Britannia, by William Camden


Big B BEfore Westmorland, to the West, lies Cumberland; in Latin Cumbria, ⌈and in Saxon Saxon Cumbraland, and Saxon Cumerland;⌉ the furthest County in this part of England, as being bounded by Scotland on the North. It is encompass’d by the Irish-Sea to the South and West, and on the East, above Westmorland, it borders upon Northumberland. It had the name from the Inhabitants; who were the true and genuin Britains, and call’d themselves in their own language Kumbri or Kambri: For, that the Britains, in the heat of the Saxon wars, posted themselves here for a long time, we have the authority of our Histories, and of Marianus himself, who calls this County Cumbrorum terra, i.e. the Land of the Cumbri: Not to mention the many names of places purely British; such are, Caer-luel, Caer-dronoc, Pen-rith, Pen-rodoc, &c. which are plain evidences of the thing, and a pregnant proof of what I assert. ⌈And yet the opinion of a learned * * Sommer’s Glossar.Writer is different from this, viz. that it is derived from our English Cumber, with relation to the lakes and mountains that encumber it, and make it difficult for Travellers to pass.⌉

Cumberland map, left Cumberland map, right


Though the Northern situation renders the Country cold, and the Mountains are rough and uneven; yet it has a Variety which affords a very agreeable Prospect. For after † † Verrucosas.swelling rocks, and crowding mountains, big as it were with Metals (between which, are Lakes stor’d with all sorts of wild Fowl;) you come to rich hills cloath’d with flocks of sheep, and below these are spread out pleasant large plains, which are tolerably fruitful. The Ocean also which beats upon this shore, affords great plenty of the best Fish, and as it were upbraids the Inhabitants for their idleness, in not applying themselves more closely to the fishing-trade.

The South part of this County is call’d CopelandCopeland. and Coupland, because it rears it’s head in sharp mountains, call’d by the Britains Kopa; or (as others will have it) Copeland, as if one should say, Copperland, from the rich veins of Copper. In this part, at the sandy mouth of the river Duden, by which it is divided from Lancashire, is Millum,Millum-Castle. a Castle of the ancient family of the Hodlestons: ⌈The first Lords whereof stil’d themselves de Millum, as William de Millum, and Henry de Millum about Henry the first’s time. But in the time of Henry the third, the heiress of Adam de Millum transferr’d it by marriage to her husband John Huddleston; whose posterity doth now enjoy it.⌉ From hence, the shore wheeling to the North, comes to Ravenglas,Ravenglas. a harbour for ships, and commodiously surrounded with two rivers; where (as I am told) there have been found Roman Inscriptions. Some will have it to have been formerly called Aven-glas, i.e. an * * Cæruleus.Caeruleusazure sky-coloured river; and tell you abundance of stories about King Eveling, who had his Palace here. One of these rivers, Esk, rises at the foot of Hardknott,Hard-knot. a steep ragged mountain; on the top of which were lately dug-up huge stones, and the foundation of a Castle; which is very strange, considering the mountain is so steep, that one can hardly get up it. ⌈These stones are possibly the ruins of some Church or Chapel, which was built upon the mountain. For Wormius in his Danish Monuments gives instances of the like in Denmark; and it was thought an extraordinary piece of devotion, upon the planting of Christianity in these parts, to erect Crosses and build Chapels in the most eminent places, as being both nearer Heaven, and more conspicuous: they were commonly dedicated to St. Michael. That large Tract of Mountains on the East-side of the County, call’d Cross-Fells, had the name given them upon that account; for before, they were call’d Fiends-Fell, or Devils-Fell; and DilstonDilston. a small town under them, is contract’d from Devils-Town.⌉ Higher up, the little brook IrtIrt, river. runs into the Sea; ⌈on the bank of which is the Manour and Town of Irton,Irton. or Irtindale, now in the possession of an ancient family of that name; of which Radulphus de Irton, Bishop of Carlisle, A.D. 1280. was a branch.⌉ In this brook, the shell-fish, eagerly sucking in the dew, conceive and bring forth Pearls, or (to use the Poet’s word) * * Baccas concheas.Shell-berries.Pearls. See Pliny. These the Inhabitants gather up at low water; and the Jewellers buy them of the poor people for a trifle, but sell them at a good price. Marbodaeus Of these, and such-like, Marbodæus seems to speak in that verse;

Gignit & insignes antiqua Britannia baccas.

And Britain’s ancient shores great Pearls produce.

⌈The Muscle-Pearls are frequently found in other rivers hereabouts; as also in Wales and foreign Countries. Sir John Narborough, in his late Voyage to the Magellanick Straits, A.D. 1670. tells us, he met with many of them there.mussels Abundance of MusclesPage 7. (says he) and many Seed-pearls in every Muscle. And Sir Richard Hawkins, who had been there before him, affirms the same thing in his † † Printed Ann. 1622. p.88.Observations; adding also, that the Muscles are very good Diet. There was, not long since, a Patent granted to some Gentlemen and others, for Pearl-fishing in this river; but whether it will turn to any account, is uncertain: for they are not very plentiful here; and if they are a valuable commodity, they might be had in abundance, and at no extraordinary charge, from the Straits of Magellan. Tacitus (in the Life of Agricola) takes notice, that the British Pearls are subfusca ac liventia, of a dark brown and lead colour; but that character ought not to have been given in general terms. Hist. Eccl. l.1. c.1 Bede’s account is more just; where he says, they are of all colours. Those that are not bright and shining (and such indeed are most of what we meet with in Irt, Inn, &c.) are usually call’d Sand-pearl, which are as useful in Physick as the finest, though not so valuable in beauty. The great Naturalist of our Age, Dr. Lister,De Cochl. Fluv. Sect.2. says, he has found sixteen of those in one Muscle; and asserts of them all, that they are only Senescentium Musculorum vitia; or, the Scabs of old Muscles.⌉

From hence, the shore goes out by degrees to the west, and makes a small Promontory, commonly call’d S. Bees,S. Bees. instead of S. Bega. For Bega, a pious and religious Irish Virgin, led a solitary life there: and to her sanctity they ascribe the Miracles, of taming a Bull, and of a deep Snow that by her Prayers fell on Mid-summer-day. ⌈Here also, the same holy Virgin is said to have founded a Nunnery; but it appears not that it was ever endow’d, or that it continued for any time a voluntary Society. It is probable enough, that it was ruin’d and dispers’d in the civil wars before the Conquest; and that the Priory of Benedictines, built and endow’d afterwards by William de Micenis, was in the same place. See Stat. 3 Jac.1. N.37. Here is a good Grammar-school, founded and endow’d by Edmund Grindal Archbishop of Canterbury, who was born at this place. It has a Library belonging to it, and is much improv’d by the munificence of Dr. Lamplugh late Archbishop of York, Dr. Smith late Bishop of Carlisle, Sir John Lowther of Whitehaven, and others. The right of presenting a Master is in the Provost and Fellows of Queen’s College in Oxford; to which Society its Founder was also a considerable Benefactor.⌉ Scarce a mile from hence, is Egremont-Castle,Egremont-Castle. seated upon a hill; formerly, the seat of William de Meschines,Lords of Copeland. upon whom King Henry the first bestow’dLib. Inq. it, to hold by the service of one Knight, who should be ready, upon the King’s Summons, to serve in the wars of Wales and Scotland. He left a daughter, the wife of William Fitz-Duncan, of the Blood-Royal of Scotland; by whose daughter also the estate came to the family of the Lucies: and from them, by the Moltons and Fitz-Walters, the title of Egremont descended to the Radcliffs Earls of Sussex. Notwithstanding, Th. Percy, by the favour of King Henry the sixth, enjoy’d that title for some time, and was summon’d to Parliament by the name of Thomas Percy of Egremont. ⌈Below S. Bees, is White-haven,White-haven. so call’d from the white rocks and cliffs near it. It is chiefly beholden for its improvement, to Sir John Lowther, who took his title of distinction from it, and whose son now enjoys a considerable estate there.⌉

