Britannia, by William Camden

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THE
DIVISION
OF
SCOTLAND.

Big A ALL the North part of the Island of Britain, was anciently inhabited by the Picts; who were divided into two Nations, the Dicalidonii and Vecturiones, of whom I have spoken already, out of Ammianus Marcellinus. But when the Scots had got possession of this Tract, it was shar’d into seven parts, among seven Princes, as we have it in a little ancient Book Of the Division of Scotland, in these words:

The first part contained Enegus and Maern.
The second, Atheodl and Goverin.
The third, Stradeern with Meneted.
The fourth was Forthever.
The fifth, Mar with Buchen.
The sixth, Muref and Ross.
The seventh, Cathness, parted in the middle by the Mound, a mountain which runs from the Western to the Eastern Sea.

After that, the same Author reports, from the Relation of Andrew Bishop of Cathness, that the whole Kingdom was divided likewise into seven Territories:

The first from Fryth (so termed by the Britains; by the Romans Worid, now Scottwade,) to the River Tae.
The second, from Hilef, as the Sea fetches a reach, to a mountain in the North-east part of Sterling, named Athran.
The third, from Hilef to Dee.
The fourth, from Dee to the River Spe.
The fifth, from Spe to the Mountain Brunalban.
The sixth, Mures and Ross.
The seventh, the Kingdom of Argathel: This is as it were the Border of the Scots, who were so called from Gathelgas their Captain.

With respect to the * * Habitudo.manners and customs of the People, it is divided into the High-land-menHigh-land-men. and Low-land-men.Low-land-men. These are more civilized, and use the language and habit of the English; the other, more rude and barbarous, and use that of the Irish, as I have already mentioned, and shall more largely hereafter observe. Out of this Division I exclude the Borderers,Borderers. because they, by the blessed and happy † † Of King James the first.Union, enjoying the Sun-shine of peace on every side, are to be look’d on as living in the very midst of the British Empire; and (being sufficiently tir’d with war) ¦ ¦ So said, ann. 1607.begin to grow acquainted with, and to have an inclination to Peace.

With respect to the situation of the Places; the whole Kingdom is again divided into two parts, the Southern, on this side the river Tay, and the Northern, beyond the River Tay; besides a great many Islands lying round. In the South part, these Countries are most remarkable:

Teifidale.
Merch.
Lauden.
Liddesdale.
Eskdale.
Annandale.
Niddesdale.
Galloway.
Carrick.
Kyle.
Cunningham.
Arran.
Cluydesdale.
Lenox.
Stirling.
Fife.
Strathern.
Menteith.
Argile.
Cantire.
Lorn.

In the North part, are reckoned these Countries:

Loquabar.
Braidalbin.
Perth.
Athol.
Angus.
Mern.
Marr.
Buquhan.
Murray.
Ross.
Sutherland.
Cathness.
Strathnavern.

These are subdivided again, with respect to the Civil Government, into Sheriffdoms, Stewarties, and Bailliaries.

* * Dugdale (in his List of the Shires) makes them 33, reckoning the Stewarty of Kircudbright, as one; as also Hadingston, Ross, Stirling, Cathness, and Sutherland; and leaving out Forres, which is reckon’d one here.The Sheriffdoms are,

Edenburgh.
Linlythquo.
Selkirk.
Roxburgh.
Peeblis.
Berwick.
Lanerick.
Renfrew.
Dumfreis.
Wigton.
Aire.
Bute.
Argyle
and
Tarbet.
Dunbarton.
Perth.
Clackmannan.
Kinross.
Fiffe.
Kincardin.
Forfar.
Aberdene.
Bamff.
Elgin.
Forres.
Narne.
Innerness.
Cromartie.
Orknay
, and
Shetland.

Stewarties.

Menteith.
Strathern.
† This contains the East part of Galloway.Kircudbright.
Annandale.
Orkney.

Bailliaries.

Kile.
Carrick.
Cunningham.

Constablery.

Haddington.

⌈Besides these Divisions, there are four others, taken from the Rivers, the Mountains, the quality of the Soil, and the ancient Inhabitants.

1. The Rivers divide it by three Isthmus’s, into so many Peninsula’s; one to the south, one in the middle, and one to the north. The rivers on each side running far into the Country, are hinder’d from meeting, by a small tract of ground; and if that were removed, they would make three Islands of that which is now the Continent or main-land of North Britain.

1. Peninsula. The first Peninsula is to the south, divided from South Britain by the river of Tweed, and where it faileth, by a line drawn to Solloway-Frith, which reacheth far up into the adjacent country; and towards the north, from the rest of the continent by the Firth, and river of Forth, and a short line over land to Clide, by which, and its Firth, it is separated from the north-west part, and the rest of the continent. This comprehendeth the following Counties, Merse, Teviotdale, Forrest, and Etterick, Annandale, and Nithisdale, East-Lothian, Mid-Lothian, and West-Lothian, Lauderdale, Tweedale, Stirlingshire, Renfrew, Cliddisdale, Cunningham, Kyle, and Carrict, Galloway, which containeth the Stewarty of Kircudbright, and Shire of Wigton.

