was anciently the seat of the Earls of Arundel, who from hence wrote themselves Earls of Chichester;Earls of Chichester. but it was afterwards converted to a Convent of Franciscans. All the space between the west and south gates, is taken up with the Cathedral Church, Bishop’s palace, and the Dean and Prebendaries houses: which, about King Richard the 1st’s time, were again burnt down; and Seffrid, second Bishop of that name, re-edify’d them. The Church it self is not great, but very neat, with a high stone spire; and on part of the south-side of the Church, the history of it’s foundation is curiously painted, as also the pictures of the Kings of England; on the other part are the pictures of all the Bishops as well of Selsey as of Chichester; all done at the charge of Bishop Robert Shirburne, who beautify’d this Church very much, and has his Motto set-up every where, Credite operibus, and Dilexi decorem domus tuæ, Domine. But that great tower which stands near the west-side of the Church, was built by R. Riman, and, as is reported (upon his being prohibited the building a Castle at Aplederham hard by, where he liv’d) with those very stones which he had provided for the Castle. ⌈Besides the Cathedral, there are, within the Walls of the City, five small Churches. Chichester hath given the title of Earl, to Francis Leigh Lord Dunsmore, and after him, to Charles Fitz-Roy natural son to King Charles 2.

Near this place to the north, is St. Rook’s-hill;St. Rook’s-hill. ¦ ¦ Aubr. Mon. Brit. MS.and upon it is still to be seen an old camp, the diameter whereof is two furlongs, and better. The form is circular; from which it may be gather’d, that it is not Roman, but probably Danish. The true name of it seems to be St. Roch’s hill, for he was patron of the Pilgrims; and here was formerly a Chapel, which might possibly be dedicated to him. A mile and half from this place to the west, is a Camp call’d Gonshil,Gonshill. which being of a different form, must probably have been the work of some other People. The figure of it is an oblong square, which comes nearest to the Roman way of encamping. Hard by Chichester to the west, there has been also another large Roman Camp call’d the Brile,The Brile. of an oblong form; four furlongs and two perches in length, and two furlongs in breadth. It lies in a flat low ground, with a great rampire and single graff; and in such a place, as seals makes it probable enough that it was that of Vespasian, after his landing. In the neighbourhood of Chichester, are also several Houses of the Nobility, so advantageously situated, as to afford a most delightful and entertaining prospect to the Sea: At some distance, Stansted,Stansted. the seat of the Earl of Scarborough; and Up-ParkUp-Park. (so called from the high ground, and the Park enclosing it) belonging lately to Ford Lord Grey Earl of Tankervil, and now, by marriage, to the present Earl: And, nearer the City, Goodwood,Goodwood. the seat of his Grace the Duke of Richmond; and Halnaker,Halnaker. lately come to the Earl of Derby, by marriage with the daughter and sole heir of Sir William Morley.⌉

SelseySelsey. before mention’d, in Saxon Saxon Sealr-ey, that is, as Bede interprets it, the Isle of Sea-Calves (which we in our language call Seales,Seales. a creature that always makes to islands and shores, to bring forth it’s young) stands a little lower. A place (as Bede says) encompass’d with the sea, unless on the west-side, where it has an entry into it of about a * * Jactus fundæ.stone’s-cast over. ⌈The Street of Selsey stands on a dry gravelly soil, and is not unhealthful to such a degree, as places situated so low, and so near the Sea, usually are. It is famous for it’s excellent Cockles, and for producing the best Wheat.⌉ It contained eighty seven families, when Edinwalch King of this Province, gave it to Wilfrid Bishop of York, then in exile; who first preached the Gospel here, and, as he writes, Slaves.not only sav’d from the bondage of the Devil two hundred and fifty bondmen, by baptism; but also by giving freedom, deliver’d them from being slaves to men. Afterward, King Cedwalla, who conquer’d Edinwalch, founded a Monastery here, and honour’d it with an Episcopal See; which Stigand, the 22d Bishop, translated to Chichester, where it now flourishes, and owns Cedwalla for it’s Founder. In this Isle there are some obscure remains of that ancient little city, in which those Bishops resided; cover’d at high water, but plainly visible at low water.

Beyond Selsey, the shore opens to make way for a river, that runs out of St. Leonard’s Forest;Leonard’s Forest. first by Amberley,Amberley. where William Read Bishop of Chichester, in the reign of Edward 3, built a castle for his successors: and then by Arundel,Arundel. seated on the side of a hill; a place of great name, but of it self not very considerable, nor very ancient; for I have not so much as read it’s name before King Alfred’s time, who gave it in his Will to Athelm his brother’s son. Unless we should believe Portus Adurni to be corruptly written, by a transposition of letters, for Portus Arundi. ⌈It is now a market-town, and a borough sending two Burgesses to Parliament; and is famous for the best Mullets,Mullets. which come up, in great plenty, into this river. The noted high-way, viz. Stanes-streetStanes-street. causeway, which is in some places ten yards broad, but in most seven, comes to this town out of Surrey by Belinghurst.Belinghurst. It is a yard and half deep in stones (which they discover by cutting passages to let in the water,) and runs in a streight line; and is made of flints and pebbles, tho’ no flints are found within seven miles of it.⌉ The etymology of Arundel, is neither from Bevosius’s Romantick horse, nor from Charudum a promontory in Denmark, as Goropius Becanus dream’d; but from a vale lying along the River Arun;Arun. in case Arun be the name of the river, as some have told us, and upon that account have nam’d it Aruntina vallis. ⌈However, there are those, who on one hand contend for the Story of Bevis’s horse; and on the other hand, will by no means admit this derivation from Arun; and they offer their reasons for both. That Bevis was founder of the Castle (say they) is a current opinion handed down by tradition; and there is a tower in it still known by the name of Bevis’s tower,Bevis’s-tower. which they tell you was his own apartment. Besides, they think it natural enough to imagin, that the name of a horse might be Arundel, from his swiftness; since that word in French signifies a Swallow, and the present Arms of the town (which is corporate by Prescription) are a Swallow. Now why (say they) might not Bevis’s Arundel, as well have the honour of naming a town wherein his master had a particular Interest; as Alexander’s Bucephalus had, of a city? Then, against the derivation from Arun, they urge, that that river is call’d High-stream,High-stream. to distinguish it from the other small rivulets or streams; and seems to have born the same name (as to the sense at least) all along. The Norman English call’d it Hault-rey; and answerably, the middle-aged Latin writers, Alta ripa (for Rhie,Rhie. a town in this County, is call’d in Latin Ripa; and several branches breaking out of the High-stream, are at this day call’d Ripes or Rises.) There was also an ancient family of Knights, owners of much land in these parts (even in the bosom of this great river, in the parish of Hardham, otherwise Feringham)Feringham. call’d from it de Hault Rey; and their posterity remains in these parts to this day, under the name of D’Awtrey, in Latin De alta Ripa. Much less, add they, will the interpretation, Aruntina vallis, suit either the name of the place, or the circumstances of it. For tho’ it be written several ways, yet no one makes it end in dale; nor is a low tract of ground ever express’d by that word in this County (as it is in other parts of England,) but by a Level; as Pevensey-Level, Lewes-Level, Brambre-Level, Arundel-Level, with many others. And the Commissioners of Sewers call the Imposition laid upon Land for repair of publick banks and sluices, a Level-tax. Of these Opinions, every one is at liberty to take which he pleases; and we will now return to the account of the Town it self.⌉ All the fame whereof is owing to the Castle, which flourish’d under the Saxon Government, and was, as we read, presently after the coming-in of the Normans, repair’d by Roger Montgomery, who was thereupon stil’d Earl of Arundel. For, it is large, and well fortify’d with Works. But his son Robert Belesme, who succeeded his brother Hugh, was outlaw’d by King Henry 1, and lost that and all his other honours. For breaking into Rebellion against the King, he chose this castle for the seat of war, and fortify’d it very strongly; but had no better success, than what generally attends Treason: For the King’s forces surrounding it, at length took it. Upon this Robert’s outlawry and banishment, the King gave the castle, and the rest of his estate, to Adeliza daughter of Godfrey (sirnam’d † † Long-beard.Barbatus, of Lovaine, and Duke of Lorrain and Brabant) his second Queen, for her Dower. In whose commendation a certain * * V. Henry Hunt. l.7. p.218.English-man wrote these verses, very ingenious for that unlearned age:

