Britannia, by William Camden

An Account of the (a) Division of Cumberland by William the Conquerour amongst his Followers; taken out of two ancient Latin Manuscripts in the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, carefully Collated by the Reverend Dr. Hugh Todd.

(a) It is call’d Distributio Cumbriæ ad Conquestum Angliæ inter Gentes. Sir William Dugdale calls it Chronicon Cumbriæ; and so the Lord William Howard has stiled it in one of the Manuscripts, but it is a mistake; for that piece of Antiquity, if it be extant, was of another nature, and writ by one Everardus Abbot of Holme Cultram, temp. H.2. It was said to be in the Library of Sir Thomas Gower Baronet; but upon search it could not be found.

Big K KING William, sirnam’d the Bastard, Duke of Normandy, Conqueror of England, gave all the Lands of the County of Cumberland to Ranulphus de Meschins: and to Galfridus, Brother to the said Ranulphus, he gave the whole County of Chestre: and to William another brother, he gave all the Land of Coupland, between Duden and Darwent.

Ranulphus de Meschins infeoffed Hubbertus (b) de Waux in the Barony of Gillisland; and Ranulphus his brother, in Sowerby, Carlaton, and Hubbrightby. And Robert the third brother, in the Barony of Dalston. He infeoffed also Robert Destrivers in the Barony of Burgh, and Richerus de Boyvile in the Barony of Levington; and Odardus de Logis in the Barony of Stanyton. He infeoffed also Waldevus, son of Gospatricius Earl of Dunbar in Scotland, in all the Barony of Allerdale between Wathenpole and Darwent.

(b) Vaux. MS. B.

The aforesaid William de Meschins Lord of Coupland, infeoffed Waldevus son of Gospatricius, in all the Land that lies between Cocar and Darwent, and also in these five Townships, Brigham, Eglysfeld, Dene, Brainthwaite, and Grisothen: and in the two Cliftons and Staneburne. He infeoffed also Odardus le Clerk in the fourth part of Crostwaite, pro Custodia Asturcorum (c) suorum; i.e. for keeping his Goshawkes.

(c) Austurcorum. MS. B.

Galfridus de Meschins Earl of Chester dy’d without issue: and thereupon Ranulphus de Meschins became Earl of Chestre; and surrender’d to the King all the County of Cumberland on this condition, That all those who held Lands of him in Fee, should hold of the King in Capite.

The foresaid Waldevus, son of Earl Gospatricius, infeoffed Odardus de Logis, in the Barony of Wygton, Dondryt, Waverton, Blencogo, and Kirkbride: which Odardus de Logis founded the Church of Wygton; and gave to Odardus son of Liolfe, Tulentyre and Castlerige, with the Forest between Caltre and Greta: and to the Prior and Convent of Gisburne he gave Appleton and Bricekirk, with the Advowson of the Church there. He gave also to Adam son of Liolfe, Uldendale and Gilcruce: and to Gemellus son of Brun, Bothill; and to Waldevus son of Gileminius, with Ethreda his sister, he gave Brogham, Ribton, and Little Brogham, and Donwaldese and Bowaldese, ad unam Logiam, for a Lodge or House for a Ranger. He gave also to Ormus son of Ketellus, Seton, Camberton, Flemingbi, Craiksothen, in marriage with Gurwelda his sister; And to Dolfinus son of Abwaldus, with Matilda another sister, he gave Applethwaite and Little Crosby, Langrige and Brigham, with the Advowson of the Church there. He gave also to Melbeth his Physician, the Town of Bromefeld; saving to himself the Advowson of the Church there.

Alanus, son and heir of the said Waldevus, gave to Ranulphus Lyndsey, Blenerhasset and Ukmanby, with Ethereda his sister. To Uthredus, son of Fergus Lord of Galloway, in marriage with Gurnelda (d) his other sister, he gave Torpenhow, with the Advowson of the Church there. He gave also to Catellus de Spenser (e), Threpeland. He gave also to Herbert the Manour of Thuresby, for the third part of a Township. He gave also to Gospatricius, son of Ormus, High Ireby for the third part of a Township. He gave also to Gamellus le Brun, (f) Rughtwaite, for a third part of a Township. He gave also to Radulphus Engaine, Issael, with the appurtenances; and Blencrake with the Service of Newton. And the same Alanus had one Bastard-brother nam’d Gospatricius, to whom he gave Boulton, Bastinthwaite and Esterholme. And to Odardus he gave Newton, with the Appurtenances. And to his three Huntsmen, Sleth (g) and his Companions, Hayton. To Uctredus he gave one Carrucat of Land in Aspatrike, on condition that he should be his Summoner (Summonitor) in Allerdale. He gave also to Delfinus six Bovates or Oxgang of Land in High-Crosby, that he should be Serviens D. Regis, the Kings Serjeant in Allerdale. And to Simon de Shestelyngs he gave one Moiety of Deram: And to Dolfinus, son of Gospatricius, the other Moiety. He gave also to Waldevus, son of Dolfinus, Brakanthwaite. And to the Priory of St. Bega, he gave Stainburne. And to the Priory of Carliol, he gave the body of Waldevus his son, with the Holy Cross, which they have yet in possession; and Crosby, with the Advowson of the Church there; with the Service that Uctredus owed him: and also the Advowson of the Church of Aspatrike, with the Service of Alanus de Brayton. He gave them also the Advowson of the Church of Ireby, with the Suit and Service of Waldevus de Langthwaite.

(d) Gunilda, MS. B.

(e) Le Despenser, MS. B. 

(f) Isal. & Rugh. MS. B. 

(g) Selif, MS. B. 

