Britannia, by William Camden

Lauden, or Lothien.

Lauden. Big L LOTHIEN, called also Lauden, and anciently, from the Picts, Pictland; shoots out from Merch as far as the Scottish Sea, or the Frith, having many hills, and little wood; but for its excellent Corn-lands, and the civility of the People, ⌈as also for the number of Towns, and Seats of the Nobility and Gentry,⌉ it is distinguished, above any County in Scotland. About the year of our Lord 873, Edgar King of England (between whom and Keneth the third, King of Scotland, there was a strict alliance against the Danes the common Enemy) resigned up his right in this Lothian to him, as Matthew Florilegus tells us; and, to tie him the closer to his Interest, He bestowed upon him many Houses in the way, wherein both he and his Successors, in their coming to the Kings of England, and return homewards, might be entertained; which, till King Henry the second’s time, remained in the hands of the Kings of Scotland. ⌈It hath Mers to the east; part of Lammermoor, and part of Lauderdale, with the Forest, and Tweedale, to the south; part of Clidesdale and Stirlingshire to the west, and to the north the Firth or Forth. It is in length from Cockburns-path in the east, to the Shire of Clidesdale, about fifty seven miles; and where it is broadest, between sixteen and seventeen miles over. It is divided into three distinct Tracts, call’d East-Lothian, Mid-Lothian, and West-Lothian.

East-Lothian. East-Lothian or the Constablery or Shire of Hadington (so called from Hadington, one of the three Burghs-Royal, and seat of the Courts) is in length about twenty two, and in breadth about twelve miles, bounded by the Firth on the north and east, by a tract of hills called Lammermoor on the south, and by Mid-Lothian on the west. It abounds with corn of all sorts, and has good store of grass; with some considerable woods, as Prestmennan, Colston, Humbie, and Ormestan; and abundance of Coal, and Lime-stone. It has good store of Sheep, especially towards the hills of Lammermoor, and by west Lammerlaw: and from the west part to the sea all along to the east, it abounds with Connies. It hath many Salt-pans, wherein much white Salt is made; and at New-Milns there is a considerable manufactory of Broad-cloth. The sea-coast is accommodated with many convenient harbours, and has the advantage of several Fishery-towns; particularly, at Dumbar, and on the coast thereabout, every year after Lammas is a Herring-fishing, where they take great numbers, not only to serve the Inhabitants, but also for exportation.

Mid-Lothian. The Sheriffdom of Edenburgh, commonly Mid-Lothian, is the principal Shire of the Kingdom; and is in length twenty or twenty one miles; the breadth of it is different according to the several parts, in some sixteen or seventeen miles, in others not above five or six. On the south, it is bounded with the Sheriffdom of Hadington; on the east with the Bailliary of Lauderdale, on the south with the Sheriffdom of Twedale; on the south-west with the Sheriffdom of Lanerick, and on the west by the said Sheriffdom; on the north-west with the Sheriffdom of Linlithgow; and on the north with the Firth or Forth.

This tract is abundantly furnished with all necessaries; producing a great deal of corn of all sorts, and affording good pasture for cattle. It has very much coal and lime-stone, as also a sort of soft black marble; and some few miles from Edenburgh, near the water of Leith, they have a Copper-mine.

West-Lothian. The Shire of Linlithgow, call’d West-Lothian, takes its name from Linlithgow, the head burgh, and has on the north the Forth, and is divided from Mid-Lothian towards the south and east by the waters of Almond and Breichwater: to the north-west, it meets with part of Stirlingshire, and to the west with part of Clidesdale. It is in length fourteen miles, and in breadth about nine. It affords great plenty of Coal, Lime-stone, and White Salt; and in the reign of King James the sixth, a silver Mine was found in it, out of which they got a great deal of silver.⌉