From S. Bees the ShoreThe Shore fortify’d. draws-in by little and little; and (as appears by the ruins) was fortify’d by the Romans in all such places as were convenient for landing. For this was the utmost bound of the Roman Empire; and the Scots, when like a deluge they pour’d out of Ireland into our Island, met with the greatest opposition upon this coast. It is very probable, that the little village Moresby,Moresby. where is now a harbour for Ships, was one of those Forts. There are many remains of Antiquity about it in the Vaults and Foundations of Buildings; several Caverns, which they call Picts-holes;Picts-holes. and several pieces of stones dug-up, with Inscriptions. Upon one of them is, LVCIVS SEVERINVS ORDINATVS. Upon another, COH. VII. And I saw this Altar (* * So said, ann. 1607.lately dug-up there) with a little horned image of Silvanus;

deo silvan---To the God Silvanus, the second Cohort of the Lingones under the command of G. Pompeius, M. Saturninus.
Coh. ii. ling
Cvi præes----
g. pompeiVS M---

As also this fragment, which was copy’d out and sent me by J. Fletcher, Lord of the Place:

Ob prospe

But there has been no Inscription yet found, to encourage us to believe, that this was the Morbium,Morbium. where the Equites Cataphractarii quarter’d; though the present name seems to imply it. Nor must I omit the mention of Hay-Castle,Hay-Castle. which I saw in the neighbourhood; very venerable for its antiquity; and which, the Inhabitants told me, belong’d formerly to the noble families of Moresby and Dissinton.

After this, the river Derwent falls into the Ocean; which rising in Borrodale (a Vale surrounded with crooked hills) creeps among the mountains call’d Derwent-fells; in which, at Newlands and other places, some rich veins of Copper,Copper-Mines. not without a mixture of Gold and Silver, were discover’d † † So said, ann. our age by Thomas Thurland and David Hotchstetter a German of Auspurg; though known many ages before, as appears from the Close RollsNum.18. of Henry the third. About these, there was a memorable Trial between Queen Elizabeth, and Thomas Percie Earl of Northumberland and Lord of the Manour; but, by virtue of the Prerogative Royal (it appearing that there were alsoVeins of gold and silver. veins of gold and silver) it was carried in favour of the Queen. So far is it from being true, what Cicero has said in his Epistles to Atticus, It is well known, that there is not so much as a grain of silver in the Island of Britain. Nor would Cæsar, if he had known of those Mines, have told us, that the Britains made use of imported Copper; when these and some others afford such plenty, that not only all England is supply’d from them, but great quantities are yearly exported. caesar Here is also found abundance of that Mineral-earth, or hard shining Stone, which we call Blacklead,Black-lead. that is us’d by Painters in drawing their Lines, and † Mono­chromata.shading their pieces in black and white. Which, whether it be Dioscorides’s Pnigitis, or Melanteria, or Ochre (a sort of earth burnt black) ⌈or, was wholly unknown to the Ancients;⌉ is a point that I cannot determine, and so shall leave it to the search of others. ⌈The people thereabouts call it Wadd.Wadd. It is much us’d in cleansing rusty Armour, having a particular virtue for that purpose. It is said, there is a Mine of it in the West-Indies; but there is no need of importing any; for, as much may be dug here in one year, as will serve all Europe for several years. By the descriptions which the ancient Naturalists give us of their Pnigitis, it does not seem, as if that and our Black-lead were the same; for theirs agree better with the composition of that black chalk mentioned by Dr. Plot.Oxfordshire, p.56, 57. It may perhaps be allow’d to fall rather under the Catalogue of Earths, than either Metals or Minerals. But then, as Ruddle is acknowledg’d to be an Earth strongly impregnated with the Steams of Iron; so is this with those of Lead: as may be made out from its weight, colour, &c. Pinax. Rer. Nat. p.218. Dr. Merret gives it the name of Nigrica fabrilis; telling us, that it wanted a true one, till he bestow’d this on it at Keswick: and he further adds, that it is the peculiar product of Old and New England.⌉Praegrande

The Derwent, falling through these mountains, spreads into a spacious Lake, call’d by Bede Prægrande stagnum, i.e. a vast Pool, wherein are three Islands; one, the seat of the Knightly family of the Ratcliffs; another, inhabited by German Miners; and a third, suppos’d to be that wherein Bede tells us St. Herbert led a Hermit’s life. ⌈The story of St. Herbert’s great familiarity with St. Cuthbert, and their endearments at Carlisle, with their death on the same day, hour, and minute, &c. we have at large in Bede.Eccl. Hist. c.29. Vit. S. Cuthb. c.28. Regist. Apulb. p.261. All which are repeated in an old Instrument of one of the Bishop of Carlisle’s Register-books, whereby Thomas de Apulby (Bishop of that See, A.D. 1374.) requires the Vicar of Crosthwait to say a yearly Mass in St. Herbert’s Isle, on the thirteenth of April, in commemoration of these two Saints; and grants forty days Indulgence to such of his Parishioners as shall religiously attend that Service.⌉ Upon the side of this Lake, in a fruitful field, encompass’d with wet dewy mountains, and protected from the north-winds by Skiddaw, lyes Keswick,Keswick. a little market-town; a place long since noted for ¦ ¦ Æraria Sectura.Mines (as appears by a certain Charter of Edward the fourth) and at present inhabited by Miners.AEraria The privilege of a Market was procur’d for it of Edward the first, by Thomas of Derwent-water, Lord of the place, from whom it descended hereditarily to the Ratcliffs, ⌈who were ennobled by King James the first (regn. 3.) in the person of Sir Francis Ratcliffe of Dilston in Northumberland, under the title of Baron of Tindale, Viscount Ratcliffe and Langley, and Earl of Derwentwater. To Keswick and the Parish of Crosthwait (in which it lies) was given a considerable benefaction for the erecting of a Manufacture-house, and maintaining the Poor, by Sir John Banks Knight, Attorney-General in the reign of King Charles the first, who (as I take it) was born here. The Charity is still preserv’d, and well dispos’d of.⌉ The Skiddaw,Skiddaw, a very high mountain. just now mention’d, mounts up to the Clouds with its two tops, like another Parnassus, and views Scruffelt, a mountain of AnandalAnandal. in Scotland, with a kind of emulation. From the Clouds rising or falling upon these two mountains, the Inhabitants judge of the weather, and have this rhyme common among them:

If Skiddaw hath a cap,
Scruffel wots full well of that

As also another, concerning the height of this and two other mountains in those parts:

Skiddaw, Lauvellin, and Casticand,
Are the highest hills in all England

From thence the Derwent, sometimes broad and sometimes narrow, rowls on to the North in great haste, to receive the river Cokar. Which two rivers at their meeting do almost surround Cokarmouth,Cokar-mouth. a populous well-traded market-town, where is a Castle, ⌈heretofore⌉ of the Earls of Northumberland; ⌈and now of the Duke of Somerset.⌉ It is a town neatly built, but of a low situation, between two hills: upon one is the Church; and upon the other over-against it ⌈(which is evidently artificial)⌉ a very strong Castle, on the gates whereof are the Arms of the Moltons, Humfranvills, Lucies, and Percies; ⌈and for the better prospect of which the forementioned Mount was raised.⌉ Over-against this, on the other side of the river, † Ad alterum about two miles distance, are the ruins of an old Castle, call’d Pap-Castle;Pap-Castle. the Roman Antiquity whereof is attested by several Monuments. Whether this be the Guasmoric,Guasmoric. which Ninnius tells us was built by King Guortigern near Lugaballia, and that it was by the old Saxons call’d Palm-castle, I shall not determine. Here, among other Monuments of Antiquity, was found a large open vessel of greenish stone, with little images curiously engraven upon it: which, whether it was an Ewer to wash in, or a Font (call’d by S. Ambrose Sacrarium Regenerationis) the sacred Laver of Regeneration) to which use it is now employ’d at Bridkirke (i.e. the Church of St. Bridget) hard by; I cannot say. Paulinus. Only, we read that Fonts were anciently adorn’d with the pictures of Holy Men, whose Lives were propos’d as a pattern to such as were baptiz’d. Besides the pictures, there are these strange Characters visible upon it.