Anglorum Regina, tuos, Adeliza, decores
Ipsa referre parans Musa, stupore riget.
Quid Diadema tibi pulcherrima? Quid tibi Gemma?
Pallet Gemma tibi, nec Diadema nitet.
Deme tibi cultus, cultum natura ministrat:
Non
† In other Copies meliorari.exornari forma beata potest.
Ornamenta cave, nec quicquam luminis inde
Accipis, illa micant lumina clara tuo
.
chartae antiquae Non puduit modicas de magnis dicere laudes,
Nec pudeat Dominam, te, precor, esse meam
.

When Adeliza’s name should grace my song,
A sudden wonder stops the Mute’s tongue.
Your Crown and Jewels, if compar’d to you,
How poor your Crown, how pale your Jewels show!
Take off your robes, your rich attire remove;
Such pomps will load you, but can ne’er improve.
In vain your costly Ornaments are worn,
You they obscure, while others they adorn.
Ah! what new lustre can these trifles give,
Which all their beauty from your charms receive?
Thus I your lofty praise, your vast renown
In humble strains am not asham’d t’ have shown:
Oh! be not you asham’d my services to own.

She, after the King’s death, match’d with William * * De Albeneio, or, as others, De Albineto, and de Albiniaco. Now Dawney.D’Aubeney, who taking part with Maud the Empress against King Stephen, and defending this Castle; was by the said Maud † † Anglorum Domina.Lady of the English (for that was the title she us’d,) created Earl of Arundel, in recompence for his good Services. And her son King Henry 2. gave the same William the whole Rape of Arundel, to hold of him by the service of eighty four Knights fees and an half: and, to his son William, King Richard 1. granted (in words to this effect) Arundel Castle,Earls of Arundel and Sussex. together with the whole Honour of Arundel, and the third penny of the Pleas out of Sussex, whereof he is Earl. And when, after the fifth EarlSee the Earls of Sussex. of this Sirname, the issue-male failed; one of the sisters and heirs of Hugh the fifth Earl, was marry’d to John Fitz-Alan Lord of Clun, whose ¦ ¦ Pronepos.
Chartæ Antiquæ 10. m.29.
great grandson Richard, on account of his being seized of the Castle, Honour and Lordship of Arundel in his own demesn as of Fee, and in regard of this his possession of the same Castle, Honour and Lordship, and without any other consideration, or Creation,Parl. 11.
Hen. 6.
was Earl of Arundel, and the Name, State and Honour of the Earl of Arundel
, &c. peaceably enjoy’d; as appears by a definitive Judgment in Parliament in favour of John Fitz-Alan, challenging the Castle and Title of Arundel, against John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, the right heir by his mother, * * Arctissimo gradu.in the nearest degree. From whence it is infer’d, That the Name, State, and Dignity of Earl, was annex’d to the Castle, Honour and Lordship of Arundel, as may be seen in the Parliament-Rolls, An. 27 Hen. 6; out of which I have copied these notes, word for word. Of these Fitz-Alans, the eleventh Earl liv’d in † † So said, ann. 1607.our time, and dying without issue-male, was succeeded by Philip Howard his grandson by a daughter; who, not being able to digest the Injuries and hard measure put upon him by the cunning of some envious men, fell into the snare which they had laid for him; and being brought into the utmost danger of his life, dy’d. But his son Thomas, a most honourable young Gentleman, ennobled with an eager pursuit after virtue and glory worthy his great birth; and also of an affable obliging temper, was restor’d by King James ⌈the 1st,⌉ and had all his father’s honours return’d to him, by Act of Parliament. ⌈This Thomas dying An. 1646, was succeeded in his honours by his son Henry, who in the life-time of his father was summon’d to Parliament by the titles of Lord Mowbray and Maltravers. By whose death An. 1652, this title came to Thomas his eldest son, restor’d also, 13 Car. 2, to the title of Duke of Norfolk, which had been forfeited by the Attainder of Thomas the last Duke. By which means, the title of Duke of Norfolk came to Henry his brother, with the Earldoms of Arundel and Surrey, which he left to Henry his son; who dying, without issue, in the year 1701, this, and the other high and honourable Titles belonging to this noble Family, descended to Thomas, the present Duke of Norfolk, son of Thomas Lord Howard, younger brother of Henry the last Duke.⌉