2. Peninsula. The middle Peninsula hath to the south, the Firth and river of Forth, and the line betwixt it and the river and Firth of Clide; to the west and east, the ocean; and to the north, it is separated from the rest of the continent of Scotland, by the Loch and water of Lochly, and a line through a short neck of land to the rise of Loch Nesse; and then by the Loch and river of Ness to the place where that River runneth into the sea. It containeth these Counties; Fyfe, Kinrosshire, Clackmannanshire, Menteith, Lennox, Argyle, Lorn, Cantyre, Perthshire, Angus, Mernes, Aberdeenshire, Bamf-shire, all Badenoth, part of Lochaber, and much of the Shire of Inverness.

3. Peninsula. The northern Peninsula hath, to the south, the Loch and water of Lochly, and a short line from thence to Lochness and the water of Ness; and to the west, north, and east, it hath the Ocean; and containeth these Counties, Ross, Sutherland, Strathnavern, and Cathness, and that part of Lochaber, and Inverness-shire, that lyeth to the north of the Loch, and water of Ness.

Grantzbain-hills. 2. It is divided by the mons Grampius, or the Grantzbain-hills, which run through it from the west to the east, rising near Dumbarton, and running to the town of Aberdeen, into the south and north parts; tho’ this division is not so equal, as the former.

High-lands and Low-lands. 3. By the quality of the soil, it is divided into the High-lands and Low-lands; For the people who affected pasture and hunting, betook themselves always to the hills, as most proper for them, and were of old called Brigantes, Scoto-Brigantes, and Horesti, Greek, that is, Highlanders and Braemen, as they are called to this day. And the rest, who gave themselves to the culture of the lands, and affected more of a civil life, betook themselves to the low grounds, towards the sea, and were called of old Picti and Meatæ, Vecturiones, and Peahts: and by some of the Roman writers Caledonii; while those who did inhabit the mountains, were called Dicaledones, and as some read it Duncaledones. In others of the Romans, the word Caledonia comprehendeth the Country possessed by both.

Scots and Picts. 4. It was divided into the two Kingdoms of the Scots and Picts. The Scots were possessed of all the Western-Isles, and the skirts of the Country towards the west: the Picts had all that which lay upon the German Ocean. The Romans breaking in upon them, gain’d a large tract, which contain’d all the ground between the two Walls; and which they erected into a Province called Valentia.

The particular Shires, with their extent, are as follows:

Shires, and their Extent.The Shire of Edenburgh Contains Midlothian.
Mers Mers and Lauderdale.
Peebles Tweedale.
Selkirk Etterick and Forrest.
Roxburgh Teviotdale, Liddisdale, Eskdale, and Eusdale.
Dumfries Nithisdale and Annandale.
Wigton The west part of Galloway.
Aire Kyle, Carrict, and Cunningham.
Renfrew The Barony of Renfrew.
Lanerick Cledsdale.
Dumbron Lenox.
Bute The Isles of Bute and Arran.
Innerara Argile, Lorn, Kintyre; most part of the west Isle, as Ila, Jura, Mul, Wyst, Terif, Coll, Lismore.
Perth Menteith, Strathern, Balwhidder, Glenurghay, Stormont, Athol, Gource, Glenshee, Strattardill, Braid-Albin, Raynock.
Striveling Much of the ground that lyeth close upon both sides of Forth.
Linlithgow West-Lothian.
Kinros That part of Fife lying between Lochleven and the Ochill hills.
Clackmannan A small part of Fife lying on the river of Forth towards Striveling.
Couper The rest of Fife to the east of Lochleven.
Forfar Angus with its pertinents, Glen-Ila, Glen-Esk, Glen-prossin.
Kinkardin The Mernis.
Aberdeen Mar with its pertinents, as Birs, Glen-Tanner, Glen-Muick, Strath-dee, Strathdon, Brae of Mar and Cromar, and most part of Buchan, Fourmartin, Gareock, and Strath-Bogie-Land.
Bamff A small part of Buchan, Strathdovern, Boyn, Einzie, Strath Awin, and Balvenie.
Elgin The East part of Murray.
Nairn The West part of Murray.
Inverness Badenoch, Lochabir, and the south part of Ross.
Cromartie A small part of Ross, lying on the south side of Cromartie-Frith.
Tayn The rest of Ross, with the Isles of Sky, Lewis, and Herris.skye
Dornoch Sutherland and Strathnavern.
Wike Cathness.⌉

Concerning the administration of Church-affairs: As the rest of the Bishops of the world had no certain Dioceses,Dioceses. till Dionysius Bishop of Rome, about the year 268, set out distinct Dioceses for them; so the Bishops of Scotland exercised their Episcopal Functions indifferently wherever they were, till the Reign of Malcolm the third, that is, about the year of our Lord 1070. At which time, the Dioceses were confined within their respective bounds and limits. Afterwards,Arch­bishopricks and Bishopricks. in process of time, this Hierarchy was established in Scotland: There * * Are, C.were two Archbishops, of St. Andrews, and Glasco; the first † † Is, C.was Primate of all Scotland and ¦ ¦ Hath, C.had under his jurisdiction * * Eight, C.nine Bishopricks:

† Added by K. Ch.1.Edinburgh.
Dunkell.
Aberdeen.
Murray.
Dumblane.
Brechen.
Ross.
Cathness.
Orkney
.

