Britannia, by William Camden

Suth-Rey.

Rhey. Big S SURREY, call’d by Bede Suthriona, commonly Suthrey and Surrey, by the Saxons, from it’s situation on the South-side of the river, Saxon: Suthrea (for Saxon: Suth with them signifies the South, and ** Rea, C. Saxon: Ea a river:) joyns, on the West, to Barkshire and Hamshire, on the South to Sussex, on the East to Kent; and on the North it is wash’d, and parted from Middlesex, by the river Thames. The County is not very large, but pretty rich, where it lies upon the Thames; and where it is an open champain, it is tolerably fruitful in corn, and more so in hay, especially to the South, where a continu’d low vale runs along (call’d formerly from the woods, Holmsdale,)Holmsdale. which a mixture of woods, fields, and meadows, renders exceeding pleasant. Here and there, are long ridges of hills; the parks are every where stor’d with Deer, and the rivers with fish; which two afford the agreeable pleasures of hunting and fishing. It is by some compared to a coarse garment, or cloth of a slight and coarse make, with a green border; the inner part of the County being barren, but the outer, or as it were the Hem, more fruitful. In the survey of it, I will make the Thames, and the rivers that flow into it, my guides (by which means I shall omit nothing memorable; because all the places of any note for antiquity, lie upon the rivers:) ⌈having first premised in general, that the most considerable piece of Antiquity that this County affords us, is the famous Roman way call’d Stone-street,Stone-street. visible in several parts of it. It goes through Darking-church-yard; as they plainly find by digging the graves; and, between that place and Stansted, it is discover’d upon the hills, by making of ditches. Afterwards, in the Parish of OkeleyOkeley. (which in winter is extreamly wet) it is very plainly trac’d. Had not the civil wars prevented, we might before this time have had a more distinct account of it: for Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, had made some attempts towards the exact discovery of its remains, tracing it from Arundel through all the deep country of Sussex; but the wars coming on, hinder’d his further progress.⌉

The Thames (to go along with the stream of it) as soon as it has left Barkshire, glides to Chertsey,Chertsey. call’d ⌈in Saxon Saxon: Ceortesige and⌉ by Bede Ceroti Insula, i.e. the Island of Cerotus: but now it scarce makes a Peninsula, except in winter-time. In this, as a place most retir’d from the commerce of the world, Frithwald,666. a petty King of Surrey under Wulpher King of the Mercians (for so he stiles himself in the Foundation-Charter,) and Erchenwald Bishop of London, built a little Monastery in the infancy of the English Church, which was for some time the Burying-place of that most Religious King, Henry 6;Henry 6. whom the York-family, after they had dethron’d him, cut off, to make themselves secure of the Crown, and bury’d him here without the least mark of honour. But King Henry 7. removing him to Windsor, bury’d him in a New Tomb with the solemnity becoming a King, and was such an admirer of his Religion and Virtues (for he was an exact pattern of Christian piety and patience,) that he apply’d himself to Pope Julius, to have him put in the kalendar of the Saints. History of Canterbury. And this had certainly been done, if the Pope’s avarice had not stood in the way, who demanded too large a sum for the King’s Apotheosis or Canonization; which would have made it look, as if the honour had not been pay’d, so much to the sanctity of the Prince, as to the gold.

Surrey map, left. Note overlap. Surrey map, right. Note overlap.