But what they mean, and to what nation they belong, let the learned determine; for it is all mystery to me. The first and eighth are not much unlike that, whereby the Christians, from the time of Constantine the Great, express’d the name of Christ. The rest, in shape, not in power, come nearest to those upon the tomb of Gormon the Danish King at Ielling in Denmark, which Petrus Lindebergius publish’d in the year 1591. ⌈Upon a later view of this, it seems very plain that the figures are no other than the Pictures of S. John Baptist, and our Saviour baptized by him in the river Jordan: the descent of the Holy Ghost in the shape of a Dove, is very plain; and as to the Inscription, it has been in great measure cleared by the learned Bishop Nicholson, in the following Letter, sent many years since to Sir William Dugdale:

Carlisle, Nov. 23, 1685.

Honour’d Sir,
MY worthy and good Lord, our Bishop, was lately pleased to acquaint me, that you were desirous to have my thoughts of the Inscription on the Font at Bridekirk in this County. I am, Sir, extremely conscious of the rashness of bringing any thing of mine to the view of so discerning an Antiquary; but, withal, very tender of disobeying so great and worthy a person. I know you were pleased to make your own observations upon it, in your Visitation of these parts, when Norroy: and I shall hope that you will give me an opportunity of rectifying, by your’s, my following conjectures.

1. The Fabrick of this Monument does, I think, fairly enough evince, that it is Christian; and that it is now used to the same purpose for which it was at first designed. Mr. Camden (though not acquainted with the Characters of the Inscription, yet) seems to fansy thus much: and, for proof of his Opinion, brings a notable quotation out of S. Paulinus’s Epistles. But he needed not to have sent us so far off for a Voucher; if he had taken good notice of the Imagery on the East side of this Stone; as I doubt not, Sir, but you have done. We have there, fairly represented, a person in a long Sacerdotal Habit dipping a Child into the water; and a Dove (the Emblem, no doubt, of the Holy Ghost) hovering over the Infant. Now, Sir, I need not acquaint you, that the Sacrament of Baptism was anciently administer’d by plunging into the water, in the Western as well as Eastern parts of the Church; and that the Gothic wordMark, 1.8.
Luke, 3, 7 and 12.
Gothic, the German word German dauffen, the Danish danish dove, and the Belgic belgic doopen, do as clearly make out that practice, as the Greek word Greek baptiso: Nor, that they may all seem to be deriv’d from [ Greek duptein] another word of the same Language and signification, and are evidently a-kin to our English old english Dip, old english Deep, and old english Depth. Indeed, our Saxon Ancestors expressed the Action of Baptism by a word of a different import from the rest. For, in the fore-mention’d place of St. Mark’s Gospel, their Translation has the Text thus: ic Saxon eow Saxon fullige on Saxon paetere, Saxon he Saxon eow Saxon fullad on Saxon halgum Saxon gaste, i.e. Ego vos aquis Baptizo; ille vos Spiritu Sancto Baptizabit. Where the word Saxon fullian or Saxon fulligean signifies only simply Lavare: Whence the Latin word Fullo, and our Fuller have their original. But to conclude from hence, that the Saxons did not use dipping in the Sacrament of Baptism, is somewhat too harsh an Argument.

2. There are other Draughts on the North and West-side of the Font, which may very probably make for our purpose: but with these (as not thoroughly understanding them, and having not had an opportunity of getting them drawn in Paper) I shall not trouble you at present.

3. On the South-side of the Stone we have the Inscription, which I have taken care accurately to write out; and it is as follows:


Now, these kinds of Characters are well enough known (since Ol. Wormius’s great Industry in making us acquainted with the Literatura Runica) to have been chiefly used by the Pagan Inhabitants of Denmark, Sweden, and the other Northern Kingdoms; and the Danes are said to have swarmed mostly in these parts of our Island. Which two considerations, seem weighty enough to persuade any man at first sight to conclude, that the Font is a Danish Monument. Runae But then on the other hand, we are sufficiently assured, that the Heathen Saxons did also make use of these Runæ; as is plainly evident from the frequent mention of Saxon run-craeftigen and Saxon run-stafas in many of the Monuments of that Nation, both in Print and Manuscript, still to be met with. Besides, we must not forget that both Danes and Saxons are indebted to this Kingdom for their Christianity: and therefore thus far their pretensions to a Runic (Christian) Monument may be thought equal. Indeed some of the Letters (as Runic Eth 3 and Runic 7) seem purely Saxon, being not to be met with among Wormius’s many Alphabets: and the words themselves (if I mistake them not) come nearer to the ancient Saxon Dialect, than the Danish. However, let the Inscription speak for it self: and I question not but it will convince any competent and judicious Reader, that it is Danish. Thus therefore I have ventur’d to read and explain it;

Er Ekard han men egrocten, and to dis men red wer Taner men brogten, i. e.

Here Ekard was converted; and to this Man’s example were the Danes brought.

There are only two things in the Inscription (thus interpreted) that will need an Explanation.

1. Who this Ekard was. And this is indeed a Question of that difficulty, that I confess I am not able exactly to answer it. The proper name it self is ordinary enough in the Northern Histories, though variously written: as, Echardus, Echinardus, Eginardus, Ecardus, and Eckhardus. It is certainly a name of Valour, as all others of the like termination; such as Bernhard, Everhard, Gothard, Reinhard, &c. So that it may well become a General, or other great Officer in the Danish Army: and such we have just reason to believe him to have been, who is here drawn into an example for the rest of his Countrymen. Our Historians are not very particular in their accounts of the several Incursions and Victories of the Danes, and their own writers are much more imperfect: and therefore, in cases of this nature, we must content our selves with probable conjectures.

2. Han men egrocten; which, render’d verbatim, is Have men turn’d, i.e. was turn’d. A phrase, to this day, very familiar in most dialects of the ancient Celtic tongue, though lost in our English. In the High-Dutch it is especially obvious; as, Man Saget, Man hat gesagt, Man lobet, &c. and the French impersonals (On dit, On fait &c.) are of the same strain; and evident Arguments that the Teutonick and Gaulish Tongues were anciently near akin.

The Characters Runic and Runic are manifest Abbreviations of several Letters into one; of which sort we have great variety of examples in several of Wormius’s Books: And such I take the Letter Runic to be, instead of I and Þ; and not the Saxon Ð. I must believe Runic 7 to be borrowed from the Saxons; and Runic 3 I take to be a corruption of their Saxon w or W.  The rest has little of difficulty in it. Only the Language of the whole seems a mixture of the Danish and Saxon Tongues; but that can be no other than the natural effect of the two Nations being jumbled together in this part of the World. Our Borderers, to this day, speak a leash of Languages (British, Saxon, and Danish) in one; and it is hard to determine which of those three Nations has the greatest share in the Motly Breed. Thus far the foresaid learned Person.⌉

The places last mention’d, with the fourth part of the Barony of Egremond, Wigton, Leusewater, Aspatric, Uldal, &c. were the large inheritance of Mawd Lucy, heir of Anthony Molton or de Lucy her brother; which she gave to Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, her husband. For tho’ she had no issue by him, yet she left the family of Percie her heir, upon condition that they should bear the Arms of the Lucies, namely,Arms of the Lucies and Percies. Three pikes or Lucy-fish in a field gules, quarterly with their own: or, to use the words of the original Instrument, Upon condition of bearing her Arms in a field gules three Pikes or Lucies, quarter’d with those of the Percies Or, a Lion azure; * * Per finem Levata.and the condition was enforc’d by a Fine.

