Britannia, by William Camden


Big N NOrthumberland, call’d by the Saxons Saxon Northan-humber-lond, lies enclos’d in a sort of Triangle, but not Equilateral. On the South, towards the County of Durham, it is bounded with the river Derwent running into Tine, and with Tine it self. The East-side is wash’d with the German Ocean. The West (reaching from South-west to North-east) fronts Cumberland for more than * * From above Garryhill to the river Kelsop.twenty miles together, and then⌉ Scotland; and is first bounded with a ridge of Mountains, and afterwards with the river Tweed. Here were the Limits of both Kingdoms: over which (in this County) two Governours were appointed; whereof the one was stil’d Lord Warden of the Middle Marches,Wardens of the Marches. and the otherRanke-Riders. of the † † Western, C.Eastern. The Country it self is mostly rough and barren, and seems to have harden’d the very carcasses of its Inhabitants: whom the neighbouring Scots have render’d yet more hardy, sometimes inuring them to war, and sometimes amicably communicating their customs and way of living; whence they are become a most warlike people and excellent horse-men. And, whereas they have generally devoted themselves to war,So, Ann. 1607. there is not a man of fashion among them but has his little Castle and Fort; and so the Country came to be divided into a great many Baronies,Many Baronies in Northum­berland. the Lords whereof were anciently (before the days of Edward the first) usually stil’d Barons; though some of them men of very low Fortunes. But this was wisely done of our Ancestors, to cherish and support Martial Prowess, in the borders of the Kingdom, at least with Honours and Titles; ⌈and very good Baronies they were, according to the old and true import of the word.Curiae For the Civilians define a Barony to be,Alciat. de Sing. Cert. c.32. Merum mistúmque Imperium in aliquo Castro, Oppidove, concessione Principis. Such a Jurisdiction it was requisite the Men of rank should have here on the Borders: and upon obtaining the Grant,Spelm. Gloss. Baro. they were properly Barones Regis & Regni. All Lords of Manours are also to this day legally nam’d Barons,Seld. Tit. p.2. c.5. in the Call and Stile of their Courts, which are Curiæ Baronum, &c.⌉ However, this Character of Baron they lost, when (under Edward the first) the name began to be appropriated to such as were summoned by the King to the High Court of Parliament. ⌈Not but before King Edward the first’s time, the name of Barones was occasionally apply’d to the Peers in Parliament.caeteri curiae Thus, in the famous Contest about the Votes of Bishops in Criminal Matters, in the reignA.D. 1163. of Henry the second, we have this decision of the Controversie, Archiepiscopi, Episcopi, &c. sicut cæteri Barones, debent interesse judiciis Curiæ Regis cumMatt. Par. p.101. Baronibus, quousque perveniatur ad diminutionem Membrorum vel ad mortem: i.e. Archbishops, Bishops, &c. in like manner as the rest of the Barons, ought to be present at the Judgments in the King’s Courts together with the Barons, until it come to diminution of Members, or to death: And many other like Instances might be given.⌉ On the Sea-Coasts, and along the river Tine, the ground (with tolerable husbandry) is very fruitful: but elsewhere, much more barren and rugged. In many places the Stones Lithanthraces, which we call Sea-coals,Sea-coal. are dug very plentifully, to the great benefit of the Inhabitants.

Northumberland map, left
Northumberland map, right


The nearer part, which points to the South-west, and is call’d Hexamshire,Hexamshire. had for a long time the Archbishop of York for its Lord; and challeng’d (how justly I know not) the Rights of a County Palatine: but when † † So said, ann. 1607.lately it became part of the Crown Lands, by an exchange made with Archbishop Robert, it was, by Act of Parliament, annex’d to the County of Northumberland, being subjected to the same Judicature, and the Writs directed to the Sheriff thereof. ⌈Which is to be understood only of Civil matters; for it’s Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction is not the same with the rest of the County; it being still a Peculiar belonging to the Archbishop of York.⌉

South TineSouth-Tine. (so call’d, if we believe the Britains, from its being narrowly pent up within its banks; for so much Tin signifies, say some, in the British Language) rising in Cumberland near Alstenmoor, where there is an ancient Copper-Mine; runs by LambleyLambley. (formerly a Nunnery built by the Lucies, but now much worn away by the floods,) and Fetherston-haugh,Fetherstons. the seat of the ancient and well-descended Family of the Fetherstons, ⌈(who being extinct, the Lands fell into the possession of Fetherston Dodson;)⌉ and, being come to Bellister-Castle, it turns East-ward, keeping a direct course, along with the Wall, which is no where three miles distant from it.

For the Wall,Picts-Wall. having left Cumberland, and cross’d the little river of Irthing,Irthing, riv. carry’d an Arch over the rapid brook of Poltross;Poltross. where I saw large Mounts cast-up within the Wall, as if design’d for watching the Country. Near this place stands Thirlwal-castleThirlwall. (no large structure) which gave seat and sirnameSee before, p.1051. to an ancient and honourable family, that had formerly the name of Wade. Here, the Scots forc’d a passage, betwixt Irthing and Tine, into the Province ⌈of Britain.⌉ And the place was wisely enough chosen, as having no rivers in the way to obstruct their inroads into the bowels of England. But the Reader will the better understand this matter and the name of the place, from John FordonScoto-Chronic.
J. Fordon.
the Scotch Historian, whose words, since his book is not very common, it may not be amiss to repeat. The Scots (says he) having conquer’d the Country on both sides the Wall, began to settle themselves in it; and summoning-in the Boors (with their mattocks, pickaxes, rakes, forks, and shovels) caus’d wide holes and gaps to be made in it, through which they might readily pass and repass. From these gaps, this indented part got its present name: for in the English tongue the place is now call’d Thirlwall, which, render’d in Latin, is the same as Murus perforatus. From hence, southward, we had a view of Blenkensop;Blenkensop. which gives name and dwelling to an eminent family, and was anciently part of the Barony of Nicholas of Bolteby, and is situated in a Country pleasant enough. ⌈Here, not many years since, was found a Roman Altar, with the following Inscription:Phil. Trans. N.231.


Beyond Thirlwall, the wall opens a passage for the rapid river of Tippall;Tippall, riv. where, on the descent of a hill, a little within the wall, may be seen the draught of a square Roman Fort, each side of which is one hundred and forty paces in length: the very foundations of the houses, and tracks of the streets, being yet fairly discernible. The Wardens-men report, that there lay a high Street-way, paved with Flint and other Stone, over the tops of the mountains, from hence to Maiden-CastleMaiden-Castle. on Stanemoor. It is certain, it went directly to Kirkbythor, already mention’d. An old woman, who dwelt in a neighbouring cottage, shew’d us a little ancient consecrated Altar, thus inscrib’d to Vitirineus, a tutelar God of these parts.

Ro v
** Posuit libens merito.P. L. M.

This place is now call’d Caer-vorran:Caer-vorran. how it was anciently nam’d,See before, p.1052. I am not able to determine, since the word hath no affinity with any of the Stations that are mention’d along the Wall, and none of the Inscriptions afford us any discoveries. ⌈It may, not improbably, be † † At Yevrin.
Gale, Itiner.
Glanoventa; for there is a place near it, which is still call’d Glen-welt. The distance from hence to Walwick will suit well enough with the Itinerary; and it is not the first Elbow which Antonine has made, in his Roads, through this Part of the Country. Thus, by fetching-in Castra Exploratorum, he makes it twenty four miles from Blatum Bulgium to Luguvallum: whereas, by the common Road, it is only ten very short ones.⌉ But whatever it was, the Wall near it was built much higher and firmer than elsewhere; for within two furlongs of it, on a pretty high hill, it is still standing, fifteen foot in height, and nine in breadth, on both sides * * Quadrato lapide.Ashler; though Bede says, it was only twelve foot high; ⌈which Account may yet be fair and true in general. For in some places on the Wastes, where there has not been any extraordinary Fortification, several fragments come near that height, and none exceed it. His breadth also (at eight foot) is accurate enough: For, wherever you measure it now, you will always find it above seven.⌉

From thence the Wall bends about by Iverton.Iverton, ForstenForsten., and Chester in the Wall.Chester in the Wall, near Busy-gapp,Busy-gapp. noted for Robberies; where we heard there were forts, but durst not go and view them, for fear of the Moss-Troopers. This Chester, we were told, was very large, insomuch as I guess it to be the station of the second Cohort of the Dalmations which the Notitia calls Magna; where may be read the following Inscription.

Pro salvte
Desidieni æ
....liani pr æ
Et sva. s. 
Posvit vot solvit libe
Ns. tvsco et bas
So coss. In the year of Christ 259.

This imperfect Altar was also brought from thence; which is now at the little Hamlet of Melkrigg.

These two Inscriptions are now in the house of Sir Robert Cotton of Connington. Deae svri
Ae svb calp
Vrnio ag-------
Icola leg. avg
Pr. pr. a licinivs
---lemens praef
---iii. a. ior--------

Which, if I might, I would gladly (and the characters seem to allow it) read thus:Dea Suria; some will have her to be Juno, others Venus. Deæ Suriæ, sub Calphurnio Agricola Legato Augusti Proprætore, Licinius Clemens Præfectus. Now Calphurnius Agricola was sent against the Britains by M. Antoninus the Philosopher, upon the breaking out of the BritishCapitolinus. wars, about the year of our Lord 170.deae suriae dea syria propraetore praefectus At which time, some Cohort under his command erected this Altar to the Goddess Suria, who was drawn by Lions, with a Turret on her head and a Taber in her hand (as is shewn at large by Lucian, in his Treatise de Deâ Syriâ;) and whom Nero,Sueton. in Nero, c.56. as sorrily as he treated all Religion, very zealously worship’d for some time; and afterwards slighted her to that degree, as to piss upon her. Sammes, 259.
Speed. Chron. p.222. & Map.
⌈As to the last line of this Inscription, others give it more fully thus, COH. I. HAMIOR.

Besides these,Phil. Trans. N.278. at a place call’d the House-steads, hard by, have been found of late years abundance of Roman Monuments. For instance,

Roman monuments

Some years ago, also, on the West-side of this Garrison, was discover’d, under a heap of Rubbish, a square Room strongly vaulted above, and paved with large square Stones; and under this, a Lower room, the roof of which was supported by rows of square pillars, about half a yard high.⌉

From hence we had a view of Willimotes-wicke,Willimotes-wicke. ⌈heretofore⌉ the seat of the worshipful family of the Ridleys ⌈but now belonging to the family of the Blackets;⌉ and of the river Alon,Alon, riv. which empties it self into Tine with a pompous rattle, both the Alons being now met in one chanel. On East-Alon stands a village, now call’d Old-Town,Old-Town. ⌈which seems more likely to be the Alone of Antoninus (call’d in the Liber Notitiarum, Alione) than any other place which has hitherto been thought of. It answers best the distances, both from Galana and Galacum; and many Roman Antiquities, which have been found there, strengthen the conjecture. The name of the river also, whereon it is seated, argues as strongly for this place, as West-Alon can do for Whitley; where Dr. Gale and others fix it.⌉

But to return to the Wall. The next station on the Wall, beyond Busy-gap, is now called Seaven-shale;Seavenshale. which name if you allow me to derive from Saviniana, or rather Sabiniana ala, I will roundly affirm this place to be that Hunnum where the Notitia Provinciarum tells us the Sabinian Wing were upon duty. Then, beyond Carraw and Walton, stands Walwick, which some have fansy’d to be the GallanaGallana. of Antoninus: in all which places there are evident remains of old fortifications: ⌈Between Carrow and Walwick, the Wall hath been repaired, and fronted with its old Stones again, upon whichPhil. Trans. N.278. have been observ’d the following Inscriptions,

Wall inscriptions

Here, North-TineNorth-Tine. crosses the Wall. It rises in the mountains on the borders of England and Scotland; and first, running Eastward, waters TindaleTindale. (which has thence its name; ⌈and was by Act of Parliament11 H.7. c.9. made part of the County of Northumberland, in the reign of King Henry the seventh;)⌉ and afterwards receives the river Read,Read, riv. which falling from the steep hill of Readsquire (where was frequently the True-place,True-place. that is, the place of conference, at which the Lords Wardens of the Eastern Marches of both Kingdoms usually determin’d the disputes of that part of the borders,) gives its name to a valley very thinly inhabited by reason of the robberies.