Surrey

hagae AElfred Caesar

Below this place, the little river WeyWey. empties it self into the Thames; ⌈and brings-in great profits to this part of the County; having been made navigable by the industry (among others) of a worthy Knight, Sir Richard Weston late of Sutton-place; to whom the whole Shire is oblig’d, as for this, so for several other improvements, particularly CloverClover. and Saintfoine.⌉Saintfoine. Wey, running out of Hamshire, doth at it’s first coming into Surrey visit Feornham, commonly Farnham,Farnham. so nam’d as being a bed of ferns; given by Æthelbald AEthelbaldKing of the West-Saxons, to the Bishop and Congregation of the Church of Winchester. In this place it was, that about the year 893, King Alfred worsted the plundering Danes with a handful of men; and afterwards, when King Stephen had granted licence to all who sided with him, to build Castles, Henry of Blois, his brother and Bishop of Winchester, built a castle upon the hill that hangs over the town; which, because it was a harbour for sedition, King Henry 3. demolish’d; but after a long time, the Bishops of Winchester, whose it is to this day, rebuilt it. Not far from hence, at Waverley,Waverley. William Gifford Bishop of Winchester built a little monastery for Cistercian Monks. From thence the Wey ⌈receiving a little river, on which stands Oxenford,Oxenford. where, in digging, hath been found old English money, and also Rings; and then⌉ running by Godelminge,Godelminge. which King Alfred gave by Will to Æthelwald,AEthelwald his brother’s son; and not far from Catteshull-manour,Catteshull. which Hamo de Catton held, to be Marshal of the whores when the King should come into those parts; and at a little distance from ⌈Hascomb,Hascomb. in which Parish, Aubr. MS.on a place called Chapel-hill,Chapel-hill. are the Remains of an old Roman Camp; and from⌉ Loseley,Loseley. where, within a Park, I saw a delicate seat of the Knightly family of the Mores: By these Places (I say) the Wey comes to Guilford,Guilford. in Saxon Saxon: Gulde-ford, and in some Copies Gegldford. It is now a market-town of great resort, and well stor’d with good Inns; but was formerly a Vill of the English-Saxon Kings, and was by Will given to Athelwald, by his Uncle. There ¦ ¦ Is, C.was a house of the King’s, (tho’ * * So said, ann. 1607.gone much to decay;) and, not far from the river, the ruinous walls of an old castle, which has been pretty large. In the middle of the town is a Church, the east end whereof, being arch’d with stone, seems to be very ancient. Here (as we learn by Domesday-book) the King had seventy five† Hagæ.houses, wherein one hundred seventy five men dwelt. But it is famous for nothing so much as the treachery and inhumanity of Godwin Earl of Kent, who in the year of our Lord 1036, when Alfred, King Ethelred’s son, and heir to the Crown of England, came out of Normandy to demand his right, receiv’d him with solemn Assurances of safety, but presently treated him in such a manner, as was very inconsistent with that Promise. For, in the dead of the night, surprizing the six hundred Normans which were the retinue of the Royal youth, he punish’d them (as our Writers word it) by a Decimation:Military Decimation. not, according to the ancient Rules of War, by drawing out every tenth man by lot, and then killing him: but killing nine, he dismissed every tenth man; and afterwards, with the extreamest cruelty † † Redecimavit.retith’d those tenths which he had sav’d. And as to AElfred himself, he deliver’d him to Harold the Dane, who first put out his eyes, and then clapt him in chains, and kept him in prison to his dying day. ⌈This Place (noted heretofore for Clothing and Clothiers) hath given the Church of England since the Reformation two famous Prelates, George and Robert Abbot: the one Archbishop of Canterbury, who founded here a very fine Hospital, and lies bury’d in Trinity-Church; the other, that learned Bishop of Salisbury, his brother. They were both sons of a Clothier, and had a brother Sir Maurice Abbot, who was Lord Mayor of London, at the same time when they were Bishops. Upon which trade this Observation hath been made, That several of the most eminent families among the Nobility in this nation, have had their rise from it. Here is a curious Free-school founded by King Edward the 6th; to which (as also to Baliol-College in Oxford,) one Hammond was a great Benefactor. This place gave the title of Countess, to Elizabeth Viscountess of Keymelmeaky in Ireland, and that of Earl to John Maitland, Duke and Earl of Lauderdale. And, in the year 1683, Sir Francis North, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, was advanced to the honour of Baron of Guilford. Near Guilford, upon the river Wey, is the Friery, lately the seat of Daniel Colwall Esquire, adjoyning to which is a delightful Park; both, at present, the possession of the Lord Onslow, who, by marriage, hath made great accessions to the ancient Estate of that honourable Family. Something nearer the Thames, is Staughton,Staughton. the seat of a family of that name, whose Pedigree is probably as ancient as any in this County. But it is now at last out of that line, by the death of Sir Lawrence Staughton, Baronet, a young Gentleman of great hopes. About two miles from Guilford is Clandon-place,Clandon. the Seat of the Lord Onslow, descended from Onslow of Onslow-hall in Shropshire, an ancient Gentleman’s family. Their first settlement in this County was at Knowle in Crandley; thence they removed to Clandon-place, being pleasantly situate on the edge of Clandon-downe; from whence is a goodly prospect into ten several Counties. It is well shaded with wood, and supply’d with good water, and hath been much improv’d by the late possessor, Sir Richard Onslow, who was Speaker of the Honourable House of Commons, in the eighth year of the reign of Queen Anne, as his Ancestor of both the names was, in the eighth year of Queen Elizabeth; and who, as an Acknowledgment of his signal Services to his Country, and particularly of his firm Adherence to the Protestant Succession in the House of Hanover, was advanced by his Majesty King George, to the honour of Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Onslow of Onslow, and Clandon.⌉ From Guilford, the Wey runs towards the north for a long way together, and meets with nothing memorable; except Sutton,Sutton. the seat of the Westons Knights;Ann. 1607. Woking,Woking. a royal seat; and Pyriford,Pyriford. where, † † So said, ann. 1607.in our memory, Edward Earl of Lincoln and Baron Clinton, built a house ⌈enclosed with a pleasant Park, well wooded; to which belong large Royalties, Fish-ponds, and a delightful Decoy; now the seat of Denzill Onslow Esq; youngest son of Sir Richard Onslow, of Clandon-place:⌉ and in the neighbourhood is Ockham, where William de Ockham,William de Ockham. that great Philosopher and Founder of the Nominals, was born, and had his name from the place; ⌈now the seat of Sir Peter King, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, a person of great Learning and Knowledge. But where it comes to empty it self out of a double mouth into the Thames, we see OtelandesOtelandes. ⌈once⌉ a handsome seat of the King’s, within a park; ⌈but now so decayed, that it hardly bears the figure of a good Farm-house; having been demolished in the late Civil Wars.⌉ Near this,Where Cæsar pass’d the Thames. Cæsar pass’d the Thames, and enter’d the territories of Cassivelan. For this was the only place in the Thames formerly fordable, and caesar AEthelwolph Hypogaeum volcano that too not without great difficulty; which the Britains themselves in a manner pointed out to him. For on the other side of the river, a strong body of the British had planted themselves; and the bank it self was fenced with sharp stakes driven into the ground, and some of the same sort were fasten’d under water. The footsteps whereof (says Bede) are seen to this day; and it appears upon the view, that each of them is as thick as a man’s thigh, and that being soder’d with lead, they stick in the bottom of the river, immoveable. But the Romans enter’d the river with so much vigour and resolution, that tho’ they had only their heads above water, the Britains were not able to bear-up against them, but were forc’d to quit the bank, and flie. It is impossible, I should be mistaken in the place, because here the river is scarce six foot deep; and the place at this day, from those stakes, is call’d Coway-stakes;Coway-stakes. to which we may add, that Cæsar makes the bounds of Cassivelan, where he fixes this his passage, to be about 80 miles distant from that sea which washes the east part of Kent, where he landed: Now, this ford we speak of, is at the same distance from the sea; and I am the first that I know of, who has mention’d, and settled it in it’s proper place. ⌈Not far from hence, upon the Thames, is Walton, Walton.* * Aubr. MS.in which Parish is a great Camp of about twelve Acres, single work, and oblong. There is a road lies thro’ it, and it is probable, that Walton takes its name from this remarkable Vallum.⌉

Some few miles from Otelandes, towards the east, the little river MoleMole, riv. hastens into the Thames, after it has cross’d the County from the southern bound; but, being stop’d at last in it’s way, by the opposition of hills,Anas, a river in Spain. this, † † See more instances, in Seld. Polyolb. p.267.like that noble river of Spain Anas, forces open a passage underground, as if it were a Mole; from whence it has the name. But there is nothing famous upon this river; only, at some distance from it’s head (near the old military way of the Romans call’d Stanystreat)Stanystreat. is the town Aclea, commonly called Ockley,Ockley. from the Oaks. Here, Æthelwolph son of Egbert (who, notwithstanding he had enter’d into Holy Orders, did by dispensation from the Pope succeed his father in the kingdom) engag’d the Danish army, with success (for he kill’d most of their bravest men;) tho’ with no great advantage to his country; that Danish Hydra still sprouting-up a-new. ⌈Here also, is a certain custom, observ’d time out of mind, of planting Rose-trees upon the graves, especially by the young men and maids, who have lost their lovers; so that this Churchyard is now full of them. It is the more remarkable, because we may observe it to have been anciently us’d, both among the Greeks and Romans; who were so very religious in it, that we find it often annex’d as a Codicil to their Wills; (as appears by an old Inscription at Ravenna, and another at Milan,) by which they order’d Roses to be yearly strew’d and planted upon their graves. Hence, that of * * L.1. Eleg.2.Propertius, implying the usage of burying amidst Roses (Et tenerâ poneret ossa rosâ:) and old Anacreon speaking of it, says, that it does Greek text, protect the dead.