After these rivers are united, the Derwent falls into the Sea at Wirkinton,Wirkinton. famous for the Salmon-fishing. It is now the seat of the ancient knightly family of the Curwens, descended from Gospatrick Earl of Northumberland; who took that name, by covenant, fromCulwen, commonly Curwen. Culwen a family of Galloway, the heir whereof they had marry’d. Here they have a stately castle-like seat; and from this family (excuse the vanity) I my self am descended by the mother’s-side.

Some are of opinion, that from hence Stilico carry’d a Wall some four miles,Under Honorius and Arcadius. for defence of the Coast in such places as were most convenient for landing; at what time the Scots from Ireland infested these parts. For thus Claudian makes Britain speak of her self:

Me quoque vicinis pereuntem gentibus, inquit,
Munivit Stilico, totam cùm Scotus Hibernem
Movit, & infesto spumavit remige Thetis

And I shall ever own his happy care,
Who sav’d me sinking in unequal war:
When Scots came thund’ring from the Irish shores,
And th’ Ocean trembled, struck with hostile oars.

And pieces of broken walls continue to the mouth of Elen, now Elne; which, within a little of its head, hath Ierby,Ierby. a tolerable Market. I am of opinion, that this was the ArbeiaArbeia. where the Barcarii Tigrienses were garrison’d. At its mouth it has Elenborrough,Elenborrough. i.e. a burrough upon the Elen, where the first Cohort of the Dalmatians, with their Commander, was garrison’d. It was seated on a pretty high hill, from whence is a large prospect into the Irish-sea; but now Corn grows where the Town stood. Yet there are still plain remains of it; old Vaults are open’d, and several Altars, Inscriptions, and Statues, are dug-up. All which, that worthy Gentleman J. Sinhous (in whose Fields they * * Are, C.were dug-up) † † Keeps, C. kept very religiously, and plac’d them regularly in the walls of his house. In the middle of the yard, stands a beautiful square Altar of red Stone, the work of which is old and very curious; it is about five foot high, and the characters upon it are exceeding fair. But take the figure of it on all sides, as it was curiously drawn by Sir Robert Cotton of Connington Knight, a great admirer of Antiquities; when he and I, to discover the Rarities of our native Country, took a survey of these parts, with great pleasure and satisfaction, in the year of our Lord 1599. I could not but make an honourable mention of the * * Mr. Sinhouse.Gentleman I just now spoke of; not only because he entertain’d us with the utmost civility, but also because he † † Has, C.had a veneration for Antiquities (wherein he ¦ ¦ Is, C.was well skill’d,) and with great diligence * * Preserves, C.preserved such Inscriptions as these, which by other ignorant people in those parts are presently broken to pieces, and turn’d to other uses, to the great detriment of these studies.

Altar of red stone

In the Inscription every thing is plain: only, in the last line but one, ET and ÆDES have two letters joyn’d in one. At the bottom, it is imperfect; possibly to be restor’d thus, DECVRIONVM ORDINEM RESTITVIT &c. These DecurionesDecuriones. were the same in the Municipia,Isidor. l.9. c.4. as Senators were at Rome and in the Colonies. They were so call’d from Curia the Court, wherein they presided; from whence also they were nam’d Curiales, as having the chief management of all Court or Civil Affairs.

On the back-side of this Altar, and the upper edge, you see there is VOLANTII VIVAS. Which two words puzzle me; and I can make nothing of them, unless the Decuriones, Equites, and the Plebs (of which three the Municipium consisted) did erect it to G. Cornelius Peregrinus (who restor’d the Houses, Temples, and the Decurio’s) by way of Vow or Prayer that this their Benefactor might live at Volantium. From which I would conclude (if allowance may be made for a conjecture) that this place was formerly call’d Volantium.Volantium. Underneath it, are engraven sacrificing Instruments, * * Dolabra, & secespita.a sort of axe, and a long chopping-knife. On the left-side, a mallet and a jugg: on the right, a patera or gobblet, a dish, and a pear (if I judge aright,) though others will have it to be a Holy-water-pot. For these were the vessels us’d in their sacrifices; besides others, such as theSimpulum, Thuribulum, Futile, apex Sacerdotalis. Cruet, Censer, the Open-pot, the Miter, &c. which I observ’d to be engraven upon other Altars in those parts. Pagan Altars. The second Altar delineated here, was dug-up at Old Carlile, and † † Is now, C.remain’d in the house of the Barhouses ⌈now the Kirkbys,⌉ at Ilkirk; ⌈but is, I believe, removed to Drumbugh in this County.⌉ It had many Ligatures, or connexions of Letters; which the Engraver has given you pretty exactly. It seems to be read thus:praest aelius praefectus primae

Jovi Optimo Maximo. Ala Augusta ob virtutem appellata, cui præst Publius Ælius, Publii filius Sergia Magnus de Mursa ex Pannonia inferiore Præfectus. Aproniano (and perhaps) Bradua Consulibus.

Under Commodus, in the year of our Lord 193. The third Altar, inscrib’d to the Local Deity Belatucadrus, is to be read thus:

Belatucadro Julius Civilis Optio (i.e. * * Excubiis Præfectus.Captain of the Guard) votum solvit libens merito.

The fourth (which is the fairest) has nothing of difficulty in it. It is to be read thus:

Dis, Deabusque Publius Posthumius Acilianus Præfectus Cohortis primæ Delmatarum.

Such Altars as these (for we may make our Observations upon those Rites, though Christianity has happily abolish’d them) as also their victims, and themselves too, they us’d to crown with Garlands, and to offer frankincense and wine and slay their sacrifices upon them, and to anoint the very Altars.Gentile Altars. Of the demolishing of which, upon the prevailing of Christianity, Prudentius writes thus:

Exercere manum non pœnitet, & lapis illic
Si stetit antiquus, quem cingere sueverat error
Fasciolis aut gallinæ pulmone rigare,

Nor spar’d they pains if thus their zeal they show’d,
If in their way some ancient Altar stood,
Oft deck’d with ribbands, sprinkled oft with blood,
Down went the sacred Stone.—

At the same place, I saw also the following Inscriptions:

Antonini av-piif-----
p. avlvs * * Publii filius.P. f. palatina
Posthvmivs acilianvs
præf. coh. i. delmatar.

** Diis Manibus.Dm
Ingenvi. an. x.
ivl. simplex pater
* * Faciendum curavit.F C.

Mori regis
Filii heredes
Eivs svbstitve
rvnt vix. a. lxx.

Hic exsegere fata
--envs sc germa-
--s reg vix. an----
S vix. an----

Lvca. vix
is xx.

Ivlia martim
A. vix. an
xii iii d. xx h.

There is also a Stone very curiously engraven, upon which are two winged-Genii, supporting a Garland, in this manner:


i.e. Victoriæ Augustorum Dominorum nostrorum.Victoriae aestuary estuary

After the Shore has run a little way in a streight line from hence, it bends in with a winding and crooked bay, which therefore seems to be the Moricambe,Moricambe. that Ptolemy fixes hereabouts: such agreement there is between the nature of the place and the name. For this æstuary is crooked, and Moricambe signifies in British a crooked Sea. Upon this, is the Abbey of Ulme, or Holme-Cultraine,Holme-Cultraine. founded by David the first, King of Scotland: but Vulstey, a Fort hard by, was built by the Abbots, for the securing of their Treasure, their Books, and their Charters, against the sudden incursions of the Scots. Here, they say, * * Are still, C.were long preserved the Magick-Books of Michael Scot,Michael Scot.† But now, C.till they were mouldering to dust. He was a Monk of this place about the year 1290, and apply’d himself so closely to the Mathematicks, and other abstruse parts of Learning, that he was generally look’d on as a Conjurer: and a vain credulous humour has handed down I know not what Miracles done by him. Below this Monastery, the bay receives the little Waver, encreas’d by the Wize, a small river; at the head of which the melancholy ruins of an ancient City teach us, That nothing in this world is out of the reach of Fate. By the neighbouring Inhabitants it is call’d Old Carlisle; but what its ancient name was, I know not, unless it was the Castra Exploratorum.Castra Exploratorum. The distance in Antoninus (who gives us the most considerable places, but does not always go to them by the shortest way)Of the Areani; see more under The Picts Wall . both from Bulgium and Lugu-vallum, exactly answers. For spying of an Enemy, you could not have a more convenient place; for it is seated on a high hill, which commands a free prospect round the Country. However, it is very certain, that the Ala or Wing (nam’d Augusta, and Augusta Gordiana,)Ala Augusta Gordiana. did quarter here in the time of Gordianus; as appears by those Inscriptions which I sawAt Ilkirk. in the neighbourhood:

* * Jovi optimo maximo.Iom
Ala avg. ob
---rtvt. appel. cvi
Pr æ est tib. cl. tib. f. p
In- g- n ivstinvs
Praef. fvsciano
ii silano ii cos.

