Britannia, by William Camden

Cornwall.

Big C CORNWALL, call’d also by modern Writers in Latin Cornubia, reaches out to the West the farthest of all Britain, and is inhabited by those remains of the Britains, which Marianus Scotus calls Western Britains. By them, in the British tongue (for they have not yet quite lost their ancient language,) it is call’d Kernaw, as lessening by degrees like a horn, and on every side running out into high Promontories, like so many horns. Corn and Kern. For the Britains call a horn Corn, and horns in the plural number Kern: tho’ others will have the name Cornwall, deriv’d from one Corineus, a supposed Companion of Brute, and have it called Corinia, according to that of the fabulous Poet:

Pars Corinea datur Corinæo, de duce nomen
Patria, déque viro gens Corinensis habet.

Cornwall by grant to Corinæus came;
The Country from the Prince receiv’d its name.

But if you look into Antiquity, it is no new thing for places to take their names from such a situation. In Crete and the * * Taurica Chersonesus.Precopensian Chersonese, some promontories are call’d Greek text, Ram’s horns, because like Ram’s horns they shoot forth into the sea. So, Cyprus was formerly call’d by the Greeks Cerastis, because it hangs into the sea, with large promontories, representing Horns. ⌈So also the City Carnon, otherwise Carna, was call’d meerly on account of it’s standing upon an angle, cut out by two high-ways that met there in a point; and Corsica was call’d by the Phœnicians,Phoenicians Carnatha; which was afterwards mollify’d by the Greeks into Greek text; all from it’s having so many Promontories. And these names, being all in the Eastern Countries, may seem to favour an opinion produced by a ¦ ¦ Sammes Brit. p.59.later Author, that this County had the name originally from the Phœnicians, who traded hither for Tinn; cheren in their language being a horn. For, besides that there is no other Promontory in our Island of that name, tho’ the shape of several would answer it very well (which argues, that it was no custom amongst the Britains, to give such names;) besides this, I say, the nature of the thing seems to favour it: for the form depending intirely upon the increase or decrease of the sea-coast, Sailors might better discover it at a distance, than the inhabitants could do by land, or by the assistance of their little boats, with which they ply’d only upon the very shores.⌉

Cornwall map, left. Note overlap.Cornwall map, right. Note overlap.

Cornwall

But however this be, it is no wonder that this tract should be called Kernaw, and Corn- since it is like a horn, crooked, and (if I may so say) horn’d with promontories. On account of which, in the times of the Saxon wars, when great numbers of the Britains retreated into this country, trusting to the nature and situation of it; (for, as for the land-roads, they knew they were, by reason of mountains and the breaches made by ÆstuariesAEstuaries, in a manner unpassable; and that those by sea, were extreme dangerous to persons altogether ignorant of them;) then the Saxon Conquerours, who in their language call’d foreigners and every thing that was strange, * *Saxon: Wealsh, Camd. Saxon: Wealh ⌈as Saxon: wealh-theod a foreign nation, Saxon: wealh-stod an Interpreter, ⌉ nam’d the inhabitants of this part, Saxon: Corn-wealas and Saxon: West-wealas. From hence arose the Latin name Cornwallia, and in later writers Cornubia; as also that of some writers, Occidua Wallia, i.e. West Wales.

⌈Another Etymology of the name is from Carn, which signifies in British a rock; and it must be own’d, this seems to be easie and natural. For, that the Place suits this conjecture, is agreed by all; and our Histories inform us, that when the Britains betook themselves to those parts, they had a particular eye to the rocks and mountains, as the most likely places for shelter; so eminent was that country for them. Which opinion is the less improbable, if we consider, that several of these rocky hills to this day retain the name of Carn, as Carn-Innis, Carn-chy, Carn-bray, Carn-margh, Carn-ulac, &c.

As to the second branch of the name, * * De Vitiis Serm. l.2. c.20.Vossius, † † Rerum Scotic. l.2.¦ German. Antiqu. l.1. c.9.Buchanan, ¦ Cluver, and others, rejecting the forementioned opinion of it’s coming from Saxon: Wealh, have advanc’d another; affirming it to come from Gaule, by a change of (g) into (w) according to the German dialect. For (say they) the Saxons coming over, and observing them to have the same language with the Gauls, as also the same customs and ways of living, presently term’d them Gaules, or Waules. But, besides that the Saxons could not be so much surpriz’d at this affinity, having by their piracies for many years, got a tolerable knowledge of both nations; * * Somner’s Glossar.the name of Saxon: Weallas was not us’d till the utter subversion and expulsion of the Britains. Bede calls them Britones, and in Alfred’s Version of him we meet with Saxon: Bryttas, and Saxon: Breotene, Bretene, Brytene, &c. but not a word of the Saxon: Weallas or Wallia; whereas to express Gaule, we find Gallia, and Gallia Saxon: rice. The first mention of it is in the Laws of King Ina, which were made at least a hundred years after the extirpation of the Britains; and when that was effected, what could be more natural than to call those, peregrinos, and extraneos, (pilgrims and travellers) whom they had forced to quit their native Country, and to look out for a new seat?⌉

So far is Cornwall from borrowing its name from the conquering Gauls, as is urg’d by some Writers, out of complement to that Nation. But if they were as knowing at home, as they are inquisitive abroad, they would find that their BretagneCornovaille in Armorican Bretagne. upon the sea-coast, is so called from ours; and that a little Tract therein call’d Cornovaille, where the Cornish language is spoken, was so named from those of our Nation, who transplanted themselves thither. Strabo. For as those Western Britains of ours, were assisting to the Armoricans in France, in their wars against CæsarCaesar (which was indeed his pretence for the invasion of Britain,) and afterwards, marching over thither, and changing the name, call’d it Bretagne; so, in former Ages, they sent aids to their countrymen the Britains against the Franks, and in those cruel Danish wars many of them went over thither, where they left that more modern name of Cornovaille.

This County (as if nature had design’d to arm it against the incursions of the sea) is for the most part mountainous: in the bottoms it is pretty fruitful of it self; but they make it incredibly rich, with a sort of sea-weed called OrewoodOrewood., and a fat kind of sea-sand. The sea-coast is beautify’d with many Towns, which are able to man out a considerable fleet. The inner parts abound with rich mines. For Tinn,Tinn. to the vast advantage of the inhabitants, is dug up in great plenty; of which, household vessels are made (not inferior to silver in brightness,) and carry’d for table-use to all parts of Europe. They make their tinn of little black stones, which they either dig, or gather off the sands, after they are washt. Now, there are two sorts of these StannariesThe Stannaries. or Metal-works: one they call Lode-works, the other Stream-works. The latter is in the lower places, when they trace the veins of tinn by ditching, by which they carry off the water [that would otherwise break in upon them;] the former is in places that are higher, when they sink the holes (called Shafts) in the mountains, to a vast depth, and work by undermining. In both kinds, they shew wonderful art and ingenuity, as well in draining the waters and reducing them to one chanel; as in supporting and propping up their pits; not to mention their arts of breaking, washing, melting, and refining their metals; than which nothing can be more ingenious.

That the ancient Britains dealt in Tin-mines, is plain from Diodorus Siculus, who liv’d under Augustus; not to mention TimaeusTimæus the Historian in PlinyLib. 6. cap.8, & 9., who tells us, that the Britains fetch’d tinn out of the Isle Icta in their little wicker boats cover’d with leather. ⌈From whence, by the way, Cæsar’s Portus Iccius, called in some Copies Ictius, and in the Greek Version Greek text and Greek text, might have the name, as being the chief Port to the Island Icta.⌉ For Diodorus tells us, that the Britains who liv’d in those parts, digging tinn out of a rocky sort of ground, carry’d it in carts at low water to certain neighbouring Islands; and that thence the Merchants transported it into Gaule, and then on horse-back in thirty days to the springs of Eridanus, or the city Narbona, as to a common Mart. ÆthicusAEthicus too, (he, whoever he was, that groundlessly claims the honour of being translated by St. Jerom,) intimates the same thing, and, adds that he himself gave directions to those workmen. The Saxons seem not to have medled with them, or at most, only to have employ’d the Saracens: for the inhabitants to this day call a mine that is given over, Attal-Sarisin, that is, the leavings of the Saracens.

After the coming in of the Normans, the Earls of Cornwall had vast revenues from those mines; especially Richard, brother to Henry 3. And no wonder; when Europe was not supplied with tinn, from any other place. For, as for the mines in Spain, the incursions of the Moors had shut them up; and the veins in Germany (which too are only in Misnia and Bohemia) were not then discover’d, nor open’d before the year of Christ 1240. At which time, as a writer of that age has it, the metal called Tinn was found in Germany (by a certain Cornish man who was banish’d his country,) to the great damage of Richard Earl of Cornwall. ⌈The Tinn also which is brought from the East-Indies, was but lately found out.⌉ Afterwards, a Charter was obtained for them by Edmund, Earl Richard’s Brother, with several Immunities; by whom also the Stannary Laws were fram’d, and confirm’d under his own Seal, laying a certain impost upon the tinn, payable to the Earls of Cornwall.

These Liberties, Privileges, and Laws ⌈(particularly recited in Plowden’s Commentaries,)⌉Pag.327. The Polity of the Tinners. were afterwards confirm’d and enlarg’d by Edward 3. who divided the whole society of Tinners (till then, as it were, one body) into four parts, or quarters, call’d from the places, Foy-more, Black-more, Trewarnaile, and Penwith. He constituted one general Warden or Overseer over all the rest, to do justice in causes both of Law and Equity, and to set over every company a Sub-warden, who every month within their respective jurisdictions, are to determin all controversies; and such Sentences, from the Stannum or tinn, are called Stannary Judgments: but from these, an Appeal is sometimes made to the Lord Warden himself. And lest the tribute should not be duely paid, to the prejudice of the Dukes of Cornwall (who, according to ancient custom, for every thousand pound of tinn are to have 40 shillings;) it is provided, that whatever tinn is made, shall be carried to one of the † † Now 5.four towns appointed for that purpose; where twice every year it is weigh’d, and stamp’d, and the impost paid; and before that, no man may sell or convey it away, without being liable to a severe fine. ⌈The stamp is the seal of the Dutchy; and the Towns are, Liskeard, Lestwithiell, Truro, and Helston; to which Pensans also is added and made a Coynage-town. In Edw. 1st’s time, Bodmyn made up a fifth, but in the reign of Edw. 2. upon a petition to the King and Council, made by the men of Lestwithiell, it was given in favour of the latter, and Bodmyn was deprived of that privilege. There are also two other Coynages, which the Tinners call Post-Coynages, and for which they pay 4d. for every hundred weight: these are at Lady-day and Christmas. Praeemption After the Coynage and other legal duties are satisfy’d, the Tinner is at liberty to sell his tinn as he thinks fit, except the King or Duke has a mind to buy it; for they have a right of Præemption. But tho’ Cornwall now has the greatest share in these Mines, (there being little or no tinn made in Devonshire;) yet in King John’s time, there was more found in that County, than in Cornwall. For it appears that the Coynage of Devonshire was then set to farm for 100 l. per An. whereas that of Cornwall yielded but 100 marks. And according to this proportion, the * * 6 l. 13 s. 4 d.tenth thereof is at this day paid by the Crown, to the Bishop of Exeter. But K. John did not first bestow these tenths upon the Church (as some say,) for he only restor’d them, upon a complaint made by the Bishop, that those who rented the Stannaries refus’d to pay him his due.