Upon the edge of Sussex is OkewoodOkewood. (all that part being formerly one continu’d wood of Oaks,) where stands a desolate Chapel of Ease to five large Parishes; three in Surrey, and two in Sussex, built by Edward de la Hale, as appears by a monument of the pious Donor, who dy’d 1431. and lies buried here. The revenues that of right belong to it, are above 200 l. per Ann. out of which there is not allowed above twenty Nobles to one who now and then reads Prayers to them. It is so much the more deplorable, because the alienation long since appears to have been made, through a mistake; for it was made in Queen Elizabeth’s time, by virtue of an Inquisition unjustly taken, upon pretence of its being a Chantry for the maintenance of a Mass-priest to pray for the soul of the Founder. Whereas, really, it was built and endow’d for no other use, but a Chapel of Ease, to instruct the people of the adjoyning Parishes, who were at too great a distance from their own Parish-Churches. Near this place, are certain Pitts, out of which Jett has been sometimes dug.

But to return towards the north; at the head of a river which runs into the Wey, not far from Guilford, is Abinger;Abinger. near the Church-yard whereof is a heap or mount cast up, which some imagine to have been a small fortress rais’d by the Danes or Saxons. But it is plain, it was done by neither; but by the neighbouring people, whom the high grounds on which they live, put under a necessity of contriving a pond to water their cattle; and this rubbish was thrown out of that place. The foremention’d river, rising out of a hill hereabouts, runs to Albury,Albury. which (when but a mean structure) was yet the delight of that excellent person Thomas Earl of Arundel, a great lover of Antiquities; who, purchasing this place of the Randylls, made it his darling. Henry his grandson, Duke of Norfolk, had no less affection for it: he began there a magnificent Pile, cut a Canal, planted spacious Gardens and Vineyards, adorn’d with Fountains, Grots, &c. But what is above all singular and remarkable, is, the Design of an Hypogæum, or Perforation, through a mighty hill, and large enough at one end for a Coach to pass; about a furlong or more in length, and leading over, into an agreeable and pleasant valley. It was at first intended for a way to the house, but a rock at the south-end hinder’d that design. This noble seat is enclos’d with a Park, and much improv’d by the Right honourable Heneage Finch, now Earl of Ailesford, a person of great knowledge in the Laws and Constitution of this Realm; who having purchas’d it of the father of the present Duke of Norfolk, is daily adding to its beauty. Nor is this place less celebrated for that famous Mathematician William Oughtred, who liv’d and dy’d Rector of this Parish; wherein are also the Remains of an ancient squareAubr. MS. Roman Building, and a Circle within it, suppos’d to be a Temple; the ground-pinnings of both which, and also some of the bases of the Pillars, were plainly visible in the last age, but have been since dug-up for the sake of the Stones and Bricks; as in the present age, pieces of Roman tiles and bricks have been found on the heath, where hath been a great deal of building in old time.

At a little distance from hence, is St. Martha’s Chapel,St. Martha’s Chapel. seated conspicuously on a copp’d mountain. This seems to have been thrown-up by some fiery Eruption or Vulcano, as several other such Elevations towards the edge of Sussex confirm. Beneath this hill, is Chilworth,Chilworth. the seat of Morgan Randyll Esq; owner of the most considerable Powder-works (brought first into England by George Evelyn Esq;) and best Hop-gardens in England. And, not far off, is Tower-hill,Tower-hill. the seat of the Brays, a very ancient and honourable family. But to return to the Mole;⌉ a little way from the head of this river, stands Gatton,Gatton. now hardly a village, tho’ formerly a famous town. For an argument of it’s antiquity, it shews Roman Coins dug-up there, and sends two Burgesses to Parliament. Lower, is Rhie-gate,Rhie-gate. (i.e. according to our ancient language, the course or chanel of a small river) standing in a vale, which runs a great way eastward, and is call’d HolmesdaleHolmesdale. ⌈probably from Holm-trees, which abound very much through all this tract;)⌉ the inhabitants whereof, because once or twice they defeated the plundering Danes, have this rhime in their own commendation:

The vale of Holmesdall
Never wonne, ne never shall
.

This Rhie-gate is more considerable for it’s largeness, than buildings: on the south-side of it, is a park full of little groves; wherein the most noble Charles Earl of Nottingham, Baron of Effingham, and Lord High Admiral of England, † † Has, C.had his seat; and where formerly the Earls of Warren and Surrey built a small Monastery. On the east-side is a Castle standing upon a high-ground, now neglected, and decay’d with age; it was built by the same Earls, and is commonly call’d Holmes-castle,Holmes-castle. from the vale in which it stands. Under this, there is a wonderful Vault, of arched work made of free-stone, the same with that of the hill it self, and hollow’d with great labour. The Earls of Warren (as it is in the book of Inquisitions) held it in chief of the King in his Barony, from the Conquest of England. ⌈In the 11th year of King Charles the second, In Baronia sua de Conquestu Angliæ.Charles Mordaunt, second son of John Earl of Peterborough, was advanced to the dignity of a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Mordaunt of Rhie-gate.⌉ From thence the Mole runs by Bechworth-castle,Bechworth-castle. for which Thomas Brown procur’d the privilege of a Fair, of Henry the 6th. For it was the seat of the Knightly family of the BrownsBrowns. (of which, in the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.our Grandfathers, after Anthony Brown had marry’d Lucy fourth daughter of John Nevil Marquess of Montacute, with whom he had a considerable fortune; Queen Mary honour’d his grandchild by his son with the title of Viscount Montacute;) ⌈But now that name, after a long series of Knights, is at last extinguish’d in a daughter. Between Bechworth and Darking stands Deepden,Deepden. the situation whereof is somewhat surprising, by reason of the risings and uniform acclivities about it; which naturally resemble a Roman Amphitheatre, or rather indeed a Theatre: it is open at the north-end, and is of an oval form. Now it is most ingeniously cast, and improv’d into gardens, vineyards, and other plantations, both on the Area below, and on the sides of the environing hills; with frequent grotts here and there beneath the terraces, leading to the top; from whence one has a fair prospect of that part of Surrey, and of Sussex, as far as the South-downs, for near 30 miles out-right. The honourable Charles Howard (Lord of half the manour of Darking) is solely entitled to this ingenious contrivance.