Both these Dales breed most notable Bog-Trotters; and both have such boggy-top’d mountains, as are not to be cross’d by ordinary horsemen. In these, one would wonder to see so many great heaps of stones (LawesLawes. they call them,) which the neighbourhood believe to have been thrown together in remembrance of some persons there slain. ⌈Nor are these the only Monuments which those Wastes afford. There are also large stones erected at several places, in remembrance (as is fansied) of so many battels or skirmishes; either anciently betwixt the Britains and the Picts, or (of later times) betwixt the English and Scots. Particularly, near Ninwick, in the Parish of Simondburn, four such stand still erected: and a fifth lies fallen to the ground.⌉ There are also, in both the Dales, many ruins of old forts. In Tindale, are Whitchester, Delaley, and Tarset, which formerly belong’d to the Commins. In Rheades-dale, are Rochester, Greenchester, Rutchester, and some others, whose ancient names are now swallow’d up by time.

⌈At RochesterRochester. was found a Roman Altar with this Inscription;

Phil. Trans. N.278. Roman Altar

And since at the same Rochester, which is seated near the head of Rhead, on the rising of a rock that overlooks the Country below (whence it may seem to have had this new name,) another ancient Altar was also found among the rubbish of an old Castle, with this Inscription;

i.e. Duplares Numeri Exploratorum Bremenii Aram instituerunt Numini ejus, Cæpione Charitino Trinuno votum solverunt Libentes merito. D. r. s.
Dvpl. n.explor.
Bremen. aram.
N Eivs c caep
Charitino trib
v s l m

may we not hence conjecture, that here was that Bremenium,Bremenium. so industriously and so long sought for, which Ptolemy mentions in these parts, and from which Antoninus begins his first journey in Britain, as from its utmost limit. For the bounds of the Empire, were, seas, great rivers, mountains, desartdesert caepione and unpassable countries (such as are in this part) ditches, walls, empailures, and especially castles built in the most suspected places, of the Remains of which there is great plenty here. Indeed, since the Barbarians, having thrown down Antoninus Pius’s Wall in Scotland, spoil’d this Country, and since Hadrian’s Wall lay unregarded till Severus’s time, we may believe the Limits of the Roman Empire were in this place: and hence the old Itinerary, that goes under the name of Antoninus, begins here, as it seems à Limite i.e. at the furthest bounds of the Empire. But the addition * * In Vallo, the same as per Vallum, Gale, p.5.of i.e. à vallo† Is, C.seems to be a gloss of the transcriber; since Bremenium lies fourteen miles northward from the Wall; unless we take it to be one of those Field-stations, already mention’d to have been built beyond the Wall in the Enemy’s Country. ⌈But notwithstanding the great encouragement which the Inscription gives to the placing of Bremenium at Rochester, * * Dr. Gale, Itinerar. p.6.
—Sir Robert Sibbalds, at Paisly, in Scotland.
others are of opinion, that Brampton in Gillesland was the place, the distance from this Brampton to Corbridge being as agreeable, as from Rochester; and they think it ought to be well prov’d, before the weight of the Objection can be taken off, that the words [id est, à vallo] are an Interpolation of the Transcribers. Nor are they satisfy’d, that the bare mention of Bremenium in a Monument found at Rochester, is sufficient of it self to determine it to that place; since at Risingham in this very County, an Inscription was found, that makes as express mention of the fourth Cohort of the Gallick Troops, whose Station was Vindolana; which yet is settled as far distant from thence, as Old Winchester.Bramaenio

Add to this (what they think of some moment) that Simler’s Edition reads it, not Bremenium, but Bramenium, and Vossius’s Manuscript, Bramænio; to which place also † † Gale, suppos’d to belong this Roman Altar, dug-up at Lowther in Westmorland;

Roman Altar

the true reading of the second line being supposed to be, BRAMAE VEXILLATIO GERMANORVM, and to signify that those Soldiers, having erected it at Bramenium to the honour of the Deæ Matres, carried it back with them, in their retreat, lest it should fall into the hands of the Enemy.⌉deae

To the south, within five miles lies Otterburn;Battel of Otterburn, 1388. where a sharp engagement happen’d between the Scots and English; Victory three or four times changing sides, and at last fixing with the Scots: For Henry Percy (for his youthful forwardness, nick-nam’d Whot-spur) who commanded the English, was himself taken prisoner, and lost fifteen hundred of his men; and William

Douglas the Scotch General fell, with a great part of his Army: so that never was there a more pregnant instance of the martial prowess of both Nations. ⌈We may be allow’d to remark here, what a person of great honour and skill in our English Antiquities has noted before, that the old Ballad of Chevy-Chase (Sir Philip Sidney’s Delight) has no other foundation for its story, save only the Battel of Otterburn. There was never any other Percy engag’d against a Douglas, but this Henry: who was indeed Heir to the Earl of Northumberland, but never liv’d to enjoy the Honour himself. Sir John Froysart (who liv’d at the time) gives the fullest account of this Battel; but says it was Earl James Douglas who was the Scotish General.⌉

A little lower, the river Rhead washes (or rather has almost wash’d away) another Town of great Antiquity, now call’d Risingham;Risingham. which, in the old English and High Dutch, signifies as much as Giants-Town, as Risingberg in Germany is Giants-Hill. ⌈And yet it may be, the name of this place imports no more than its situation on a high and rising ground. Most of the Villages in these parts were anciently so placed, though afterwards the Inhabitants drew down into the Valleys.⌉ Here are many evident remains of Antiquity. The Inhabitants report, that the place was long defended by the God Magon, against a certain Soldan or Pagan Prince. Nor is the Story wholly groundless; for that such a God was worship’d here, appears from these two Altars † † So said, ann. 1607.lately taken out of the River, and thus inscrib’d:

Deo Mogonti Cadenorum, & Numini Domini nostri Augusti M.G. Secundinus Beneficiarius Consulis Habitanici Primas tam pro se & suis posuit. Deo
Mogonti cad.
Et. n.dn avg.
M. g. secvndinvs
Bf. cos. habita
Nci primas ta---
Pro se et svis posvit

Movno cad.
Inventvs do
V. s.

From the former of these, a conjecture may be made, that the place was called Habitancum; and that he who erected it was * * Beneficiarius.Pensioner to a Consul, and † Primatem.Governour of the Town. (For that the chief Magistrates of Cities, Towns and Forts were call’d Primates,Primates. is very plain from the Theodosian Code.) Whether this God was the tutelar Deity of the Gadeni, whom Ptolemy makes next neighbours to the Ottadini, I am not yet able to determine; let others enquire. Here were also found the following Inscriptions, for which, as also for others, we are indebted to the famous Sir Robert Cotton of Connington, Knight, who * * So said, ann. 1607.very lately saw and copy’d them.


D. m.
A n.i. e t
Dies xxi.

Cvi praeest. m
Svper trib.

Deae ter
Tianae sa
Crvm ael.
V. s. ll. m.

Coh. i. vang
Fecit cvrante
Ivl. pavlo trib

Li ivl
V. s.

Avr. antoni
Ni. pii avg. m
Diligens tri-
Bvnvs sacrvm

Vetustate conlabsum. Inscription

Also, what exceeds all the rest in finery of Work, a long Table curiously engraven; and by the † † Their Station was Vindolana, which is settled at Winchester.fourth Cohort of the Gallic Troops dedicated to the Sacred Majesty of the Emperours.


But to return. A little lower, Rhead, with several other brooks that have joyn’d it, runs into Tine. And so far reaches Rhedesdale; which (as Domesday-Book informs us) the Umfranvils held in Fee and Knights Service, of the King, for guarding the Dale from Robbers.

All over the WastesWastes. (as they call them,) as well as in Gillesland, you would think you see the ancient Nomades;Nomades. a Martial sort of people, that from April to August, lie in little Hutts (which they call ShealsSheals. and Shealings) here and there, among their several Flocks. From hence, North-Tine passes by Chipches,Chipches. a little Fort formerly belonging to the Umfranvils, and then to the Herons, ⌈whose Ancestors have for very many Generations been of eminent note in this County. We meet with their name variously spell’d in our Histories and Records; as Hairun, Heyrun, Heirun, &c. Amongst whom, William Heyrun was for eleven years together Sheriff of this County in the reign of Henry the third; and some of our Histories seem to hint, that he was well enrich’d by the Preferment. The Family afterwards was branch’d-out into the Herons of Netherton, Meldon, &c.⌉ From thence it runs, not far from the small Castle of Swinborn,Swinborn. which gave name to a Family of note, and was sometime part of the Barony of William Heron, and afterwards the seat of the Woderingtons; and so comes to the Wall, which it crosses below Collerford by a Bridge with Arches; where are still to be seen the ruins of the large Fort of Wallwick. ⌈At this place was found, not many years since, a Roman Altar, with the following Inscription, Phil. Trans. N.231.


If CilurnumCilurnum. (where the second wing of the Astures lay in garrison) was not here, it was in the neighbourhood at ScilcesterScilcester.
on the Wall; where, after Sigga a Nobleman had treacherously slain Elfwald King of Northumberland, the Religious built a Church, and dedicated it to Cuthbert and Oswald;S. Oswald. which last has so far out-done the other, that, the old name being quite lost, the place is now call’d St. Oswald’s. This Oswald, King of Northumberland, being ready to give Battel to * * See p.1083.
Cedwalla, or Caswallo.
Cedwall the Britain (so Bede calls him, whom the British Writers name Caswallon, and who was King, as it should seem, of Cumberland,) erected a Cross, and on his knees begg’d of Christ that he would afford his heavenly assistance to those that now call’d on his name, and presently with a loud voice thus address’d himself to the Army:Bede l.3. c.2. Let us all on our knees beseech the Almighty, Living, and True God, mercifully to defend us from our proud and cruel Enemy.About the year 634.
Christianity first profess’d in Northum­berland.
And we do not find (says Bede,) that any Banner of the Christian Faith, any Church, any Altar, was ever erected in this Country, till this new General, following the dictates of a devout Faith, and being to engage a most inhumane Enemy, set up this Standard of the Holy Cross. For after Oswald had in this Battel experienc’d that effectual assistance of Christ which he had pray’d for, he immediately turn’d Christian; and sent for Aidan a Scotchman to instruct his people in the Christian Religion†† See p.1083..

The place where the Victory was obtain’d, was ⌈if we may trust the Monks⌉ afterwards call’d Saxon heafenfeld, or Heaven-field;Heafenfeld, now Haledon. which now in the same sense (as some will have it) is nam’d Haledon. Upon which, Oswald’s Life gives us the following piece of Metre:

Tunc primùm scivit causam cur nomen haberet
Heafenfeld, hoc est, cœlestis Campus, & illi
Nomen ab Antiquo dedit appellatio gentis
Præteritæ, tanquam belli præsaga futuri:
Nominis & Caussam mox assignavit ibidem
Cœlitùs expugnans cœlestis turba scelestam.
Neve senectutis ignavia posset honorem
Tam celebris delere loci, tantique Triumphi,
Ecclesiæ Fratres
Haugustaldensis adesse
Devoti, Christúmque solent celebrare quotannis.
Quóque loci persistat honos, in honore beati

Oswaldi Regis ibi confluxere Capellam.

And now he understood whence Heavenfeld came,
Call’d in old time by that prophetick name:
For now the reason of the Name was given,
When Hell’s vile Troops were overcome by Heaven.
But lest devouring Ages should deface
The glorious triumph of the sacred place,
The Monks of old Haugustald every year
Do meet and joyn in their devotions here.
And that great Oswald’s fame should never die,
They’ve rais’d a Chapel to his Memory.

And another in his Commendation (well enough for the barbarous Age he liv’d in) writes thus:

caesar Quis fuit Alcides? Quis Cæsar Julius? Aut quis
Magnus Alexander? Alcides se superâsse

Fertur; Alexander Mundum, sed Julius hostem.
Se simul Oswaldus, & Mundum vicit, & hostem.

caesar Cæsar and Hercules applaud thy fame,
And Alexander owns thy greater name,
Tho’ one himself, one foes, and one the world o’recame:
Great Conquests all! but bounteous Heav’n in thee,
To make a greater, joyn’d the former three.