Nivs sec
Ale avg
ste stip

Prosalvte imperatoris
M. antoni gordiani. p. f.
Invicti avg et sabiniae tr
Iae tranqvile conivgi eivs to
Taqve domv divin. eorvm a-
La avg. gordia. ob virtvtem
Appellata posvit: cvi præst
Aemilivs crispinvs praef.
Eqq. natvs in pro africa de
Tvidro svb cvr nonnii ph
Lippi leg. avg- propreto-----
attico et prætextatoAnno Christ. 243.

And the Altars were brought from hence, which * * Are, C.were set up in the High-way at Wigton;Wigton. on the sides whereof one sees a † Simpulum, Fusile, Malleus, Patera.—Chalice, a Melter, a Mallet, a Platter, &c. sacrificing vessels: but Age has so entirely worn out the Inscriptions, that there is no appearance of Letters. And not far from hence, upon the Military way, was dug-up a Pillar of rude stone, which ¦ ¦ Is, C.was to be seen at Thoresby,Thoresby. with this Inscription:

Imp caes
M. ivl.
Pio feli
Et m. ivl. phi
Lippo nobilis
Simo caes
Tr. p. cos...

This also, among others, was copy’d out for me by * * Ann. 1607.Oswald Dykes, a very learned Divine; and is now at Wardal,Wardal. the seat of his brother T. Dykes, a Gentleman of great note:

Sancto bela
diatova †† For Aram ex voto.Ara e
X voto posvit
ll. mm.

And to another Local Deity was found this Inscription annex’d;

Ceai io avr
M rti. et m s
Ervracio pro
Se et svis. v. s.
Ll. m.

Besides these, an infinite number of little Images, Statues on horseback, Eagles, Lyons, Ganymeds, with many other evidences of Antiquity, are daily dug-up. Solway-Frith, by the Scots. A little higher, there jets out a small Promontory; below which is a large arm of the Sea, the boundary at present of England and Scotland, but formerly, of the Roman Province and the Picts. Upon this little Promontory, is that old Town Blatum-BulgiumBlatum-Bulgium. (possibly from the British Bulch, signifying a partition or divorce) from which, as the place most remote, and the Limit of the Province of Britain, Antoninus begins his Itinerary. The Inhabitants at this day call it Bulness,Bulness. and though it is but a very small village, yet has it a Fort, and Munimentum.(as a testimony of its antiquity) besides the tracks of streets and pieces of old walls, it has a harbour, now choak’d up; and they tell you, a pav’d Causey ran along the shore, from hence, as far as Elenborrow. ⌈Here are also frequently found Roman Coins and Inscriptions; and not long since, was dug-up a small brazen figure of a Mercury, or a Victory; which came into the possession of John Aglionby Esq; a curious preserver of all such valuable remains of Antiquity.⌉ A mile beyond this (as appears by the Foundations at low water) begins the Picts-wall, that famous work of the Romans; which was formerly the boundary of the Province, and was built to keep out the Barbarians, who in those parts were (as one expresses it) continually * * Circumla­traverunt.barking and snarling at the Roman Empire.tsunami buried I was amaz’d at first, why they should be so careful to fortifie this place, when it is fenced by a vast arm of the Sea, which comes up some eight miles; but now I understand, that at low-water it is so shallow, that the Robbers and Plunderers made nothing of fording it. That the figure of the Coast hereabouts has been alter’d, appears plainly from roots of Trees cover’d over with Sand at a good distance from the shore, which are often discover’d when the Tide is driven back by strong Winds. I know not whether it be worth while to observe, what the Inhabitants tell you, of Subterraneous TreesTrees under ground. without boughs, which they commonly dig-up; discovering them by the Dew, which never lies upon the ground that covers them.

Upon the same Frith, a little more inward, is Drumbough-Castle,Drumbough-castle. of † † So said, ann. 1607.late days the possession of the Lords of Dacre, ⌈and at present of the Lord Viscount Lonsdale;⌉ but formerly a Station of the Romans. Some will have it to be the ¦ ¦ Dr. Gale, p.36. makes these the same with Blatum-Bulgium.Castra Exploratorum, but the distances will by no means allow it. ⌈Here are many Roman Monuments, which were collected by John Aglionby above-mention’d.⌉ There was also another Roman Station, which by a change of the name is at present call’d Burgh upon SandsBurgh upon Sands. ⌈(to distinguish it from Burgh under Stanemore in Westmoreland,)⌉ from whence the neighbouring tract1307. is call’d the Barony of Burgh. This, by Meschines, Lord of Cumberland, was bestow’d upon Robert de Trivers, and from him came to the * * The Morvils call’d de Burgh super Sabulones.
Lib. Inq.
Morvills; the last of whom, Hugh, left a daughter, who by her second husband Thomas de Molton had Thomas Molton, Lord of this place, and father of that Thomas, who by marriage with the heir of Hubert de† Vaulx.Vallibus, joined Gillesland to his other possessions; all which were carry’d by Mawd Molton to Ranulph de Dacre. But this little Town is noted for nothing more, than the untimely death ofEdw. 1. King Edward the first, after he had triumph’d over his enemies on all sides. He was a Prince exceeding glorious; in whose valiant breast the spirit of God as it were pitch’d his Tent; and as by his courage, and wisdom of mind, so also by his gracefulness of body, he arose to the highest pitch of Majesty. Providence exercis’d his youth with constant wars and difficulties, to fit him for the Government of England; which, after he came to it, he administer’d so nobly, by conquering the Welsh, and subduing the Scots, that he justly deserves the Character of one of the greatest Glories of Britain. ⌈At the very place where this brave and valiant King expir’d (the memory whereof had been preserv’d by some great stones roll’d upon it) is erected a very fair square Pillar, nine yards and a half in height. On the West side of it is this Inscription, in large Roman Letters;

Memoriæ æternæ Edvardi 1. Regis Angliæ longè clarissimi, qui in Belli apparatu contra Scotos occupatus, hic in Castris obiit, 7 Julij, A.D. 1307.

On the South-side;

Nobilissimus Princeps, Henricus Howard, Dux Norfolciæ, Comes Mareshall. Angliæ, Comes Arund. &c..... ab Edvardo 1. Rege Angliæ oriundus P. 1685.

On the North-side:

Johannes Aglionby J. C. F. C. [i.e. Juris-consultus, fieri fecit.]

That is,

To the eternal memory of Edward the first, the most famous King of England, who amidst his warlike Preparations against the Scots, died here in the Camp, 7 July, A.D. 1307.

The most Noble Prince, Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England, Earl of Arundel, &c.— descended from Edward the first, King of England, placed this Monument, 1685.