Going along Holmesdale (which extends it self to the foot of that ledge of Mountains which stretch and link themselves from the utmost promontory of Kent to the Lands-end,) we have on the right hand White-down,White-down. where is a vast Delf of chalk, which in summer-time they carry with great labour as far as the middle of Sussex; as they bring of the same material, from the opposite hills by the sea-coast of that County: and these two being mingled tother, are burnt into lime for the enriching of their grounds. Here are likewise dug-up cockle-shells, and other Lusus naturæ, with pyrites, bedded an incredible depth within the bowels of the mountains; upon which many Yew-trees grow spontaneously, tho’ of late they are much diminish’d, and their places taken up with corn. Not far from the bottom of this hill, stands an ancient seat of the Evelyns of Wotton,Wotton. among several streams gliding thro’ the meadows, adorn’d with gentle risings, and woods which as it were encompass it. And these, together with the gardens, fountains, and other hortulane ornaments, have given it a place and name amongst the most agreeable seats. In opening the ground of the Church-yard of Wotton, to enlarge a Vault belonging to this family, they met with a Skeleton which was nine foot and three inches long, as the worthy and famous Mr. John Evelyn had it attested by an ancient and understanding Man then present (who accurately measur’d it, and mark’d the length on a pole,) with other workmen, who affirm’d the same. They found it lying in full length between two boards of the coffin; and measur’d it, before they had discompos’d the bones. But trying to take it out, it fell all to pieces; for which reason they flung it amongst the rest of the rubbish, after they had separately measur’d several of the more solid bones.

Hereabouts, is a thing remarkable, tho’ but little taken notice of; I mean, that curious prospect from the top of Lith-hill,Lith-hill. which from Wotton rises almost insensibly for two or three miles south; but then has a declivity almost as far as Horsham in Sussex, eight miles distant. From hence, one sees, in a clear day, the goodly Vale, and consequently the whole County, of Sussex, as far as the South-downs, and even beyond them to the sea; the entire County of Surrey; part of Hamshire, Barkshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Hertfordshire; as also of Middlesex, Kent, and Essex; and farther yet (as is believ’d) into Wiltshire, &c. could one well distinguish them without the aid of a Telescope. The whole circumference cannot be less than two hundred miles, far exceeding that of the Keep at Windsor, over which (as also over the City of London twenty five miles distant) one sees as far as the eye, unarm’d with the glass, is able to distinguish land from sky. The like, I think, is not to be found in any part of England, or perhaps Europe, besides: and the reason why it is not more observ’d, is, partly its lying quite out of any road, and partly its rising so gently, and making so little show till one is got to the very top of it. From the side thereof, a great part of the brow is slidden down into the grounds below, caus’d by a delf of stones dug out of the sides of the mountain; and the bare places (from whence the earth is parted) being of a reddish colour, plainly appear above forty miles off. Here, we must not forget Darking,Darking. memorable for a very large Camp in that Parish, near Homebury-hill,Homebury-hill. and not far from the road between Darking and Arundel. It is double trench’d and deep, containing by estimation ten acres at least.⌉ A few miles to the north-west, we see Effingham,Effingham. formerly the possession of William Howard (that Conqueror of the Scots, son to Thomas Duke of Norfolk,) who was created Baron Howard of Effingham by Queen Mary; and being made Lord High Admiral of England, was first, Chamberlain to Queen Elizabeth, and afterwards Keeper of the Privy-Seal. His son Charles succeeded him, in * * And is now, C.a flourishing condition, and † † Is, C.was also made Lord High Admiral of England; whom the same Elizabeth, in the year 1597, for his valour and great services, advanced to the dignity of Earl of Nottingham.

⌈The honour of this place still remains in the same Family, being now enjoyed by Thomas, the present Lord Howard of Effingham.⌉ But to return to the River.

The Mole, coming to Whitehill,White-hill. upon which box-tree grows in great abundance, hides it self, or is rather (a) swallow’d-up at the foot of the † † Hill, C.Castle there; and for that reason, the place is call’d Swallow:The Swallow. but about two miles below, it bubbles up and rises again; so that the Inhabitants of this tract, no less than the Spaniards, may boast of havingA bridge upon which flocks of sheep feed. a bridge that feeds several flocks of sheep. For the Spaniard has made this a common proverb, in relation to the place where the river Anas (now call’d Guadiana) runs under-ground for ten miles together. Our river Mole appearing again, ⌈spreads it self so very wide, as to require a bridge of many arches (a stately fabrick, of stone, and tyles laid flat upon one another;)⌉ and goes with a slow current to the Thames, and enters it hard by Moseley,Moseley. to which it communicates the name; ⌈having in its course seen Letherhead,Letherhead.
Aubr. MS.
on which Down is a perfect Roman way, in the road from London to Darking: between Guilford and Ripley, and between Richmond and Putney in this County, the Roman High-way doth also appear in several Places.⌉

(a) Notwithstanding this, there is now an open Chanel above-ground, which winds round, in the Valleys, as other Rivers do, all the way from Darking to Letherhead; with a constant stream of Water, for the greatest part of the year. Nor can it be certain, that that part of the Water which sinks here into the earth, directs its course under-ground, the very same way that the Chanel runs above-ground; nor, by consequence, that the Bubblings-up near Letherhead, are the waters of the old River; but they may as well be Springs which arise in that place; and the waters of the Mole, for ought we can tell, may run a quite contrary way.