⌈As to this Story of Oswald, Bede indeed seems to say, the Battel was against Cedwall; but Matthew of Westminster says, it was fought against Penda King of the Mercians, who was at that time General of Cadwalline’s Forces; and the Story of setting up the Banner of the Christian Faith, must be understood to be in Berniciorum Gente, as Bede says in the place cited, if it have any truth in it; for Christianity was, some years before, planted in the Kingdom of Northumberland by Paulinus; and a Church was built at York by King Edwin, Oswald’s Predecessor. But (after all) this remark is not in the Saxon Paraphrase of Bede’s History; so that we have reason to look upon it as a spurious Corruption. It does, indeed, contradict the account that himselfSee Yverin. elsewhere gives, of Paulinus’s baptizing great numbers in these very parts; which surely was Fidei Christianæ signum, i.e. a Sign of the Christian Faith. Nor was Heavenfield the place where the Battel was fought, and the Victory obtain’d; for that was at another place in the neighbourhood, which Bede calls Denises burna, supposed to be Dilston. The Writer of Oswald’s Life, it is true, supposes this to have been the Scene of the Action; tho’ Bede only says, that here was the Cross erected, and here (afterwards) the Chapel built. It is no wonder to find a number of Poets (and a great number they are) who have written in praise of St. Oswald. His introducing of Christianity was not the thing that rais’d his credit (for so much King Edwin had done before him) but his chief stock of Merit consisted in his bringing-in Monkery along with it. It was this, that gave him so considerable a figure amongst the men of the Cloister, and advanced him to a like honour with what his name-sake-Saint of York attain’d to afterwards.⌉

Below St. Oswald’s, both the Tines meet; after South-Tine (which goes along with the Wall, at about two miles distance from it) has pass’d by Langley-CastleLangley-Castle. (where formerly, in the reign of King John, Adam de Tindale had his Barony,Testa Nevilli. which afterwards descended to Nicholas de Bolteby, and was lately in the possession of the Percies,) and has slid under a tottering and crazy wooden Bridge at Aidon. And now the whole Tine, being well grown, and still encreasing, presses forward in one Chanel for the Ocean, by Hexam,Hexam. which Bede calls Haugustald, and the Saxons Saxon hextoldesham. That this was the AxelodunumAxelodunum. of the Romans, where the first Cohort of the Spaniards were in garrison, the name implies; and so does its situation on a rising hill; for the Britains call’d such a Mount Dunum.Dunum. But take an account of this place from Richard its Prior, who liv’d above five hundred years ago. Not far from the Southern bank of the river Tine, stands a Town, of small extent indeed at present, and but thinly inhabited, but (as the remaining works of its ancient state will testifie) heretofore very large and magnificent. This place is call’d Hextoldesham, from the little rivulet of Hextold, which runs by, and sometimes suddenly overflows it. In the year 675. Etheldreda wife to King Egfrid assign’d it for an Episcopal See to St. Wilfrid; who built here a Church, which, for the curiousness and beauty of the Fabrick, surpass’d all the Monasteries in England. ⌈Moreover, the same Prior is very particular in his description of the Church’s Fabrick; in its Walls, Roof, Cieling, Stairs, Pillars, &c. and (at last) concludes, That no such stately structure was, at that time, to be met with on this side the Alpes. ceiling He likewise informs us, at large, what Immunities and Privileges were granted by our Saxon Kings to this Church; how well they were secur’d to her; how far the bounds of her Fridstol or Sanctuary extended, &c.⌉ Take also what Malmesbury has written of it: This was Crown-Land, till Bishop Wilfrid gave other Lands for it to Queen Etheldreda. It was wonderful to see what towering Buildings were there erected; how admirably contriv’d with winding stairs, by Masons, brought (in prospect of his great Liberality) from Rome. Insomuch that they seem’d to vie with the Roman pomp; and did long out-struggle even Age it self. At which time King Egfrid made this little City a Bishop’s See; ⌈whereunto St. Cuthbert himself was both elected and consecrated; though he did not think fit to take the charge upon him.⌉ But that Honour, after the * * Eighth, C.twelfth Bishop, was wholly lost; the Danish wars prevailing. Afterwards, it was only reckon’d a Manour of the Archbishops of York; till they parted with their right, in an exchange made with Henry the eighth. It is also famous for the bloody Battel in which John Nevil Lord Montacute very bravely engaged, and as fortunately vanquish’d, the Generals of the House of Lancaster; and, for so doing, was created Earl of Northumberland by Edward the fourth. At present, its only glory is the old Monastery; part whereof † † Is, C.was turn’d into the fair house of Sir J. Foster Knight, ⌈and was since the Estate of Sir John Fenwick, from whom it came by sale to Sir William Blacket, Baronet.⌉ The West-end of the Church is demolish’d. The rest stands entire, and is a very stately Structure: in the Quire whereof is an old Tomb of a Person of Honour (of the Martial Family of the Umfranvils, as his Coat of Arms witnesses) lying with his Legs across.mohammad muslim aelfred alfred Men bury’d cross-legg’d. By the way, In that posture it was then the custom to bury such only, as had taken the Cross upon them; being, under that Banner, engag’d in the Holy War, for the recovery of the Holy-Land out of the Hands of the Mahometans. Near the East-end of the Church, on a rising brow, stand two strong Bulwarks of hew’n stone; which, I was told, belong to the Archbishop of York.

From hence Eastward, we pass’d on to Dilston,Dilston. the Seat of the Ratcliffs, call’d in old Books Divelston, from a small brook which here empties it self into the Tine, and which Bede names Devil’s-burn: where (as he writes) Oswald, arm’d with Christian Faith, ¦ ¦ Justo prælio.
Bede, l.3. c.1.
in a fair field, slew Cedwall the Britain, that wretched Tyrant, who before had slain two Kings of Northumberland, and miserably wasted their Country. ⌈Only, it is to be observed, that the Latin Copies of Bede say, Oswald’s victory was in loco qui linguâ Anglorum Denises burna vocatur, In the place which is call’d by the English Denises burna: And the Saxon Copies of King Ælfred’s Paraphrase have Saxon denisses, Saxon denisces and Saxon denises burna; but the Saxon Chronicle has not recorded this story. Sir Francis Ratcliff Baronet (late Proprietor of this place) was made Baron of Dilston, Viscount Langley, and Earl of Derwent-water.⌉ On the other bank of Tine stands Curia Ottadinorum,Ninius calls it Curia. mentioned by Ptolemy, which (by the distances) should seem to be Antoninus’s Corstopitum, ⌈or rather Corstopilum (for so saith the Edition of H. Surita, both in the Text and the Comment:)⌉ It is now call’d CorbridgeCorbridge. (from a Bridge built here;) by Hoveden, Corobrige; and by Huntingdon, Cure. At this day it has nothing remarkable but a Church; and near it, a little Tower-house built and inhabited by the Vicars of the place. Yet there are many ruins of ancient buildings, amongst which King JohnTreasure sought in vain. search’d for some old hidden treasure: but Fortune favour’d him no more in this vain quest, than she did Nero,Hoveden.
in his enquiries after the conceal’d riches of Dido at Carthage. For he found nothing but stones mark’d with Brass, Iron, and Lead. ⌈But although King John could meet with no Discoveries at Corbridge; there was a considerable one accidentally made here not many years ago. The bank of a small Torrent being worn by some sudden showers, the Skeleton of a * * See below.Man appear’d, of a very extraordinary and prodigious size. The length of its thigh-bone was within a very little of two yards; and the skull, teeth, and other parts, proportionably monstrous. So that, by a fair computation, the true length of the whole body has been reckon’d at seven yards. Some parts of it † † Ann. 1695.were in the possession of the right honourable the Earl of Derwent-water, at Dilston; but his Lordship, having had no notice of the thing, till it was (in a great measure) squander’d and lost by the unthinking discoverers, the Rarity is not so compleat, as whoever sees the remains of it, will heartily wish it were.fossils Phil. Trans. N.330. But since there was not found here an entire Skeleton, but great numbers, or Strata, of Teeth and Bones of a very extraordinary size; and withall a sort of Pavement or Foundation of Stone, running along with these Strata; and since here hath been dug-up an Altar inscribed to Hercules, which we shall subjoin; what if we should say, that these are the Teeth and Bones of Oxen, and other like Creatures, which were sacrific’d at some Temple, in this Place? The like Bones are reported to have been frequently discover’d on the shore near Alnmouth in this County; all of them at a greater depth in the ground than they can well be imagin’d ever to have been buried.⌉ Whoever views the neighbouring heap of rubbish, which is now call’d Colecester,Colecester. will readily conclude this Corbridge to have been a Roman Fort.

⌈The Altar above-mention’d which, many years since, was found here, hath this Inscription:

Phil Trans. N.278. Altar

As the Roman Street runs from Ebchester to Corbridge, so from Corbridge to Resingham;Resingham. a mile south from whence, is a Pillar about eight foot long, which has stood by the way-side, but is now fallen; and at the place it self, in a wall on the inside of a House, is this Inscription,

Phil. Trans. N.278. Inscription on a wall

Upon the same bank, I saw the fair Castle of Biwell;Biwell. which in the reign of King John, was the Barony of Hugh Balliol, for which he stood oblig’d to pay to the Ward of Newcastle upon Tine, thirty Knights

Below this Castle, there is a most beautiful WeareA Weare. for the catching of Salmon; and, in the middle of the river, stand two firm Pillars of Stone, which formerly supported a Bridge. Hence Tine runs under Prudhow-CastlePrudhow. (in old writings Prodhow,) which is pleasantly seated on the ridge of a hill. This, till I am better inform’d, I shall guess to be Protolitia;Protolitia. which is also written Procolitia, and was the station of the first Cohort of the Batavi. It is famous for gallantly maintaining it self (in the days of Henry the second) against the siege of William King of Scots; who (as Neubrigensis expresses it) toil’d himself and his Army to no purpose. Afterwards it belong’d to the Umfranvils,Umfranvils. an eminent Family; one of whom, Sir Gilbert (a Knight in the reign of Edward the first) was, in right of his wife, made Earl of Angus in Scotland. ⌈Before which, in the reign of Henry the third, we find honourable mention made of Gilebert de Humfranvilla as dying in the year 1245; whom the Historian calls a famous Baron, the Keeper, as well as Ornament, of the Northern Parts of England. Sir Robert Umfranvil was Sheriff of the County in the 46th and 51st years of Edward the third, and in the 2d and 6th of Henry the fourth. And another Sir Robert (a younger son, I think, to the said Sheriff) was Vice-Admiral of England in the year 1410, and brought such plenty of Prizes (in Cloth, Corn, and other valuable Commodities) from Scotland, that he got the nick-name of Robin Mend-market.⌉ The true heiress of the blood (as our Lawyers express it) was at length married into the family of the Talboys; and, after that, this Castle was (by the King’s bounty) bestow’d upon the Duke of Bedford.

But, to return to the Wall. Beyond St. Oswald’s, the Foundations of two Forts which they call Castle-steeds,Castle-steeds. are to be seen in the Wall; and then a place call’d Portgate,Portgate.
See above, p.1054.
where (as the word in both Languages fairly evinces) there was formerly a Gate ⌈or Sally-port⌉ through it. Beneath this, and more within the Wall, stands Halton-Hall,Halton-Hall. the present seat of the ancient and warlike Family of the Carnabies, ⌈who have been a great while in this County; William Carnaby Esq; having been Sheriff of it in the 7th year of King Henry the sixth. It is probable, they came hither from Carnaby near Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire:⌉ and, hard by, Aidon-Castle, which was part of the Barony of the fore-mention’d Hugh Balliol.AElius AElii Now, since a great many places on the Wall bear the name of Aidon,Aidon. and the same word (in the British tongue) signifies * * Ala militaris.a Military Wing or Troop of Horse, many whereof were (as the Liber Notitiarum teaches us) placed along the Wall; let the Reader consider, whether these places have not thence had their names; as other Towns had that of Leon, where Legions were quarter’d. However, near this place was dug-up a piece of an old Stone, wherein was drawn the pourtraiture of a Man lying on his bed (leaning upon his left hand, and touching his right knee with his right hand,) with the following Inscriptions:

Norici. an. xxx.
-essoirvs magnvs
Frater eivs
Dupl. alae

M. mari
Vs velli
A long
Vs. aqvi
S hanc
V. S. L. M.

Beyond the Wall, rises the river Pont; which running down by Fenwick-hall,Fenwick-hall. the seat of the eminent and valiant family of the Fenwicks, for some miles goes along with the Wall, and had its banks guarded by the first Cohort of the Cornavii at Pons Ælii,Pons Ælii. which was built by Ælius Hadrianus, and is now called Pont-Eland.Pont-Eland. Here Henry the third concluded a Peace with the King of Scots, in the year 1244, and near it the first Cohort of the Tungri lay at Borwick,Borwick. which the Notitia Provinciarum calls Borcovicus.Borcovicus. From Portgate, the Wall runs to Waltown,Waltown. which (from the name, and its twelve miles distance from the eastern Sea)See above, p.1054. I take to be the same Royal Borough which Bede calls Ad murum,Ad murum. ⌈and the Saxon Translation Saxon aet walle;⌉ † † See Observations on the Picts Wall.where Segebert, King of the East-Saxons was baptiz’d by * * Paulinus, C.Finanus; ⌈who also (at the same place)Bede, l.3. c.21. baptized Peada King of the Mercians, together with his whole train of Courtiers and Attendants.⌉ Near this, is a Fort call’d Old Winchester,Old Winchester. which I readily believe to be Vindolana;Vindolana. where, as the Liber Notitiarum says, the fourth Cohort of the Galli kept a Frontier-garrison. Thence we went to Routchester,Routchester. where we met with evident remains of a See above, p.1055.square Camp joyning close to the Wall. Near this is Headon,Headon. which was part of the Barony of Hugh de Bolebec;Barony of Bolebec. who, by the mother, was descended from the noble Barons of Mont-Fichet, and had no issue but Daughters, who were marry’d to Ralph Lord Greistock, J. Lovell, Huntercomb, and Corbet.