In this Lothian, the first place that presents it self on the Sea-shore is Dunbar,Dunbar. a Castle in ancient times very strongly fortify’d (the seat of the Earls of Merch before-mentioned, thence commonly calledEarls of Dunbar. Earls of Dunbar) and often taken by the English, and recovered by the Scots. But in the year 1567. it was demolish’d by order of the States, to prevent its being a retreat for Rebels. King James, in the year 1515. conferr’d the title and honour of Earl of Dunbar, upon Geo. Hume, for his approved Loyalty; whom he had created beforeBaron Home or Hume of Berwick. Baron Hume of Berwick, to him, his Heirs, and Assigns. ⌈After which, the same King conferr’d the dignity of Viscount of Dunbar upon Sir Henry Constable, an English Gentleman, whose heirs do at present enjoy it. Not far from hence, is Dunglas,Dunglas. a pleasant seat on the sea-coast, which formerly belonged to the Earls of Hume. In the time of the Civil Wars, a garrison was kept there by the Earl of Hadington, for the Army; who (with thirty Knights and Gentlemen of the name of Hamilton, besides several other considerable persons) perished in the ruins of this house. For it was designedly blown up in the year 1640, by Nathaniel Paris an Englishman, one of his own servants, while the Earl was reading a Letter in the Court, which he had then received from the Army, with all the Gentlemen about him. Only four, of the whole Company, escaped, who by the force of the powder were thrown to a great distance from the house. It hath been since repaired, and adorned by Sir John Hall, with curious Gardens, spacious Courts, and a large and pleasant Avenue. They had here a Collegiate Church, a goodly large building, and vaulted; but it is now ruinous. Along the Coast, to Dunbar, is a pleasant Country, the most fruitful in the Kingdom, especially in Wheat and Barley. South-east of Dunbar aforesaid, is Dunhill,Dunhill. memorable for the victory obtainedSept.3. 1650. over the Scotch Army under Lesly, by a handful of men (and those too but sickly) under the command of Cromwell. Which miscarriage (if some ingenuous persons, who were in the Action, may be believed) was rather owing to the treachery of great men, than the conduct or bravery of the Enemy.⌉

Hard by Dunbar, the little River Tine, after a short course, falleth into the Sea; near the source whereof stands Yester,Yester. which hath its Baron of the Family of the Hays Earls of Arroll, who is likewise hereditary Sheriff of the little Territory of Twedale, or Peblis. ⌈This place hath been extraordinarily improv’d and beautified with planting and enclosing.⌉

Upon the same rivulet, some few miles higher, in a large plain, lies HadingtonHadington. or Hadina, fortified by the English with a deep and large ditch, and a four-square turf-wall without; also four bulwarks at the four corners, and as many more upon the Inner Wall. It was valiantly defended by Sir George Wilford an Englishman, against Monsieur Dessie, who fiercely attack’d it with ten thousand French and Germans; till the Plague growing hot and lessening the garrison, Henry Earl of Rutland came with a great Army and rais’d the siege, and having levell’d the Works, conducted the English home. And King James the sixth brought into the number of the Nobility of Scotland Sir John Ramsey, as a reward of his Loyalty and Valour (his RIGHT HAND being * * Vindex.the DEFENDER OF HIS PRINCE AND COUNTRY, in that horrid Conspiracy of the Gowries) under theViscount Hadington. honourable title of Viscount Hadington. ⌈It was afterwards erected into an Earldom in the person of Sir Thomas Hamilton (a Gentleman of great honour and wealth) in the reign of King James the sixth; he exchanging that title for his other of Earl of Melros.⌉

Of this Hadington, J. Johnston hath these Verses;

Planities prætensa jacet prope flumina Tinæ,
Fluminis arguti clauditur ista sinu.
Vulcani & Martis quæ passa incendia, fati
Ingemit alterno vulnere fracta vices.
Nunc tandem sapit icta. Dei præcepta secuta
Præsidio gaudet jam potiore Poli
.

Near Tine’s fair stream a spatious plain is shown,
Tine’s circling arms embrace the hapless town:
Where Mars and fiery Vulcan reign’d by turns
With fatal rage, whose dire effects she mourns.
By sad experience now at last grown wise,
She slights their fury and their power defies.
Contemns the dangers that before she fear’d,
And rests secure when mighty Heaven’s her guard.