In the 33d year of K. Edw. 1. the Tinners of Cornwall pray’d and obtain’d a Charter of their Liberties, distinct from those of Devonshire, according to the form of K. Henry’s confirmation; and the Merchants buying tinn in Cornwall, obtain’d a grant of 2 Coynages yearly, that is, at the Feasts of S. John and S. Michael; and from the date of K. Edward’s Charter the Tinners of Cornwall became a separate body from those of Devonshire. But the Officers of the Stannaries in both Counties, under colour of their Liberties, using divers oppressions; upon complaint made, 50 Edw. 3. an Explanation of the Charters was made by Act of Parliament; which was confirm’d, and the jurisdiction of the Stannaries further restrain’d by a Statute in the 17 Car. 1.

Prince Arthur, eldest son to K. Hen. 7. made certain Constitutions relating to the Stannaries, which the Tinners refus’d to observe; and, taking a greater liberty than was justifiable by their Charters, K. Hen. 7. (who seldom let slip any opportunity of filling his coffers) made that a pretence, after Prince Arthur’s death, to take the Stannaries into his own hands. But finding that they did not turn to so much account, as he had propos’d, he was prevailed with to accept of 1000 l. for all the pretended Forfeitures; granting them his Charter of pardon. By which Charter he farther granted, that no Law relating to the Tinners should be made without the consent of 24 Stannators; and those to be chosen by the Mayor and Council of a Borough in the 4 divisions, 6 out of each.

In the working of these tin-mines, there has been often found mix’d with the tinn, another sort of Ore which was yellow, commonly call’d Mundick;Mundick. neglected for a long time by the Tinners; and when it was work’d along with the tinn, went all away in a smoak, which was look’d upon to be very unwholsom. But lately it has been try’d and wrought singly by some curious undertakers, and is found to turn to very great advantage, by affording true Copper. So that whereas before, the value of the tinn made that neglected; now, the extraordinary return that copper makes, is like to lessen the value of tinn. This Mundick, as in some respects it is very unwholsom, so in others it is a sovereign remedy. Where there have been great quantities of it; the working in the mines was very dangerous, by reason of the great damps and unwholsom steams, which often rising on a sudden, choak’d the workmen. But for this it makes some amends by another effect; for, being apply’d to any wound, before it is wrought, it presently heals it; and the workmen when they receive cuts or wounds (as they often do in the mines) use no other remedy, but the washing them in the water, which runs from the Mundick-ore. But if it be drest and burnt, the water in which it is washed, is so venomous, that it festers any sore, and kills the fish of any river it falls into.⌉

Nor is Tinn the only Mineral found here; but there is likewise gold, silver, and diamondsCornish Diamonds. naturally cut into angles and polish’d; some of which are as big as a walnut, and only inferior to those in the East, in blackness and hardness. ⌈They are also exceeding good, to be cut into Seals, whether of Coats of Arms, Crests, or any other Device; having softness enough to receive the Instrument, and hardness enough to retain the figure; which they do, better than silver, gold, or steel, or perhaps than any other stone.⌉ Sea-holmeSea-holme. is found in great plenty upon the coasts; and all manner of grain, tho’ not without great industry in the husbandman, is produced in such plenty, that it does not only supply their own necessary uses, but Spain also yearly with vast quantifies of Corn. Pilchards They make likewise a very gainful trade of those little fishes they call Pylchards,Pylchards. which are seen upon the sea-coast in great swarms, from July to November: these they catch, salt, smoak, barrel, press, and so send them in great quantities to France, Spain, and Italy, where they are a welcome commodity, and are called Fumado’s. Fumado’s, perhaps Pliny’s Gerres. ⌈At one Fishery, viz. Mousehole, many times 800, sometimes 1000 Hogsheads of Fumado’s, are saved in a year; but they do not gutt them (as is usually done with other kinds of fish;) the Entrails being the fattest part, and recommending the rest.⌉ Upon these, Michael a Cornish-man ⌈who flourished in the year 1250, and was⌉ by much the most eminent Poet of his age, writing against Henry of Auranches,Bal. Cent. 4. N.10. Wood Ant. p.85. Poet Laureat to King Henry 3. (who had play’d upon the Cornish men, as the fag-end of the world,) in defence of his country has these verses, which I shall here set down for your diversion:

Non opus est ut opes numerem quibus est opulenta,
Et per quas inopes sustentat non ope lenta:
Piscibus & stanno nusquam tam fertilis ora
.

’Twere needless to recount their wondrous store,
Vast wealth and fair provisions for the poor;
In fish and tinn they know no rival shore.

Nor is Cornwall more happy in the soil, than in the inhabitants; who, as they are extremely well bred, and ever have been so, even in those more ancient times, (for, as Diodorus Siculus observes, by conversation with merchants trading thither for tinn, they became remarkably courteous to strangers;) so are they lusty, stout, and of a competent Stature: their limbs are well-set; and for wrestlingWrastling. Hurling. (not to mention that manly exercise of hurling the Ball) they are so eminent, that they go beyond all other Countries, both in art, and firmness of body. And the forementioned Poet Michael, after a long harangue made upon his countrymen, telling us in his jingling verse, how King Arthur always set them in the front of the battel, at last concludes stoutly,

Quid nos deterret? si firmiter in pede stemus,
Fraus ni nos superet, nihil est quod non superemus
.

What can e’er fright us if we stand our ground?
If fraud confound us not, we’ll all confound.

And this perhaps may have given occasion to that tradition, of Giants formerly inhabiting those parts. For Hauvillan, a Poet who liv’d † † four, C.five hundred years ago, describing certain British Giants, has these verses concerning Britain,

Hauvillan, in his Architrenium.Titanibus illa
Sed paucis famulosa domus, quibus uda ferarum
Terga dabant vestes, cruor haustus, pocula trunci,
Antra Lares, dumeta thoros, cœnacula rupes,
Præda cibos, raptus Venerem, spectacula cædes,
Imperium vires, animos furor, impetus arma,
Mortem pugna, sepulchra rubus: monstrisq; gemebat
Monticolis tellus: sed eorum plurima tractus
Pars erat occidui, terror majórque premebat
Te furor, extremum Zephyri, Cornubia, limen
.

—Of Titan’s monstrous race
Only some few disturb’d that happy place.
Raw hides they wore for cloaths, their drink was blood,
Rocks were their dining-rooms, their prey their food,
Their cup some hollow trunk, their bed a grove,
Murder their sport, and rapes their only love.
Their courage frenzy, strength their sole command;
Their arms, what fury offer’d to their hand.
And when at last in brutish fight they dy’d,
Some spacious thicket a vast grave supply’d.
With such vile monsters was the land opprest,
But most, the farther regions of the West;
Of them thou Cornwall too wast plagu’d above the rest.

Western People the strongest. But whether this remarkable firmness of constitution (which consists of a due temperature of heat and moisture) be caused in the Danmonii, by the fruitful breezes of the West wind and their westerly situation, (as we see in Germany the Batavi, in France the Aquitani and Rutheni, which lie furthest to the West, are most lusty;) or rather is owing to some peculiar happiness in the air and soil; is not my business nicely to consider.

⌈After this account of the Soil, and the Inhabitants; we will proceed to their Priviledges, and Language; in which they may seem, in some measure, to be another kingdom.

Priviledges of Cornwall. To begin with the Priviledges. In the 21 of Elizabeth, it was order’d, that all charge of Custom (for transporting of Cornish Cloath) upon any English-man within the Dutchy of Cornwall, should be discharg’d; and that for the future no Custom should be paid for it. This was first granted them by the Black Prince, and hath always been enjoy’d by them, in consideration that they have paid, and do still pay, 4s. for the coynage of every hundred of tinn, whereas Devonshire pays no more than 8d.

They have also the freedom to take sand out of the sea, and carry it through the whole County, to manure their ground withal. * * R. Chart, de An. 45 Hen. 3.This, they enjoy by a Grant from Richard Duke of Cornwall, which is confirm’d An. 45 Hen. 3. by that King. Whereupon, in the next Reign, on an Inquisition made, we find a complaint that Saltash had lately taken yearly 12s. for each Barge that carry’d Sand up Tamar; whereas nothing ought to have been demanded.

By this it appears, that ever since Hen. 3. at least, this hath been the chief way of † † Philosoph. Transact. Numb. 113. pag. 293.improving their ground: and they still continue the same method; carrying it ten miles up into the country; and a great part of the way, upon horse’s backs. Mr. Ray is of opinion, that the virtue hereof depends chiefly upon the salt mix’d with it; which is so copious, that in many places salt is boyl’d up out of a Lixivium made of the sea-sand; and the reason why sand, after it hath lain long in the sun and wind, proves less useful and enriching, is, because the dews and rain which fall upon it, sweep away a good part of it’s salt.

They had likewise a privilege of trading to all parts of the world, granted them by King Charles 1. in recompence of their Loyalty; and the same King writ them a ¦ ¦ From Sudley Castle, Sept. 3. 1643.Letter of Thanks, which begins thus; We are so highly sensible of the extraordinary merit of our County of Cornwall, &c. and concludes with an Order, to have it read and preserv’d in every Church and Chapel, throughout the County.

Government of Cornwall. Their Government is now much the same with the rest of England; for in the 32 Hen. 8. a President and Council were erected for the West: but Cornwall and some others, desirous to be under the immediate government of the King and Common Law, vigorously oppos’d it; so that it came to nothing.

Language. Their Language too, is the English; and (which is something surprizing) is observed by Travellers to be more pure and refin’d, than that of their neighbours, Devonshire and Somersetshire. The most probable reason whereof, seems to be this; that English is to them an introduced, not an original Language; and those that brought it in, were the Gentry and Merchants, who imitated the Dialect of the Court. Their neat way of living and house-wifery, upon which they justly value themselves above their neighbours, does probably proceed from the same cause.