⌈In an original CharterSeld. Tit. Hon. par.2. c.5. p.571. (dated the first year of King Stephen) we have, among many Barons, Signum Walteri de Bolebec; and one Isabel de Bolebec Countess of Oxford, first founded a Convent of Dominicans in that City. Nearer to Newcastle, stands Benwall,Benwall. where were lately found several Urns, with Coins in them, which were broken and squander’d about by the ignorant Diggers; but one of the Urns being preserv’d, was given to the Library at Durham, where it remains very entire. Some there are, who have chosen to place the ancient Condercum here, rather than at Chester upon the Street; by reason of the Antiquity of Benwall, and its nearness to the Wall; the Notitia describing Condercum, as upon the line of the Wall.⌉

And now, near the meeting of the Wall and Tine, stands Newcastle,Newcastle upon Tine. the glory of all the Towns in this Country. It has a noble Haven on the Tine, which is of such a depth as to carry Vessels of a very good burthen, and of that security, that they are in no hazard of either storms or shallows. ⌈Almost to the Bar of Tinmouth (which is a Sand that lies cross the river’s mouth, not above seven foot deep at low water) the chanel is good and secure: but there, you meet with a number of Rocks, which they call the Black Middins, very dangerous. To prevent much of the mischief that might happen among these, in the night-time, there are two Light-houses maintain’d by the Trinity-house in Newcastle; and near these was built Clifford’s Fort, in the year 1672, which effectually commands all Vessels that enter the River.⌉

The situation of the Town is climbing and very uneaven, on the north bank of the river, which is cross’d by a very fair bridge. As you enter the Town from hence, you have, on the left hand the Castle overtopping you, and after that a very steep brow of a hill. On the right, you have the Market-place, and the best built part of the Town; from which to the upper and far larger part, the ascent is a little trouble-some. It † † Is, C.was heretofore beautified with four Churches; ⌈but now there are, besides St. Nicholas (the Parochial or Mother-Church) six other Churches or Chapels, whereof one was rebuilt at the publick charge of the Corporation, A.D. 1682, and endow’d with sixty Pounds per Annum, one half of which is for the maintenance of a Catechetical-Lecturer, who is to expound the Catechism of the Church of England every Sunday, and to preach a Sermon every first Wednesday in the Month. Twenty Pounds are assign’d to a School-master, and ten to an Usher, who are to prepare the Children of the Parish for the said Lecture. Besides which, the Town very honourably pays five hundred and eighty Pounds a year, towards the maintenance of their Vicar, and those Lecturers and Curates who are under him; a pattern, very fit to be imitated by other Towns and Cities.⌉ It is defended by exceeding strong Walls, wherein are seven gates, and a great many turrets upon it. What it was anciently, is not yet discover’d. I am very inclinable to think, it was Gabrosentum; since GatesheadGateshead. (which is, as it were, its suburbs) is a word of the same signification with that British name which is deriv’d from Goats, as has been already mention’d. Besides, the Notitia Provinciarum places Gabrosentum Gabrosentum.(and in it the second Cohort of the Thracians) * * Ad Lineam Valli.within the very range of the Wall. And it is most certain, that the Rampire and ⌈afterwards⌉ the Wall pass’d through this Town; and at Pandon-gatePandon-gate. there still remains, as it is thought, one of the little Turrets of that very Wall. It is indeed different from the rest, both in fashion and masonry, and seems to carry a very great age. The name of Monkchester is also an argument of its being a garrison’d Fort; for so it was call’d, from the Monks, about the time of the Conquest. Soon after, it got the modern name of Newcastle, from that new Castle which was here built by Robert son of William the Conquerour, and within a while was mightily enlarg’d and enrich’d by a good trade on the coasts of Germany, and by the sale of its Sea-coal (whereof this Country has great plenty) into other parts of England. In the reign of Edward the first, a very rich Burger being carry’d off prisoner by the Scots out of the middle of the Town, and having pay’d a round ransom for himself, began the first fortifications of the place. The rest of the townsmen, mov’d by his example, finish’d the work, and entirely encompass’d themselves with good stout Walls: since which time, this place has so securely manag’d its Trade, in spight of all the attempts of enemies and the many neighbouring thieves, that it is now in a most flourishing state of wealth and commerce: (upon which account Henry the sixth made it a County incorporate of it self.) ⌈Both these are wonderfully encreas’d in this last age. The Coal-trade is incredible; and for other Merchandise, Newcastle is the great Emporium of the northern parts of England, and of a good part of Scotland. The publick Revenue is also very much advanc’d of late years: for which the Town is in great measure indebted to the provident care and good management of its two great Patriots Sir William Blacket Baronet, and Timothy Davison Esquire, Aldermen.⌉ It lies in 21 degrees and 30 minutes longitude, and in 54 and 57 of northern latitude. We have already treated of the suburbs call’d Gateshead, which is joyn’d to Newcastle by the bridge, and belongs to the Bishop of Durham. This Town, for its situation and plenty of Sea-coal (so useful in it self, and to which so great a part of England and the Low Countries are indebted for their good fires) is thus commended by Johnston in his Poems on the Cities of Britain.

Novum Castrum.

Rupe sedens celsa, rerum aut miracula spectat
Naturæ, aut solers distrahit illa aliis.
Sedibus Æthereis quid frustra quæritis ignem?
Hunc alit, hunc terra suscitat ista sinu.
Non illum torvo terras qui turbine terret;
Sed qui animam Terris, detque animos animis.
Eliquat hic ferrum, æs, hic aurum ductile fundit.
Quos non auri illex conciet umbra animos?
Quin (aiunt) auro permutat bruta metalla;
Alchimus hunc igitur prædicat esse Deum.
Si deus est, ceu tu dictas, divine magister,
Hæc quot alit? Quot alit
Scotia nostra Deos?


From her high Rock great Nature’s works surveys,
And kindly spreads her goods through Lands and Seas.
Why seek you fire in some exalted sphere?
Earth’s fruitful bosom will supply you here.
Not such whose horrid flashes scare the plain,
But gives enliv’ning warmth to earth and men.
Ir’n, brass, and gold its melting force obey;
(Ah! who’s e’er free from gold’s almighty sway?)
Nay, into gold ’twill change a baser ore,
Hence the vain Chymist deifies its power:
If’t be a god, as is believ’d by you,
This place and Scotland more than Heaven can shew.

⌈At Fenham,Fenham. a little village in the parish of Newcastle, there are some Coal-pits which were burning several years; and are supposed to be still on fire. The Flames of this subterraneous fire were visible by night; and in the day-time the track of it might easily be follow’d by the Brimstone that lay on the surface of the Earth.

Newcastle has afforded the title of Earl to Lodowick Stewart (Duke of Lennox, and Earl of Richmond) created, May, 1604. But in the year 1627. this title was conferr’d upon William Cavendish, Viscount Mansfield and Baron Ogle, who was afterwards, in 1643, created Marquis of Newcastle, and the year following Duke of Newcastle. In 1676. he was succeeded by his son Henry Cavendish. Since which, the right honourable John Holles, Earl of Clare, was created Duke of this place by his Majesty King William the third; and, he dying without issue male, the same honour hath been conferr’d by his Majesty King George upon Thomas, Son of Thomas Lord Pelham, by a Sister of John the last Duke; which Thomas, the present Duke of Newcastle, became Heir to a vast Estate, left by his said Uncle, and hath, on many occasions, discover’d an early and most steady zeal for the honour and interest of his Country.⌉

Scarce three miles hence (for I pass by Gosseford)Gosseford. which was the Barony of Richard Sur-Teis,Barons Sur-Teis. or Upon the Tees, a person of great repute under Henry the first,) stands a little village called Walls-end.Walls-end. The very signification of the word proves this to have been the station of the † † Second Cohort of the Thracians, C.
but, that was at Gabrosentum, Vid. suprà.
first Cohort of the Frixagi, which in the Liber Notitiarum is call’d Vindobala, and by Antoninus, ¦ ¦ Dr. Gale places it at Doland. Itiner. p.10.
Eccl. Hist. l.1. c.12.
Vindomora: for the latter seems, in the provincial language of the Britains, to have signified the Walls-end, and the former the Rampier’s-end; since they anciently call’d a Wall Mur, and a Ditch or Rampier Gual. ⌈(By the way, there is an ill-contrived and incoherent Interpolation in Bede, wherewith Buchanan, and some other Scotch Writers, seem to be mightily pleased; which, if it proves any thing at all, shews, that Vindobala was by the Britains called Penvahel.)⌉

As to the Ditch and the Wall, it is not likely that they went any further, since they are not to be traced beyond this place, and Tine (being now near the sea) carries a chanel so deep, as to be equal to the strongest Fort. Yet some will needs maintain, that only the Ditch, and not the Wall, reach’d as far as Tinmouth;Tinmouth. which, they assert, was call’d Pen-ball-crag, that is, the Head of the Rampier in the Rock.aella aelius Lusoriae This opinion I shall not gainsay; however, I dare be confident, that this place was, in the time of the Romans, call’d Tunnocellum,Tunnocellum. which signifies as much as the Promontory of Tunna or Tina, where the first Cohort Ælla Classica (that was rais’d, as the name probably imports, by Ælius Hadrianus) was in pay for Sea-service: for the Romans had their Naves Lusoriæ,Naves Lusoriæ. or light Frigats, in their border-rivers, both to prevent the excursions of the neighbouring Enemy, and to make incursions upon them; as may be seen in the Codex Theodosii, under the title De Lusoriis Danubii. Under the Saxon Heptarchy, it was called Lib.4. c.22. Saxon Tunnacester; not, as Bede affirms, from Abbot Tunna, but from the river. Here was also a little Monastery, which was frequently plunder’d by the Danes, ⌈and, after the Conquest, became a Cell of St. Alban:⌉ It is now call’d Tinmouth-castle, and glories in a stately and strong Castle, which, says an ancient Author, is seated on a very high rock, inaccessible towards the Ocean on the east and north, and elsewhere so well mounted, that a slender garrison will make it good. For this reason, Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, chose it for his chief hold, when he rebell’d against William Rufus: but, as is usual, matters succeeded not well with this Rebel, who being here brought into distress by his besiegers, retir’d to the adjoyning Monastery, which was esteem’d an inviolable sanctuary. Nevertheless, he was thence carried off, and had afterwards the just reward of his Treason in a long and noisom Imprisonment. ⌈Within this Castle, the Ruins of the forementioned Monastery are still to be seen. Here was also, formerly, the Parish-Church; but (that being gone much to decay, and the Parishioners, in the late Civil Wars, often debarred the liberty of a free resort to it) another was begun to be built in the year 1659, which was afterwards finished, and consecrated by Bishop Cosins, in the year 1668.⌉