A little way from Hadington, stands Athelstanford,Athelstanford. so named from Athelstan, an English Commander, who was slain there with his men, about the year 815; but, that this was Athelstan the Warlike King of the West-Saxons, must be utterly denied, if we have any regard to the time, or manner of his Death. ⌈From Ellibank, in this tract, Patrick Murray, was, for his approved Loyalty, advanced to the honour of Lord Ellibank, by King Charles the first.⌉

Above the Mouth of the Tine, upon the doubling of the shore, stands Tantallon Castle;Tantallon. from whence Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, gave great disturbance to James the fifth, King of Scotland. Here, by the winding of the shores on both sides, room is made for a very noble Arm of the Sea, well furnish’d with Islands; and, by the influx of several rivers, and the tides together, extended to a mighty breadth. Ptolemy calls it Boderia; Tacitus, Bodotria,Bodotria. from its depth, as I conjecture; the Scots, the Forth and Frith; we, Edenborough-Frith; others, Mare Fresicum, and Mare Scoticum; and the Eulogium, Morwiridh. ⌈Patrick Ruthven, General to King Charles the first (having been first created Lord Estrick, from the name of a Rivulet) was created Earl of Forth; which title was extinct in him.⌉

Upon the Frith, after you are past Tantallon, are seated, first North Berwick, anciently famous for a Nunnery; and then Dirlton,Dirlton. which formerly belong’d to the eminent family of the Haliburtons; and * * Now, C.afterwards by the favour of King James the sixth, † † Gives, C.gave the title of Baron to Thomas Ereskine Captain of his Guards; as Fenton, hard by, ¦ ¦ Gives, C.gave the Honourable Title of Viscount to the same person;Fenton. who was the first that had the stile and dignity of a ViscountViscount Fenton. in Scotland. ⌈Afterwards, Sir James Maxwel was created by the same King Lord Elbotle and Earl of Dirlton. Upon which coast, is Belhaven,Belhaven. dignified by giving the title of Viscount to a Gentleman of the name of Douglas, and (that honour being extinct) the title of Lord, to Sir James Hamilton, in the reign of King Charles the first.⌉

Over against these, in the sea, near the shore, lies the Bass,The Bass. an Island which rises as it were in one continued craggy rock, inaccessible on every side; yet it has upon it a Fort, a fountain, and pasture-grounds; but is so hollow’d and undermin’d by the waves, that it is almost wrought through. What prodigious flights of sea-fowl, especially of those Geese which they call ScoutsScouts. and Soland-Geese,Soland-Geese, which seem to be Pliny’s Picarinæ. do at certain times flock hither (for by report, their number is so great as to darken the Sun at Noon-day;) what multitudes of Fish these Geese bring (so as one hundred Soldiers in Garrison here, liv’d upon no other provision but the fresh fish brought hither by them, as they report;) what quantities of sticks they convey for the building of their nests (so that by their means the inhabitants are abundantly provided with firing;) what vast profit also their feathers and oyl bring in: These are things, so incredible, as no one can well believe, but he who has seen them. ⌈This Garrison of the Bass having stood out long against King William the third, and at last surrender’d; the fortifications thereof were order’d to be slighted.⌉Picarinae

Then, as the shore draws back, SetonSeton.
Sea-town.
appears, which seems to take its name from the situation upon the Sea, and hath given name to the Honourable House of the Setons, descended from an English Family, and the sister of King Robert Bruce; of which the Marquiss of Huntley, Robert Earl of Wintoun, and Alexander Earl of Dumfermling (all advanc’d to honours by King James the sixth) † † Are, C.were Branches. ⌈This, together with Wintoun, another Seat of the Earls of Wintoun; Brocksmouth,Brocksmouth. the chief residence of the Duke of Roxburgh;Vid. Teifidale.
Tinningham.
and Tiningham, the residence of the Earl of Hadington; are the most considerable Seats in this Country.⌉

Then, the River Esk is discharged into the Frith; having run by BorthwicBorthwic. (which * * Hath, C.had its Barons so sirnamed, of Hungarian extraction, ⌈but now extinct;⌉) by Newbottle,Newbottle. that is, the new building, formerly a little Monastery, and † † Now, C.afterwards made a Barony, in the person of Mark Ker; by Dalkeith, ¦ ¦ Lately, C.heretofore a pleasant seatDalkeith. of the Earls of Morton, ⌈but now belonging to the Dutchess of Bucleugh; from whence her eldest Son takes the title of Earl:⌉ and by MusselboroughMussel­borough., below which (upon Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset’s entring Scotland with a powerful Army, to challenge the performance of Articles for the marrying Mary Queen of Scotland to Edward the sixth King of England,) there happened a most dismal Day to the youth of the noble Families of Scotland; who fell there in great numbers.