John Aglionby, a Lawyer by Profession, caus’d it to be made.⌉aestuary estuary

The Inhabitants say, that under the foresaid Burgh, in the very æstuary, there was a Sea-fight between the Scotch and English; and that † † Reverso æstu.when the Tide came in, the dispute was managed by the Horse: which seems no less strange than what Pliny relates, with great admiration, of such another place in Caramania. This æstuary is call’d by both Nations Solway-Frith;Solway-Frith. from Solway, a Town of the Scots that stands upon it. But Ptolemy calls it more properly Ituna;Ituna. for the Eiden,Eiden, riv. a very noble river, which winds by Westmorland and thro’ the inner parts of this County, falls into it with a vast body of waters;Hist. Mailros. still remembering the obstructions it met with from the carcasses of the Scots in the year 1216, when it drown’d them, with their loads of English spoils, and swallowed up that plundering Crew.

The Ituna or Eiden, as soon as it enters this County, receives from the west the river Eimot,Eimot, riv. flowing out of the Lake call’d Ulse (or Ulse-water) which I mention’d before. Near the bank of which, upon the little river Dacor, is Dacre-Castle,Dacre-Castle. noted in latter ages for giving name to the family of the Barons de Dacre,Barons Dacre. and mention’d by Bede as having a Monastery in his time; as also by Malmesbury, for being the place where Constantine King of the Scots, and Eugenius King of Cumberland, put themselves and their Kingdoms under the protection of the English King Athelstan. ⌈Here is a Castle standing, which hath formerly been a magnificent Building, and a seat of the Family; but no remains of a Monastery: nor doth it appear by any Records to have been standing since the Conquest. Near Dacre, is Dalemayn,Dalemayn. the Mansion-house of the Hassels, and holden of the Barony of Graystock in Cornage.⌉

Somewhat higher, at a little distance from the confluence of Eimot and Loder (at which is the round trench call’d * * See Westmoreland.King Arthur’s Table) stands Penrith, in British a red hill or head; for the ground hereabouts, and the stone of which it is built, are both reddish. ⌈This, according to Dr. Gale, is the Voreda of Antoninus.⌉ It is commonly call’d Perith,Perith. and is a noted little market-town; fortify’d on the west with a Royal Castle, which, in the reign of Henry the sixth, † † This is a mistake. Ep. Carl. Hist. Northumb. MS. par.6.was repair’d out of the ruins of Marburg a ¦ ¦ Roman Fort, C.Danish Temple hard by, ⌈and is now in ruins it self.⌉ It is adorn’d with a pretty handsome Church, and has a large Market-place with a Town-house of wood for the convenience of the Market-people, which is beautify’d with Bears climbing up a ragged staff, the Device of the Earls of Warwick. Formerly, it belong’d to the Bishops of Durham; but when Anthony Bec, Bishop of that See, was grown haughty and insolent by reason of his excessive wealth, Edward the first (as we read in the book of Durham) took from him Werk in Tividale, Perith, and the Church of Simondburne. For the benefit of the Town, W. Strickland Bishop of Carlisle, descended from a famous family in those parts, did at his own charge draw hither a Chanel or Water-course, from Peterill, or the Little River Peter; ⌈which falls from the Peat-Mosses in the Fells about Graystock, and is so called from them. In the Church-yard at Penrith, on the North-side of the Church, are erected two large Pillars of about four yards in height each, and about five yards distant one from the other.caesarius It is said, that they were set in memory of one Sir Ewen Cæsarius Knight, in old time a famous warriour of great strength and stature, who liv’d in these parts, and kill’d wild Boars in the forest of Englewood, which much infested the Country. He was bury’d here, they say, and was of such a prodigious stature, as to reach from one pillar to the other; and they tell you that the rude figures of Bears which are in stone, and erected, two on each side of his Grave, between the Pillars, are in memory of his great Exploits upon these Creatures. On the North out-side of the Vestry in the wall, in rude Characters, is this writing, for a Memorandum to posterity. Fuit pestis, &c. i.e. There was a plague, A. D. 1598, of which there died at Kendal 2500, at Richmond 2200, at Penrith 2266, and at Carlisle 1196. And the Church-Register, in the neighbouring Parish of Edenhal, takes notice also of forty two persons dying the same year of the Plague, in that little Village. These instances are the more remarkable, because none of our Historians speak of any such general Distemper in the Kingdom, at that time.⌉

Upon the bank of Peteril, lay † † Call’d once Haia de Plompton.Plompton-Park,The Park. very large, and formerly set apart by the Kings of England for the keeping of Deer, but by King Henry the eighth prudently planted with men; being almost a frontier between England and Scotland. ⌈Not, that King Henry the eighth first of all peopled it; he only gave greater freedom and liberty to the Inhabitants, by disforesting it, and there were as many Parishes and Townships in it before his time, as are since. Hutton and Edenhall were Parishes in the time of Henry the first, and given by him to the Cathedral at Carlisle, and so was Wedderhall, Warwick, Lazonby, Skelton, Sowerby, St. Maries, St. Cuthbert’s, Carliol and Dalston; all, Parishes, at or near the time of the Conquest, and all in the forest of Englewood, or bordering very near upon it. It was sixteen miles in length, reaching from Penrith to Carlisle; ¦ ¦ Chron. Lanerc.and Edward the first, when he was hunting in this forest, is said to have kill’d two hundred Bucks in one day.⌉ Near this, I saw several remains of a demolished City, which, for its nearness to Perith, they call Old Perith: I should rather take it to be the Petrianæ.Petrianæ. Petrianae For, that the Ala Petriana was quarter’d here, is plain from the fragment of an old Inscription which one Vlpius Trajanus, † † Emeritus.a Pensionary of the same Ala Petriana, set up. But take this, with some others which I copy’d out here;

vlp trai† Annos.
Em. al. pet
** Haply, Faciendum procuravit.F P. C.

D m.

Aicetvos mater
Vixit † a xxxxv
Et lattio fil-vix
A xii. limisivs
Coniv. et filiæ

D m.

Fl martio sen
in † ccarvetior† Possibly, in Cohorte.
Vixit an xxxxv
Martiola filia et
heres ponen
¦¦ Dum.-------------cvravit

Dm crotilo germanvs vix
Anis xxvi. greca vix anis iiii
vindicianvs * fra. et fil. tit. po.* Fratri & filiæ Titulum posuit.

⌈Half a mile above the confluence of Eden and Eimot, on the very bank of the former, is a GrottoA Grotto. of two rooms, dug out of the rocks, and call’d Isis Parlish; to which there is a difficult and perillous passage. In former times it was certainly a place of strength and security; for it had Iron-gates belonging to it, which were standing not many years since.⌉

After Eden has receiv’d the Eimot, it hastens to the north, by little inconsiderable villages and Forts, to the two Salkelds.Salkelds. At Little Salkeld there is a circle of Stones, seventy seven in number, each ten foot high; and before these, at the entrance, is a single one by it self, fifteen foot high. This the common people call Long-Megg,Long-Megg. and the rest her daughters; and within the circle are two heaps of stones, under which they say there are dead bodies bury’d. And indeed it is probable enough, that this has been a Monument erected in memory of some victory. ⌈But, as to those heaps in the middle, they are no part of the Monument, but have been gathered off the ploughed Lands adjoyning, and (as in many other parts of the County) thrown-up here, in a waste corner of the Field. And as to the occasion of it; both this, and Rolrich-stones in Oxfordshire, are supposed by many to have been Monuments erected at the solemn Investiture of some Danish Kings, and of the same kind as the Kong-stolen in Denmark, and Moresteen in Sweden; concerning which, several large † † Worm, l.1. c.12. S. J. Steph. Not. ad Sax. Gram. p.29. Messen. Paraph. Theat. Nobil. Suec. p.108.Discourses have been written.⌉