I must now coast it along the shore. Behind the Promontory whereon Tunnocellum or Tinmouth is seated (near Seton,Seton. part of the Barony of De-la-vall in the reign of Henry the third) stands Seghill,Seghill. call’d Segedunum,Segedunum. the station of the † † Fourth, Gale’s Notitia.third Cohort of the Lergi, on the * * Vallum.Wall; and indeed Segedunum in the British tongue signifies the same thing, as Seghill in the English. A few miles from hence, the shore is cut by the river Blithe, which (having pass’d by Belsey,Belsey. the ancient inheritance of the Middletons; and Ogle-Castle, belonging to the Barons of Ogle)Barons of Ogle. does here, together with the river Pont, empty it self into the sea. The Ogles were honour’d with the title of Barons from the very beginning of Edward the fourth’s reign, having enrich’d themselves by marrying the heirs of Berthram de Bothal, Alan Heton, and Alexander Kirkby. The male-issue of these Barons was lately extinct in Cuthbert, the seventh Baron, who had two daughters, Joan, marry’d to Edward Talbot a younger son of George Earl of Shrewsbury, and Catherine, marry’d to Sir Charles Cavendish, Knight. ⌈By reason whereof, Sir William Cavendish was created first Baron, and afterwards, Earl of Ogle.⌉

A little higher, the river Wents-beckWentsbeck. falls into the Sea. It runs by Mitford,Barony of Mitford. which was burnt down by King John and his Rutars,Rutarii or Ruptarii. when they so miserably wasted this Country. That age call’d those foreign Auxiliaries and Free-booters Rutars, who were brought out of the Low-Countries and other places to King John’s assistance, by Falques ¦ ¦ Or, de Brent and Walter Buc. ⌈Which Rutarii or Ruptarii are not only mention’d by our Historians in the reign of King John, but, before his time also, in the reign of Henry the second, and after it under Henry the third. By all the accounts which we have of them, it appears they were mercenary German Troops. Now, in the High-Dutch, Rott (whence our English Rout) is a Company of Soldiers; Rotten or Rottiren, to muster; Rottmeister, a Corporal, &c. That from hence we are to fetch the true original of the word, we are sufficiently taught by Will. Neubrigensis,Lib.2. c.27. who lived and wrote his History in the times of these Rutars. Rex, says he, stipendiarias Brabantionum copias, quas Rutas vocant, accersivit; i.e. the King sent for the Stipendiary Troops of Brabant, which they call the Rutes. Dr. Wats (in his Glossary) derives the name from the German Reuter, a Trooper or Horseman. But this by the way. As to the forementioned Brent and Buc;⌉ Brent being a * * Homo efferatus.cruel desperate fellow, was afterwards banish’d the Kingdom: ⌈(our Historians call him a most wicked Robber, and a thousand hard names besides, because he used to make free with the Monasteries, and their Treasures, as they lay in his way:)⌉ But Buc, a person of more sobriety, having done the King good service, had confer’d on him, by Royal Bounty, Lands in Yorkshire and Northamptonshire, where his Posterity flourish’d, down to John Buc, who was attainted under Henry the seventh. Great grandson to this John, † † So said, ann. that person of excellent learning Sir George Buc Knight, Master of the Revels, who (for I love to own my Benefactors) remark’d many things in our Histories, and courteously communicated his observations to me. This was formerly the Barony of William Berthram, whose line soon fail’d in Roger his grandson; the three co-heirs being marry’d to Norman Darcy, T. Penbury, and William de Elmeley.

After this, Wentsbeck runs through the famous little Town of Morpeth;Morpeth. for ⌈the body of⌉ the Town is seated on the northern bank of the river, and the Church on the southern. Near which stands also, on a shady hill, the Castle; and this, together with the Town, came from Roger de Merlac or Merley (whose Barony it was) to the Lords of Greystock, and from them to the Barons Dacre of Gillesland. ⌈This Roger (I suppose) is he of whom * * Ann. 1242.Matth. Paris makes mention, as a person of great note.⌉ I meet with nothing anciently recorded of this place; save only that in the year of our Lord 1215.Hist. Malros. the Towns-men themselves burnt it, in pure spight to King John. ⌈But of later years, it came, together with Gillesland, &c. by Elizabeth, sister and coheir of George the last Lord Dacre, to (her husband) the Lord William Howard of Naworth, third son to the Duke of Norfolk, whose grandson Charles, was, soon after the Restauration of K. Charles the second, created Earl of Carlisle, and Viscount Morpeth. Which Honours were inherited by his son Edward, and are now enjoy’d by his grandson Charles, the third Earl of Carlisle of this Family; a person of great wisdom and honour.⌉ From hence Wentsbeck runs by Bothal-Castle,Bothal-Castle. anciently the Barony of Richard Berthram; from whose Posterity it descended to the Barons of Ogle. ⌈Sir John BerthramCamden’s Remains. was several times Sheriff of Northumberland in the reign of King Henry the sixth; and the Christian Name of Berthram (out of which, some think, the Christians have made their Ferdinando) is still very common in these Northern Parts.⌉ Upon the bank of this river, as I have long fansied (whether upon judgment or opinion I know not) was the seat of Glanoventa;Glanoventa. where the Romans plac’d a Garrison of the first Cohort of the Morini, for the defence of the Marches. This, the very situation of the place seems to argue; and the name of the river, with its signification, may be a further evidence of it. For it is ¦ ¦ Ad lineam Valli.upon the range of the Wall or Rampire, as the Liber Notitiarum places that Fort; and the river is call’d Wents-beck. * Littoralis.Glanoventa is settled at Caer-Vorran, in this County; and by Dr. Gale, at Yevrin. Now Glanoventa in the British tongue signifies the shore or bank of Went: whence also Glanon, a * Maritime Town in France (mention’d by Mela) may probably have had its name †.

Not far from hence (to omit other less considerable Turrets) stands, on the shore, the old Castle of WithringtonWithrington. or Woderington, in the Saxon Language Saxon Widringtun; which gave name to the eminent and knightly family of the Withringtons, who have frequently signaliz’d their valour in the Scotish wars; ⌈and were afterwards advanced to the dignity of * * Now, forfeited, by Attainder.Barons.⌉ Near this, the river Coqued or CoquetCoquet. falls into the Sea; which, rising among the Rocks of Cheviot-hills, has near its Head Billesdun,Billesdun. from whence are descended the worshipful family of the Selbies; and (lower, to the South) Harbottle,Harbottle. in Saxon Saxon herbottle, i.e. the Armie’s station; whence, the Family of the Harbottles, of good note in the ¦ ¦ So said, ann. 1607.last age. ⌈From the reign of Henry the fourth, to that of Richard the third, several of this name were Sheriffs of Northumberland.⌉ Here was formerly a Castle, which was demolish’d by the Scots in the year 1314. ⌈The Saxon termination Saxon botl (of the like import with Saxon by, Saxon ham, and Saxon tun) is not only to be observed in the name of this Village, but also in Larbottle, Shilbottle, and others of less note in this County.⌉ Hard by, stands HalystonHalyston. or Holy-stone; where, in the infancy of the English Church, Paulinus is said to have baptized many thousands. Upon the very mouth of Coquet, the shore is guarded by the fair Castle of Warkworth,Warkworth. belonging to the Percies; wherein is a Chapel admirably cut out of a Rock, and fully finish’d without Beams or Rafters. Parl. Rolls, 5 Edw.3. This, King Edward the third gave to Henry Percy, together with the Manour of Rochbury. It was formerly the Barony of Roger Fitz-Richard, being given to him by Henry the second King of England; who also bestow’d ClaveringClavering. in Essex on his son. Whereupon, at the command of King Edward the first, they took the sirname of Clavering; leaving the old fashion of framing sirnames out of the Christian name of their Father: for so, anciently, according to the several names of their Fathers, men were call’d Robert * * The Son.Fitz-Roger, Roger Fitz-John, &c. Part of this Inheritance fell, by Fine and Covenant, to the Nevils, afterwards Earls of Westmoreland: and another share of it to a daughter call’d Eve, married to Th. Ufford; from whose Posterity it descended hereditarily to the Fienes Barons of Dacre: But from the younger sons, branched out the Barons of Euers, the Euers of Axholme, the Claverings of Calaly in this County, and others. In the Neighbourhood, is Morwic,Morwic. which may also boast of its Lords, whose Male-issue was extinct about the year 1258. The Inheritance was convey’d by daughters to the Lumleys, Seymours, Bulmers, and Roscells.

Then the shore receives the river Alaunus:Alaunus. which, having not yet lost the name whereby it was known to Ptolemy, is still briefly call’d Alne.Alne. On its banks, are TwiffordTwifford. or Double-Ford, (where a Synod was held under King Egfrid. ⌈At this Synod S. Cuthbert is said to have been chosen Bishop. By the account that Bede (and especially his Royal Paraphrast) gives of the matter, it looks more like a Parliament than a Synod; for the Election is reported to have been, Saxon mid Saxon anmodre Saxon gethafunge Saxon ealra Saxon thaera Saxon witena; i.e. with the unanimous consent of all the Witena. Bede l.4. c.28. Now Saxon witena, in the Language of those times; signifies Senators or Parliament-men; who, it seems, unanimously chose him Bishop; or at least approv’d the choice. The meeting is indeed said to have been on the river Alne; and yet it is very much to be doubted whether this Twiford be in Northumberland, and whether Archbishop Theodore ever came so far north. There are a great many Twifords in the south of England: the Legend of S. Cuthbert says,Page 17. that this Synod was held at Twiford upon Slu.⌉ Next, is Eslington,Eslington. the seat of the Collingwoods, men of renown in the wars; ⌈and who still continue here:⌉ as also, Alan-wickAlanwick. (call’d by the Saxons Saxon ealn-wic, and now usually Anwick,) a Town famous for the victory obtain’d by the English; when our brave Ancestors took1174. William King of Scots, and presented him a Prisoner to Henry the second. It is defended with a goodly Castle, which1097. Malcolm the third King of Scotland had so straiten’d by siege, that it was upon the very point of surrender; when presently he was slain by a Soldier, who stabb’d him with a Spear, on the point whereof he pretended to deliver him the Keys of the Castle. His son Edward, rashly charging the Enemy, to revenge his father’s death, was also mortally wounded, and dy’d soon after. This was formerly a Barony of the Vescies: for Henry the second gave it to Eustachius Fitz-John, father of William Vescie,Testa Nevilli. in Tenure of twelve Knights Services.Praemonstratenses John Vescie returning from the Holy War, ⌈is said to have⌉ first brought CarmelitesCarmelites. into England, and to have built a Convent for them here at Holme, a solitary place, and not unlike Mount Carmel in Syria. ⌈But, in truth, there never was any Convent or Monastery founded at Alnwick, or near it, by John Vescie. There was indeed a Monastery of the Order of the Præmonstratenses founded by Eustachius Fitz-John, Father of William de Vescie; who had that sirname from his Mother, an Heiress. But this was done in the year 1147, long before the Carmelites were heard of in England. John Bale (who was sometime a Carmelite himself) tells us, that the first Convent of that Order was founded at Holm (Hull they now call it) near Alnwick, by Ralph Fresburn, a Gentleman of Northumberland, who dy’d A.D. 1274, and was buried in this Convent. Eustachius’s Abbey is still to be seen, at a half a mile’s distance from the Convent of Hull, down the river.⌉ William, the last of the Vescies, made Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham,Hist. Dunelm. Trustee of this Castle and the Demesn-lands belonging to it, for the use of his natural son, the only Child he left behind him. But the Bishop, basely betraying his trust, alienated the Inheritance; selling it for a present sum of money to William Percie, since whose time it has always been in the possession of the Percies.