I must not pass by an Inscription, which as J. Napier, a learned person, informs us in his Commentaries on the Apocalyps, was dug up here; and which the eminent Sir Peter Young Knight, King James the sixth’s Tutor, did thus more truly delineate.

Apollini
Granno
Q. Lvsivs
Sabinia
Nvs
Proc.
Avg.
* Votum susceptum solvit lubens merito. * V.S.S. L V.M.

Who this Apollo Grannus was, and whence he had that name, no one Antiquary, to the best of my knowledge, has ever told us. But if I, one of the lowest fourm, may give my sentiments, I should say that Apollo Grannus amongst the Romans, was the same with the Grecian Greek apollon .., that is, long-lock’d. For Isidore calls the long hair of the Goths, Granni. But this may be reckon’d foreign to my business.

⌈In these parts, is Cranston,Cranston. the Seat of a Family of the same name; to whom, by the favour of King James the sixth, it gave the title of Lords Cranston; Prestoun,Prestoun. on the seaside, from which Sir Richard Graham had the title of Viscount conferr’d upon him by King Charles the second; the Castle of Dalhousie,Dalhousie. belonging to the ancient family of Ramsay, created by King James the sixth Lords Ramsay, and by King Charles the first honoured with the title of Earls of Dalhousie: and nigh to Edenborough, the Castle of Marchistoun,Marchistoun. which belong’d to the Napers, of whom Sir Archibald Naper was created Lord Naper in the reign of King Charles the first: also, from Oxenford,Oxenford. in East-Lothian, Sir James Macgill had the title of Viscount conferr’d upon him by King Charles the second: and Sir James Primrose was created by Queen AnneLord Primrose. Lord Primrose of Castlefield and Viscount Primrose.

Lower, near the Scottish Frith, stands Edenborough,Edenborough. called by the Irish-Scots Dun-Eaden, that is, Eaden Town, which, without doubt, is the same that Ptolemy calls Greek, that is, the winged Castle. For Edenborough signifies the same as Winged Castle, Adain in the British denoting a Wing; and so Edenborough (from a word compounded of the British and Saxon Tongue) is nothing else but the Winged Borough. From Wings therefore we are to derive its name; which may be done, either from those Squadrons of horse call’d Wings, or from those Wings which the Greek Architects call Pteromata, that is (as Vitruvius tells us) two walls so rising up with the same height, that they bear a resemblance of Wings. For want of these, a certain City of Cyprus was anciently (as we read in the Geographers) called Aptera, that is, Wingless. But if any one has a mind to believe, that it took the name from Ebrauk a Britain, or from Heth a Pict, let him enjoy his own fancy; I shall not oppose him.

This City, in regard of its high situation, the goodness of the air, and fertility of the soil, so many Seats of the Nobility lying round it, its being water’d with excellent Springs, and reaching from East to West a mile in length, and half so much in breadth; is, upon these accounts, justly esteem’d the Metropolis of the whole Kingdom. It is strongly walled, and adorned with publick and private buildings, and well peopled and frequented, for the advantage of the Sea, which the neighbouring Port at Leith affords. And as it is honoured with the King’s residence, so is it the sacred repository of the Laws, and the chief Tribunal of Justice. For the high Court of Parliament * * Is, C.was generally held here for the making and repealing of Laws; as the Session, and the Court of the King’s Justice, and of the Commissariat (of which I have already spoken,) are also settled in this place. On the East side, adjoyning to Holy-Rood-Monastery, stands the Royal Palace, built by King David the first; over which, within a Park well stor’d with Deer, Conies, and Hares, hangs a mountain, called Arthur’s Chair, from Arthur the Britain. On the West side, there mounts up a rock to a mighty height, steep and inaccessible on all sides but that which looks towards the City; upon which stands a Castle, so strongly fortified with a great number of Towers, that it is look’d upon as impregnable. This, the Britains called Castle Myned Agned, and the Scots the Maidens Castle, and the Virgins Castle, because the Maiden-Princesses of the Blood-Royal of the Picts were kept here; and the same may, really, be look’d upon as the Castrum Alatum, or Winged Castle, abovementioned. ⌈But to speak of this place as particularly as it deserves.