Except the Castle and it’s Earls, Arundel hath nothing memorable; for the College founded there by the Earls, having lost it’s Revenues, is now sunk. There are some monuments of the Earls in the Church; and amongst them, one of Alabaster more noble than the rest; in which (in the middle of the Quire) lie Earl Thomas, and Beatrix his Wife, Daughter of John King of Portugal. Neither must I pass by an Inscription, very beautifully gilt, and set-up here, to the honour of Henry Fitz-Alan the last Earl of this Line; since some Persons will be pleased, to see it.

virtuti et honori sacrum.

magnanimus heros, cujus hic cernitur effigies, cujusque hic subter sita sunt ossa, hujus territorii comes fuit: sui generis ab alani filio cognominatus, a malatraverso, clunensi, et oswaldestrensi honoribus eximiis dominus insuper ac baro nuncupatus: garteriani ordinis equestris sane nobilissimi sodalis dum vixit, antiquissimus: arundeliæ comitis guilielmi filius unicus et successor, omniumque virtutum particeps: qui henrico viii. edwardo vi. mariæ et elizabethæ angliæ regibus, a secretis consiliis, villæ quoque calesiæ præfecturam gessit, et cum henricus rex boloniam in morinis obsidione cinxerat, exercitus sui marescallus primarius, deinde regis fuit camerarius: ejusque filio edwardo dum coronaretur marescalli regni officium gerebat: eique sicut antea patri camerarius factus. regnante vero maria regina coronationis solenni tempore summus constituitur constabularius, domusque regiæ postmodum præfectus, ac consilii præses, sicut et elizabethæ reginæ, cujus similiter hospitii senescallus fuit.

ita vir iste genere clarus, publicis bene functis magistratibus clarior, domi ac foris clarissimus, honore florens, Caesar AElla labore fractus, ætate confectus, postquam ætatis suæ annum lxviii. attigisset, londini xxv. die februarii, anno nosræ salutis a christo mdlxxix. pie et suaviter in domino obdormivit.

joannes lumley, baro de lumley, gener pientissimus, supremæ voluntatis suæ vindex, socero suavissimo, et patrono optimo magnificentissime funerato, non memoriæ, quam immortalem sibi multifariis virtutibus comparavit, sed corporis mortalis ergo, in spem felicis resurrectionis reconditi: hanc illi ex propriis armaturis statuam equestrem pro munere extremo uberibus cum lachrymis devotissime consecravit.

That is,

Sacred to Virtue and Honour.

The Valiant Heroe, whose Effigies you here see, and whose Bones are buried underneath, was Earl of this Territory: he had his Sirname, from being the son of Alan; and moreover took the honourable titles of Lord and Baron of Maltravers, Clun, and Oswaldestre: he was Knight of the Garter, and liv’d to be the Senior of that Noble Order: only Son to William Earl of Arundel, and heir both of his Estate and Virtues. He was Privy Counsellor to Henry 8, Edward 6, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, Kings ⌈and Queens⌉ of England; also Governour of Calais; and, when Bologne (a town of the old Morini) was besieg’d by the same King Henry, he was General of the Army. He was afterwards Lord Chamberlain to the said King, and at the Coronation of his son Edward, executed the Office of Marshal of England; to which King he was Lord Chamberlain, as he had been to his Father. Upon Queen Mary’s coming to the Crown, he was made High-Constable of England for the Coronation, afterwards Steward of her Houshold, and President of the Council; which honour he had under Queen Elizabeth, to whom he was likewise Steward of the Houshold. Thus this person, noble by birth, by the honourable discharge of Offices yet more noble, and most of all so by his great Exploits at home and abroad; with his honour untainted, his body broken with labour, and worn out with age, in the sixty eighth year of his life dy’d in the Lord, devoutly and peacably at London, on the 25th of February; in the year of our Lord 1579.

John Lumley, Baron of Lumley, his most dutiful and disconsolate Son-in-Law, and Executor, with the utmost respect put up this Statue with his Armour (after he had been buried in great pomp) for the kindest of Fathers-in-Law and the best of Patrons, as the last Office he was able to pay him: not to preserve his memory (for that his many Virtues had made immortal) but his Body, which was committed to the ground in hopes of a joyful Resurrection.

As for the River, which runs by this place, and has its Spring in the North part of the County; it is enlarg’d by the influx of many Rivulets on both sides: the most noted of which, washes Cowdrey,Cowdrey. a noble seat of Viscount Montacute; and has on it’s other side Midherst,Midherst. proud of its Lords the Bohuns, who bear for theirBohuns of Midherst, Their Arms. Arms A Cross Azure in a Field Or; and who, from Ingelricus de Bohun under King Henry 1, flourish’d till Henry the 7th’s days, who gave the Daughter and heir of John Bohun in marriage to Sir David Owen Knight, natural Son of Owen Theodore [or Tudor,] with a large Inheritance. These Bohuns (to note, by the way, the antiquity of a word now grown out of use) were for some time the Kings SpigurnelsSpigurnel, what it signifies. by inheritance, that is, the Sealers of his Writs; which Office, together with the Serjeanty of the King’s Chapel, was resigned to King Edward 1, by John de Bohun the Son of Franco; as we read in an old Charter concerning that particular matter.

Next we have a sight of Petworth,Petworth. which William D’Aubeney Earl of Arundel gave, together with a large estate, to Josceline of Lovain (a Brabander, Queen Adeliza’s brother, and a younger son of Godfrey Duke of Brabant, descended from the stock of Charlemain,) upon his marriage with Agnes the only daughter and heir of the Percies.The Percies. Since which time, the posterity of that Josceline (having assumed the name of Percy, as we shall elsewhere tell you) have held and enjoyed it. A family,See Northumberland, in the end. certainly very ancient and noble, which derive their descent from Charlemain, by a series of Ancestors much less interrupted, than either the Dukes of Lorrain or Guise; who value themselves so highly upon that account. This Josceline, as I have seen in a donation of his, us’d the following Title: Josceline of Lovain, Brother of Queen Adeliza, Castellane of Arundel. ⌈But the issue-male of that noble Family failing in Josceline the eleventh and last Earl of Northumberland, this, together with other large Estates in divers parts of England, came by marriage with Elizabeth sole daughter and heir of the said Josceline, to Charles Duke of Somerset, whose Courage, and Zeal for the Protestant Religion, in refusing to introduce the Pope’s Nuncio, will ever be recorded to his honour, in the Histories of the reign of King James the second; and to whom this ancient seat owes the noble Improvements which it hath receiv’d, as well in the Buildings, as in other Ornaments and Accommodations suitable thereunto.⌉