The old Cornish Tongue is almost quite driven out of the Country, being spoken only by the vulgar in two or three Parishes at the Lands-end; and they too understand the English. In other parts, the inhabitants know little or nothing of it; so that in all likelihood, a short time will destroy the small remains that are left of it. ’Tis a good while since, that only two men could write it, and one of them no Scholar nor Grammarian, and then blind with age. And indeed, it cannot well be otherwise; for, beside the inconveniencies common to them with the Welsh (such as, the destruction of their original Monuments, which Gildas complains of; and the Roman Language breaking-in upon them, hinted by the same Gildas, with Tacitus and Martial;) besides these (I say) their language has had some peculiar disadvantages. Causes of the Decay of the Cornish. One is, the loss of commerce and correspondence with the Armoricans, under Henry 7; before which time, they had mutual interchanges of families and Princes with them; and the present language of that people, * * Howell Let. 19.is no other in it’s Radicals, than the Cornish, and they still understand one another. The affinity between them, and the agreement of Welsh with both, will be best apprehended by a Specimen of the Lord’s Prayer in each.

The Lord’s Prayer in

Cornish.

Ny Taz ez yn neau, bonegas yw tha hanaw. Tha Gwlakath doaz. Tha bonogath bo gwrez en nore pocaragen neau, Roe thenyen dythma yon dyth bara givians ny gan rabn weery cara ny givians mens o cabin. Ledia ny nara idn tentation. Buz dilver ny thart doeg.

Welsh.

Ein Tad yr hwn wyt yn y nefoedd, sancteiddier dy enw: Deued dy deyrmas; bid dy ewyllys ar yddaiar megis y mac yn y nefoedd dyro i ni heddyw ein bara beunyddiol: a maddeu i ni ein dyledion, fel y maddewn ni i’n dyledwyr: ac nar arwain mi brofe digaeth, eithr gwared in rhag drwg.

Armoric.

Hon Tat, petung so en eoûn, ot’h Hano bezet samtifiet De vet de omp ho Roväntelez Ha volonté bezet gret voar an doüar euel en eoûn Roit dezomp hinou hor bara bemdezier. Ha pardonnit dezomp hon offançon evelma pardon nomp d’ac re odeus hon offançet. Ua n’hon digaçit quel e tentation. Hoguen hon delivrit a droue.

But they affirm the affinity in general, to be much greater than appears here. However, the remains of the Cornish being so very narrow, the inserting the Creed also in that language, as it will gratifie the Lovers of Antiquity, so will it preserve to posterity some of that little we have still left.

The Creed in Cornish.

Me agreez en du Taz ollgologack y wrig en neu han noare. Ha yn Jesu Crest y vabe hag agan arlyth auy conseuyys dur an speriz sanz, geniz thart an Voz Mareea, sufferai dadn Ponc Pilat, ve goris dan Vernans ha bethis, ha thes kidnias the yffarn, y savas arta yn trysa dyth, ha seth war dighow dornyndue taz ollgologack, thurt ena eu ra dvaz tha juga yn beaw han varaw. Me agreez yn speriz sanz, sanz Cathalic Eglis, yn communion yn sans, yn givyans an pegh, yn derivyans yn corf, han Bowians ragnevera. Andellarobo.

Another particular cause of the decay of the Cornish Language, is, that when the Act of Uniformity was made, the Welsh had it in their own tongue; but the Cornish, being in love with the English, to gratify their novelty, desir’d (it seems) to have the Common Liturgy in that Language. To which we may add a third cause, namely, The giving over of the Guirimears, i.e. great Speeches, which were formerly us’d at the great Conventions of the people, and consisted of Scriptural Histories, &c. These were held in the spatious and open Downs, wherein earthen banks were thrown up on purpose, large enough to enclose thousands of people, as appears by their shape in several places, which remains to this day.

These (with the coming in of Artificers, Trading-men, Ministers, &c.) must have contributed very much to this general neglect of their original language; so that almost nothing now appears of it in their conversation, and but very little in any old writing. Three books in Cornish, are all that can be found: One, written in an old court-hand on Vellum, containing the History of the Passion of our Saviour in 1036 verses. Judaeos It always has Crest for Christ, according to the ancient Roman way of writing Chrestus for Christus: so † † Claud. c.25.Suetonius, Judæos, impulsore Chresto, tumultuantes, &c. But perhaps this may not be any mark of it’s Antiquity, because the Cornish pronounce it Crest. By the characters and pictures, it looks like the time of Richard 3. or thereabouts; and positively determins against Transubstantiation. The other two are transcrib’d out of the Bodleian Library; one is translated, and the other was some years since translating by the only† Mr. Keigwyn.person perhaps who then perfectly understood the tongue.⌉

Now let us describe the Promontories, cities, and rivers mention’d by the Ancients, (for that is our main design;) and beginning at the utmost promontory, take a view of the Southern, then of the Northern coasts, and lastly of the course of the river Tamar, which divides this County from Devonshire; ⌈having first observ’d, that on a little Island separated from the Lands-end, so as a Boat with Oars may pass between, stood Caren an Peale, commonly called The Armed Knight. Caren signifies a rock, and Pele a Spire; which Spire was ten fathom above the ordinary flux of the Sea, and very narrow at the top. In the year before the beheading of King Charles the first, it was prodigiously cut off by a storm, in that part where it was fourteen foot square; and falling, it broke in three pieces.⌉ But this, by the way.

Antivestaeum The utmost Promontory, which lies-out into the Irish Ocean, and is 17 degrees distant from the Fortunate Islands, or rather from the Azores, is called by Ptolemy Bolerium, by Diodorus Belerium;Belerium or Antivestæum. possibly from the British Pell, which signifies a thing very remote. Ptolemy calls it also Greek, or Antivestæum, and the Britains Penrhinguaed, i.e. the Promontory of blood: but these are only the Bards, or Poets; for the British Historians call it Penwith, i.e. a Promontory to the left; as the Saxons, Saxon;Steort, what it signifies. Steort with them signifying ground stretch’d out into the sea. From hence, the whole Hundred is call’d Penwith, and by the inhabitants in their language, Pen von las, i.e. the end of the earth; in which sense the English call it the Lands end, as being the farthest part of the Island west-ward. Now if this Promontory was ever call’d Helenum, as Volateranus, and the more modern writers affirm; it was not so nam’d from Helenus son of Priam, but from Pen Elin, which in British (as Ancon among the Greeks) signifies an elbow. For since the Greeks call’d crooked shores, Ancones (which Pliny affirms of the Ancona in Italy,) it cannot be any absurdity to suppose that this winding shore was called in the same sense by the Britains Pen-Elin, and that thence came the Latin Helenum. Antivestaeum Vestaeum As to the name Antivestæum, I have sometimes doubted, whether it was not of a Greek original. For observing it very common with the Greeks to call places, from the names of those which were opposite to them (and that, not only in Greece, where they have Rhium and Antirrhium; but also in the Arabian gulf, where is Bacchium and Antibacchium, and in the gulf of Venice, Antibarrium, as directly facing the Barrium in Italy;) observing these, I set my self to search, whether there was any place opposite to our Antivestæum, that went under the name of Vestæum. But finding nothing of that, I betook my self to the British Language; and yet, there, can meet with no satisfaction. The inhabitants are of opinion, that this Promontory did once reach farther to the West; which the Seamen positively conclude from the rubbish they draw up. The neighbours will tell you too, from a certain old tradition, that the land there drown’d by the incursions of the sea, was call’d Lionesse. Lionesse.

⌈To which Opinion, of the Promontories reaching further, these hints may perhaps contribute something of probability; That about the middle way between Land’s-end and Scilly, there are rocks call’d in Cornish Lethas, by the English Seven-stones; and the Cornish call that place within the stones Tregva, i.e. a dwelling; where it has been reported that windows, and other stuff, have been taken up with hooks (for that is the best place of fishing;) That from the Lands-end to Scilly, is an equal depth of water; That S. Michael’s Mount is call’d in Cornish Careg cowse in clowse, i.e. the hoary rock in the wood; That ’tis certain, there have been large trees, with roots and body, driven in by the sea between S. Michael’s Mount and Pensance, of late years. To these we may add a tradition, that at the time of the Inundation supposed here, Trevelyan swam from thence, and in memory thereof bears Gules an horse argent issuing cut of the sea proper.⌉

lighthouse flooding In the utmost rocks of this Promontory, when they are bare at low water, there appear veins of white lead and brass: and the inhabitants say, there was formerly a watch-tower, with lights for direction of Sailors. It was without doubt design’d for a guide to the traders to Spain; for Orosius has told us, that the high watch-tower of Brigantia in Gallicia, of a most admirable structure, was built ad speculam Britanniæ, that is (if I apprehend him right) either for the use of such as traded from Britain to Spain, or else over-against the watch-tower of Britain: for there is no other place in this Island, that looks towards Spain. There now stands a little Village call’d Saint Buriens,S. Buriens. formerly Eglis Buriens, i.e. the Church of Buriana or Beriana, dedicated to Buriana, a certain Religious Irish Woman. For this Country did all along pay so much Veneration to the Irish Saints as well as their own, that, between both, there was hardly a Town, but what was consecrated to some one of them. There is a Tradition that King Athelstan gave it the privilege of a Sanctuary, when he arriv’d here from his Conquest of the Scilly-Islands. However, it is certain, that he built a Church here; and that in William the Conqueror’s time here was a College of Canons, to whom the neighbouring grounds belong’d.

⌈This St. Buriens is an independant Deanery, formerly belonging to the Pope, and seiz’d into the King’s hands by one of the Edwards. It contains within it’s jurisdiction the Parishes of Burian, Zennen, and S. Leven; and the Bishops of Exeter holding it in Commendam, all spiritual jurisdiction is so entirely lodg’d in them, that there lies no Appeal from them, but to the King directly. Upon a Tomb in the Church, is this Inscription,

Church inscription

The Inscription is old French; and the import of it seems to be this, Clarice, the wife of Geffrei de Bolleit, lies here; God of her Soul have mercy. They who shall pray for her soul, shall have ten days of pardon. In this Parish, is a place called Bollait, to which there is no doubt but the name on the Inscription refers.

Not far from hence, in a place call’d Biscaw-woune,Biscaw-woune. are nineteen stones plac’d in a circle, about 12 foot distant one from another; and in the center, there stands one, much larger than any of the rest. We may probably conjecture this to have been some trophyA Trophy. of the Romans under the later Emperors; or ⌈(if the Romans never passed the Tamar, † † See Comment, upon the Monument of Julius Vitalis, by Dr. Musgrave.as indeed there are neither Ways nor Coins to prove that they did)⌉ the Trophy of Athelstan the Saxon, after he had subdued the Danmonii.