The first building of a Fort here, seems to have given Rise to the town, and to have encouraged the neighbours to fix under the protection of it. So that the houses and inhabitants by little and little increasing, it is brought down to the very foot of the ascent toward the east, and is become an entire Scotch mile in length, and half of it in breadth. The ascent upon which the City stands, has on the north-side a pool call’d the North-Loch, and was formerly guarded by another on the south, call’d the South-Loch; as appears from the leases of some houses of S. Ninian’s Row, which are let with the privilege of a Boat annex’d. But this is drain’d many years ago; and upon the banks of it are built two several tracts of houses. The City has six Gates, the principal whereof, to the east, was magnificently rebuilt in the year 1616, and adorned with Towers on both sides. Two streets run along, the whole length of the town. The High-street from the Castle to the Abby (said to be the broadest in Europe) is of late years built of hewen stone; since, by an Act of the Town-Council, they were prohibited to build any more of Timber either in the City or Suburbs, upon account of the many Fires which had happened.

About forty years ago, the Magistrates were at great expence to bring one of the best springs of Scotland into the City; which they did by leaden Pipes, from a Hill at above three miles distance. And to make it more convenient, they have erected several stately Fountains in the middle of the High-street, to serve the town with water.

As the private Buildings, so much more the publickPublick Buildings. do greatly exceed those in other parts of North-Britain. In the middle of the City, is St. Giles’s Church,Churches. a Cathedral, built of hewn stone, and adorned with stone-pillars and vaultings. It is so large, as to be divided into three Churches, each whereof has its Parish.Grey-Friars. Besides this, they have the South-Church, in the Church-yard of which, amongst many other monuments, is that of the learned Sir George Mackenzy. The Trone-Church, built in 1641: The Collegiate Church of the Sacred Trinity, built by Mary of Gueldres, King James the second’s Queen: The Lady Yester’s Church, built and endow’d by one of the Lady Yesters: and another very beautiful one, built not many years since. To these, we must add two Chapels, St. Magdalen’s and St. Mary’s, with another at the foot of the Canon-gate.

Hospitals. Next to these, we are to mention the Hospitals; viz. St. Thomas’s and Heriot’s Hospital. In the first, the poorer sort of Inhabitants are maintained very handsomly, and have their own proper Chaplain. The second (so called from the founder George Heriot, Jeweller to King James the sixth) is a stately Fabrick, like a Palace. In the inner Frontispiece, is erected the Statue of the Founder; and round about the houses are pleasant Gardens, adorned with large Walks and Greens. It is a Nursery for Boys; wherein the children of the poorer Citizens, to the number of a hundred and upwards, have their education, till they be fit for the publick Schools and Colleges.

Parliament-House. Near the Cathedral-Church, is the Parliament-house; with other rooms adjoyning for the Session, and above stairs for the Exchequer, &c. It stands in a great Court, which on one side is enclosed with the upper and lower Exchange, and with a tract of very stately buildings. Here is one of the highest houses perhaps in the world, mounting seven stories above the Parliament-Court; and, being built upon the descent of a hill, the back-part is as much below it; so that, from the bottom to the top, one stair-case ascends fourteen stories high. In the middle of the Court, is the Statue of King Charles the second, in brass, erected upon a stately Pedestal at the charge of the City.

College. On the South-side, is the College of King James the sixth, founded in the year 1580, and endowed with all the Privileges of an University. The precints are very large, and the whole is divided into three Courts, adorned on all sides with excellent buildings; two lower, and one higher, which is as large as both the other. They have their publick Schools, and a Common-hall, wherein Divinity, Hebrew, and Mathematicks are taught. Their Library is well stor’d with printed books, and has some Manuscripts: under which is the King’s Printing-house. The Students have very good accommodation, and the Professors neat and handsom Lodgings, with very good Gardens for their recreation.

Palace. The Royal-Palace (which was burnt by Oliver Cromwel, but nobly re-edified by King Charles the second, and of which his Grace the Duke of Hamilton is hereditary Keeper,) hath four Courts. The Outer-Court, which is as big as all the rest, has four principal Entries. It is on all hands bounded with lovely Gardens; and on the south, lies the King’s Park, which hath great variety of medicinal plants. The Entry of the Palace is adorned with great pillars of hewn stone, and a Cupola, in fashion of a Crown, above it. The fore-part is terminated by four high towers. The Inner-Court has Piazza’s round it, of hewn stone. But, above all, the Long-Gallery is most remarkable, being adorned with the pictures of all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus the first. From the Palace here erected, John Bothwel (one of the honourable persons who attended King James the sixth to England) had confer’d upon him the style and title of Lord of Holy-rud-house; which honour is now extinct.