From hence the shore, after a great many Indentings, passes by Dunstaburge,Dunstaburg. a Castle belonging to the Dutchy of Lancaster; ⌈within the Circuit of which, there grew not long since, two hundred and forty Winchester Bushels of Corn, besides several Cart-loads of Hay. It is now famous for Dunstaburgh-Diamonds, a sort of fine Spar, which seems to rival that of St. Vincent’s Rock near Bristol.⌉ This Castle some have † † Polyd. Virgil. l.4. p.80.mistaken for Bebban,Bebban. which stands further North, and, instead of Saxon Bebbanburg, is now call’d Bamborrow.Bamborrow. Our Country-man Bede, speaking of the Castle’s being besieg’d and burnt by Penda the Mercian, says it had this name from Queen Bebba; ⌈but yet it may be question’d, whether Bede himself ever gave out this Etymology. No mention of it is in the Saxon: but it is there call’d Saxon cynelican Saxon byrig, i.e. a Royal Mansion; and it is also said,Bede l.3. c.12, 16. that it was miserably wasted by Penda, the Pagan King of the Mercians; who had certainly burnt it, had not the Prayers of Bishop Aidan happily interpos’d. Florence of Worcester seems to have been the first contriver of the story of Queen Bebba;⌉ but Matthew Westminster tells us it was built by Ida the first King of Northumberland, who fenc’d it with a wooden Empailure, and afterwards with a Wall. (Take Roger Hoveden’s description of it: Bebba, says he, is a very strong City; not exceeding large, but containing two or three acres of ground. It has one hollow entrance into it, which is admirably rais’d by steps. On the top of the hill stands a fair Church; and on the Western point of it is a Well, curiously adorn’d, and of sweet and clear water.) ⌈It was, afterwards, totally ruined and plundered by the Danes, in the year 933.⌉ At present, it is rather reckon’d a Castle than a City; though of that extent, that it rivals some Cities. Nor was it look’d upon as any thing more than a Castle, when King William Rufus built the Tower of Male-veisinTower of Male-veisin. over-against it, the better to engage the Rebel Mowbray, who lurk’d here, and at last stole off and fled.Morael plum ⌈After Mowbray’s flight, and his being taken at Tinmouth, the Castle of BamborrowSax. Chron. Ann. 1095. was stoutly maintained by Moræl, his Steward and Kinsman; till the Earl himself was, by the King’s order, brought within view of the Fort, and threatened with the having his eyes put out, in case the besieged held out any longer. Whereupon, it was immediately surrender’d; and Moræl, for his bravery, was received into the King’s Court and Favour.⌉ A great part of its beauty was afterwards lost in the Civil Wars; when Bressie the valiant Norman, who fought for the House of Lancaster, dealt very unmercifully with it. Since that time, it has been in a continual struggle with Age, and the Wind; which latter has, through its large windows, drifted up an incredible quantity of Sea-sand in its several Bulwarks; ⌈yet, as ruinous as it now is, the Lord of the Manour still holds here, in a corner of it, his Courts of Leet and Baron.⌉ Near this is Emildon,Emildon. sometime the Barony of John le Viscont;Visconts. but Rametta, the heir of the family, sold it to Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester. ⌈In this neighbourhood, the improvements in Tillage, and in Gardening and Fruitery, by the Salkelds (in this Parish of Emildon) ought here to be mentioned, as Fineries hardly to be equall’d on the North-side of Tyne. The latter is the more observable, because an eminent Author of this Age will hardly allow any good Peaches, Plumbs, Pears, &c. to be expected beyond Northamptonshire; whereas Fruit is produced here in as great variety and perfection as in most places in the South.⌉ In this Barony was born John Duns,Joh. Scotus, Doctor Subtilis, liv’d A.D. 1300. call’d Scotus, because descended from Scotish Parents; who was educated in Merton-College in Oxford, and became an admirable proficient in Logick and School-Divinity: but was so scrupulous and sceptical, that he obscur’d and perplex’d the great Truths of Religion. He wrote many things with that profound and wondrous subtlety (though in an obscure and impolish’d stile) that he got the name of Doctor Subtilis; and had a new Sect called Scotists, from his name. ⌈This study of School-Divinity was mightily in fashion about Scotus’s time, and especially in the University of Oxford, where the petulant humours of the Dominicans put the Students upon all sorts of wrangling. Hence, that place has afforded more men of eminence in that way, than (perhaps) all the other Universities of Europe: and these have marshalled themselves under the pompous Epithets of Subtilis, Profundus, Irrefragabilus, &c.⌉ Paulus Jovius in Elog. Doct. As to Scotus, he dy’d miserably: being taken with an Apoplectick fit, and too hastily buried for dead. For, Nature having too late wrought through the Distemper, and brought him to life, he vainly mourn’d for assistance, till (at last) beating his head against the * * Sepulchri lapide.Tomb-stone, he dash’d out his brains, and so expir’d. Whereupon a certain Italian wrote thus of him:

Quæcunque humani fuerant, jurisque Sacrati,
In dubium veniunt cuncta vocante
Quid? quod & in dubium illius sit vita vocata,
Morte illum simili ludisicante strophâ.
Quum non ante virum vita jugulârit adempta,
Quàm vivus tumulo conditus ille foret

What sacred Writings or prophane can show,
All Truths were (Scotus) call’d in doubt by you.
Your Fate was doubtful too: Death boasts to be
The first that chous’d you with a Fallacy:
Who, lest your subtle Arts your life should save,
Before she struck, secur’d you in the grave.

That he was born here in England, I affirm upon the authority of his own Manuscript-Works in the Library of Merton-College in Oxford, which conclude thus: Explicit Lectura Subtilis, &c. Here ends the Lecture of John Duns, call’d Doctor Subtilis, in the University of Paris, who was born in a certain Hamlet of the Parish of Emildun, call’d Dunston, in the County of Northumberland, and belonging to the House of the Scholars of Merton-Hall in Oxford. ⌈It was usual in those days for the Oxford-Scholars to spend some time at Paris;Hist. & Ant. Oxon. l.1. ann. 1282. but our Englishmen then did as seldom reap any real advantage by their French Education, as they commonly do now.⌉

Upon this shore there is nothing further worth the mentioning (except Holy-Island, of which in its proper place) till we come to the mouth of the Twede,Twede. which for a long way divides England from Scotland, and is call’d the Eastern March. Upon which, thus our Countryman Necham:

Anglos à Pictis sejungit limite certo
Flumen quod
Tuedam pristina lingua vocat.

The Picts are sever’d from the English ground
By Twede (so call’d of old) a certain bound.

This river rises in a large stream out of the Mountains of Scotland, and afterwards takes a great many turns among the Moss-Troopers and * * So said, Ann. 1607.Drivers (to give them no worse names,) who, as one expresses it, ¦ ¦ Determine, C.determined all Titles by the Sword’s point. When it comes near the village of Carram,Carram. being encreas’d with many other waters, it begins to be the Bound of the two Kingdoms: and having pass’d Werk-Castle,Werk. which was sometime enjoy’d by the Rosses, and † † Now, C.afterwards by the Greys (who have been long a Family of great reputation for valour) and was frequently assaulted by the Scots; is inlarg’d by the river of Till. ⌈Of the last-mention’d Family, Sir William Grey, in the time of King James the first, was advanced to the honour of a Baron, by the title of Lord Grey of Werk.⌉ The river Till has two names: For, at its rise (which is further within the body of this County) it is call’d Bramish;Bramish. and on it stands Bramton,Bramton. a little obscure and inconsiderable Village, ⌈but noted for one of the prettiest Houses in this part of the County, a Seat of the Collingwoods, who are a branch of the House of Eslington.⌉ Hence it runs Northward by Bengely; which, together with Brampton, Bromdum, Rodam (which gave name to a Family of good note in these parts) Edelingham, &c. was the Barony of Patrick Earl of Dunbar, in the reign of Henry the third. The Book of Inquisition, among the Records, says, He was Inborow and Outborow betwixt England and Scotland; that is, if I understand it right, he was, here, to watch and observe the ingress and egress of all Travellers between the two Kingdoms. For, in the old English Language, Saxon inborou is an Ingress or Entry.Inborrow, what. More North, upon the river, stands Chevelingham or Chillingham;Chillingham. which was a Castle that belong’d to one Family of the Greys, as did Horton-Castle, at a little distance, to another; but those two are now match’d into one. ⌈In the Hall, at Chillingham-Castle, there is a Chimney-piece with a hollow in the middle of it; wherein (it is said) there was found a live Toad, at the sawing of the Stone. The other part of it is also still to be seen (with the like mark upon it, and put to the same use) at Horton-Castle.⌉Horton.

Near this, is the Barony of Wollover;Wollover. which King Henry the first gave to Robert de Muscocampo, or Muschamp,Arms of the Muschamps. who bare Azure, three Butterflyes, Argent. From him descended another Robert, who, in the reign of Henry the third, was reckon’d the mightiest Baron in all these Northern parts. But the Inheritance, soon after was divided and shared among women:Fin. 35 H.3. one of whom was marry’d to the Earl of Strathern in Scotland, another to William de Huntercombe, and a third to Odonel de Ford. ⌈This Wollover, call’d usually Wooler, is now a little inconsiderable Market-town, with a thatch’d Church, and some other marks of the Poverty of the Inhabitants.⌉

Soon after, Till is encreas’d by the river of Glen;Glen, riv. that gives the name of GlendaleGlendale. to the Valley through which it runs. Of this rivulet BedeLib.2. c.14. gives us the following account; Paulinus coming with the King and the Queen to the Royal Manour of Ad-gebrin (now call’d Yeverin)Yeverin. stay’d there with them six and thirty days; which he spent in the duties of Catechising and Baptizing. From morning till night, his whole business was to instruct the Country-People that flock’d to him from all places and villages round, in the Principles of Christianity; and, after they were so instructed, to baptize them in the neighbouring river of Glen. This Manour-house was disus’d by the following Kings; and another erected in its stead at Melmin, now Melfeld.Melfeld. ⌈The Saxon Paraphrase gives us a further direction (besides what we have from the river Glen) for finding out the place there mention’d; by telling us, that those places are in the Country of the Beornicians; which is a full refutation of what Bede is made to say before, that King Oswald first brought Christianity into that Kingdom.⌉

Battel of Brumford. See H. Huntingd. Will. Malmesb. and Ingulphus. Here, at Brumford near Brumridge, King Athelstan fought a pitch’d Battel against Anlaf the Dane, Constantine King of Scots, and Eugenius petty King of Cumberland; wherein he had such success, that the Engagement is describ’d by the Historians and Poets of that Age in extraordinary Raptures of Wit and Bombast. ⌈From a passage in Florence of Worcester, one may probably conjecture, that Brunanburh (for so all our Historians, but Ingulphus, call it) must have been some-where nearer the Humber. Tho’, perhaps, it will be more difficult to carry the great Constantine of Scotland, and the little King of Cumberland, so high into Yorkshire; than to bring Anlaf thus far down into Northumberland.⌉ At this place, the name of Bramish is changed into Till; which first passes by Ford-CastleFord. (heretofore the property of the valiant Family of the Herons, now of the Carrs;) and Etal, formerly the Seat of the Family of Manours or de Maneriis; which was long since of a knightly rank, and from which the present Right Honourable * * So, ann. 1607. Now Dukes.Earls of Rutland are descended. ⌈By Deeds in the hands of the family of Collingwood of Brankerton, it appears that this EtalEtal. was in the possession of their Ancestors of the same name, in the reign of Edward the sixth.⌉ I wittingly omit many Castles in this Country: for it were endless to recount them all; since it is certain, that in the days of Henry the second,1115 Castles in England. there were eleven hundred and fifteen Castles in England.

Over-against this Ford, Westward, rises the high Mountain of Floddon;Battel of Floddon, 1513. famous for the overthrow of James the fourth King of Scots and his Army; who, while King Henry the eighth lay at the siege of Tournay in France, did with great Courage and greater Hopes (for, before they began their March, they had divided our Towns among them) invade England. Here Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, with a good Army, bravely receiv’d him. The Dispute was obstinate on both sides, till the night parted them, unable as yet to determine which way the Victory inclin’d. But the next day discover’d both the Conquerour and the Conquered; and the King of Scots himself, being mortally wounded in several places, was found among the heaps of the slain. Whence a new Addition was given to the Arms of the Howards.