⌈But yet it may be worth the Reader’s enquiry; whether it is not more probably an ancient Sepulchral monument of the Britains; especially, since it plainly appears from the inscriptions of † † See in this County under the title Hurlers.other Stones thus set up on end, that they were such. One particularly in Wales, observ’d by a * * Mr. Lhwyd.very learned person (encompass’d, indeed, with a ditch, instead of stones,) has an inscription to this sense, Mayest thou awake.⌉

From hence to the South, the shore wheeling in by little and little, makes a bay in form of a new moon, call’d Mounts-bay;Mountsbay. where they say, that the Ocean breaking violently in, drown’d the land. Upon this, lies Mousehole, in British, Port-Inis, that is, the port of the Island ⌈(from an Island lying before it,)⌉ for which the privilege of a market was procur’d of Edward 1. by Henry de Tieis, who had the Dignity of a Baron,Barons of Tieis. and was Lord of Alwerton and Tiwernel this County. And Pensans,Pensans. i.e. the head of the sand, ⌈or rather the head of the saint; for that this last is the right name, appears from the Arms of the town, which are, St. John Baptist’s head in a charger. If this did not put it beyond dispute; it would not be absurd to imagin the original name to have been Pensavas; which signifies the head of the channel, and agrees very well with the nature of the place.⌉ This is a little market-town; not far from whence * * Is, C.was that noted stone Main-Amber,Main-Amber, i.e. the stone of Ambrosius. which tho’ of a vast bigness, you might move with your little finger; notwithstanding which, a great number of men could not remove it out of the place. ⌈In the late Civil wars, it was thrown down by the Governour of Pendennis, not without great labour in the undermining.

In the parish of Pensans, is (a)S. Maddren’s Well. St. Maddren’s Well, the cures whereof have been very remarkable. * * Mystery of Godliness.Bishop Hall tells us, that a Cripple who for 16 years together was forc’d to walk upon his hands by reason the sinews of his legs were contracted, was induced by a dream to wash in this Well; which had so good effect, that himself saw him both able to walk, and to get his own livelyhood.⌉

(a) I know not whether this is a distinct instance, from another that is said to be undoubtedly true. Two persons who had found the prescriptions of Physicians and Chirurgeons ineffectual, went to this well (according to the ancient custom) on Corpus Christi Eve, and laying a small offering upon the Altar, drank of the water; lay upon the ground all night; in the morning took a good draught more, and each of them carry’d away some of the water in a bottle. Within 3 weeks they found the effect of it, and (their strength increasing by degrees) they were able to move themselves upon crutches. Next year, they took the same course, after which they were able to go up and down by the help of a staff. At length one of ’em, being a fisherman, was, and, if he be alive, is still able to follow his business. The other was a Soldier under Colonel William Godolphin, and dy’d in the service of King Charles 1.
After this, the Well was superstitiously frequented; so that the Rector of the neighbouring Parish was forccd to reprove several of his Parishioners for it. But, accidentally, meeting a woman coming from it with a bottle in her hand, and being troubled with colical pains, he desir’d to drink of it, and found himself eas’d of that distemper.
The instances are too near our own times, and too well attested, to fall under the suspicion of idle Traditions, or Legendary fables: But it is worth our observation, that the last Instance destroys the Miracle; for if he was cured upon accidentally tasting it, the Ceremonies of offering, lying on the ground, &c. contributed nothing; and so, the Virtue of the water claims the whole remedy.

Gulwall. Next, upon this bay, stands ⌈Gulwall, where is the Tombstone of an ancient Britain, now turn’d into a foot-bridge, and commonly called the blew-bridge; on which, is this Inscription,

qvenatav stone

The name, probably, in British, was Kynadhav’ ap Ichdinow.

Upon this Bay also stands⌉ Merkiu, i.e. the market of Jupiter, because a market is there kept on Thursday [Jupiter’s day;] but this is no good harbour. In the very corner, is S. Michael’s Mount,S. Michael’s Mount. which gives name to the whole bay, call’d formerly Dinsol, as ’tis in the book of Landaff; by the inhabitants Careg Cowse, i.e. a hoary rock; and in SaxonMychelstow. Saxon: Mychelstow, i.e. Michaels-place, as Laurence Noel.Laurence Noel has observ’d, a person of great learning; who in † † This, C.the last age did first restore the Saxon language spoken by our Ancestors, which had been quite laid aside and forgotten. Here is a rock pretty high, and craggy, which, when the tide is in, is encompass’d with water; but when out, is joyn’d to the main land. Upon this rock, John Earl of Oxford, not many ages since, trusting to the natural strength of the place, fortify’d himself against K. Edward 4. and defended it bravely, tho’ without success. For his Men yielded upon the first assault of the King’s party. Upon the very top of the rock, within the Fort, was a Chapel dedicated to S. Michael the Archangel; and William Earl of Cornwall and Moriton, who by the munificence of William the Conqueror held large possessions in these parts, built a Cell there for a Monk or two, who pretended that S. Michael had appear’d in that Mount. But this Vision, the Italians also are very earnest to fix upon their Garganus; and the French, upon their Michael’s Mount in Normandy. At the bottom of this mountain, within the memory of our * * Fathers, C.Grandfathers, as they were digging for tinn, they met with Brass Weapons.spear-heads, axes, and swords of Brass, all wrap’d-up in Linnen; of the same sort, with those found long ago in Hircinia in Germany, and others of the like kind in Wales. For it is plain from the Monuments of Antiquity, that the Greeks, Cimbrians, and Britains, made use of brass-weapons; notwithstanding, that the wounds made by them are less hurtful, on account of a medicinal virtue in Brass; which Macrobius takes notice of from Aristotle. Those ages were not so well versed in the killing-arts, as ours is. In the rocks underneath, and all along this coast, breeds the † Pyrrhocorax.
Cornish chough.
Pyrrhocorax, a Crow with a red bill, and red feet; which therefore is not peculiar to the Alps, as Pliny imagin’d. This Bird is found by the Inhabitants to be an Incendiary, and very thieving. For it often sets houses on fire privately, and steals pieces of money, and then hides them.

In this place, the country is the most narrow, and contracted into a sort of Isthmus; there being scarce four miles distance between this and the Upper or Severn-sea. A little beyond the mountain, is a bay, pretty wide, call’d Mountsbay,Mountsbay. from the mountain; it is a very safe harbour from the South and South-east winds, and at low water is six or seven fathom deep. More to the East, stands GodolcanGodolphin-hill. ⌈(they now call it Godolphin;)⌉ a hill famous for store of tin-mines, but much more Family of the Godolphins. noted for its Lords of that name, whose virtues are no less eminent, than their family is ancient, ⌈and whose honour, however considerable before, hath been greatly augmented of late years by Sidney Earl of Godolphin, who was advanced by King Charles the second to the Dignity of a Baron of this Realm by the title of Baron Godolphin of Rialton; and was afterwards raised to the more honourable titles of Viscount Rialton and Earl of Godolphin, by Q. Anne; in the first year of whose reign, he was constituted Lord Treasurer of England; in the administration of which high and important Office, his Abilities and Integrity were equally conspicuous. Godolonac is said by a late writerSammes Brit. to signifie in the PhœnicianPhoenician language a place of Tinn.⌉ But the name in Cornish comes from a White Eagle; and this Family has a long time born for their Arms, in a shield gules, an eagle display’d between three flower de-luces argent.

From S. Michael’s mount to the south, there jutts out a Peninsula; at the entrance whereof, we meet with Heilston,Heilston. in the language of the natives Hellas, from the salt-water thereabouts; a town, famous for the priviledge of stamping tinn. And a little lower, by the conflux of a great many waters, is made a lake two miles long, call’d Loopole,Loopole. separated from the sea by a little ridge running out, and when the violence of the waves breaks through that, it makes a wonderful roaring all over the neighbourhood. At a little distance from thence, there is a military Camp (they call it Earth,) built in a large circumference of great stones, heap’d one upon another without mortar; such as are to be met with, here and there, in other places; and made, as I suppose, in the Danish wars. Nor is it unlike those fortifications of the Britains, which Tacitus calls a rude and confus’d structure of great stones. The Peninsula it self (pretty large, and well stock’d with little villages,) is call’d Meneg;Menna. Meneg. without all doubt, the same with Menna, which Jornandes in his Geticks describes from Cornelius (I know not whether the same with Tacitus,) a writer of Annals; and which some Copies read Memma. It is (says he) in the furthest part of Britain, and abounds with several sorts of metal; affording good pasture, and contributing more to the nourishment of cattel, than of men. But as for what he says of it’s abounding with several sorts of metal, it is now so far from it, that it seems long since, to have been quite drain’d. ⌈This Meneg, as also the Erth in it, a late writerSammes Brit. p.59. will have to be of a Phœnician original; the first, from Meneog signifying kept-in by the sea; and the second, from Arith, a common name, as he says, for lakes; and this military fence being placed by a lake, may well enough be suppos’d to have it’s denomination from thence.⌉ It is by the Seamen call’d the Lizard, by Ptolemy the Promontory of the Danmonii, and Ocrinum; by ÆthicusAEthicus, in that monstrous Geography of his, Ocranum;Ocrinum. The Lizard. and reckoned among the mountains of the Western Ocean. I dare not be positive, that it took it’s name from Ocra, which (as Sextus Pompeius has it) signifies a craggy mountain; tho’ ’tis certain that Ocrea among the Alps, as also Ocriculum and Interocrea, were so called from their steep rough situation. But since Ochr in British signifies an edge, what if we should suppose that this Promontory had it’s name from being edg’d and pointed like a cone?

The shore, shooting-in again from this Meneg, makes a bay full of winding creeks ⌈in which is Mawgan,Mawgan. where is a stone commonly called Mawgan-cross, with this Inscription,

inscription

The Characters are all plain, except the second G in Gnegumi; who might probably be some British Prince. A little further, the shore opens⌉ to receive the small river Vale, upon which, something inward, stood an old town call’d Voluba,Voluba. mention’d by Ptolemy. But it has, long since, either lost it’s being, or it’s name; which yet does still in some measure remain in Volemouth or Falemouth.Falemouth. This harbour is as noble as the Brundusium of Italy, and very capacious: for an hundred ships may ride in it’s winding bays at such distance, that, from no one of them, shall be seen the top of another’s main-mast. It is also secure from winds, being guarded on all sides with high creeks. At the very entrance, there is a high uneven rock, call’d by the Inhabitants Crage; and each side of it is fortify’d with a Castle, built by K. Henry 8, for the safety of the place, and terror of the enemy: that on the east, is S. Maudit’s; and that on the west, Pendinas;Pendinas. of which an Antiquarian Poet writes thus:

Pendinas tenet asperi cacumen
Celsum montis, & intonat frequenter.

Mauditi quoque subsidet rotundum
Castrum, & impetu fulminat furenti,
Portus ostia quà patent Falensis.