As the shore goes back from the mouth of Arun, near Tering,Offingtons. lies Offingtons, † † Ann. 1607.the seat of William West Baron De-la-Ware. This of the WestsThe family of the Wests. is a noble and ancient family, who having much advanced themselves by matching with the heirs of Cantelupe of Hempston, and of Fitz-Reginald Fitz-Herbert, were adorn’d also with the title of Baron, by the heir general of the Lord De-la-ware.Barons De-la-ware. Hard by, is a military fort compass’d about with a bank rudely cast-up, where the inhabitants believe that Cæsar intrench’d and fortify’d his Camp. But Cissbury,Cissbury. the name of the place, plainly shews it was the work of Cissa; who was the second King of this Kingdom, of the Saxon race, succeeding Ælla his father; and who, with his brother Cimen and a considerable Body of Saxons, landed on this coast at Cimen-shore,Cimen-shore. so called from the said Cimen: a place, which now hath lost it’s name; but that it was near Wittering, King Cedwalla’s Charter of Donation made to the Church of Selsey, is a convincing proof. There is another Fort likewise, two miles from Cissbury, which they commonly call Chenkbury.Chenkbury.

AElfred caesar

Thence, near the sea, lies Broodwater,Broodwater. the Barony of the Lords de Camois,Camois. who flourish’d from the time of Edward 1, till * * So said, ann. 1607.our Grandfathers remembrance, when by female-heirs the estate came to the Lewkenors and Radmilds. Of this family, John Camois son of Lord Ralph Camois (a precedent not to be parallel’d in that, or our own age) out of his own free will (I speak from the Parliament-Rolls themselves) A Wife given and granted to another, Parl.30 Edw. 1.gave and demised his own wife Margaret, daughter and heir of John de Gaidesden, to Sir William Painel Knight; and to the same [William] voluntarily gave, granted, released, and quit-claimed all the goods and chattels which she had, or otherwise hereafter might have, and also whatever was in his hands of the aforesaid Margaret’s goods and chattels with their appurtenances. So as neither himself, nor any other in his name, might, nor for ever ought to claim or challenge any interest in the aforesaid Margaret from henceforth, or in the goods or chattels of the said Margaret. Which is, what the Ancients said in one word, Ut omnia sua secum haberet, that she should take away with her all that was her’s. By occasion of which grant, when she demanded her dower in the manour of Torpull, an estate of John Camois her first husband, there commenced a memorable suit. But she was cast in it, and sentence pass’d, That she ought to have no dower from thence. This I mention with Indignation; but I perceive Pope Gregory might have good ground to write to Archbishop Lanfrank, that he heard, there were some among the Scots who not only forsook their Wives, but sold them too; since even in England they gave and demis’d them in this manner.

Upon the shore, a little lower, appears Shoreham,Shoreham. anciently Saxon: Score-ham, which by little and little has dwindled into a poor village, now call’d Old Shoreham; having given rise to another Town of the same name, the greatest part whereof is also ruin’d and underwater, and the Advantage of it’s Port, by reason of the banks of sand cast-up at the mouth of the river, is wholly taken away: whereas in former ages it was wont to carry ships under sail as high as Brember,Brember-Castle. a pretty good distance from the sea. This was formerly a Castle of the Breoses; for King William 1. gave it to William de Breose, from whom the Breoses, Lords of Gower and Brechnock, are descended; and from them also are descended the Knightly Families of the Shirleys in this County and Leicestershire. But now, instead of a castle, there is nothing but a heap of ruins; beneath which lies Stening,Stening. a well-frequent’d market; and in Ælfred’s Will, if I mistake not, it is called Steningham. ⌈Not far from Stening, lies Findon;Findon. within a mile of which is an ancient Camp, about two miles distant from the sea. It is call’d Cæsar’s-hill,Cæsar’s-hill. because the people imagine it was Cæsar’s Camp; and they pretend to shew the place where Cæsar’s tent was. Notwithstanding which, the form of it shows that opinion to be ill grounded; for, being roundish, it seems rather to have been a British work. Farther Eastward, also, near Lewes, is another Camp.⌉

That ancient port, call’d Portus Adurni,Portus Adurni. Notitia Provinciarum. is, as it should seem, scarce three miles from the mouth of this river; where, when the Saxons first infested our seas, the band of Exploratores under the Roman Emperors had their Station; but it is now choaked up with heaps of sand driven-in. For both the name, still remaining almost entire, and also some adjacent cottages call’d Portslade,Portslade. that is, the Way to the Port, persuade us to think, that this was Ederington,Ederington. a little village which the said Ælfred granted to his younger son: not to observe, how easily they might land here, the shore being so open and plain. And for that very reason, our men, in the reign of Henry 8, chiefly reckon’d upon the French Gallies landing here, and waited their coming; while they hover’d upon our Coasts, and set one or two cottages on fire, by surprise, at Brighthelmsted,Brighthelmsted. which our ancestors term’d Saxon: Brightealmes-tun, the very next Station to it.

Some few miles from hence, a certain anonymous river discharges it self into the sea, which rises out of St. Leonard’s Forest near Slaugham,Slaugham. the seat of the Coverts; who in King Henry the third’s time flourish’d in this tract, with the honour of Knighthood.

In these parts, but at some distance from the sea, stands Lewes,Lewes. upon a rising ground (taking its name perhaps from Pastures, call’d by the Saxons Saxon: Leswa,) which is, for largeness and populousness, one of the chief Towns of the County. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, It paid six pounds and four shillings * * De Gablo & Theloneo.
Domesday-book.
for Tax and Toll. The King had there one hundred twenty seven Burgesses
. It was their custom, if the King had a mind to send his soldiers to sea without them; that of all of them, whosesoever the lands were, there should be collected twenty shillings, and they had itIn navibus arma custodiebant.who serv’d in the ships. Whoso sells an horse within the Borough, gives the Provost ¦ ¦ Nummum.one penny, and the buyer gives another; for an ox or cow, a halfpenny; for a man four pence; wheresoever within the Rape he buys. He that sheds blood, * * Emendat pro, &c.pays seven shillings. He that commits Adultery or a Rape, eight shillings and four pence, and the woman as much. The King hath the Adulterer, and the Archbishop the woman. When the money is new made, every Mint-master gives twenty shillings. Of all these payments, two parts went to the King, and a third to the Earl. William de Warren, the first Earl of Surrey, built a Castle here, at the foot whereof he dedicated a Priory to St. Pancrase, and fill’d it with Cluniack Monks, in regard of the holiness, religion, and charity, which he found in the Monastery of Clugny in Burgundy, (I cite this out of the original Instrument of Foundation), whilst going in pilgrimage, together with his wife, he lodg’d there. But this † † Is now converted, C.was converted into a house of the Earls of Dorset. Yet there are six Churches still remaining in the town; of which, not far from the Castle, and beneath it, there stands a little one, desolate, and over-grown with brambles; in the walls whereof are engraven, arch-wise, certain rude verses in an obsolete Character; which imply, that one Magnus, descended of the Blood Royal of the Danes, and devoted to a solitary life, was buried there. But here, take the verses themselves, tho’ imperfect, and gaping, if I may so say, by reason of the Stones being disjointed:

AEthelstan Abulae

Diagram

Which perhaps are to be read thus:

Clauditur hic miles Danorum regia proles,
Magnus nomen ei, magnæ nota progeniei,
Deponens
Magnum, prudentior induit agnum:
Præpete pro vita fit parvulus Anachorita
.

Here lies a Knight of Denmark’s royal blood,
Magnus his name, whence his great race is show’d.
Resigning all his grandeur he became
Hermit from soldier, and from wolf a lamb.

During the reign of the Saxons, upon Æthelstan’s making a law that no money shou’d be coin’d but in Towns only; he appointed two Minters here. But afterwards, in the time of the Normans, it became famous for a bloody battle between King Henry 3, and the Barons; in which the hopeful on-set of the King’s Party1263. at first, prov’d their overthrow at last.The Battle of Lewes. For while Prince Edward the King’s son, breaking thro’ some of the Barons troops, carelesly pursu’d the enemy too far, as making sure of the victory; M. Paris, p.1350.the Barons rallying their forces, gave a fresh charge, and so routed the King’s army, that they compell’d him to offer conditions of peace which were very unreasonable, and to deliver his son Prince Edward, with others, into their hands. ⌈Not far from this place, is Laughton,Laughton. where, the Pelhams have flourished for many ages; of whom, Thomas, the late possessor, was created a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Pelham of Laughton, in the 5th year of Queen Anne. *⌉* Vid. Newcastle, in Northumberland.

From Lewes, passing by a large lake well-stor’d with fish, near Furle,Furle. the seat of the Gages (who, advancing their estate by marriage with one of the heirs of the house of St. Clare, became a Family of good note;) we come to Cuckmer,Cuckmer. a pretty good Harbour. Then, having pass’d the promontory, call’d from the Beach, Beachy;Beachy. the next place that comes in our way is Pevensey,Pevensey. anciently Saxon: Peofensea, by the NormansFlorentius Wighorn. p.452. Pevensel, commonly Pemsey; a castle, in former times belonging toRob. de Monte, 1158. Robert Earl Moreton, half-brother (by the mother’s side) to William the Conqueror; afterwards, toTreaty between King Henry and King Stephen. William son of King Stephen, who surrender’d it again to Henry 2. (from whom he had receiv’d it as a free gift,) together with the lands formerly belonging to Richer de Aquila, or, of the Eagle, from whom they had the name of theThe honour of the Eagle. Honour of the Eagle. It remained a long time in the Crown; till King Henry 3. granted it to the Earls of Richmond † Britannicis.of Bretagne, from whom it passed to the Crown again. But now there are no remains of the castle, but the old walls. Some part of this Honour of the Eagle, Henry 4. gave afterwards to the family of the Pelhams, for their loyalty and valour. ⌈This, * * Forts and Ports in Kent.Mr. Somner (disallowing the common conjecture of Newenden in Kent,) was inclined to think the ancient Anderida, where was the band of the Abulæ; grounding upon Gildas’s words, which express the situation of these garrisons,Vide Kent, at Appledore. In littore Oceani ad meridiem, on the sea-shore to the south; and also upon the design of them, which was to ken and spy-out the invading enemy: and lastly, upon the antiquity of the place, which Archbishop Usher makes the old Caer Pensavel-coit of the Britains; the coit, i.e. wood, implying the ancient state and condition of this County.⌉ Hard by, stands Herst,Herst, what it signifies. amongst the woods, and has it’s name from it’s woody situation; for the Saxons call’d a wood, Saxon: Hyrst. This, immediately after the first coming-in of the Normans, was the seat of certain Gentlemen, who from the place were for some time named De Herst;Register of the Monastery of Roberts-bridge. till William son of Walleran de Herst took the name of Monceaux, perhaps from the place of his birth (a thing usual in that age;) whereupon, that name was annex’d to the place, call’d ever since from its Lord, Herst Monceaux.Herst Monceaux. From whose posterity it descended hereditarily to the Fiennes.Family of the Fiennes. These Fiennes, call’d likewise Fenis and Fienles, are descended from Ingelram de Fienes,Pat.37. H.6. who marry’d the heir of Pharamuse of Boloigne; of whom, King Henry 6. accepted, declared, and reputed Richard Fenis to be Baron of Dacre. And King Edward 4.An.13. Edw.4. who was chosen honorary Arbitrator between him and Humphrey Dacre,Lord Dacre of the south. confirm’d it to the said Richard Fenis, and to his heirs lawfully begotten; because he had married Joan the Cousin and next heir of Thomas Baron Dacre; since which time his prosperity have flourish’d under the Title of Barons Dacre, till George Fiennes Lord Dacre† 1549.died without issue. Whose only sister and heir, Margaret, was married to Sampson Lennard Esquire, a person of extraordinary virtue and civility, ⌈and their descendants in right of the said Margaret were Lords Dacre, and afterwards advanced to the dignity of Earls of Sussex.⌉

But to return:1066. at this Pevensey (to give you a short account, because the place requires it, of that which I have related more fully elsewhere) William the Norman arriv’d with his whole navy upon the coast of Britain, and landed his army, and, having strongly entrench’d his camp, set his ships on fire, that their only hope might lie in their courage, and their only safety in victory. Quickly after, he march’d to a Plain near Hastings, where the Dispute for the Crown of England was finally determin’d, and the Saxon Government came to an end. For there, our Harold, (not withstanding his forces were much diminish’d by a former fight with the Danes, and fatigued by a long march) gave him battle, in a place call’d Epiton, on the 14th of October 1066.K. Harold’s fight with William the Conqueror. When the Normans had given the signal, the Encounter began with flights of arrows from both armies, which held for some time; then, coming to a close Engagement, they maintain’d the battle a long while. But when the English, with admirable courage and bravery, had receiv’d the first attack, they were furiously charg’d by the Norman horse. And when these cou’d not make their way, they, as they had before agreed, retreated, but Cominaeus kept their ranks. The English, thinking they fled, broke their ranks, and without any order, pursu’d the enemy; who rallying their forces, charg’d afresh on every side; and, encompassing them round, repuls’d them with a mighty slaughter: yet the English, having got the higher ground, stood it out a long time, till Harold himself was shot thro’ with an arrow, and fell down dead; upon which they presently turn’d their backs, and betook themselves to flight.