After our Thames has receiv’d the Mole, it runs directly to the North; by KingstoneKingstone. (formerly call’d Moreford, Matth. Paris.as some would have it,) a market-town of very great resort, and once famous for the castle of the Clares Earls of Glocester; having had it’s rise out of the ruins of a more ancient little town of the same name, situate in a level ground, and much expos’d to inundations. In this town, when the Danish wars had almost destroy’d England, Athelstan, Edwin, and Ethelred, Kings, were inaugurated; whereupon, from the Kings, it came to be call’d Kingston,Aubr. MS. i.e. a Royal Town. ⌈East from hence, upon a gravelly hill, near the road, was a burying-place of the Romans. Here are often found Urns, and pieces of Urns, which lie about two foot deep. One particularly was discover’d about the year 1670. of a kind of amber-colour, fill’d-up half way with black ashes, and at the bottom something like coarse hair, as if it had been laid there before. At a little distance from the Thames, we see Combe-Nevil,Combe-Nevil. a seat of the Harveys, where have been found Medals and Coins of several of the Roman Emperors, especially of Dioclesian, the Maximinians, Maximus, Constantine the Great, &c. and between this place and Wimbledon, is a round Camp; supposed therefore to be a work of the Danes.⌉

In the neighbourhood of Kingston, the Kings of England chose them a seat, which from its shining or splendour they call’d Shene,Richmond, the place and village call’d Shene before Henry 7. but now it has the name of Richmond. ⌈This, on account of the wholsomness of the Air, became the usual Nursery of our late Princes and Princesses, when Children.⌉ Here it was, that the most Potent Prince,Edward 3. King Edward 3. after he had liv’d enough both to glory and nature, dy’d of grief for the loss of his warlike son; whose death was such an affliction to him, and to all England, as was not to be conquer’d by the ordinary methods of Consolation. And indeed, if ever England had a just occasion for sorrow, then it was. For in the space of one year, it was entirely bereav’d of it’s two great Ornaments in military discipline and untainted Valour. Both these carry’d their conquering swords through France; and put such a terror into that Kingdom, as might deservedly give the father, with Antiochus, the name of a Thunderbolt, and the son, with Pyrrhus, that of an Eagle. Here also dy’d Anne, Wife of King Richard 2, Sister to Wenzelaus the Emperor; and Daughter to the Emperor Charles 4. She first taught the English-women the way of riding on horse-back which is now in use; whereas formerly their custom was (tho’ a very unbecoming one) to ride astride like the men. Her husband laid her death so much to heart, and mourn’d so immoderately, that he neglected and even abhorr’d the very house. But King Henry 5. beautify’d it with new buildings; and in Shene,Shene. an adjoyning little village, he founded a Monastery of Carthusians, which he call’d Bethlehem.Bethlehem. Phoenix In Henry the 7th’s time, this royal seat was quite burnt down by a most lamentable fire; but, like a Phœnix, sprung again out of it’s own ashes with greater beauty, by the assistance of the same Henry, and took the new name of Richmond, from that Country whereof he had been Earl, whilst a private person. This Henry had scarce put the last hand to his new structure, but he ended his days here; by whose care, industry, counsel, prudence, and foresight, the Kingdom of England has stood hitherto unshaken. From hence it was also, that ninety years after,Queen Elizabeth’s death, 1603. his Grandchild the most Serene Queen Elizabeth, after she had as it were glutted nature with length of days upon Earth (for she was about seventy years of age,) was receiv’d by Almighty God into the heavenly Quire. A Princess, far exceeding her sex, both in courage and conduct; as in face, so in disposition, the true picture of her grandfather; the love of the world, and the delight of Britain. And so far was she, tho’ but a woman, from coming short of the lasting and renown’d Virtues of her Ancestors, that, if she did not exceed, she did at least fully equal them. Let posterity believe this, without the least doubt or scruple, (for I do not corrupt Truth with flattery,) That a Virgin for 44 years together, did govern the Nation with that Prudence, as to be belov’d by her subjects, fear’d by her enemies, and admir’d by all; a pattern, such as no Age hitherto can produce the like. Her death put England under such a general grief, that it must have lain in despair and desolation, without the least prospect of comfort; but that immediately upon her departure, the most Serene James, the true and undoubted heir, mark’d-out by all hearts and eyes for her successor, shed forth his beams of Comfort, and possessed all his Subjects with the hopes of a lasting Happiness. When they look’d upon him, they could scarce believe her dead. Tho’, why should we talk of her dying, whose immortal virtues still live, and whose sacred memory will ever be preserv’d, both in the minds of Men, and the Annals of Time?

How far the Tide goes up the Thames. As far as this place, the Thames receives the Tide, about 60 Italian miles from the mouth.

And there is no other river in Europe that I know of, where the tide comes up so many miles; to the great advantage of those who live near it. Why it goes so far. Whether it be, that from this place there are hardly any windings, but the river is carry’d eastward in a chanel more direct, and is generally fenc’d with higher banks, and opens a wider mouth than other rivers, to let in the Sea V. Scalig. de Subtil. Exerc.52. Seld. in Polyolb. pag.208.(which, as I have long thought, by the rapid circulation of the orbs from east to west, is carry’d the same way;) this I leave to the enquiry of Philosophers, to whose judgments I willingly submit, in this and the like matters. However, concerning these places, and this subject, take some few verses (if you can relish them) out of The wedding of Tame and Isis.

A dextra, nobis Richmondia, Shena vetustis
Celsa nitet, sapiens namque hanc Richmondia dici
Henricus voluit, sibi quod retulisset honorem
Et titulos Comitis Richmondia jure paterno:
Hectoris Edwardi sed deflet funera nostri;
Proh dolor! hic illi regi mens libera cessit
Corpore contempto, sedes habitura supernas.
Quem si non subito rapuissent ferrea fata,
Aut te Valesiis rapuisset Gallia victor,
Aut tibi Valesios
.