College of Justice. Here is also a College of Justice, which hath its Dean of faculty. They try their Intrants, or Candidates, and have a Library well furnished with Books of Law and History.

Bishop’s See. This City was further honour’d by King Charles the first, by erecting it into an Episcopal See in the year 1633; the Bishop of which was made Suffragan to the Archbishop of St. Andrews, and to take place of the Bishop of Dunkeld.

King Charles the second did likewise erect at Edinburgh a College of Physicians, giving them, by Patent under the Great Seal, an ample Jurisdiction within this City and the Liberties thereof, and appointing the Judicatures to concur to the execution of their Decreets. By a latter Grant, they have the faculty of professing Physick. They have their Conferences once a month for the improvement of Medicine, and have begun to erect a Library.⌉

How Edenborough, by the vicissitudes of war, has been subject, sometimes to the Scots, and sometimes to the Saxons (who inhabited this Eastern part of Scotland) till it became wholly under the Dominion of the Scots, about the year of our Lord 960, when the English Empire, terribly weaken’d by the Danish Wars, lay as it were expiring: How likewise (as it is in an old Book Of the Division of Scotland, in the Library of the Right Honourable the Lord Burleigh, * * Late, C.Lord High-Treasurer of England) in the Reign of Indulph, Eden-Town wasVacuatum.quitted, and is abandoned to the Scots to this present day; and what different turns of fortune it felt afterwards: These things, the Historians relate at large, and from them you may be informed concerning them. In the mean time, read, if you please, the ingenious J. Johnston’s Verses, in praise of Edenborough.

Monte sub acclivi Zephyri procurrit in auras,
Hinc Arx celsa, illinc Regia clara nitet.
Inter utramque patet sublimibus ardua tectis
Urbs armis, animis clara, frequensque viris.
Nobile Scotorum caput, & pars maxima regni,
Pænè etiam gentis integra Regna suæ.
Raræ artes & opes, quod mens optaverit, aut hic
Invenias, aut non Scotia tota dabit.
Compositum hic populum videas, sanctumque senatum,
Sanctaque cum puro lumine jura Dei.
An quisquam Arctoi extremo in limite mundi,
Aut hæc aut paria his cernere posse putet?
Dic, Hospes, postquam externas lustraveris urbes,
Hæc cernens, oculis credis an ipse tuis
?

Beneath a Western hill’s delightful brow,
The Castle hence, and hence the Court we view.
The stately Town presents it self between,
Renown’d for arms, for courage, and for men.
The kingdom’s noblest part, the lofty head,
Or the whole kingdom of the Scottish breed.

Wealth, arts, and all that anxious minds desire,
Or not in Scotland, or you meet with here.
The people sober, grave the Senate show,
The worship pure, the faith divinely true.
In the last borders of the Northern coast
What rival land an equal sight can boast?
These glories, Trav’ler, when at last you see,
Say if you don’t mistrust your wond’ring eye,
And think it transport, all, and extasy!

Brughton. ⌈Near Edinburgh, is Brughton, which belong’d to the family of the Ballendens; of which Sir William Ballenden was made Lord Ballenden of Brughton by King Charles the second; but afterwards, the Honour, together with the Estate, was conveyed to John Ker, second son of William Earl of Roxburgh, who thereupon chang’d his name into Ballenden. An English Gentleman, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Grandfather of the famous General of that name, had the honour of a Baron conferred upon him by King Charles the first, under the title of Lord Cameron. And Sir George Forester had the title of Lord Forester of Corstorphine confer’d upon him by the same King: Also, Archibald Primrose, son of Archibald Lord Dalmeny, was created by King William the third,Roseberry. Viscount Roseberry, and by Queen Anne was advanced to the higher honour of Earl of Roseberry.