Plot, Oxfordsh. p.336. From thence the Eden passes by Kirk-Oswald,Kirk-Oswald. dedicated to St. Oswald, and formerly the possession of that Hugh Morvil, who with his Accomplices murder’d Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury; in memory of which fact, the sword he then us’d was preserv’d here for a long time: Then, by Armanthwayte,Armanthwayte. ⌈not long since⌉ the Castle of the Skeltons; and Corby,Corby-Castle. a Castle ⌈heretofore⌉ of the noble and ancient family of the Salkelds (which was much enrich’d by marriage with the heir of Rosgil ⌈but now of the Howards:⌉ Then, by Wetherall,Wetherall. formerly a little Monastery (the daughter of St. Mary’s in York,) where you see a sort of houses dug out of a rock, that seem to have been design’d * * In perfugii locum.for an absconding place; ⌈if not, for some Hermits to lodge in, being near the Monastery. These Caves are in a rock of difficult Access, and are two rooms, one within the other, each about five or six yards square.⌉ Next, Eden runs by Warwic,Warwic. which I take to be the old Virosidum,Virosidum. where the sixth Cohort of the Nervii formerly kept garrison along the Wall, against the Picts and Scots. In the † † So said, ann. 1607.last age, there was built here a very strong stone-bridge, at the expence of the Salkelds and Richmonds: And so, by Linstoc,Linstoc. a castle of the Bishops of Carlisle within the Barony of Crosby,Crosby. which Waldeve, son of Earl Gospatrick and Lord of Allerdale, gave to the Church of Carlisle. The present name (I fansy) is a remain of Olenacum. Olenacum. For, the Olenacum, where the Ala prima Herculea lay in garrison against the Barbarians, seems to have been along the Wall.

And now Eden, ready to fall into the Æstuary, receives two little rivers at the same place, PeterillPeterill and Caude, rivers. and Caude, which run parallel from the south. Estuary aEstuary Petrianae Upon the Peterill, besides the Petrianæ already spoken of, is Greystock, the Castle of a family which has been long famous, deriving its original from one Ralph Fitz-Walter. Of whose posterity, William de GreystockGreystock. marry’d Mary daughter and coheir of Roger de Merley Lord of Morpath. He had a son, John, who having no issue, obtain’d Licence of King Edward the first, to make over his estate to his * * Ex amitæ natus.Cousin Ralph de Granthorpe son of William, whose posterity for a long time flourish’d here in great honour. But about the reign of Henry the seventh, that family expir’d, and the estate came by marriage to the Barons of Dacre; the heirs general of the last of whom, were marry’d to two sons of Thomas Howard, † † So said, ann. 1607.late Duke of Norfolk.

⌈Below Graystock, upon the banks of Peteril, lies Blencow,Blencow. belonging to an ancient and worthy family of that name. Here is a very good Grammar-School, founded and endow’d20 Eliz. by Thomas Bourbank, a person of piety and learning, who was born in the Town, and had himself been a School-master.⌉

Near the Caude, besides the Copper-mines at Caudebec, is Highyate,Highyate. a Castle of the Richmonds; ⌈From whence the river runs to Hutton-hall,Hutton-hall. anciently the possession of a family of that name; of whom it was purchas’d by the Fletchers, who have so much improv’d it in buildings, walks, gardens, &c. that now it is one of the pleasantest seats in this Country. It was lately the dwelling-place of Sir George Fletcher, Baronet, to whose care and contrivance it is chiefly beholden for its Improvements. The estate is within the Haia de Plompton, and † † Escaet de An. 5 H.7.held of the King by this Service amongst others, that the Lord of Hutton, shall Tenere stippam sellæ Domini Regis, dum equum suum in Castro suo Carlioli scanderit, i.e. sellaehold the King’s Stirrup, when he mounts his horse in his Castle of Carlisle.⌉ Near the Caude, also, * * a beautiful Castle of the Bishops of Carlisle, call’d The Rose-Castle:Rose-Castle. this seems to have been the old Congavata,Congavata. where the second Cohort of the Lergi were in garrison; for Congavata signifies in British, a Vale upon the Gavata, which name is now contracted into Cauda. But I have not yet been able to mark out the exact place where it was seated. ⌈In the time of the Civil wars,Ann. 1652. this Castle was burn’d down by order of Collonel Heveringham. What was standing of it at the Restoration, Dr. Stern, then Bishop, repair’d, and made habitable. Dr. Rainbow his successor, built a Chapel, and put the House in a much better condition. Dr. Thomas Smith, the late Bishop added a new Tower to the former building; and by the great expence he was at in altering and beautifying, has made it a very convenient House: but it is still far short of its former magnificence. King Edward the first in his expedition against Scotland lodg’d here, and dated his Writs, for summoning a Parliament, apud la Rose.⌉

Between the confluence of those rivers, the ancient City of CarlileCarlile. has a delicate pleasant situation; bounded on the north with Eden, on the east with Peterill, and on the west with Caude; and besides these natural fences, it is fortify’d with a strong stone wall, a castle, and a citadel. It is of an oblong form, from west to east: to the west is a pretty large castle, which ⌈† † By the Arms, appears to have been built by Richard the third, C.was built by William the second, and probably repair’d by Richard the third, as it should seem by the Arms.⌉ Almost in the middle of the City, stands the Cathedral Church; the upper part whereof (being newer) is a curious piece of Workmanship, built by King Henry the eighth; but the lower is much more ancient. ⌈The lower west part is the Parochial Church, and as old, as St. Cuthbert; or, as Walter, who came in with the Conqueror, was a Commander in his Army, rebuilt the City, founded a Priory, and, turning Religious, became himself the first Prior of it. The Chancel was built by Contributions about the year 1350, and the Belfrey was raised, and the Bells placed in it, at the charge of William de Strickland, Bishop, in the year 1401.⌉ On the east, the City is defended by a Cittadel, very strong, and fortify’d with * * Variis propugnaculis.several Orillons or Roundels. The Romans and Britains call’d it Lugu-vallumLugu-vallum. and Lugu-ballium, or Lugu-balia, the Saxons (as Bede witnesses) Luel; Ptolemy (as some think) Leucopibia ⌈(which yet seems rather to be a corruption of Greek, i.e. white houses, and to be Candida Casa, or Whitern, in Galloway;)⌉ Nennius, Caer Lualid; the ridiculous Welsh Prophecies, The City of Duballus; we, Carlile; and the Latins, from the more modern name, Carleolum. For, that Luguballia and Carlile are the same, is universally agreed by our Historians. But as to the Etymology, what pains has our Countryman Leland taken about it! and at last he is driven upon this shift, that Ituna might be call’d Lugus, and that Ballum came from Vallis, a valley; and so makes, Lugu vallum as much as a valley upon the Luge. But (to give my Conjecture also) I dare affirm that the Vallum and Vallia were deriv’d from that famous military Vallum of the Romans, which runs hard by the City. For Antoninus calls Lugu-vallum, Ad vallum; and the Picts-wall, which was afterwards built upon the Wall of Severus, is to be seen at Stanwicks, a small village, a little beyond the Eden, over which there is now a wooden bridge. It pass’d the river over-against the Castle, where, in the very chanel, the remains of it (namely, great stones,) appear to this day. Also, Pomponius Mela has told us, that Lugus or LucusLucus and Lugus, what they signify’d among the ancient Britains and Gauls. signify’d a Tower among the old Celtæ, who spoke the same Language with the Britains.Celtae citadel For, what Antoninus calls Lugo Augusti, is in him Turris Augusti; so that Lugu-vallum both really is, and signifies, a tower or fort upon the wall or vallum. Upon this foundation, if the French had made their Lugdunum signifie a tower upon a hill,Lugdunum. Lucotetia or Lutetia in France. An old Itinerary lately publish’d says that Lugdunum signifies a desirable mountain. and their Lucotetia (so the Ancients called what we call Lutetia) a beautiful tower (for the words import so much in the British;) they might possibly have been more in the right, than by deriving the latter from Lutum dirt, and the former from one Lugdus a fabulous King. ⌈As to the present name, Carlisle; the original of this is plain enough, from the British Caer a City, and Luul, Luel, Luguabal, Leil, or Luil (according to the several appellations, ancient and modern;) importing as much as the Town or the City of Luul, &c.⌉