The Norman, exalted with this victory, erected an Abbey in memory of the Battle and dedicated it to St. Martin (which he call’d Battle-Abbey,)Battle-Abbey. in that very place where Harold, after many wounds, died in the midst of his enemies; that it might be an eternal monument of the Norman victory. About this Abbey, there grew-up afterwards a town of the same name; or, to use the words of the private History, As the Abbey encreas’d, there were built about it one hundred and fifteen houses, of which the town of Battle consisted. Wherein there is a place, (call’d by a French name Sangue-lac,Sangue-lac. from the blood there shed) which after a shower of rain, from the nature of the soil, seems to look reddish; and thereupon Guilielmus Neubrigensis wrote thus, but with little truth, The place in which there was a very great slaughter of the English fighting for their Country, if it happen to be wet with a small shower, sweats out real, and as it were fresh blood; as if intended for a testimony, that the voice of so much Christian blood doth still cry from the the earth to the Lord. But William the Conqueror granted many and great privileges to this Abbey. Amongst others, to use the very words of the Charter, If any thief, or murderer, or person guilty of other crime, fly for fear of death, and come to this Church; let him have no harm, but be freely dismissed. Be it lawful also for the Abbot of the same Church to deliver from the Gallows any thief or robber wheresoever, if he chance to come-by, at the execution.

Henry the 1st likewise (to give you the very words of his Charter) A market on Sunday.granted a market to be kept there on the Lord’s Day, free from all Duty whatsoever. But Anthony Viscount Mountague, who * * So said, ann. 1607.not long since built a beautiful house there, did lately, by authority of Parliament, obtain to have the market chang’d to another day. And as for the privilege of Sanctuary for those more heinous and grievous crimes; they are here, and every where else, abolish’d by Act of Parliament. For they found, that the fear of punishment being once remov’d, men grew bold and desperate in wickedness; and that the hope of impunity was the greatest motive to it. Neither here, nor in the neighbourhood, saw I any thing worth the notice, but only Ashburnham,Ashburnham. which has given name to a family of as great antiquity as any in this tract. ⌈Of this place and family, John Ashburnham built here a handsom Church with three Chancels; whose son of the same name was created Baron Ashburnham of Ashburnham, in the year 1689. Here also is a noble house of the Lord Ashburnham, which, for stately buildings and convenient gardens, is said to be one of the best in this County. North-east from hence, lies Breede,Breede. the Court whereof is a branch of that at Battle, and hath the same privilege and process. The Lands in the manour of Breede, tho’ in Sussex, descend according to the custom of Gavel-kind. Here is a kind of Court kept every three weeks, where Actions between man and man are try’d; and the Officers are exempt from attending the Assizes or Sessions.⌉

HastingsHastings. before mentioned, call’d in Saxon Saxon: Hastinga-ceaster, lies somewhat higher, upon the same shore. Some there are who ridiculously derive it from Haste, in our tongue; because, as Matthew Paris writes, At Hastings, William the Conqueror hastily set up a fortress of timber. But it rather seems to have taken this new name from Hasting the Danish Pirate,Henry Hunt.
Hist.7. f.211.
who, where he landed for booty, built sometimes little fortresses; as we read in Asserius Menevensis, of Beamflote-Castle built by him in Essex, and of others at Apledore and Middleton in Kent. Here, in the reign of King Athelstan, was a Mint. It is the chief of the Cinque-ports,Cinque-Ports. which with it’s members, Winchelsea, Rye, &c. was bound to find twenty one ships for any naval Expedition. If you have a mind to know in what form, both this and the rest were bound to serve the King in his wars at sea, for those ample immunities which they enjoy; take it in the very words, wherein it was anciently recorded in the King’s Exchequer. Hastings, with it’s members, ought to find twenty one ships at the King’s summons. And there ought to be in every ship twenty one men, able, fitly qualified, well arm’d, and well furnish’d for the King’s service. Yet so, that the summons be made on the King’s behalf forty days before. And when the aforesaid ships and men are come to the place whereunto they were summon’d, they shall abide there in the King’s service for fifteen days at their own proper costs and charges. And if the King shall have further need of their service after the fifteen days aforesaid, or will have them stay there any longer; those ships, with the men, while they remain there, shall be in the King’s service, at the King’s costs and charges, so long as the King pleases. The Master ⌈of each ship⌉ shall have sixpence a day, and the Constable sixpence a day, and every one of the rest three pence a day.

The whole Rape of Hastings,Comites Aucenses vulgo de Augi, Earls of Ew. together with the Honour, was held by the Earls of Ew in Normandy (descended from a natural son of Richard 1, Duke of Normandy,) till Henry the third’s time, when Ralph de Issodun in France, marry’d Alice, whose posterity lost a noble estate in England, because (as the Lawyers then deliver’d it) they were under the King of France’s Allegiance. Furthermore, as there were certain Gentlemen in this County, at the beginning of the Norman times, sirnam’d de Hastings, one of whom Matthew de Hastings held the manour of Grenocle, by this tenure, Inquisitio 5 Edw. 1.That he should find at this haven an Oar, whenever the King would cross the seas; so the noble family of the Hastings, now Earls of Huntingdon, do enjoy this title of Hastings. For King Edward 4. bestow’d it, with certain Royalties, uponWilliam Lord Hastings. William Hastings his Chamberlain; who is commended by Cominæus, for that, having receiv’d a yearly pension from Lewis xi, the French King, he could not upon any terms be prevailed with, to give him an Acquittance under his hand. I will in no case, said he, that my hand be seen among the accounts of the French King’s Treasury. But this man, by sinking too deep into the friendship of Kings, overwhelmed himself. For, whilst he deliver’d his mind too freely in a private Conference with the Usurper Richard 3, he was unexpectedly hurried away, and without tryal beheaded immediately. ⌈He had, notwithstanding, an honourable Burial in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor; leaving issue Edward Lord Hastings, his son and heir.⌉ Nor must we forget to take notice, that King Henry 6. ennobled Thomas Hoo26 Hen. 6. a Worthy person Baron Hoo and Hastings.(whom he had made Knight of the Garter) with the Title of Baron Hoo boleyn and Hastings; whose daughters and heirs were marry’d to Geoffrey Bollen (from whom by the mother’s side Queen Elizabeth was descended,) to Roger Copely, John Carew, and John Devenish.