As this part has at present several considerable Houses (whereof HawthorndenHawthorn­den. is famous for its caves hewen out of the rock, and Roslin for the * * Vide Theatrum Scotiæ.stately Chapel;) so can it produce some remains of Antiquity.Scotiae For near the Town of CramondCramond. (at which Salmon and several other Fish are taken,) many stones have been dug up with Roman Inscriptions. Also, in the grounds of Inglistown,Inglistown. belonging to Hugh Wallace, were found, not many years since, two stones, parts of a Pillar: upon one of which is a Lawrel-Crown, upon the other (the longest of the two) there is, on each side, the Roman Securis. The name of the Emperor is broken off; but by the progress of the Roman Arms, as described by Tacitus, it appears to have been set up in the time of Julius Agricola’s government. And since only the Emperor’s name is struck off, and it appears that by order of the Senate the Statues and Inscriptions of Domitian were defaced; we may probably conclude that it was erected in honour of that Emperor. What remains of it is this:
 

Avg. Cos. Iv.
Germanicus
Pontifex. Max.

These Stones are to be seen in the Garden at Edinburgh, belonging to Sir Robert Sibbalds, Doctor of Physick.

Also, not far from Edenborough, is a Pictish Monument, called by the common People Ketstean,Ketstean. which is to be read thus; In oc tumulo jacit Vetta F. Victi.

Next to the Antiquities, † Scotia Illustrat. Cap.10. p.24.that noted spring two miles south of Edinburgh, deserves our notice. The name of it is St. Catherine’s-Well, though it is commonly call’d The Oily Well, because it sends up along with the water, an Oil or Balsam which swims upon it. It is found by experience to be exceeding good, not only for the cure of Scabs, but likewise of any pains proceeding from cold, as also for strengthening and putting life into any decaying part.⌉

A mile from Edinburgh lieth Leith,Leith. an excellent Haven upon the River Leith, which, after Monsieur Dessie had fortified it with works to secure Edinborough, did, by the conflux of people thither, grow from a mean village to a large Town. Again, when the French King, Francis the second, had married Mary Queen of Scotland, the French (who then made themselves sure of Scotland, and began now to gape after England) in the year 1560 strengthened it with more fortifications. But Queen Elizabeth of England, upon the solicitation of the * * Qui puriorem Religionem amplexi.Reformed Nobility of that kingdom to side with them, effected, by her wisdom and authority, their return into France, and these their fortifications were levell’d with the ground; and Scotland, ever since, hath stood clear of all apprehensions from the French. ⌈At present it hath in it several Manufactures. Near this place, is Newhaven;Newhaven. which hath given the title of Viscount to an English family, the Cheneys; rais’d to that honour by King Charles the second.⌉

In the midst of this Frith, where it begins by degrees, to contract it self, there stood (as Bede noteth) the City Caer-Guidi,Caer-Guidi. which seems to be Inch-Keith-Island. Whether this be the Victoria mentioned by Ptolemy, I will not now dispute, though it is natural to believe, that the Romans might turn this Guith into Victoria, as well as our Isle of Guith or Wight, into Victeris or Vecta† See the Discourse of the Roman Wall in Scotland.. Certainly, since both these are broken from the shore, there is the same reason for the name in both languages. For Ninius informs us, that Guith in the British Tongue signifies a breaking off or separation. Upon the same Frith, more inward, lies Abercorne, a famous Monastery in Bede’s time; and by the favour of King James the sixth, * * Now gives, C.it gave the title of EarlEarl of Abercorne. to James Hamilton. Hard by, stands Blackness Castle;Blackness. and beneath that, southward, the ancient City of Lindum, which Ptolemy takes notice of, and by the learned is still call’d Linlithquo,Linlithquo. but by the common people Lithquo; adorn’d with a fair House of the Kings, and a noble Church, ⌈(which stands upon a level with the Palace, and is   curious work of fine Stone,)⌉ and a Lake plentifully stock’d with Fish; from which Lake it seems to derive its name; for Lin, as I observed before, signifies in British a Lake. ⌈This Town is a Royal-burgh, well built;Theatr. Scotiæ. and is accommodated with Fountains which furnish water to the Inhabitants, and with a stately Town-house for the meeting of the Gentry and Citizens, and with a harbour at Blackness. The King’s house before-mention’d stands upon a rising ground, which runs almost into the middle of the Loch, and looks like an Amphitheater; having Terras-walks (as it were) and a descent from them; but upon the top where the Castle stands, it is a Plain. The Court has Apartments like towers, upon the four corners; and in the midst of it a stately fountain adorned with several curious statues, the water whereof rises to a good height. The Levingstons,Earl of Linlithquo. Earls of this place, are hereditary Keepers of it; as they are also hereditary Bailiffs of the King’s Bailifry, and hereditary Constables of the King’s Castle of Blackness.⌉ This District had formerly an Hereditary Sheriff of the House of Hamilton of Peyle; but its first Earl ¦ ¦ In our memory, C.was Alexander Levingston, advanced by King James the sixth from the dignity of a Baron (which his Ancestors had long been honour’d with) to that of * † Now, forfeited by Attainder.Earl, ⌈as his second Son, Sir James Levingston, was created Earl of Calendar by King Charles the first.