Now stately Richmond to the right is seen,
Richmond, whose name, wise Henry chang’d from Sheen,
Who Richmond’s Earl had by his father been.
Long this our Hector Edward’s fate hath mourn’d,
Who’s godlike soul from hence to heav’n return’d,
And left the mortal fetters that it scorn’d.
Ah! had not the blest powers Thee call’d too soon,
Or Valois had resign’d the Gallick crown,
Or that had Valois lost.—

And a few Verses after;

Tamisis alternum sentit reditumque fugamque
Huc reflui pelagi, quoties vaga Cynthia pronos
Octavâ librat cœli statione jugales.
Aut tenet oppositam varianti lumine plagam,
Plenior increscit celeremque recurrit in æstum:
Atque superbus ait, Concedant flumina nobis,
Nulla per Europæ dotatas nomine terras
Flumina tam longè sic certis legibus undas
Alternas renovant, nisi fratres Scaldis, & Albis
.

Here Thame’s great current with alternate course
Maintains it’s rise and fall at constant hours.
When Phœbe rests at our Meridian line,
Or i’th’ Horizon point does faintly shine,
In hasty waves the rushing waters joyn.
While the proud river thus his worth proclaims;
“Great you that Europe boasts her noblest streams,
 Yield all to me: for such an ebb and flow
 No rival flood but Scheld and Elb can show.”

⌈In this neighbourhood, is a delightful Park belonging to the Kings, and enclosed for the diversion of hunting; adjoyning to which, are two pleasant Seats, Ham,Ham. the Seat of the Lord Dysert, and Petersham,Petersham. a Seat of the Earl of Rochester.⌉

More inward, at about four miles distance from the Thames, None-such,None-such. a retiring seat of our Kings, * * Eclipses, C.eclips’d all the neighbouring buildings. It was erected by that magnificent Prince, King Henry the 8th, in a very wholsom air; (being called before, Cuddington,)Cuddington. and was design’d by him for a place of pleasure and diversion. It † † Is, C.was so magnificent, and withal so beautiful, as to arrive at the highest pitch of ostentation; and one would think, that the whole art of Architecture had been crowded into this single work. So many images to the life ¦ ¦ Are, C.were upon all sides of it, so many wonders of workmanship, as * * May, C.might even vie with the remains of Roman Antiquity; so that it † † May, C.might lay just claim to the name, and ¦ ¦ Is, C.was very able to support it; None-such being in Latin Nulla ejusmodi, or, as Leland expresses it in verse,

Hanc, quia non habeant similem, laudare Britanni
Sæpe solent
, Nullique parem, cognomine dicunt.

Beyond the rest the English this extol,
And None-such do by eminency call.

The house † † Is, C.was so surrounded with parks full of deer, delicate orchards and gardens, groves adorn’d with arbours, little garden-beds, and walks shaded with trees; that * * Amœnitas cum Salubritate.Pleasure and Health might seem to have made choice of this place, wherein to live together. But Queen Mary exchang’d it with Henry Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundel, for other Lands; and he, after he had inlarg’d it with a well-furnish’d Library, and some new works, left it at his death to the Baron Lumley, a person whose whole course of life was truly answerable to his high character: from him, by bargain, it return’d to the Crown. ⌈But now there is nothing left of all this noble and curious Structure, scarce one stone remaining upon another; which havock is owing to the late Civil Wars.⌉ Near this place (for I cannot think it unworthy the mentioning) is a vein of potter’s earth, out of which those little vessels, that the goldsmiths use to melt their gold in, are made; and upon that account it carries a good price.

The small and clear river Vandal,The Vandal riv. abounding with the best trouts, rises at Cashalton, a little distant from hence, and, running by Morden, washes a town upon it’s western bank, situate in a most fruitful place, call’d Merton,Merton. in Saxon Saxon: Meredune, formerly famous for the death of Kenulph King of the West-Saxons, who was slain in the cottage of a certain harlot here (his Mistress) by † † Clyto.Prince Kinehard; and the Prince himself, being presently kill’d upon the spot by the friends of Kenulph, was punish’d as his treachery deserv’d. Now, it shews nothing but the ruins of a monastery built by Henry 1, at the instance of Gilbert Viscount of Surrey, which was famous for a Parliament1235. held in it under Henry 3.

Afterwards, the Vandal is augmented by a small river from the east, which rises at Croydon,Croydon. formerly Cradiden, lying under the hills, and particularly famous for a Palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury (whose it has been now AEthelbert Vagniacae wandsworth battersea dulwich lambeth canute cnut a long time) † † Ann. 1607.and for Coals, which the inhabitants trade withal. They tell you that a Royal palace stood formerly on the west part of the town, near Haling, where the rubbish of buildings is now and then dug-up by the husbandmen; and that the Archbishops, after it was bestow’d on them by the King, added it to their own palace, nigher the river. Near which, the most Reverend father in God, John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, of blessed memory, out of a most pious disposition, built and endow’d a beautiful Hospital for the relief of the poor, and a School for the promotion of Learning. The bourn. As to the torrent which the vulgar affirm to rise here sometimes, as a presage of dearth and pestilence; it seems hardly worth the mentioning, tho’ perhaps it may have something of truth in it. Near this place is Beddington,Beddington. where is a most neat and curious house, adorn’d with pleasant orchards and gardens, ⌈first⌉ built by Sir Francis Carew Knight. For it is an ancient seat of the Carews, who are descended from Nicholas Baron Carew of Moulesford (the Carews of Devonshire have the same original too) and have flourish’d a long time in this County; especially, since J. Carew marry’d the daughter and one of the two coheirs of the noble Baron Hoo. ⌈But as the Orchards and Gardens in general, so particularly its Orange-trees, deserve our mention. They have now been growing there more than a hundred years, and are planted in the open ground, under a moveable Covert during the winter-months. They were the first that were brought into England, by a Knight of that noble family; who deserves no less commendation than Lucullus met-with, for bringing cherry and filbert-trees out of Pontus into Italy: for which we find him celebrated by Pliny and others. At some distance from hence, is Bottle-hill,Bottle-hill. on the top of which is a Roman camp, with a single rampart, and square; and another, on the top of a neighbouring hill, near Katheram.⌉

Wibbandune, now commonly Wimbledon,Wimbledon. is seated upon the other bank of the Vandal, where The first civil wars among the Saxons.(after the British war was ended, and too much happiness began to breed civil dissentions among the Saxons) Æthelbert King of Kent first rais’d a civil war against his own Countrymen. But Ceaulin, King of the West-Saxons, happily defeated him in this place, with a very great slaughter on Æthelbert’s side; particularly the two Captains Oslan and Cneben were slain; from the latter whereof, it is possible that the military fortification I saw here, of a circular form, call’d Bensbury,Bensbury. for Cnebensbury, might take it’s name. Now, it’s greatest ornament is a house, as stately in it’s structure, so made exceeding pleasant by it’s prospect and gardens; it was built by Sir Thomas Cecil Kt. son of that most wise and prudent Statesman the Lord Burghley, in the year 1588, when the Spanish Armada was upon our coasts.