Thence the shore retires, into a winding creek, within which stands Winchelsea,Winchelsea. ⌈not called Windchelseum, as being exposed to the winds, according to Twine’s opinion; but more truly interpreted by Mr. Somner, a waterish place seated in a corner; which exactly answers the situation of the place, lying at the corner of Kent and Sussex.⌉ It was built in the time of King Edward 1, when a more ancient town of the same name, in Saxon Saxon wincels-ea, was swallow’d-up by the Sea, in a terrible tempest, ann. 1250. (at which time, the face of the earth both here, and in the adjoining coast of Kent, was much alter’d.) It’s situation I will set before you in the very words of Thomas Walsingham. Situate it is upon a very high hill, very steep on that side, which looks towards the sea, or overlooks the Road where the Ships lie at Anchor. Whence it is that the way leading from that part to the haven, goes not streight forward, lest it should by a steep descent force those that go down to fall head-long, or them that go up to creep on their hands, rather than walk: but lying side-ways, it winds with many crooked turnings, to one side and the other. At first it was inclos’d with a rampart; and after, with a very strong wall: but as it began to flourish, it was sack’d by the French and Spaniards; and by the retirement of the sea, fell to decay all on a sudden. ⌈The new town was endow’d with the same privileges that the old one had, namely, those of the Cinque-ports, to which it belongs as one of the ancient towns; but the sea, which before had swallowed-up the old Town, left the new, before it was quite finished. It still retains that of sending two Burgesses to Parliament, tho’ the Electors are very few; the town being most miserably decay’d by the loss of it’s market and trade. An argument whereof is, that the grass grows in the very streets (tho’ they are all pav’d) to that degree, as makes the very herbage sometimes † † 4 l. per Ann.considerable. The town abounded every where with fine stone-arch’d Vaults, for bestowing of Merchants Goods, during its flourishing state. It seems at first to have been built with admirable regularity, the streets standing all at right angles, and divided into thirty two squares, or quarters, as they are now call’d. The stone work of the three gates, is yet standing. There were anciently in it three Parish-Churches, tho’ now there is only the chancel of the largest remaining, which is the present Parish-Church; and in which are the monuments of three Knights Templars (as it seems, by their lying cross-legg’d in armour;) one of which appears, by the Arms, to have been of the family of Oxenbridge, who were formerly of great note in these parts.

This place hath afforded the title of Countess to Elizabeth wife to Sir Moyle Finch, and daughter and heir to Sir Thomas Heneage Knight; who was before created Viscountess of Maidstone by King James the first. Which titles have descended to her Posterity.

At some distance from Winchelsea is Selscombe,Selscombe. where (as also in several places of this County) are mineral-waters of the same nature with those at Tunbridge, and altogether as strongly impregnated.⌉ By the foresaid accident at Winchelsea, and the benefit of the sea, it’s neighbour RyeRye. began to flourish, or rather to reflourish; for that it flourish’d in ancient times, and that William of Ipres Earl of Kent fortify’d it, Ipres TowerIpres Tower. and the immunities and privileges that it had in common with the Cinque Ports, do sufficiently shew. But either by reason of the Vicinity of Winchelsea, or the recess of the Sea; it was inconsiderable for a long time. But when Winchelsea decay’d, and King Edward 3. wall’d it about, it began to recover; and within the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.the last age, the Ocean, to make full amends for the injury it had done (being swell’d with an extraordinary tempest,) broke-in so violently, and with such advantage, that it made a very convenient Port, which another Tempest in our own age did not a little improve. Since when, it has greatly flourish’d, in Inhabitants, buildings, fishing and navigation; and is now the usual passage from hence to Normandy. But as to it’s name, whether it took it from Rive, a Norman word, which signifies a Bank, I cannot say. Yet since in the Records it is very often call’d in Latin Ripa, and they who bring fish from thence are termed Ripiers,Ripiers. I rather incline to this original, and shou’d incline yet more, if the French us’d this word for a shore, as Pliny does Ripa. ⌈Near Rye, in the parish of East-Guildford,East-Guildford. (which is the utmost bounds of Sussex eastward) is a peculiar way of Tithing their marsh-lands, whereby they pay only 3d. per Acre to the Rector, while in pasture; but if plough’d, 5s.⌉

Into Rye-haven, the river RotherRiver Rother. or Rither empties it self; which springing at Ritheramfeld (for so the old English call the town, which we call Rotherfeld,) runs by Burgwash, formerly Burghersh,Lords Burghersh. which had it’s Lords of that sirname; amongst whom, was Bartholomew de Burgwash, a mighty man in his time, who having approv’d himself, in the most solemn Embassies, and in the wars in Aquitain, to be a person of great prudence and undaunted Valour, was created a Baron of England, and admitted into the Order of the Garter at the very first Institution amongst the Founders, and was made Constable of Dover-Castle and Warden of the Cinque-Ports. And his son of the same Christian name, no way degenerating from his father’s Virtues, liv’d in great splendor and honour, but left only one daughter, who was marry’d into the family of Le Despencer; from whom are descended many noble Families, which remain to † † So said, ann. 1607.this day. Echingham, next adjoyning, had also a BaronBaron Echingham. in the time of King Edward 2, namely, William de Echingham; whose ancestors were * * Seneschalli.Stewards of this Rape. But the Inheritance by heirs females came at last to the Barons of Windsor, and the Tirwhitts. Then the Rother, dividing it’s waters into three chanels, passes under Robertsbridge,Roberts-bridge or Rotherbridge. where, in the reign of Henry 2, Alured de St. Martin founded a Monastery; ⌈call’d St. Mary’sSt. Mary’s. of Roberts-bridge, and of the Cistercian Order. That part of it which is now standing, is a farm-house belonging to the Earls of Leicester.⌉ And so the Rother running by Bodiam,Bodiam. a Castle belonging to the ancient and noted family of the Lewkeners, and builtAnn. 1607. by the Dalegrigs, falls into the sea.