High on a craggy rock Pendennis stands,
And with it’s thunder all the Port commands.
While strong St. Maudit’s answers it below,
Where Falmouth’s sands the spacious harbour show.

But the harbour it self is call’d by Ptolemy Cenionis ostium;Cenionis ostium. without all dispute, from the British word Geneu, signifying a mouth and an entrance: which Tregenie,Tregenie. the name of a town hard by, confirms; as much as if one should say, a little town at the mouth; ⌈if indeed there is any occasion for the diminutive; as I am inform’d there is not; and this is the more probable, because † † Sammes Brit. p.60.Tira and by contraction tra in the Phœnician, is so far from signifying any inconsiderable place, that it denotes a Fort or Castle. The not knowing the signification of this word, seems in former days to have led some of the Cornish Gentry into an error, in taking their coat-armour, according to the import of their name. Thus, Trefusis (which really signifies a wall’d town or fortify’d place,) is turned into three fusils; and so, three spindles are in the arms of that Family. Trenances, is a place or town by a vale; but because it sounds not unlike tres enses, a feß between three swords is born by this family. Many more instances of this kind might be given, especially where the initial Tre (as if it were of a Latin original,) hath determined them to take three of whatever they chuse.⌉ But to return. In the reign of King Charles the second, Charles Lord Berkley, and Viscount Fitzharding, was in the 16th year thereof created at the same time Lord Botetort and Earl of Falmouth; but he losing his life the year following in the Sea-service against the Dutch, and leaving no issue-male, this Honour was extinct: In which year, anStat. 16. Car.2. n.18. 22, 23, Car.2. n.20. Act of Parliament was also passed for the making of the Church erected here at Falmouth, a Parish-Church, and no part of the Parish of St. Gluvias, or Chapelry of St. Budocke.

There are some towns which stand upon the inner parts of this Harbour. Peryn.Peryn, a famous market; where Walter Bronescombe Bishop of Exeter, Ann. 1288. built a Collegiate ChurchGlasnith. (call’d Glasnith) ⌈with * * 12 C.thirteen Prebendaries; as the History of the Foundation in the Leiger-Book of that College, expressly saith.⌉ ArwenackArwenack., the seat of the ancient and famous family of the Killegrews. TruroTruro., in Cornish Truru, so called from three streets, in a manner encompass’d with two little rivers; and distinguisht by being a Mayor-town, and by the privileges it has in the business of the Stannaries. Grampound. Grampound, the most remote from the harbour; ⌈to the Burghers whereof, John of Eltham Earl of Cornwall, in his Charter which is still extant, granted and confirm’d the whole Ville of Grampont, and all the lands of Coytfala, which in the British signifies Fala-wood: and, at this day, there are certain Lands adjoyning to the town, and within the precincts of the borough, call’d Cois-fala. Which remains of the old name, and the situation of the town, exactly agreeing with that of VolubaVoluba. in Ptolemy, seem to justifie a Conjecture, that upon erecting the adjoyning bridge over the river Vale, it exchang’d the name of Voluba for Ponsmur; by which name (in British signifying a great bridge,) Edmund Earl of Cornwall enfranchis’d it; and this being put into French, is exactly Granpond, or, as it is call’d at this day, Grampond. Upon the sea-coast at some distance, is TregonanTregonan. the seat of the Tredenhams, an ancient and well-ally’d family.⌉ Below this, is RoselandRoseland., a plot of ground lying along the sea-side; so call’d, as some would have it, from rosetum, a garden of roses; or, as others, because it is ericetum, a heath; for Ros in British signifies a heath. From whence RosseRosse. in Scotland, and another Rosse in Wales, have had their names, as being a dry, thirsty ground: but this, by the industry of the husbandmen, is made more rich and fruitful. ⌈Notwithstanding which Conjectures, this neither borrows the name from a rose, nor from heath; but from Rose or Ross, which is in Cornish, a Vale or Valley. The sound of this word, implying something of a rose, and the beauty of that flower, hath led some Families into the same error in their taking of Arms, as the foremention’d Tre hath done others. So Rosagan (which signifies no more than a white valley,) took 3 red Roses; Roscarrock (i.e. a rock in the valley) a rose and a tench; Penrose (i.e. head of the valley) a bend set about with roses; with others of the same kind. Farther up in the land, is Lanhidrock,Lanhidrock. the seat of the Right honourable the Earl of Radnor, whose Great Grandfather was created Baron of Truro by K. Ch. 1, and his Grandfather Earl of Radnor by K. Ch. 2.⌉ From Roseland the sea immediately follows the dintings of the Land, and makes a large bay, call’d Trueardraithbay, that is to say, The bay of a town at the sand.

Scarce two miles from hence, where the river Fawey runs into the Sea, is Fowy-town,Fowy. in British Foath, stretch’d along the creek: it was very famous, in former times, for Sea-fights; the memory whereof remains in the Arms of the place, which are a Compound of all those of the Cinque-ports. On each side of the harbour, is a fort, built by Edward 4; who a little after, upon a displeasure conceiv’d against the men of Fowy, for preying upon the French coasts, tho’ a Peace had been made with that kingdom; took from them all their ships and Naval Stores. Over-against Fowy, on the other side, stands Hall,Hall. noted for it’s pleasant walks on the side of an hill, and † † Ann. 1607.the seat of Sir William Mohun, Knight, of an ancient and noble family; descended from the MohunsMohuns. Earls of Somerset, and the Courtneies, Earls of Devonshire: ⌈Since which time, it has been sold; and the seat of the Lord Mohun (while living) was at Boconnock. Not far from Fowy, is St. Blaise,S. Blaise. where is a Cross, by the Almes-house; on two sides of which are Inscriptions, as follow:

Cross

In the high-way, near Fowy, is a Stone, commonly called the Long Stone, on which is this Inscription:

stone

The reading is, Cirusius hic jacit Cunomori filius; for the w in Cunomori must needs be an M reversed; the letter w being but lately introduced into any Alphabet. This man’s name in British was Kirys ap Kynvor; and it is probable, that Pol Kirys (a village, within half a mile of this Stone) received the name from him. About a mile from the Stone, is a round ditch, called Castle-dore, where, within the memory of man, Urns full of Ashes have been dug-up; and the like hath been heretofore found in the neighbouring Parish of Trewardrith.⌉

More within land, upon the same river, stands the UzellaUzella. The Britains had not the letter x. of Ptolemy; and it has not yet quite lost the name, being called at this day Lestuthiell, from it’s situation. For it was upon a high hill, where is Lestormin an ancient castle; tho’, since it is removed into the valley. Now, uchel in British signifies high and lofty; from whence the UxellodunumUxellodunum, in France. in Gaul is so nam’d, because the town, as being built upon a mountain, has a steep rugged ascent every way. This, in the British history, is called Pen-Uchel-coit, i.e. a high mountain in a wood; by which some will have Exeter to be meant. But the situation of it in Ptolemy, and the name it has to this day, do sufficiently shew, that it was the ancient Uzella. Now, it is a little town and not much frequented; for the channel of the river Fawey, which in the last age us’d to carry the tide to the very town, and convey vessels of good burthen, is now so stoptHow the ports in Cornwall came to be stopt up. up by the sands coming from the Lead-mines, that it is too shallow for barges: and indeed, all the harbours of this County are in danger to be choak’d up by these sands. However it is the County-town; where the Sheriff every month holds the County-court, and where the Warden of the Stannaries has his prison. For it has the privilege of Coynage, by the favour (as they say) of Edmund Earl of Cornwall, who formerly had his Palace here. But there are two towns which do greatly eclipse the glory of this Uzella; LeskerdLeskerd. to the east, seated on a high hill and famous for an ancient castle, and a market: And BodmanBodman. to the north, scarce † † 2. C.four miles distant; in British (if I mistake not) Bosuenna, and in ancient Charters, Bodminiam. This town is seated between two hills, not very healthfully; extended from east to west. ’Tis a noted market; populous and well built; and is distinguish’d by the Privilege of stamping tinn. But it was formerly more famous for a Bishop’s See: For about the year 905. when the discipline of the Church was quite neglected in those parts,The book of Winchester Monastery. Edward the Elder, by a Decree from Pope Formosus, settled a Bishop’s See here, and granted the Bishop of Kirton three villages in those parts, Polton, Cæling, and Lanwitham; that he might every year visit the County of Cornwall, in order to reform their errors; for before that time, they resisted the Truth to the utmost, and would not submit to the Apostolical Decrees.CaelingPolton is probably Paulton in S. Breague; Lawhitton still belongs to the Bishop; but where Cæling was seated, doth not appear. The ManoursInq. An.9. Edw.2. mentioned hereabouts to be the Bishop’s, are Lawhitton, S. Germans, Pawton, Pregaer, Penryn, and Cargaul, without any mention of Cæling. In those Manours, the Bishops had View of Frankpledge, and all other Privileges, except Hue and Cry.⌉ But afterwards, those dismal wars of the Danes breaking out, the Bishop’s See was translated to S. Germans. Near Leskerd† Is, C.was a Church formerly called S. Guerir, which in British signifies a Physician; where (as Asser tells us) King Alfred, while he was in the midst of his devotion, recovered of a fit of sickness. But when Neotus, a man of eminent Sanctity and Learning, was buried in that Church, he so much eclips’d the glory of the other Saint, that from him the place begun to be call’d Neotestow, i.e. the place of Neoth,S. Neoth’s. and now S. Neoth’s; and the Religious there were called Clerks of St. Neot, who had pretty large revenues, as appears from Domesday. ⌈At present, the very footsteps of the old Church or College are quite gone; so that there are no ruins of it within the parish, no body knows where it stood, nor are there any Church-lands that are known to have formerly belong’d to it: which makes it probable, that it was alienated long before the Reformation. Here is at present a fine Country Church; and in the windows, several pictures relating to some particular traditions of the Jews; which are exactly deliver’d in a Cornish book, now in the * * Archiv. B.31.publick Library at Oxford. ’Tis probable they had these traditions immediately from the Jews themselves, who were here in great numbers, about the Tinn.⌉ Hard by (as I have been told) in the Parish of St. Clare,St. Clare. there are in a place call’d Pennant, i.e. the head of the valley, two stone-monuments; one, with the upper part hollow in form of a chair; the other, called Other-half-stone, inscrib’d with barbarous characters now almost worn out.