Twede, encreas’d by Till, runs now in a larger stream by NorhamNorham. or Northam; which was formerly call’d Ubban-ford. The Town belongs to the Bishops of Durham: For Bishop Egfrid ⌈who was a mighty Benefactor to the See of Lindisfarn⌉ built it ⌈and the Church;⌉ and his Successor Ralph erected the Castle on the top of a steep rock, and moted it round, ⌈for the better security of this part of his Diocese against the frequent incursions of the Scottish Moss-troopers.⌉ On the utmost Wall, and the largest in Circuit, are placed several Turrets on a Canton towards the river; within which there is a second Enclosure much stronger than the former; and, in the middle of that again, rises a high Keep. But the well-establish’d Peace of our times has made these Forts to be long-neglected; notwithstanding they are plac’d upon the very Borders. Under the Castle, on a Level Westward, lies the Town, and the Church; wherein was buried Ceolwulph,King Ceolwulph. King of Northumberland, to whom Venerable Bede dedicated his Books of the Ecclesiastical History of England, and who afterwards,Rog. Hoveden. renouncing the World, took upon him the habit of a Monk in the Church of Lindisfern, and listed himself a Soldier of the Kingdom of Heaven: his body was afterwards translated to the Church of Northam. ⌈It was dedicated to St. Peter, St. Cuthbert, and St. Ceolwulph, that religious King of Northumberland; who was the first of our Princes that retir’d from a Throne to a Monastery. His Body being deposited here by the same Bishop, the Monks of the following Age took care to bring-in the Country round to pay their Devotion (and Tribute ) to their Royal Brother; who always oblig’d his visitants with some Miracle or other.⌉ When also the Danes had miserably wasted the Holy Island, in which St. Cuthbert (so much magnified by Bede) was Bishop, and lay buried, some endeavour’d, by a religious stealth, to convey his body beyond Sea: but, the winds standing contrary, they with all due reverence, deposited the sacred Body at * * The printed Books have (corruptly) Bulbeford. Will. Malmesb. de Gest. Pont. lib.1.Ubbanford (whether a Bishop’s See or no, is uncertain) near the river Twede; where it lay for many years, till the coming of King Ethelred. This, and other matters, were taught me (for I shall always own my Instructors) by George Carlton born at this place, being son to the Keeper of Norham-Castle; ¦ ¦ This said, ann. 1607.whom, for his excellent Proficiency in Divinity (whereof he is Professor) and the other polite parts of Learning, I love, and am lov’d by him: and I were unworthy of that love, if I should not acknowledge his Friendship. The old people told us, that at Killey,Killey. a little neighbouring Village below Norham, were found (within the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.
A golden Hilt.
our Grandfathers) the studds of a Knight’s Belt, and the hilt of a Sword of massey Gold; which were presented to T. Ruthall Bishop of Durham.

A little lower you have the mouth of Twede; on the farther bank of which stands Berwick,Berwick. the last Town in England, and ⌈once⌉ the best-fortify’d in all Britain; ⌈but it is now much outdone, in strength and regular fortifications, by Portsmouth, Hull, Plymouth, and other Forts in England; and is chiefly strong in the present happy Union of the two Kingdoms.⌉ Some derive the name of this Town from one Berengarius, a Romantick Duke. Leland fetches it from Aber, the British word for the mouth of a river; and so makes Aberwick to signifie a Fort built upon such a mouth. But they will best understand the true etymology of it, who know what is meant by the wordIngulphus renders Berwicus a Manour. Berwicus in the Charters of our Kings; wherein nothing is more common than I give the Townships of C. and D. cum suis Berwicis. For my part, what it should mean I know not; unless it be a Hamlet or some such dependency upon a place of better note. For, in the Grants of Edward the Confessor, Totthill is call’d the Berwicus of Westminster, Wandlesworth the Berwicus of Patricksey; and a thousand of the like. ⌈In old Records, we find it variously written, Berewica, Berwicha, Berwichus, Berewich, Berewita, and Berwita; of all which, Instances may be seen in Sir Henry Spelman’s Glossary. It may be, the most suitable derivation of it (for our present purpose) is what Fr. Tate has given us in his Manuscript Exposition of the hard words in Domesday-Book: Berewica, says he, is a Corn-Farm; which Etymology agrees well with the plenty of grain about the Town of Berwick.⌉ But, why all this pains? which is but lost labour, if (as some maintain) the Saxons call’d it anciently Saxon Beornica-wic, that is, the Town of the Bernicians; for, that this part of the Country was call’d Bernicia we have already noted, and the thing is too well known to be here repeated. But (whencesoever it had its name) its situation carries it a good way into the Sea; so, that that and the Twede almost incircle it. Being seated betwixt two mighty Kingdoms (as Pliny observes of Palmyra in Syria) it has always been the first place, that both Nations, in their wars, have had an eye on; insomuch, that ever since Edward the first took it from the Scotch, the English have as often retaken it as the Scots have ventur’d to take it. But, if the Reader pleases, we will here give him a summary abstract of its History. 1171. The oldest account that I find of Berwick, is, that William King of Scots, being taken prisoner by the English, pawned it for his ransom to our Henry the second; * * Matt. Paris says, it was absolutely made over.redeemable only within such a time. Whereupon, says the Polychronicon of Durham, Henry immediately fortify’d it with a Castle. But Richard the first restor’d it to the Scots, upon their payment of the money. Afterwards King John (as the History of Melross reports) took the Town and Castle of Berwick, at the same time that he burnt Werk, Roxburgh, Mitford, and Morpath, and (with his Rutars) wasted all Northumberland; because the Barons of that County had done homage to Alexander King of Scots, at Feltun. Many years after this, when John Baliol King of Scotland had broken his Oath, Edward the first reduc’d Berwick in the year of our Lord 1297. But soon after, the fortune of war favouring the Scots, our men quitted it, and they seiz’d it: but the English forthwith had it surrender’d to them again. Afterwards, in the loose reign of Edward the second, Peter Spalding surrender’d it to Robert Brus King of Scots, who warmly besieg’d it; and the English vainly attempted its recovery, till (our Hector) Edward the third bravely carry’d it, in the year 1333. In the reign of Richard the second, some Scottish Moss-Troopers surpriz’d the Castle, which, within nine days, was recover’d by Henry Percie Earl of Northumberland. Within seven years after this, the Scots regain’d it; but by purchase, not by their valour. Whereupon the said Henry Percie (being then Governour of the Town) was accus’d of High-Treason: but he also corrupted the Scots with money, and so got it again. A long time after this, when England was almost ruin’d by civil wars, Henry the sixth (who had fled into Scotland) deliver’d it up to the King of Scots, the better to secure himself in that Kingdom. Two and twenty years after, Thomas Stanley, with great loss, reduc’d it to the obedience of Edward the fourth. ⌈In the same reign, a Statute22 Edw.4. c.8. was enacted for the enlargement of the Privileges of Berwick, in point of Trade and Merchandise.⌉ Since which time, the Kings of England have fortify’d it with new works; but especially Queen Elizabeth, who (to the terrour of the enemy, and security of the Burghers) drew it into a less compass than before, and surrounded it with a high stone-wall of firm Ashler work, which is again strengthen’d with a deep ditch, bastions, and counterscarp; so that its * * See before, p.1099.fortifications are so strong and regular, that no besiegers can hope to carry it hereafter. († † Ann. 1607.Not to mention the valour of the Garrison, and the surprizing plenty of Ammunition and all warlike stores.) Be it also remember’d, that the Governor of this place was always a person of the greatest wisdom and eminence among the English Nobility; and was also Warden of these eastern Marches. The Mathematicians have plac’d this Town in 21 degrees, and 43 minutes of longitude, and in 55 and 48 of northern latitude. So that the longest day, in this climate, consists of seventeen hours and 22 minutes;Britain has plenty of Day. and its night only of 6 hours and 38 minutes. So truly has Servius Honoratus written of this Country: Britain, says he, has such plenty of day, that she has hardly any room for night. Nor is it a wonder that the Soldiers of this Garrison are able to play all night at Dice without a candle, if we consider their continued twilight, and the truth of Juvenal’s expression:

Minimâ contentos nocte Britannos.

Britains with shortest nights content.

Take, at parting, J. Johnston’s Verses upon Berwick.

Scotorum extremo sub limite, Meta furoris
Saxonidum: gentis par utriusque labor,
Mille vices rerum, quæ mille est passa ruinas,
Mirum, quî potuit tot superesse malis.
Quin superest, quin extremis exhausta ruinis;
Funere sic crevit firmior usque suo:
Oppida ut exæquet jam munitissima. Civis
Militis & censum, & munia Martis obit.
Postquam servitio durisque est functa periclis,
Effert lætitiæ signa serena suæ:
Et nunc antiquo fœlix se jactat honore,
Cum reddit domino debita jura suo:
Cujus ab Auspiciis unita
Britannia tandem
Excelsum tollit libera in astra caput

Bound of the Scottish and the English Land,
Where both their realms and both their labours end;
After a thousand turns of doubtful state,
She yet outbraves the vain assaults of Fate:
A happy Port in all her storms hath found,
And still rose higher as she touch’d the ground.
Surpass’d by none her stately Forts appear,
Her Sons at once inur’d to Trade and War.
Now all her storms and all her fears are gone,
In her glad look returning joys are shown.
Now her old honours are at last restor’d,
Securely now she serves her ancient Lord:
Bless’d with whose care united Britain rears
Her lofty head among the rival-Stars.

It may not be amiss to add here the accountThe Commentaries of Pius 2. publish’d under the name of Gebellinus. which Æneas Sylvius or Pope Pius the second (who came Legate into Scotland about the year 1448.) gives of the Borderers in this Country, in his Life, written by himself; since their manners † † Now, greatly civilized.still continue the same.AEneas AEthiopians

A certain * * Twede.
Manners of the Borderers.
River, falling from a high mountain, parts the two Kingdoms: over which
Æneas ferry’d; and coming to a large village about Sun-set, he alighted at a country-man’s house, where he sup’d with the Curate of the place and his host. The table was plentifully furnish’d with pottage, hens, and geese; but nothing of either wine or bread appear’d. All the men and women of the town flock’d in, as to some strange sight: and, as our country-men use to admire the Æthiopians or Indians, so these people star’d at Æneas, asking the Curate, what country-man he was? what his errand could be? and, whether he were a Christian or no? But Æneas, being aware of the scarcity he should meet with on this road, had been accommodated by a Monastery with a rundlet of red wine and some loaves of bread. When these were brought to the table, they were more astonish’d than before, having never seen either wine or white bread. Big-belly’d women, with their husbands, came to the table-side, and handling the bread and smelling to the wine, beg’d a taste: so that there was no avoiding the dealing of the whole amongst them. After they had sate at supper till two hours within night, the Curate and the Landlord (with the children and all the men) left Æneas, and rub’d off in haste. They said, they were going to shelter themselves in a certain tower, at a good distance, for fear of the Scots, who (at low water) us’d to cross the river in the night, for plunder. They would by no means be perswaded to take Æneas along with them, tho’ he very importunately entreated them to do it. Neither carry’d they off any of the women, though several of them, both wives and maids, were very handsome: for they believe the enemy will not harm them; not looking upon whoredom as any ill thing. Thus, Æneas was left alone (with only two Servants and a Guide) amongst a hundred women, who sitting in a ring, with a fire in the middle of them, spent the night sleepless, in dressing of hemp, and chatting with the Interpreter. When the night was well advanced, they heard a mighty noise of dogs barking and geese gagling; whereupon the women slip’d off several ways, and the guide ran away; and all was in such confusion, as if the enemy had been upon them. But Æneas thought it his wisest course to keep close in his Bed-chamber (which was a Stable) and there to await the issue; lest, running out, and being unacquainted with the Country, he should be robb’d by the first man he met. Presently, both the women and the guide return, acquainting them that all was well, and that they were Friends (and no Enemies) who were arriv’d. ⌈But whatever roughness might be in the Manners of the People of Northumberland, at that time; it is certain that the Description which Æneus Silvius gives of them, is not their due at this day. Their Tables are as well stock’d as ever, with Hens and Geese; and they have also plenty of good bread and beer. Strangers and Travellers, are no novelties to them; the Roads betwixt Edinburgh and Newcastle being as much frequented by such (of all Nations,) as almost any others in the Kingdom. Wine is a greater rarity in a Country-man’s house in Middlesex, than on the borders of Northumberland; where you shall more commonly meet with great store of it, than in the Villages of any other County in England: and, that Wine is not the constant drink of the Country, ought no more to be remark’d as a thing extraordinary, than that Yorkshire-Ale is not common in Italy. The Moss-Trooping-Trade is now very much laid aside; and a small Sum will recompense all the Robberies that are yearly committed in this County; where mens persons are as safe, and their goods as secure, as in the most civiliz’d Kingdoms of Europe. Whoredom is reckon’d as scandalous a Vice here, as elsewhere; and it may be truly said, far more scandalous, than in the Southern parts of the Kingdom. In a word; the Gentry of Northumberland are generally persons of address and breeding, and preservers of the true old English Hospitality in their Houses: And the Peasants are as knowing a people, and as courteous to strangers, as a man shall readily meet with in any other parts.⌉