Two miles from hence to the south, on the very top of a hill, is a little wood call’d at this day Woodcote,Woodcote. where are the plain remains of a small Town, and several Wells built of little pieces of flints; ⌈besides other certain marks of Antiquity:⌉ the neighbourhood talk much of it’s ancient populousness and wealth, and number of it’s † † Patriciorum.Senators. ⌈It is now a pleasant seat among groves, much adorn’d of late years; to which belong those medicinal Wells,Epsom-Wells. that rise in the adjoyning Common. They are tinctur’d with Allom, and are in so much repute, as to occasion a very great increase of buildings in the parish of Epsom, for the reception and entertainment of such as resort hither for the sake of the Spaws, with the diversion of the Downs hard by.⌉ This Woodcote I take to be the City which Ptolemy calls Noiomagus, Antoninus Noviomagus;Noviomagus. nor need I insist upon any other arguments for it, besides that of distance. For it is ten miles from London, and eighteen from Vagniacæ or Maidston; the distance that is noted by the old Itinerary. They therefore are very much out of the way, who have plac’d this Noviomagus either at Buckingham, or Guilford.* * Perhaps at Hollow-wood-hill: see Kent. It was the chief City of the REGNI, and is taken notice of by Marinus Tyrius, a very ancient Geographer, whom Ptolemy thought fit to censure, because he had put Noviomagus in Britain in a more northerly Climate than London, and yet in the method of his Itinerary had made it more southerly. ⌈To the west, is Ashsted,Ashsted. where the honourable Sir Robert Howard (brother to the Earl of Barkshire) enclos’d a fair new house within a park, and laid out and planted the fields, pastures, and arables about it in such order and with so great improvements, as to make it vye with the most considerable dry-seats in this County. There was near it, formerly, a mean decay’d farm-house; yet for the wholsom air breathing from the hills, it was often resorted to by Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, of whose grandson Sir Robert purchas’d it.⌉

Upon the Thames, next to the mouth of the Vandal (where is a little town call’d from it Wandlesworth,)Wandlesworth. stands the small village Batersey,Batersey. in old Saxon Saxon: Patryks-ea, and in latin Patricii insula, i.e. Patrick’s Isle; ⌈which gives the title of Baron to Henry St. John (created also, at the same time, Viscount St. John) who hath his seat here. Not far from which lies Dullwich; where William Allen (sometime a famous Comedian) did in the reign of King James 1. erect and endow a pretty College and a fair Chapel, for six poor men, and as many poor women; with a school for the education of twelve children. Here are also Medicinal Springs call’d Sidnam-wells,Sidnam-wells. as there are likewise at Streeteham; both frequented in their proper seasons.⌉ Near these, was the Royal seat call’d Kennington,Kennington. whither the Kings of England us’d to retire; the discovery of which it is in vain to aim at or endeavour, there appearing neither name nor ruins to direct us. Next is LambithLambith. or Lomehith, that is, a dirty station or harbour; formerly made famous by the death of Canutus the valiant King of England, who there breath’d-out his last, in the middle of his Cups. For he, giving himself over to eating and drinking, ordered (as Henry of Huntingdon has it) that a Royal meal should be serv’d up to his whole Court four times a day; chosing rather that dishes should be sent off his Table untouch’d by those whom he had invited, than that other dishes should be call’d for by those who came uninvited. But now, it is more famous for the Palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury. For about the year of Christ 1183, Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury, by exchange with the ¦ ¦ Bishop, C.Church of Rochester, became possess’d of a manour in this place, wherein he began a Palace for him and his successors; and this, by little and little, was enlarged by them. But when the Archbishops began to have thoughts of building a small Collegiate Church here; Good God! what numbers of Appeals were pack’d to Rome by the Monks of Canterbury? and what thundrings, threatnings, and censures, were level’d by the Pope against the Archbishops? For the Monks were jealous, that this might prove an encroachment upon their Privileges, and deprive them of their right to elect the Archbishop. Nor could these disturbances be quieted, till the little Church which they had begun, was, at the instance of the Monks, laid level with the ground. Near this ⌈(over the fields call’d St. George’s fields, in which a Roman High-way is still visible,)⌉ is the most famous mart-town of all the County, call’d at this day the Burrough of Southwark,Southwark. in Saxon Saxon suthwerke, i.e. a work or building to the south, situated so to the south over-against London, as that it seems to be a sort of suburbs to it; but yet so large and populous, that it may vie with most Cities in England, being as it were a distinct Corporation of it self. For within the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.our Fathers, it had it’s own Bailifs, but in the reign of Edward 6, it was annex’d to the City of London, and is at this day reckon’d a Member of it. For which reason we will defer the Account of this place, till we come to London. ⌈Only, one thing we will take notice of here, which bears no relation to the said City; viz, the Grant of St. Mary Overey’s Church to the Church-wardens and their Successors for ever, together with the Tithes, to provide two Chaplains at their pleasure, who are neither presented nor endowed; and thus it differs from all other Churches in England. In this Church, lie bury’d the learned Bishop Andrews, and our famous English Poet Gower. But a very ample and ancient palace, with fair gardens, belonging to the Bishops of Winchester, is now converted into Tenements.⌉