I have done with the sea-coast of Sussex. As for the inner-parts, there is nothing worth the notice, unless I shou’d reckon up the Woods and Forests spread far and near over this tract, being the remains of the famous wood Anderida. Among which, to begin at the west, the most noted are these; theArundel Forest. Forest of Arundel, S. Leonard’s Forest,St. Leonard’s. ⌈(not far from whence, to the north, is Ifield,Ifield. from which Denzil Holles, second son of John Earl of Clare, was created a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Holles of Ifield)⌉ Word.Word Forest, Ashdown ForestAshdown. (under which lies Buckhurst,Baron Buckhurst. the seat of the ancient family of the Sackvils; of which, Queen Elizabeth advanced Thomas mabel AElla Chamaedrys spuriae Foeniculum Dodonaei Cicutae Chaerephylli Sackvil, a Gentleman of great wisdom, to be Baron of Buckhurst, took him into her Privy Council, and made him Knight of the Garter, and Lord Treasurer of England; whom also King James ⌈the 1st,⌉ created Earl of Dorset;) then Waterdown-Forest, and that of Dallington, which is the least of all.

Sussex had five EarlsEarls of Sussex. See the Earls of Arundel. of the family of D’Aubeney, who were likewise called Earls of Arundel; the first of them was William D’Aubeney, son of William, Butler to King Henry 1, and Lord of Buckenham in Norfolk, who gave for his Arms Gules, a Lion rampant Or, and was call’d sometimes Earl of Arundel, and sometimes Earl of Chichester, because in those places he kept † Sedes præcipuas.his chief residence. He had by Adeliza (daughter of Godfrey Barbatus Duke of Lorrain and Brabant, Queen Dowager to King Henry 1.) William the second Earl of Sussex and Arundel, Father of William the third Earl; to whom Mabil, sister and one of the heirs of the last Ranulph Earl of Chester, bore William the 4th Earl, and Hugh the 5th Earl, who both died without issue; and also four Daughters, married to Robert Lord of Tateshall, John Fitz-Alan, Roger de Somery, and Robert de Mounthault. Afterwards, the title of Arundel was reviv’d, as I said before, in the Fitz-Alans. But that of Sussex lay, as it were, forgotten and lost, to our * age;* Ann. 1607. which hath seen five Ratcliffs, descended from the most noble house of the Fitz-Walters (who derive their pedigree from the Clares) bearing that honour; viz. Robert created Earl of Sussex by King Henry 8;21 Henry 8. who married Elizabeth daughter of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, by whom he had Henry, the second Earl; to whom Elizabeth daughter of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk bore Thomas; who was Lord Chamberlain to Queen Elizabeth, and dy’d without issue; a Heroe of great worth and honour, in whom were joyn’d the wisdom of a Statesman, and the courage of a Soldier, as both England and Ireland had reason to acknowledge. Henry his brother succeeded him; and after Henry, Robert his only son, an honourable young Gentleman; ⌈who dying 5 Car. 1. left the title of Earl of Sussex to his son Edward; but he having no issue, the family of the Ratcliffs Earls of Sussex ended in him, and that title was confer’d on the 25th of May 1644, upon Thomas Lord Savil of Pontfract, and was afterwards enjoy’d by James, his son, who dy’d without issue. Upon which, Thomas Leonard, Lord Dacres of Gillisland, An. 1674, had this honour confer’d upon him. By whose death the Honour being again extinct, hath been confer’d by King George upon Talbot Yelverton, who was before dignified with the Honourable Titles of Viscount Longueville, and Baron Grey of Ruthen.⌉

This County contains 312 Parishes.

SO much for Sussex; which, together with Surrey, was the seat of the Regni; and afterwards, the Kingdom of the South-Saxons, called in Saxon† The kingdom of the South-Saxons.† The true reading is Suth-seaxna-ric. Saxon suth-seaxan-ric, which in the 31 years after the coming-in of the Saxons, was begun by Ælla, who, according to Bede, “First among the Kings of the English Nation, ruled all the southern Provinces, which are sever’d by the River Humber, and the adjacent limits.” The first Christian King was Edilwach, baptiz’d in the presence of Wulpher, King of Mercia, his Godfather, who gave him in token of adoption two Provinces, namely, the Isle of Wight, and the Province of the Meanvari. But in the 306th year from the beginning of this Kingdom, upon Aldinius the last King’s being slain by Ina, it came wholly under the Dominion of the West-Saxons.

More rare Plants growing wild in Sussex.

Alysson Germanicum echioides Lob. Buglossum sylvestre caulibus procumbentibus C. B. Borago minor sylvestris Park. Cynoglossa fortè topiaria Plinii & Echium lappulatum quibusdam J. B. Aparine major Plinii Ger. Small wild Bugloss, by some great Goose-grass and German Mudwort. Found by Boxley in this County.

Chamædrys spuria foliis pediculus oblongis insidentibus. An chamædryi spuriæ affinis rotundifolia scutellata C. B? Alysson Dioscoridis montanum. Col. Wild or bastard Germander with leaves standing on long foot-stalks. In moist woods and hedges. I observed it first at Cockfield in Sussex.

Filix saxatilis ramosa maritima nostras. Filix saxatilis crispa Parkinsoni D. Merret Pin. Small-branched Stone-fern. I observed this first growing on the rocks by the sea-side in this County, where it was sometimes dashed with the sea-water.

Fœniculum vulgare. Common Fennel or Finckle. Observed by Mr. Thomas Willisell to grow plentifully at the west-end of Pemsey-marsh.

Lathyri majoris species flore rubente & albido minore dumetorum, sive Germanicus J. B. sylvestris Dod. angustifolius Clusii ex sententia J. B. sylv. major C. B. sylv. Dodonæi Park. The other great wild Lathyrus or Pease-everlasting. I found this first near Poynings a village on the Downs of Sussex. Since, Mr. Dale hath found it in Essex.

Oenanthe Cicutæ facie Lobelii Park. Chærephylli foliis C. B. Succo viroso, Cicutæ facie Lobelio J. B. Filipendula Cicutæ facie Ger. Hemlock Drop-wort. Frequent in watery ditches and rivulets in his Country.

Peucedanum Ger. vulgare Park. Germanicum C. B. Minus Gcrmanicum J. B. Hogs-Fennel, Sulphur-wort, Hare-strong. In the marsh ditches about Shoreham.

ornament

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06