Stone doniert

Which I think are to be read thus, Doniert, Rogavit pro anima: unless we may imagin that these two points (:) after Doniert, are the remains of the letter E; and so read, Doniert erogavit; implying, that he gave that land to the Religious, for the good of his soul. I cannot but think, that this Doniert must be that petty King of Cornwall, which the Annals call Dungerth, and tell us he was drown’d in the year 872; ⌈not only by reason of the affinity of the names, but also because the Letters are exactly the same with those on a Monument in Denbighshire, which was set up by Konken King of Powys, at the very same time.⌉

Wring-cheese. Hard by, is a heap of pretty large rocks; under which is a great stone, form’d so like a cheese, that it seems to be press’d by the others; from whence the whole has the name of Wring-cheese. ⌈They were, doubtless, naturally and accidentally so piled one upon another; lying askew, and not perpendicularly, the least at the bottom.⌉ A great many stones likewise, almost in a square, are to be seen upon the adjoyning plain; whereof seven or eight are at equal distance from one another. The Neighbouring people call them Hurlers,Hurlers. from a pious perswasion, that they are men transformed into stones, for playing at Ball on Sunday. Others will have them, to be a trophy, in memory of some battle; and others think, they have been set for boundaries; because in the Authors that have writ about Bounds, they have read, that large stones us’d to be gather’d by both Parties, and erected for limits. ⌈These are oblong, rude and unhewn stones, pitch’d in the ground on one end, standing upon a Down in three circles, the centers whereof are in a right line; the middlemost circle the greatest. They seem neither to be trophies, nor land-marks, † † See Biscaw-woune before, in this County.but burying-places of the ancient Britains. For The Other-half-stone not far from those Hurlers, appears by the inscription to have been a sepulchral stone. And that also call’d the Long-stone, standing in the Downs about half a mile from the Hurlers (above two yards and a half high, with a Cross on both sides) was doubtless a funeral monument. The figure of it is this, Stone with Crosses

About two miles from the river Loo, is the present seat of the ancient family of the Trelawnies; to which, by marriage with one of the daughters and coheirs of Courtney Earl of Devonshire, a great part of the inheritance of that noble family came. They were possess’d of this place only since the reign of Queen Elizabeth; having, before, been for many ages seated first at Trelawny, and afterwards at Minbinnead (a town distant about 6 miles, on the same river Loo,) where they still have a large house (the place of their former residence) call’d Pool. Pool. Towards the northern coast of this County, is Trerice,Trerice. the seat of the ancient family of Arundel, of which, Sir John Arundel, in consideration of his eminent Loyalty and Services to the Crown, was advanced by King Charles the first to the dignity of a Baron of this Realm, by the title of Lord Arundel of Trerice.⌉

The river LooLoo riv. opens it self a passage into the sea upon this coast; and, at it’s mouth, communicates the name to two little towns, joyned together by a stone-bridge. That upon the † † West, C.east-side, as newer, flourishes most; but time has very much decay’d the other which is more * * Upon the East C.westward; tho’ it still retains the Honour of a Mayor and Aldermen. From hence, we meet with nothing memorable, till we come to Liver, a little river abounding with oysters; which runs by S. Germans,S. Germans. a small village, whither the Bishop’s See was translated, for greater safety, in the time of the Danish war. There is a little Religious house dedicated to St. German of Auxerre, who suppressed the Pelagian heresie, then growing again in Britain. After the succession of some few Bishops, Levinus Bishop of Kirton, a great favourite of Canutus the Dane, obtain’d a Royal Grant to have it annex’d to his own See. From which time, there has been but one Bishop for this County and Devonshire, who now has his See at Exeter; and he appointed this little village of S. Germans, for a seat to his Suffragan. There ¦ ¦ 1607.was nothing left at it long since, besides fishermen’s hutts, who * * Get, C.got themselves a pretty good livelyhood by fishing in the sea and the neighbouring rivers; ⌈but even that is now wholly laid aside.⌉ At a few miles distance, upon the same river, TrematonTrematon. still supports the name of a castle, by it’s ruinous walls; where (as it is in Domesday) William Earl of Moriton had his castle and market; and it was the head of a Barony of the Earls and Dukes of Cornwall, as we learn from the Inquisitions. When the Liver has pass’d by this, it empties it self into Tamara, the limit of this County (near Saltashe, formerly Esse, once the seat of the † Of the crooked Valley.Valtorts, now pretty well stor’d with merchants, and endow’d with many privileges;) where Mont-Edgecombe, the Seat of the ancient family of the Edgcombs,Edgecombe. is pleasantly situated, with a prospect of the winding harbour beneath it. ⌈This place, and a great part of the Parish of Maker, though on the west-side of Tamar, do not properly belong to Cornwall but Devonshire; only, as to Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, they are within the Archdeaconry of Cornwall. On the other hand, the tract over-against Saltash on the east-side of Tamar, is within Cornwall; and so it is also about Northamerton. The reason whereof is probably this; that, upon the division of Shires, some eminent persons living on one side the river, and having part of their Estates on the other, procured the latter to be included in the same County with the formre. So, the family of Valletort or de Valla tortâtorta, having their mansion on the east-side of the river (perhaps, at or about Plimouth, where is yet known the Manour of Vawtort or Valletort,) had probably some branch of their estate on the west-side, and got that united to Devonshire. And thus, all that tract of ground, of which Mount-Edgcomb is part, being called by the name of Vawtort’s home, continues part of Devonshire. Whether that small part of Kent near Woolwich, lying on Essex-side; also, a piece of Oxfordshire near Culham on Berkshire-side; and a slip of Staffordshire on Derbyshire-side; whether these, I say, may not have happened on the like occasion, can only be resolved by those who have opportunity to consult the private records and histories of the respective Places. But to return.⌉ Next to Mount-Edgecomb, is Anthony,Anthony. remarkable for it’s neatness, and a fish-pond which lets in the sea, from whence it is furnish’d with fish, both for use and pleasure; but much more, for the * * Ann. 1607.Lord of it, Richard Carew, who not only lived up to the dignity of his ancestors; but excell’d them all in the ornaments of Virtue. Thus far we have been upon the south-coast; now let us survey the north.

The northern shore, from the Lands-end, running forward on a long tract of sandy banks washt-up by the sea, comes to a town hanging into the sea like a sort of little tongue, called S. Iies;S. Iies. from Iia an Irish woman of great piety, who liv’d here. It was formerly call’d Pendinas; and the harbour below, which receives the river Haile, has it’s name from the Town, being call’d by the Sea-men S. Iies bay. The town it self is now but small. For the North-west-wind, the tyrant of this coast, by heaping-in sands upon it, has been so very prejudicial to it, that they have removed the situation more than once. From hence, the country growing broader on both sides and running East-ward, the northern shore, with an oblique winding, goes north-east to Padstow, meeting with nothing remarkable in its way, besides a Chapel built upon the sand, and dedicated to S. Piranus, another Irish Saint, bury’d here; to whose sanctity, a silly childish Writer has attributed the finding provision for ten Irish Kings and their armies, for eight days together, with no more than three Cows; as also the bringing to life dead hogs, and dead men.

Farther from the shore is ⌈Rialton,Rialton. which gave the title, first of Baron, and then of Viscount to the Right Honourable Sidney Earl of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer of England; and⌉ S. Columbs,S. Columbs. a little market-town, dedicated to Columba, an exceeding pious woman and a martyr, and not to Columbanus the Scot (as I am now fully satisfied by her life,Camd. Epist. p.91. ⌈translated from the Cornish.)⌉ Near which, at a little-less distance from the sea, stands Lhanheron,Lhanheron. [heretofore] the seat of the family of the Arondels Knights, who, on account of their vast riches, were not long since call’d The great Arondels. They are sometimes stil’d in Latin De Hirundine,Family of the Arondels. and appositely enough in my mind; for a Swallow in French is Arondel, and their Arms are in a field sable six Swallows argent. It is certainly an ancient and noble family, as also very largely ally’d; to the name and Arms whereof, William Brito, a Poet, alludes, when he describes a warlike Gentleman of this Family assaulting a French-man, about the year 1170.

Hirundelæ velocior alite, quæ dat
Hoc agnomen ei, fert cujus in ægide signum,
Se rapit agminibus mediis, clypeóque nitenti
Quem sibi Guilielmus læva prætenderat ulna,
Immergit validam præacutæ cuspidis hastam
.

Swift as the Swallow, whence his Arms device,
And his own name are took, enrag’d he flies
Thro’ gazing troops, the wonder of the field,
And sticks his lance in William’s glittering shield.

At a little distance, is a double rampire on the top of a hill, and a causey leading to it: it is call’d Castellan Danis,Castle-Danis. i.e. the camps of the Danes, because the Danes, when they infested the English coasts, encamp’d here, as also in other places hereabouts.

Not far from hence, is the river Alan, call’d also Camb-alan, and Camel, from it’s winding channel (for Cam with them implies so much.) Running gently into the Upper-sea, it has at the mouth a little market-town call’d Padstow,Padstow. contracted from Petrockstow (as ’tis call’d in the Histories of the Saints,) from one Petrocus a British Saint, who liv’d here in a Religious way; whereas, the town was before call’d * * Vid, Usser. Antiq. p 292.Loderick and Laffenac. ⌈Leland says of it, that in old writings it is called Adelstow, i.e. Athelstan’s place, King Athelstan being lookt upon as the chief Author of it’s Privileges; but he tells us also, that the Tomb and Shrine of St. Petrock were remaining in the east-part of the Church.⌉ It is very conveniently seated for trading into Ireland, being but 24 hours easie sail; and is very much adorn’d by a beautiful house in the neighbourhood, like a castle, which N. Prideaux, a Gentleman of an ancient name and family, † † So said, 1607.lately built in those Western parts.

⌈About 5 miles above Padstow, is Wadebridge,Wadebridge. a bridge of seventeen arches, and much the largest in the whole country. ¦ ¦ Lel. Itinerar. Vol.2.It was built by one Lovebone Vicar of the place, to prevent those dangers which passengers on horse-back were expos’d to, by ferrying over. The foundations of some of the arches were first laid upon quick sands; which made the undertaker despair of effecting his design, till he laid packs of wool for the ground-work.⌉ At the head of the river Alan, is seated Camelford, otherwise writ Gaffelford,Gaffelford. a little village, formerly call’d Kamblan in the opinion of Leland, who tells us that Arthur, the English Hector, was slain here. For (as he adds) pieces of armour, rings, and brass-trappings for horses, are sometimes dug-up here by the Countrymen; and, after so many ages, the tradition of a bloody victory in this place, is still preserv’d. There are also extant some verses of a middle-age poet, about Camel’s running with blood, after the battle of Arthur against Mordred: which, because they seem to flow from a good vein, I will venture to insert:

Naturam Cambala fontis
Mutatam stupet esse sui, transcendit inundans
Sanguineus torrens ripas, & volvit in æquor
Corpora cæsorum, plures natare videres
Et petere auxilium, quos undis vitæ reliquit.