Under the Archbishop of Glasco, † † Are, C.were only three.

Galloway.
Lismore and
The Isles.

⌈But to give the Reader a more distinct view of the several Dioceses, and their respective bounds, we will add the following Scheme:

Diocese of St. Andrews Contains Part of Perthshire, and part of Angus and Mernes.
Glasgow The shires of Dunbarton, Ranfrew, Air, Lanerick, part of the shires of Roxburgh, Dumfreis, Peebles, and Selkirk.
Edinburgh The shires of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, part of Strivelingshire, Berwickshire, the Constabularie of Hadington, and Bailliary of Lauderdale.
Dunkeld The most part of Perthshire, part of Angus, and part of West-Lothian.
Aberdeen Most part of Bamf-shire, and part of Mernis.
Murray The shires of Elgin, Nairn, and part of Inverness and Bamf-shire.
Brichin Part of Angus, and Mernis.
Dumblane Part of Perth, and Striveling-shires.
Ross The shire of Tain, Cromertie, and the greatest part of Inverness-shire.
Cathness Cathness and Sutherland.
Orkney All the Northern Isles of Orkney and Zetland.
Galloway The shire of Wigton, the Stewartie of Kircudbright, the Regality of Glentrurie, and part of Dumfries-shire.
Argile Argile, Lorn, Kintyre, and Lohaber, with some of the West Isles.
The Isles. Most of the West Isles.

Under this Constitution, the Government was thus.Church-Government under Episcopacy. 1. In every Parish, the cognizance of some Scandals belong’d to the Session (a Judicature compos’d of the greatest and worthiest persons in each parish,) where the Minister presided, ex officio. 2. But if the Case prov’d too intricate, it was referred to the Presbyterie, a superior Judicature, consisting of a certain number of Ministers, between 12 and 20, who met almost every fortnight. The Moderator was nam’d by the Bishop; and, besides the censures which they inflicted, it was by them, that such as enter’d into Orders, were solemnly examined. 3. Above this, was the Provincial-Synod,Provincial Synod. which met twice a year in every Diocese, and had the examination of such cases as were referred to them by the Presbyteries. Here, the Bishop presided ex officio. 4. Above all, was the Convocation, when the King pleas’d to call it; wherein the Archbishop of St. Andrews presided. And besides these, every Bishop, for the Causes of Testaments, &c. had his Official or Commissary, who was judge of that Court within the Diocese. Of these, Edenburgh had four; the rest, one.

Episcopacy abolished, and Presbytery established. Thus stood the Constitution of the Church of Scotland, in the State of Episcopacy; which continu’d till the year of our Lord 1689. But since that time, the Ecclesiastical Constitution of Scotland hath been alter’d by several Acts pass’d in the Parliament there; one, by which the Estate of Bishops, being the third Estate of Parliament, is abolished; another, by which Presbyterian Church-Government is settled, and the Nobility (who consisted before, of the greater Barons or Lords, and the lesser Barons or Freeholders) are divided into two Estates.

Under the State of Presbyterie, the Church-Government is thus:
Government under Presbytery. 1. They also have their Parochial Sessions; but with this difference, that though the Minister presides, yet a Lay-man (a Bailie) ordinarily assists. 2. In their Presbyteries, they chuse their own Moderator to preside. 3. They have their Synod, or Provincial Assembly, but without a constant head; for, every time they meet, they make choice of a new Moderator. 4. Their General Assembly: this consists of two members from every Presbytery, and one Commissioner from each University. The King too has his Commissioner there, without whose consent no Acts can pass; and before they are in force, they must be also ratify’d by the King.

The Presbyteries, are these that follow,

Dunce.
Chernside.Presbyteries.
Kelso.
Ersilton.
Jedburgh.
Melross.
Dumbar.
Hadington.
Dalkeith.
Edinburgh.
Peebles.
Linlithgow.
Perth.
Dunkeld.
Auchterarder.
Striveling.
Dumblane.
Dumfreis.
Penpont.
Lochmabane.
Midlebie.
Wigton.
Kircudbright.
Stranraver.
Aire.
Irwing.
Paselay.
Dumbarton.
Glasgow.
Hamilton.
Lanerick.
Biggar.
Dunnune.
Kinloch.

Inerary.
Kilmore.
Sky.

St. Andrews.
Kirkaldy.
Cowper.
Dumfermelin.
Meegle.
Dundee.
Arbroth.
Forfar.
Brichen.
Mernis.
Aberdeen.
Kinkardin.
Alfoord.
Gareoch.
Deir.
Turref.
Fordyce.
Ellon.
Strathbogie.
Abernethie.
Elgin.
Forres.
Aberlower.
Chanrie.
Tayn.
Dingwell.
Dornoch.
Week.
Thurso.
Kirkwal.
Scaloway.
Colmkill.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06