There were * * This, confuted this Country certain petty Nations who were call’d SevenburgensesSeven­burgenses. and Fifburgingi;Fifburgingi. but so dark is the account we have of them, that I † † So, C. ann. not able to ascertain the true place of their residence, nor tell you whether they were Danes or English. Florence of Worcester 1013.(publish’d by the right honourable the Lord William Howard) says, that whilst the Parliament sate at Oxenford, Sigeferth and Morcar (two eminent and powerful Ministers of the Seoven-burgenses) were privately murder’d by Edrick Streona: And that Prince Edmund, contrary to the good liking of his father, marry’d Alfrith the wife of Sigeferth:Prince of the Fifburgingi. and, taking a progress as far as the Fifburgingi, invaded Sigeferth’s Territories, and subdu’d his People ¦¦ But let others make a further Enquiry into these matters, C.. ⌈Upon further enquiry, these Fifburgingi (or Fifburhingan, as the Saxons called them) appear to have been the Danish Inhabitants of the five Towns of Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford, and Derby. To these were afterwards added the Cities of York and Chester, and then the same People (for the like reason) were called Seofenburgenses. Of these, Sigeferth and Morcar were (as Florence expresses it) Ministers, and (as the Saxon Chronicle) Thaines; which being interpreted according to the old Danish Diagn, doth import Government and Power.⌉

This Province was first brought under the Saxon yoke by Osca, brother of Hengist, and his son Jebusa;Kings, Dukes and Earls of North­umberland. and was for some time under the government of Dukes, who were homagers to the Kings of Kent. Afterwards, when the Kingdom of the BerniciansBernicians. (whom the Britains call Guir a Brinaich, that is, Mountaineers) was erected, the best part of it lay between the Tees and * * Scoticum fretum.Edinburg-Frith; and this was subject to the Kings of Northumberland. When these had finish’d their fatal period, all beyond Twede became part of Scotland; and Egbert King of the East-Saxons had this County surrender’d to him, and annex’d it to his own Dominions, ⌈so far, as that Eanred King of the Northumbrians, became Tributary to him; but Northumberland continued a Kingdom, long after that.⌉ Alfred afterwards assign’d it to the Danes, ⌈(or rather was under the necessity of coming to terms with them;)⌉ and they, within a few years, were thrown out by Athelstane. Yet, even after this, the People made Eilric the Dane their King; who was forthwith expell’d by King Ealdred. Henceforward, the name of King was no more heard of in this Province; but its chief Magistrates were call’d Earls, of whom, these that follow are successively reckon’d by our Historians, Osulph, Oslac, Edulph, Waldeof the Elder, Uchtred, Adulph, Alred, Siward, Tostius, Edwin, Morcar, and Osculph. Amongst these, Siward was a person of extraordinary valour; who, as he liv’d, so he chose to dye, in his Armour. Ingulph. p.511. b. An. 1056. His County of York was given to Tostius, Brother to Earl Harold; and the Counties of Northampton and Huntingdon, with his other lands, were bestow’d on the noble Earl Waldeof, his Son and Heir. I have here given you the very words of Ingulphus, because there are some who deny that he was Earl of Huntingdon. To this let me also add what * * So said, ann. 1607.I have met with on the same subject, in an old Parchment Manuscript in the Library of John Stow, a most worthy Citizen, and industrious Antiquary, of the City of London. Copsi being made Earl of Northumberland by William the Conqueror, dispossess’d Osculph, who nevertheless slew him within a few days. Afterwards, Osculph himself was stabb’d by a Robber, and dy’d of the wound. Then Gospatrick bought the County of the Conqueror, by whom he was also presently divested of the Honour, and was succeeded by Waldeof the son of Siward. He lost his head, and was succeeded by Walcher Bishop of Durham, who (as well as his successor Robert Comin) was slain in an insurrection of the Rabble. ⌈This Walcher was a most vile Oppressour, and scandalous Worldling. He bought the Earldom of Northumberland, and resolv’d to make the people pay for it. But they, at last, being wearied with daily extortion, and reduc’d almost to beggary, unanimously fell upon him, and slew him, at a County-Court; which he used always to attend himself in person, the better to secure the Fees and other Perquisites. (And, at that time, these were considerable; since the Sheriffs of Northumberland never accounted to the King, before the third of Edward the sixth.) Their Foreman gave the word; which most of our old Historians have thought worth the recording to Posterity,

Short red, good red, slea ye the Bishop.

The Title was afterwards conferred on Robert Mowbray, who destroy’d himself by his own wicked Treason. Then (as the Polychronicon of Durham tells us) King Stephen made Henry, son of David King of Scots, Earl of Northumberland: and his Son William (who was also himself afterwards King of Scots) wrote himself William de Warren Earl of Northumberland; for his mother was of the family of the Earls of Warren, as appears by the Book of Brinkburn-Abbey. Within a few years after, Richard the first sold this County to Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durham, for life: but when that King was imprison’dLib. Dunelm. by the Emperour in his return from the Holy War, and Hugh advanced only two thousand pounds in silver towards his ransom, the King took this slender contribution so ill (knowing that under colour of this ransom he had rais’d vast sums,) that he depriv’d him of the Earldom.

* * At present, C.
Percies descended from Charles the Great.
Afterwards, that Honour was enjoy’d by the family of the Percies, who being descended from the Earls of Brabant, got both the sirname and the inheritance of the Percies, when Josceline (the true off-spring of Charles the Great, by Gerberg daughter to Charles younger brother of Lotharius, the last King of France of the Caroline stock) the younger son of Godfrey Duke of Brabant, marry’d Agnes daughter and sole heir of William Percie. This William’s great grandfather (call’d also William Percie) came into England with William the Conquerour, who bestow’d on him large possessions in Tatcaster, Linton, Normanby, and other places. The said Agnes and Josceline covenanted, that he should take upon him the name of Percie, but still retain his ancient Arms of Brabant, which were, a Lion Azure (chang’d afterwards by the Brabanters) in a Field Or. The first of this family that was made Earl of Northumberland, was Henry Percie, the son of Mary, daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster; who, on account of his noble Birth, and warlike Exploits, had large Possessions bestow’d upon him in Scotland, by Edward the third. He was very much enrich’d by his second wife Matilda Lucy, by whom he had no child, but she oblig’d him to bear the Arms of the Lucies; and Richard the second created him Earl of Northumberland. His behaviour afterwards was very ungrateful to this his great Benefactor; for he deserted him in his straits, and help’d Henry the fourth to the Crown. He had the Isle of Man bestow’d on him by this King, against whom he also rebell’d; being prick’d in Conscience at the unjust deposing of King Richard by his means, and vex’d at the close confinement of (the undoubted Heir of the Crown) Edmund Mortimer Earl of March, his kinsman. Hereupon, he first sent some Forces against him under the command of his brother Thomas Earl of Worcester, and his own forward son Henry sirnam’d Whot-spur, who were both slain in the battle at Shrewsbury. Upon this, he was attainted of High-Treason; but was presently receiv’d again into the seeming favour of the King, who indeed stood in awe of him. He had also his estate and goods restor’d to him, except only the Isle of Man, which the King took back into his own hand. Yet, not long after, this popular and heady man did again proclaim war against the King as an Usurper, having call’d-in the Scots to his assistance. And now, leading on the Rebels in person, he was surpriz’d by Thomas Rokesby, High-Sheriff of Yorkshire, at Barham-moor; where, in a confused skirmish, his Army was routed, and himself slain, in the year 1408. Eleven years after, Henry the fifth (by Act of Parliament) restor’d the Honour to Henry Percie, his Grandchild by his son Henry Whot-spur; whose mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Mortimer the Elder, Earl of March, by Philippa, daughter of Lionel Duke of Clarence. This Earl resolutely espoused the interest of Henry the sixth against the House of York, and was slain in the Battel of St. Albans. His son Henry, the third Earl of Northumberland (who married Eleanor the daughter of Richard Baron of Poynings, Brian, and Fitz-Paine) lost his life in the same Cause, at Towton, in the year 1461. When the House of Lancaster, and (with it) the Family of the Percies, was now under a cloud, King Edward the fourth created John Nevil, Lord Montacute, Earl of Northumberland: but he quickly resign’d that Title to the King, being made Marquiss Montacute. After which, Edward the fourth graciously restor’d to his father’s Honours Henry Percie, son of the foremention’d Henry; who, in the reign of Henry the seventh, was slain by a rabble of the Country-People, in a Mutiny against the Collectors of a Tax impos’d on them by Act of Parliament. To him succeeded Henry Percie, the fifth Earl. From him (who was himself the son of a Daughter and Co-heir of Robert Spenser) and Eleanor, Daughter and Co-heir of Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerset, descended Henry, the sixth Earl. He having no Children (and his brother Thomas being executed for rebelling against Henry the Eighth in the beginning of the Reformation) squander’d away a great part of his fair Estate, in Largesses upon the King and others; as looking on his Family to be now reduc’d to a final period. A few years after, John Dudley,Duke of Northum­berland. Earl of Warwick, got the Title of Duke of Northumberland; when, in the Non-age of Edward the sixth, the Ring-leaders of the several Factions shared the Titles of Honour among themselves and their Abettors. This was that Duke of Northumberland, who for some time (like a Whirlwind) troubled the Peace of his Native Countrey; by endeavouring to exclude Mary and Elizabeth, the Daughters of Henry the eighth, from their lawful Right of Succession; having design’d (by the countenance of Lawyers, who are inclinable to serve the purposes of Great men) to settle the Crown on Jane Grey, to whom he had married his son. Hereupon, being convicted of High Treason, he lost his head; and on the Scaffold openly own’d and profess’d the Popish Religion, which (either in good earnest, or seemingly and to serve a turn) he had, for a good while before, renounc’d. ⌈He exhorted the People, to stand to the Religion of their Ancestors; to reject all Novelties, and to drive the Preachers out of the Nation; and declar’d that he had temporiz’d against his Conscience; and that he was always of the Religion of his Fore-fathers.⌉ Upon his death Queen Mary restor’d Thomas Percie, Nephew to Henry, the sixth Earl, by his brother Thomas; creating him at first Baron Percie, and (soon after, by a new Patent)3 & 4 Phil. & Mar. Earl of Northumberland, To himself and the Heirs-male of his Body; and for want of such, to his Brother Henry and his Heirs-male. But this Thomas, the seventh Earl, under pretence of restoring the Romish Religion, rebelled against his Prince and Country, and so lost both his Life and Honour in the year 1572. Yet, by the special bounty of Queen Elizabeth, his brother Henry (according to the Tenor of Queen Mary’s Patent) succeeded him as the Eighth Earl, and dy’d in Prison in the year 1585. He was succeeded by his son Henry, the ninth Earl of Northumberland of this Family; who was son of Katharine, eldest Daughter, and one of the Heirs, of J. Nevil Baron Latimer. ⌈This Earl was a great Patron of Learned men, especially Mathematicians, with whom he kept a constant familiarity and correspondence. gunpowder Soon after the discovery of the Powder-Plot, he was committed Prisoner to the Tower, upon suspicion of his being privy to that part which his kinsman Thomas Percie had, in the Conspiracy. He was succeeded by his son Algernoon; whose son Joceline (the last Earl of this Family) dy’d at Turin, A.D. 1670, leaving only one daughter, Elizabeth, the present Dutchess of Somerset. Upon his death, the Honour of Duke of Northumberland was given by King Charles the second to his own natural Son George Fitz-Roy; by whose death the title is now become vacant.⌉

More rare Plants growing wild in Northumberland.

Chamæpericlymenum Park Ger. Chamaepericlymenum Europaea Periclymenum humile C. B. parvum Prutenicum Clusii J. B. Dwarf Honey-suckle. On the West-side of the North-end of the highest of Cheviot-hills in great plenty.

Echium marinum B. P. Sea-Buglosse. At Scrammerston-mill between the Salt-pans and Barwick, on the Sea-baich, about a mile and a half from Barwick.

Lysimachia siliquosa glabra minor latifolia. The lesser smooth broad-leav’d codded Willow-herb. On Cheviot-hills by the Springs and Rivulets of water.

Pyrola Alsines flore Europæa C. B. Park. Herba trientalis J. B. Winter-green with Chick-weed flowers. On the other side the Picts-wall five miles beyond Hexham Northwards. And among the Heath upon the moist Mountains not far from Harbottle westward.

Rhaphanus rusticanus Ger. Park. C. B. sylvestris sive Armoracia multis J. B. Horse-radish. We observ’d it about Alnwick and elsewhere in this County, in the ditches and by the water-sides, growing in great plenty.

Eryngium vulgare J. B. vulgare & Camerarii C. B. mediterraneum Ger. mediterraneum seu campestre Park. Common Eryngo of the Midland. On the shore call’d Friar-goose near Newcastle upon Tyne.


Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06