Camel’s stream
Feels the sad change, and wonders whence it came:
The yielding banks are drown’d with rising blood,
And mangled corps lie gasping on the flood:
Poor half-dead wretches spend their fainting breath
In cries for rescue from a second death.

It is certain (not to deny the truth of this story concerning Arthur,) that we read in Marianus of a bloody battle here between the Britains and Saxons, in the year 820. so that the place may in some measure seem to be sacred to Mars. And if it be true, that Arthur was kill’d here; the same shore gave him his first breath and depriv’d him of his last. For, upon the neighbouring shore, stands Tindagium (the birthplace of the great Arthur,) part of it as it were on a little tongue thrust out, and part upon an Island formerly joyn’d to the main-land by a bridge. They now call it Tindagel;Tindagel, Arthur’s birth-place. tho’ nothing is left, but the splendid ruins of an ancient stately castle, ⌈which Leland saith hath been a marvellous strong and notable fortress, made by the nature of the place in a manner impregnable; especially, the Dungeon on a high terrible Rock environed with the Sea, with a draw-bridge from the residue of the Castle to it.⌉ Of this a modern Poet writes thus:

Est locus Abrini sinuoso littore ponti
Rupe situs media, refluus quem circuit æstus;
Fulminat hic latè turrito vertice castrum,
Nomine Tindagium veteres dixere Corini.

On a steep rock within a winding bay
A castle stands surrounded by the sea,
Whose frequent thunder shakes the trembling hill,
Tindage of old ’twas call’d, now Tindagel.

It would be tedious to relate here, from the History of Geoffrey, how Uther Pendragon, King of Wales, fell in love with the wife of Gorlois Prince of Cornwall, in this castle; and how, by art-magick assuming the shape of her husband, he defil’d the Lady, and begat this Arthur.

Architrenius. The verses of our countryman John Hauvillan shall supersede that:

Facie dum falsus adulter
Tindagel irrupit, nec amoris Pendragon æstum
Vincit, & omnificas Merlini consulit artes,
Mentitúrque ducis habitus, & rege latente,
lnduit absentis præsentia Gorlois ora
.

Nor could the Prince conceal his raging flame,
But in false shapes to Tindagel he came,
By Merlin’s art transform’d from King to Duke,
And Gorloi’s Person for Pendragon’s took.

This Uther Pendragon was a Prince, in whom were all the accomplishments of a Soldier, and who valiantly supported the sinking state of his country against the Saxons. I dare not affirm that the Royal banner of the English (having the effigies of a dragonA dragon in the banners of the Kings of England. with a golden head, so well known to our neighbours, and so terrible to the Pagans in the Holy wars under Richard the 3d,) was deriv’d from him. Gervasius Tilburiensis. I rather think we owe it to the Romans, who for a long time us’d the Eagle, after Marius had rejected the Standards of a wolf, a minotaure, a horse, &c. and came at last under the later Emperors to make choice of a Dragon. Upon which, Claudian,

Hi picta Draconum
Colla levant
.——

Exalted Banners wrought with dragon’s heads.

And Nemesianus,

Signa micant, sinuátque truces levis aura Dracones.

In Ensigns mov’d by gentle air
Fierce Dragons heads erect appear.

That the West-Saxon kings carry’d a Dragon in their Standards, we have the authority of Hoveden. But as for that other banner of the Saxons (which Bede calls Tufa,)The banner call’d Tufa. and the Reafan of the Danes; I will say nothing of them in this place, lest I should be thought to make too large a digression.

Upon the same coast (which is not very fruitful, and wants wood,) there stands expos’d to the sea, Botereaux-castle,Botereaux. corrupted by the vulgar into Bos-castell, and built by the Lords of it the Botereauxs, who bore in a shield argent three toads sable. William Botereaux was the first person of note and eminence in this family; and marry’d Alice, daughter of Robert Corbet, whose sister was concubine to King Henry 1, and had by her Reginald Earl of Cornwall. From this William, eleven flourish’d successively. But Margaret, only daughter to the last, was marry’d to Robert Hungerford, by whose posterity the Estate came to the Hastings, after it had been much augmented in extent and honour, by the marriages of the Botereauxs with the heiresses of the noble families of the Moeles, St. Laud or S. Lo, and Thweng. Orig. 48 E.3. R.12. ⌈By her, Robert had issue Robert Lord Hungerford and Molins, and he, Thomas Lord Hungerford his son, whose sole heiress, Mary, was marry’d to Edward Lord Hastings and Hungerford; by whom he had George the first of that Sirname Earl of Huntingdon. This castle with a large inheritance continu’d in that family, until the reign of Queen Elizabeth.⌉

From hence northward, the land rises and shoots itself so far into the sea, that the country between the two seas is * * 23. C.above 30 miles broad; tho’ it has been hitherto but very narrow. At the greatest breadth of it, StowStow. stands upon the sea-coast, the ancient seat of the family of the Grenvills,Grenvills. famous for their antiquity and nobility; ⌈and of later years raised to the dignity of Earls of Bathe; who have built here a very stately house.⌉ Among the rest, Richard, in the time of William Rufus, signaliz’d his courage in the Conquest of Glamorganshire in Wales; and in † † Lately, C.the last age save one, another of the same Christian-name, exceeding the nobility of his birth by his own bravery, lost his life gallantly in an Engagement with the Spaniard at the Azores. Not far from this, is Stratton,Stratton. a market-town noted for gardens, and its garlick; ⌈near which place, the Cornish forces for King Charles 1. 1643.gain’d a victory over the Parliament-army. In the place, there follow’d a prodigious crop of barley, ten or twelve ears on one stalk. So, formerly, after the battle with the Danes in Swornfield; a certain shrub sprang up (therefore call’d Dane-ball or Dane-wort, by others Dwarf-elder) which is said to be no where found, but there, or transplanted from thence.⌉ Next to this is Lancells, a new seat of the ancient family of the Chaumonds, now extinct.De Calvo Monte.

The river Tamara,Tamara riv. now Tamar, rising here, not far from the Northern shore, runs swiftly and violently towards the South; and, after it is encreas’d with many little rivulets, passes by Tamara, a town mention’d by Ptolemy, now Tamerton; and, at a little distance from it, is Lanstuphadon, i.e. the Church of Stephen, commonly call’d Launston;Launston. a pretty little town, situate upon a rising; which, out of two other burroughs, Dunevet and Newport, hath grown into one Town. In the beginning of the Normans, William Earl of Moriton built a castle here; ⌈the moles whereof on which the Kepe stood, as Leland tells us, were of a large and terrible height; and that the Arx of it, having three several Wards, was the highest, tho’ not the biggest, that ever he saw in any ancient work in England.⌉ It had also a College of Canons, as appears by Domesday-book, where it is call’d Launstaveton; which name it had, without doubt, from the College there, dedicated to S. Stephen, and about the year 1150. converted into a monastery by * * William Warwist, Bp. of Exeter. Lel.Reginald Earl of Cornwall. This change, the Bishops of Exeter (too much carry’d away by passion and interest,) did vehemently oppose, fearing it might come to be a Bishop’s See, and so lessen their jurisdiction. At this day, it is most remarkable for the publick Gaol, and for the Assizes ⌈having been † † Often C.constantly kept there; till it was provided by a special Act of Parliament,1 Georg. that it should be in the power of the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, to appoint any other place in the County, for the holding of them.⌉

Tamar going from hence, has the view of a high mountain, stretch’d out a great way in length, call’d by the Saxon annals Saxon: hengistesdun, by Marianus Saxon: Hengesdoun, and by him interpreted the mountain of Hengist: the name it has at present, is Hengston-hill.Hengston, i.e. a hill of horses. It was formerly pretty rich in veins of tinn, and the standing place where the Tinners of Cornwall and Devonshire met every seventh or eighth year in great numbers, to concert their common interests. At this place also, in the year 831, the Danmonian Britains,Marianus Scotus. with the assistance of the Danes, trying to break into Devonshire to drive out the English who had then got possession of it, were totally routed by King Egbert, and cut off almost to a man. Lower down near SaltesseSaltesse. (a little market-town, as I observ’d before, plac’d upon a rising ground, and having a Mayor, with certain Privileges,) Tamar receives the river Liver, upon which stands the Town of S. Germans mentioned above. With this increase, it passes to the sea, and makes a harbour, call’d in the Life of Indractus, Tamerworth; after it hath been the Boundary between Cornwall and Devonshire. For King Athelstan (who was the first King of England, that entirely subdu’d those parts) made this the Bound between the Cornish Britains and his own English, after he had removed the Britains out of Devonshire; as we learn from Malmesbury, who calls the river, Tambra. Whereupon, Alexander Necham, in his Hymns upon the Divine Wisdom, writes thus;

Loegriæ Tamaris divisor Cornubiæque,
Indigenas ditat pinguibus isiciis.

Cornwall from England Tamar’s streams divide,
Whence with fat Salmon all the land’s supply’d.

This place seems to require something to be said concerning Ursula,Ursula, and the 11000 Virgins. a Virgin of great sanctity, born here, and of the 11000 British Virgins. But whilst someDrayt. Polyolb. p.131. at large. hold, that they were drown’d in the time of Gratian the Emperor, about the year 383. upon the coast of Germany, as they were sailing to Armorica; and others tell us, that in the year 450. at Cologn upon the Rhine, in their return from Rome, they suffer’d Martyrdom from Attila the Hunne, that Instrument of the divine Vengeance: This difference among Authors has made some, instead of believing it an historical truth, suspect it to be a mere Fable. But as to that Constantine (call’d by Gildas the tyrannous whelp of an unclean Danmonian Lioness,) and the disforesting of all this County under K. John, (for before that, it is thought to have been a forest, ⌈or rather, was certainly a Forest, as appears by the Instrument of that King, in the 5th year of his reign, whereby he expresly disforests all Cornwall:)⌉ of these matters let the Historians give an account, for they are beside my business.

As to the Earls:Earls of Cornwall. Candorus, call’d by others Cadocus, is mention’d by modern writers as the last Earl of Cornwall of British extraction: his Arms (as the Heralds tell you) were 15 besants, in a field sable. The first Earl of Norman descent, was Robert Moriton, brother to William the Conqueror, as son of Herlotta; to whom succeeded William his son. This William, siding with Robert the Norman against Henry 1. King of England, was taken prisoner, and lost both his liberty and honors: in whose place, Henry 2. whilst he was making warlike preparations against Stephen, advanc’d Reginald, natural son to Henry 1, to the Earldom: (for that King was so very incontinent, that he had no less than 13 Children, that were illegimate.) Reginald dying without lawful issue male, Henry 2.Rob. de Monte 1175. (assigning certain lands to his daughters) reserv’d this Earldom for his young son John, then but nine years of age; upon whom his Brother Richard 1. afterwards bestow’d it, with other Counties. But John coming to the Crown of England, his second son Richard had this honour, with the Earldom of Poictou, confer’d upon him by his Brother Henry 3. This Richard was a powerful Prince in his time; as also a religious person, valiant in war, and of great wisdom and conduct; behaving himself in Aquitain with wonderful courage; where also he had great success. Going to the Holy Land, he forced the Saracens to a truce, refus’d the kingdom of Apulia when offer’d him by the Pope, quieted several tumults in England, and being chosen King of the Romans by some of the 7 Electors of Germany in the year 1257, was crown’d at Aix la Chapelle. There is a common verse, which intimates that he bought this honour;

Nummus ait pro me nubit Cornubia Romæ.