The same Alanus son of Waldevus, gave to King Henry (h) the Fields of the Forest of Allerdale, with liberty to hunt, whenever he should lodge at Holme-Cultrane. To this Alanus succeeded William son of Duncane Earl of Murrayse, Nephew and Heir to the said Alanus, as being son to Ethreda, sister to his father Waldevus.

(h) D. H. Regi Seniori, MS. B. 

The foresaid William, son of Duncanus, espoused Alicia daughter of Robert de Rumeney, Lord of Skipton in Craven: which Robert had married a daughter of Meschius (i) Lord of Coupland. This William had by this Alicia his wife, a son call’d William de Egremond (who dy’d under age) and three daughters. The eldest, nam’d (k) Cicilia, being a Ward, was married by King Henry to William le Gross Earl of Albermarle, with the Honour of Skipton for her Dower. The second, nam’d Amabilla, was married to Reginald de Luce, with the Honour of Egremond, by the same King Henry. And the third, nam’d Alicia de Romelic, was married to Gilbert Pipard, with Aspatrike, and the Barony of Allerdale and the Liberty of Cokermouth, by the said King Henry: and afterwards by the Queen, to Robert de Courtney: but she dy’d without heirs of her body.

(i) Willielmi de Meschins, MS. B. 

(k) Seff. MS. B. and Silitia.

William le Gross, Earl of Albemarlie, had by his wife Cicilia, Harwisia (l); to whom succeeded William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarlie: to whom succeeded another William de Fortibus; to whom succeeded Avelina, who was espoused to Lord Edmond, brother to King Edward, and dy’d without heirs, &c.

(l) Hatewisia.

Reginald de Luce by Amabilla his wife, had (m) Alicia. To Amabilla succeeded Lambert de Multon: To him succeeded Thomas Multon de Egremond. And to Alicia succeeded Thomas de (n) Luce, to whom succeeded Thomas his son; who was succeeded by Anthony his Brother.⌉

(m) Richardum de Lucy Amabillam & Aliciam.

(n) Quæ sequuntur, desunt MS. B.

More rare Plants growing wild in Westmoreland and Cumberland.

Lan. Eruca Monensis laciniata lutea. Jagged yellow Rocket of the Isle of Man. In Sella fields Sea-bank, found growing abundantly by Mr. Lawson.

Echium marinum P. B. Sea-Bugloss. On the Sea-shore near White-haven plentifully, Mr. Newton.

W. Gladiolus lacustris Dortmanni Clus. cur. post. Water Gilly-flower or Gladiole. In the Lake call’d Hulls-water, which parteth Westmoreland and Cumberland.

Orobus sylvaticus nostras. English Wood-vetch. At Gamblesby about six miles from Pereth in the way to New-castle, in the hedges and pastures plentifully.Idaea

Vitis Idæa magna quibusdam, sive Myrtillius grandis J. B. Idæa foliis subrotundis exalbidis C. B. Idæa foliis subrotundis major Ger. Vaccinia nigra fructu majore Park. The great Bilberry-bush. In the same place with the precedent, but where the ground is moist and marshy.

An Additional Account of same more rare Plants observ’d to grow in Westmoreland and Cumberland, by Mr. Nicholson, Arch-deacon of Carlisle; and now Lord Bishop of Derry.

Cannabis spuria fl. magno albo perelegante. About Blencarn, in the parish of Kirkland, Cumberland.

Equisetum nudum variegatum minus. In the meadows near Great Salkeld; and in most of the like sandy grounds in Cumberland.

Geranium Batrachoides longius radicatum, odoratum. In Mardale and Martindale, Westm.

Hesperis Pannonica inodora. On the banks of the Rivulets about Dalehead in Cumberland, and Grassmire in Westmoreland.

Orchis palmata palustris Dracontias. Upon the old Mill-race at little Salkeld, and on Langwathby-Holm, Cumberland.

Cynosorchis militaris purpurea odorata. On Lance-Moor near Newby, and on Thrimby-Common, Westmoreland.

Serratula foliis ad summitatem usque indivisis. Found first by Reginald Harrison, a Quaker, in the Barony of Kendal, Westmoreland.

Thlaspi minus Clusii. On most Limestone pastures in both Counties.

Tragopogon Purpureum. In the fields about Carlisle and Rose-Castle, Cumberland.

Virga aurea latifolia serrata. C. B. It grows as plentifully in our fields at Salkeld as the Vulgaris; which is as common as any Plant we have.

N. B. The natural Products of the two mountainous Counties, of Cumberland and Westmorland, are generally much of the same kind with those of the Alpine parts of Switzerland; as appears from the accurate Account which has been given, not long since, of that Country by Dr. Scheuchzer, a learned Physician at Zurich, and Fellow of our Royal Society. Amongst the many curious Observations made by this industrious Author, his Discoveries in Botany are not the least valuable: And, in these, he shews, that not only the choicest Mosses and other imperfect Plants, which Mr. Ray and his Followers had reckon’d to be properties of our Northern British Hills, are likewise Helvetick; but that some others of a more noble kind (such as the Acetosa rotundifolia repens Eboracensis, Alchimilla Alpina pentaphyllos Raij, Bistorta Alpina pumila Morisoni, &c.) whose very names bespoke them to be the natural Indigenæ of this Island, are not so confin’d as we thought they had been. Indigenae Rhaeticum These therefore, being as well Natives of Switzerland as Great Britain, may induce our Naturalists to make a more strict Enquiry, whether they have more of the same Neighbours, in both Countries, than has hitherto been observ’d: Whether (for example) the Trifolium Alpinum Rhæticum, and the Euphrasia Helvetiorum lutea, be not as well to be found amongst our Mountains, as the Lancashire and Scotch Asphodels are upon those of the Swiss and Grisons?

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06