Beneath this, the Thames leaves Surrey; the east-bound whereof runs in a direct line to the south, near Lagham, which in the reign of Edward 1, had it’s Parliamentary Barons,Barons S. John de Lagham. call’d S. John de Lagham, whose estate came at last by a daughter and heir to J. Leodiard. Somewhat lower, almost in the very corner where it borders both upon Sussex and Kent, is Sterborrow-castle, formerly the seat of the Lords de Cobham, who from this place were nam’d de Sterborrow;Sterborrow. and being descended from John de Cobham Lord of Cobham and Couling, and from the daughter of Hugh Nevil, flourish’d for a long time in great splendour and reputation. For Reginald, in the reign of Edward 3, was made Knight of the Garter, and Admiral of the Coast from the Thames-mouth westward. But Thomas the last of them, marrying Anne daughter of the Duke of Buckingham, had by her one only daughter Anne, marry’d to Edward Burgh, descended from the Percies and Earls of Athol. His son Thomas was created Baron BurghBarons Borough or Burgh. by King Henry 8, and left a son William, father to Thomas, who was a great encourager of Learning, and Governour of Briel, and was made by Queen Elizabeth Knight of the Garter and Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he dy’d ⌈in defence of his country.⌉ As to the account of Eleanor Cobham of this family, wife to Humphrey Duke of Glocester, whose reputation was somewhat tainted; I refer you to the English Histories. ⌈Here, in the close, we must not omit the mention of one, who was a general Benefactor to the whole County. His name was Smith, once a Silver-smith in London; but he did not follow that trade long. He afterwards went a begging for many years, and was commonly call’d Dog-Smith,Dog-Smith. because he had a Dog which always follow’d him. When he dy’d, he left a very great Estate in the hands of Trustees upon a general account of Charity, and more particularly for Surrey. (a) But this Charity was not limited to Surrey, but left to the Trustees to extend to other places of the kingdom, as they found occasion; and so, the revenue is greater out of this County, than what is paid in it.⌉

(a) After the Trustees had made a considerable improvement of the estate, and purchas’d several Farms, they settled Fifty Pounds per Ann. or thereabouts upon every market-town in Surrey, or gave one Thousand Pounds in money. Upon every Parish, except one or two, they settled a yearly revenue; upon some six Pounds; others eight Pounds; and upon the rest more or less, as they thought convenient.

We must now reckon up the Earls.Earls of Surrey, who were also call’d Earls of Warren. Arms of the Earls of Warren. William Rufus, King of England, first made William de Warren Governour of Surrey, under the title of Earl; whose Arms were Checky, Or and azure. For in his Foundation-Charter of the Priory of Lewis, we read thus: I have given, &c. for the good of my master King William, who brought me over into England, and for the good of my Lady Queen Maud, my wife’s mother, and for the good of my master King William his son, after whose coming into England I made this Charter, and who created me Earl of Surrey, &c. To him succeeded his son, and his grandchild by him, of the same name. But this last had only a daughter, who brought the same title, by marriage, first to William, son of King Stephen, and afterwards to Hamelin base son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou. But the first husband dying without issue, Hamelin had by her William Earl of Surrey; whose posterity, taking the name of Warrens, bore the same title. This William marry’d the eldest daughter and coheir of William Marshal Earl of Pembroke, widow of Hugh Bigod; and had by her, John: and John, by Alice daughter of Hugh le * * Earls of March in France.Brune, sister by the mother’s side to King Henry 3, had William, who dy’d before his father, and had by Joanna Vere, daughter of the Earl of Oxford, John, who was born after the death of his father, and was the last Earl of this family. He was (as I learn’d from his seal) Earl of Warren, Surrey, and Strathern in Scotland; Lord of Bromfeld and Yale, andComes Palatii.Count Palatine. But he dying without lawful issue in the 21st of Edward 3, his sister and heir Alice was marry’d to Edmund Earl of Arundel, and by that marriage brought this honour into the family of the Arundels; from which it came at last by the Mowbrays to the Howards. For Thomas Mowbray marry’d the eldest sister and coheir of Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey. In the mean time, Richard 2. conferr’d the title of Duke of Surrey upon Thomas Holland Earl of Kent, who did not enjoy that honour long. For, while he was secretly endeavouring to rescue the same Richard then taken prisoner, and to restore him to his Crown, his plot was discover’d, and himself, making his escape, was seiz’d by the town of Cirencester, and beheaded. Next, Thomas de Beaufort, who was the King’s Chancellor, was possess’d of this honour; if we may believe Thomas Walsingham: For he tells us, that in the year 1410, The Lord Thomas Beaufort Earl of Surrey, dy’d. But let Walsingham make good his assertion; for no such thing appears in the Records; but only that Thomas de Beaufort was about that time made Chancellor. It is evident however from the publick Records of the Kingdom, that King Henry 6. in the 29th year of his reign, created John Mowbray, son of John Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Warren and Surrey; and at length, King Richard 3. after he had villanously possess’d himself of the Crown, did, in order to win the family of the Howards (descended from the Mowbrays) to his own party, create on the same day John Baron Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and Thomas his son, Earl of Surrey; in whose posterity this honour continu’d, and doth still remain. ⌈For from this Thomas, whom Richard 3. made Earl of Surrey, three of the same name and family successively enjoy’d the Honour; the last whereof dying 1646, was succeeded by Henry his son, and Henry by his son Thomas; who dying without issue, the title descended to Henry his brother, who was succeeded by a son of the same name: but he leaving no issue, was succeeded by Thomas the present Earl, son of Thomas Lord Howard, his younger brother.

This County hath 140 Parish-Churches.

More rare Plants growing wild in Surrey.

Aria Theophrasti Ger. See the Synonymes in Somersetshire. The white Beam-tree, or mountain Service-tree. About Croydon. Park. 1421. Common in the Copses near the Downs.

Acorus verus sive Calamus Officinarum Park. Verus, sive Calamus aromaticus Officinarum C. B. Verus, Officinis falso Calamus Ger. Calamus aromaticus vulgaris, multis Acorum J. B. The sweet-smelling Flag or Calamus. Found by Dr. Brown of Magdalen Coll. Oxon. about Hedley in this County.

Buxus arbor. The Box-tree. On Box-hill near Darking, thence denominated, plentifully.

Dentaria major Matthiolo Ger. Orobanche radice dentata major C. B. radice dentata, seu Dentaria major Matthiolo Park. Anblatum Cordi sive Aphyllon J. B. The greater Tooth-wort. Thomas Willisell shew’d it me in a shady lane not far from Darking in this County growing plentifully.

Rapunculus corniculatus montanus. See the Synonymes in Hampshire Cat. Horned mountain-Rampion with a round head of flowers. On many places of the Downs.

Vicia Lathyroides nostras, seu Lathyrus Viciæformis. Chichling Vetch. Found by Thomas Willisell in Peckham-field on the back of Southwark, in a squalid watery place.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06