Peyle of Levingston. In the same Shire, is the Peyle of Levingston, which was burnt by Oliver Cromwel, and did anciently belong to the family of Levingston aforesaid. Calder. Nigh to this, is the Castle of Calder, anciently belonging to the Family of Sandilands; of which, Sir James Sandilands, Preceptor of Torpichen, was in the year 1563 created Lord Torpichen.

Borrostoness. Nor ought we to omit Borrostoness, north from Linlithquo, upon the sea-coast; erected into a burgh of Regality by the Duke of Hamilton, who hath in the neighbourhood his castle of Kineil, adorned with large Parks and stately Avenues. Torphichen. Torphichen, to the south of Linlithgow, doth also deserve our notice, as being a burgh of Regality, and once the residence of the Knights of Malta; but since, as we said, hath given the title of Lord to the chief of the name of Sandilands: And Bathgate,Bathgate. the parish whereof is erected into a Sherifdom by it self.

Nidry. And as the Towns, so also some Houses of note require our notice; Nidry-Castle, south-west from Linlithgow, upon a river; the possessor of which Manor is hereditary Bailiff of the Regality of Kirkliston, and, by the Barony of Abercorn, is hereditary Sheriff of the Shire. Dundass. And north from thence, Dundass, formerly a fortification; which, with the Lands, hath belong’d for six hundred years past to a very ancient family of the same name. At some distance from whence, is Livingston,Livingstone. a fine seat: adorned with parks and fine gardens, wherein are many curious Plants, by the care of that worthy Gentleman, Patrick Murray, the late owner thereof, who, whilst he lived, was the Ornament of his Country; and Bins,Bins. adorned by General Dalzell with Avenues, large Parks, and fine Gardens. After he had procured himself a lasting name in the Wars, here it was that he rested his old Age, and pleased himself with the culture of curious Flowers and Plants: And upon the same coast, Medop,Medop. the residence of the Earl of Linlithgow, famous likewise for its fine Gardens, enclosed with high walls, and furnish’d with Orange-trees, and such like curious Exoticks.

West-Lothian hath also its Antiquities. At the east end of the enclosure of the Kipps,Kipps. south from Linlithgow, there is an ancient Altar of great stones, unpolish’d, and so placed, that each of them doth support another, and so as no one could stand without leaning upon another. Hard by it, are several great stones set in a Circle, and, in the two adjacent hills, the remains of old Camps, with great heaps of stones and ancient Graves.

Queens-Ferry. Some miles also to the west of Queens-Ferry upon the sea-coast (supposed to be so call’d from St. Margaret, Queen to King Malcolm Canmore, as the shortest passage over the Forth to Dumfermling, where she resided much, and began to build a Monastery,) and near Abercorn-Castle, Bede tells us that the Roman wallRoman wall. began. One may trace it towards Cariddin; where a figured stone is to be seen, and a gold Medal was found. In a line parallel, about a mile to the south of this, there is a Village which preserves the remains of the old wall, being called Walltoun.Walltoun. From the name, and the artificial Mount cast up there, one would think it to be the very place, which Bede calls Penvalltoun. The track of the wall appears in several places, between this and Kinweill, and from thence to Falkirk.⌉

* * A little after, C.In the year 1606, Mark Ker, Baron of Newbottle, was advanced to the title of Earl of Lothian; ⌈whose Grandchild Anna, Countess of Lothian, being married to Sir William Ker, eldest Son of Ancrum; King Charles the first created him Earl of Lothian, and Robert his Son was advanced by King William the third to the higher honour of Marquis of Lothian.⌉

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