Cornwall to Rome Almighty money joyn’d.

For before that time, he was so famous a mony’d-man, that a Contemporary Writer has told us, he was able to spend a hundred marks a day for 10 years together. But the civil wars breaking out in Germany, he quickly return’d to England, where he dy’d, and was bury’d at the famous Monastery of Hales, which himself had built; a little after his eldest son Henry (in his return from the Holy wars, as he was at his devotions in a Church at Viterbium in Italy) had been villanously murder’d by Guido de Montefort, son of Simon Earl of Leicester, in revenge for his father’s death. Whereupon, his second son Edmund succeeded in the Earldom of Cornwall; who dying without issue, that large Estate return’d to the King; he (in the language of the Lawyers) being found next in blood, and heir at law. The Arms of the Earls of Cornwall. Now, since Richard and his Son Edmund were of the blood Royal of England, I have often wonder’d, as others have also done, how they came to bear Arms different from those of the Royal Family, viz. in a field argent a Lyon rampant gules, crowned or, within a border sable garnish’d with bezants. And the only reason I can offer for it, is, that they might possibly do it in imitation of the Royal Family of France, (since this way of bearing Arms came to us from the French.) For the younger sons of the Kings of France, have Arms different from the Crown, to this day; as we may observe in the Families of Vermandois, Dreux, and Courtneys. Bande d’Or et d’Azur a la bordeure de Gueules. And as Robert Duke of Burgundy, brother of Henry 1, King of France, took the ancient Arms of the Dukes of Burgundy; so this Richard, after he had the Earldom of Poictou bestow’d upon him by his brother K. Henry 3, might probably take the Lyons-gules crown’d, which (as French Authors inform us)Memoriales de Aquitaine. belong’d to his Predecessors Earls of Poictou, and might add that border sable garnish’d with bezants, out of the ancient Arms of the Earls of Cornwall. For as soon as the younger sons of France began to bear the Royal Arms with some difference, we presently follow’d them; Edward 1st’s children being the first instance. But whither am I rambling, to please my self with the niceties of my own profession? After Cornwall was united to the Crown, Edward 2. (who had large possessions given him by his father, in those parts) confer’d the title of Earl of Cornwall upon Pierce Gaveston, a Gascoine, who had been the great debaucher of him in his youth. But he being seiz’d by the Barons for corrupting the Prince and for other crimes, was beheaded; and succeeded by John de Eltham, younger son of Edw. 2. who being young, and dying without issue, Edw. 3. erected Cornwall into a Dukedom, and, in the year 1336,Dukes of Cornwall. invested Edward his son, a most accomplish’d Soldier, with the Dukedom of Cornwall, by a wreath on his head, a ring upon his finger, and a silver verge. Since which time (as I shall observe from the Record, leaving the Lawyers to make a judgment about it) the eldest son of the King of England is born Earl of Cornwall; and by a special ActOrig. 35 Hen. 6. made in that case, he is to be presum’d of full age assoon as ever he is born, so that he may claim livery and seisin of the said Dukedom the same day he is born, and ought by right to obtain it, as if he had fully compleated the age of twenty one. ⌈But this (according to the express words of the Grant,) is limited to the first-born Son, and heir. So that Richard de Bourdeaux son to the Black Prince was not Duke of Cornwall by virtue hereof, but was created by Charter; Nor was Elizabeth, eldest daughter to K. Edw. 4. Dutchess hereof, because it is limited to the Son: Neither was Henry 8, in the life-time of his Father, after the death of Prince Arthur, Duke hereof, because he was not eldest son.⌉

The Duke of Cornwall hath also Royalties and Prerogatives in certain Actions, and, in the stannaries, wrecks, customs, &c. for which, and the like, he appoints several Officers under him. But these matters are laid open, more distinctly and fully, by Richard Carew of Anthony (a person no less eminent for his honorable Ancestors, than his own virtue and learning,) who hath describ’d and drawn this County, not in little, but at large, and whom I cannot but acknowledge to have been my chief Guide through it.

There are in this County 161 Parishes.

A Catalogue of more rare Plants growing wild in Cornwall.

Alsine spuria pusilla repens, foliis saxifragæ aureæ. saxifragae aureae Cymbalariae Cantabricae Anguillarae Chamaemelum Small creeping round-leaved bastard chickweed. On moist banks in many places both of Cornwall and Devonshire, together with Campanula Cymbalariæ foliis. This Plant is figur’d by Dr. Plukenet Phytograph. Tab. 7. and describ’d in Synops. Stirp. Britan.

Asparagus palustris Ger. marinus J. B. marinus crassiore folio Park. maritimus crassiore folio C. B. Marsh-Asparagus or Sperage. It is found growing on the cliffs at the Lizard-point in Cornwall.

Ascyrum supinum villosum palustre C. B. Park. Ascyr. 2. sive supinum Greek text Clusii Ger. emac. Round-leaved marsh St. Peter’s wort. On boggy grounds about springing waters in many places, most abundantly towards the Land’s end in this County.

Campanula Cymbalariæ foliis Ger. emac. Park. Cymbalariæ foliis vel folio hederaceo C. B. folio hederaceo, species Cantabricæ Anguillaræ J. B. Tender Ivy-leaved Bell-flower. On many moist and watery banks in this County, and elsewhere in the West of England.

Centaurium palustre luteum minimum. The least Marsh Centory. On a rotten boggy ground between S. Ives and Pensans. It grows also in several the like places thereabouts.

Chamæmelum odoratissimum repens flore simplici J. B. nobile seu odoratius C. B. Romanum Ger. Sweet-scented creeping Camomile, or common Camomile. It grows so plentifully upon the downs in this County, that you may scent it all along as you ride.

Erica foliis Corios multiflora J. B. Coris folio secundæ altera species Clus. Juniperifolia Narbonensis, densè fruticans Lob. Fir-leaved Heath with many flowers. On Goon-hilly downs going from Helston to the Lizard point, plentifully. This is different from the second Erica Coris folio of Clusius, notwithstanding that C. Bauhine, and Parkinson following him, make it the same therewith. For Clusius himself distinguisheth them.

Euphrasia lutea latifolia palustris. Euph. latifolia viscata serrata H. Reg. Blæs. Great yellow Marsh Eye-bright. About boggy and watery places, especially towards the further end of this County, plentifully. Figured in Dr. Plukenet’s Phytogr. Tab. 27.

Fœniculum vulgare Ger. Park. vulgare minus nigriore & acriore semine J. B. vulgare Germanicum C. B. item sylvestre ejusdem. Common Fennel or Finckle. All along the cliffs between Lalant and St. Ives, and thereabouts, plentifully.

Geranium pusillum maritimum supinum Betonicæ folio nostras. Small Sea-Cranesbill with Betony leaves. In sandy and gravelly places near the Sea, about Pensans and elsewhere abundantly. This is figured by Dr. Plukenet in his Phytographia, Tab. 31. Fig. 4.

Gnaphalium maritimum C. B. maritimum multis J. B. marinum Ger. marinum seu cotonaria Park. Sea-Cudweed or Cotton weed. On the baich or gravelly shore between Pensans and St. Michael’s mount plentifully.

Gramen dactyloides radice repente Ger. dactylon folio arundinaceo majus C. B. repens, cum panicula Graminis Mannæ J. B. canarium, Ischæmi paniculis Park. Creeping Cocksfoot grass. Found by Mr. Newton on the sandy shores between Pensans and Marketjeu, plentifully.

Herniaria glabra. Herniaria Ger. J. B. Millegrana major seu Herniaria vulgaris Park. Polygonum minus S. Millegrana minor C. B. Smooth-leaved Rupture-wort. At the Lizard-point plentifully.

Hyacinthus Autumnalis minor Ger. Park. Autumnalis minimus J. B. stellaris Autumnalis minor C. B. The lesser Autumnal Star-Hyacinth. On the Promontory called the Lizard-point-plentifully.

Pisum maritimum Anglicum. The English Sea-pease. The same, I suppose, which grows on the baich between Aldburgh and Orford in Suffolk, where see the Synonyma. On the baich near Pensans where the Gnaphalium marinum grows.

Linaria odorata Monspessulana J. B. An Linaria capillaceo folio erecta, flore odoro C.B? Linar. caryophyllata albicans C. B. Blue sweet-smelling Toad flax. Near Perin along the hedges plentifully. It grows sometimes a yard high. The leaves are not set confusedly on the stalk, as in the common Linaria, but in rundles at distances. The stalks are brittle, much branched toward the top, and the flowers stand not thick clustering together, but more sparsed, or at greater intervals: and are of a pale blue, and streaked all along, heel and all, with a deeper. The lower lip at the gaping is spotted with yellow.

Linum sylvestre angustifolium, floribus dilutè purpurascentibus vel carneis C. B. sylv. angustifolium J. B. An Linum sylvestre angustifolium 6. Clus? an Lini sylv. quinti varietas ejusdem? Narrow-leaved wild Flax. In the pastures by the Sea-side about S. Ives and Truro plentifully.

Peplis J. B. Jer. Park. maritima folio obtuso C. B. Small purple Sea-spurge. On the sandy shores between Pensans and Marketjeu plentifully. I have not found this any where else in England; but in hot Countries, as Italy abundantly.

Pinguicula flore minore carneo. Butterwort with a small flesh-coloured flower, in moist meadows and marsh-grounds about Kilkhampton and elsewhere.

Polygonum Serpyllifolium verticillatum. Polyg. parvum flore alb. verticillato J. B. An Polygala repens nuperorum Lob? repens Park? repens nivea C. B. Verticillate Knot-grass with Thyme-like leaves. It grows in watery places near Springs, between S. Columbe and Michil, and about Pensans, and towards the Land’s end in many places.

To these I shall add a sort of grain, sown plentifully towards the further end of this County; that is,

Avena nuda Ger. J. B. Park. Naked Oats, called hereabouts Pillis or Pill-corn, from its being naturally as it were pilled or denuded of the husk, wherewith the common Oat is covered. It is much esteemed, and of equal price with Wheat.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06