That this City flourish’d in the time of the Romans, appears plainly enough from the several evidences of Antiquity which they now and then dig up, and from the frequent mention made of it by the Writers of those times. And even after the ravages of the Picts and Scots, it retain’d something of it’s ancient Splendour, and was accounted a City. For in the year of our Lord 619. Egfrid King of Northumberland † † See Sim. Dunelm. the Donation at large.gave it to the famous St. Cuthbert in these words: I have likewise bestow’d upon him the City call’d Luguballia, with the lands fifteen miles about it. At which time also it was wall’d round. The Citizens (says Bede) carry’d Cuthbert to see the Walls of the City, and a Well of admirable workmanship built in it by the Romans. At which time, Cuthbert (as the Durham-book has it) founded a Religious-house for Nuns, with an Abbess, and Schools. Afterwards, being most grievously shatter’d by the Danes, it lay bury’d about two hundred years in it’s own ashes: till it began to flourish again by the favour and assistance of William Rufus, who built it a-new with a Castle, and plac’d a Garrison in it, first of Flemings (whom, upon better consideration he quickly remov’d into ⌈* * Wales, C.North-wales and the Isle of Anglesey)⌉ and then of the southern English. ⌈For the Saxon Chronicle relating this matter, has it Saxon Eyrlisces folces, which at first sight should seem to be an error for Saxon engliscer; but, in truth, this seems rather to be an error of the Librarian for Saxon cyrlisces, and on that supposition the words will imply, That a great number of Husbandmen were sent thither, and not English-men; for before that time, the Inhabitants of Carlisle were English. And, what follows in the Saxon Chronicle Saxon that land to tilianne, strengthens the conjecture; as expressing the errand upon which they were sent; viz. to cultivate those parts. To this Colony it is, that all the Records ascribe the first tillage that was known thereabouts. It is certain, the whole forest of Inglewood lay uncultivated for many years after.⌉ At that time (as Malmesbury has it) was to be seen a Roman Triclinium or dining-room, of stone, arch’d over; which neither the violence of Weather, nor Fire, could destroy. On the front of it was this Inscription, MARII VICTORIÆ. victoriae Some will have this Marius to be Arviragus the Britain; others, the Marius who was saluted Emperor in opposition to Gallienus, and is said to have been so very strong, that Authors tell us he had only nerves, and no veins, in his fingers. Yet I have heard, that some Copies have it, not Marii Victoriæ, but Marti Victori; which latter may probably be favour’d by some, as seeming to come nearer the truth.

Luguballia, now grown populous, had (as they write) it’s Earl or rather Lord, Ralph Meschines or de Micenis, from whom descended the Earls of Chester; and being about the same time honour’d with an Episcopal See by Henry the first, it had Athulph for its first Bishop. This, the Monks of Durham look’d upon as an injury to their Church. When Ralph (say they) Bishop of Durham was banish’d, and the Church had none to protect it, certain Bishops joyn’d Carleil and Tividale to their own Dioceses. How the Scots in the reign of King Stephen took this City, and Henry the second recover’d it;Eversden. how Henry the third committed the Castle of Carlile, and the County, to Robert de Veteri ponte or Vipont; how in the year 1292. it was † † Vid. Chron. de Lanercost, of the violence of that Fire.burn’d down, with the Cathedral and Suburbs; how Robert Brus the Scot, in the year 1315, besieg’d it, without success, &c. all these matters are treated of at large in our Histories. But it may be worth our while to add two Inscriptions which I saw here; one in the House of Thomas Aglionby near the Citadel, † Deterioris seculi.but not ancient.

CONIVX † Carissima.KΛRISS.

To which is joyn’d the effigies of an armed Horse-man, with a Lance.

The other, in the Garden of Thomas Middleton, in a large and beautiful Character:

G.P. R.F.

That is (as I suppose) Legio Sexta Victrix, Pia, Felix. The interpretation of the rest, I leave to others.

Carlisle had only one Earl ⌈in ancient times,⌉ viz. Andrew de Harcla,Andrew Harcla Earl of Carlisle. whom Edward the second (to speak from the original Charter of Creation) for his good services against Thomas Earl of Lancaster and his Adherents, and for subduing the King’s Subjects who were in rebellion, and delivering them prisoners to the King; did by the girding of a Sword create Earl, * * Sub honore & nomine.under the honourable title of Earl of Carleol. But the same person afterwards prov’d ungrateful, and villanously perfidious to his King and Country; and being taken, was punish’d with such Ignominy as his Treachery and Ingratitude had deserv’d. Th. Avensbury. For being degraded, he had his spurs cut off with a hatchet, then his sword-belt was taken from him, next his shoes and gloves were pull’d off, after which he was drawn, hang’d, beheaded, and quarter’d. ⌈Upon the Restoration of King Charles the second, this place gave the honourable title of Earl to Charles (son of Sir William) Howard, who in the † April, 2.13th year of that reign, was created Lord Dacres of Gillesland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and Earl of Carlisle; for his having been highly instrumental in that happy Restoration. In which Honours he was succeeded by Edward his son; father of the right Honourable Charles, the present Earl.⌉

Luguballia or Carlisle is 21 degrees 31 minutes, in Longitude; and 54 degrees, 55 minutes, in Latitude. I will now bid adieu to it, in that Encomium of J. Jonston.


Romanis quondam statio tutissima signis,
Ultimaque Ausonidum meta, labosque Ducum,
E specula latè vicinos prospicit agros,
Hinc ciet & pugnas, arcet & inde metus.
Gens acri ingenio, studiis asperrima belli,
Doctaque bellaci figere tela manu.
Scotorum Reges quondam tenuere beati,
Nunc iterum priscis additur imperiis.
Quid? Romane, putas extrema hîc limina mundi?
Mundum retrò alium surgere nonne vides?
Sit vidisse satis; docuit nam Scotica virtus
Immensis animis hîc posuisse modum


Where the bold Eagles stop’d their noble course,
The latest labour of the Roman force.
On subject Fields from her high Rock looks down,
Thence galls her foes, and thence secures her own.
Her People sharp, and ever fam’d in war,
Fights are their study, and their only care.
In ages past she serv’d the Scottish crown,
And now her ancient Lord again does own.
Romans, how thought you here the world could end,
When you might see another World beyond?
Yet only see: the Scot’s victorious hand
Here fix’d the limits of your wide command.

⌈Over the river Eden is StanwicksStanwicks. or Stanewegges (i.e. a place upon the Stony-way) a Town in the time of Henry the first, who gave the Appropriation of it to the Church of Carlisle. The Picts wall is very visible here; and at Drawdykes, a seat of the Aglionby’s, is a Roman Altar with this Inscription:

I. o. m. ala avg o..b. vri appia
Ivl. pvb ps. t. tb. cetberi----⌉

Then you see Rowcliffe,Rowcliffe. just upon the bank, a little Castle, built * * So said, ann. 1607.not long since by the Lords Dacres, for their own private defence. Above this, two rivers Esk and Leven, being first joined, enter the æstuary of Ituna at the same mouth. estuary aestuary Esk comes out of Scotland; but for some miles owns it self of England, and receives the river Kirsop; where were fix’d, † † So said, ann. 1607.not long since, the limits between the English and Scots: tho’ it ¦ ¦ Is, C.was not so much the water that * * Keeps, C.kept them within bounds, as a mutual dread (having had sufficient experience of each others valour;) ⌈and now, a mutual Love, as being entirely united into one kingdom.⌉AEsica Upon this, where we see Netherby,Netherby. a little village of two or three cottages, the ruins of some ancient City are so very wonderful and great, and the name of Esk running by them does so well concur; that I imagine the old Æsica stood there, in which formerly the Tribune of the first Cohort of the Astures was in garrison against the Barbarians. It is now the seat of the Head of the Family of Grayham,The Gray­hams. very famous among the Borderers for their great valour; and in the walls of the house is this Roman Inscription, set up in memory of Hadrian the Emperour, by the Legio Secunda Augusta.

Imp. cæs. tra.
Leg. ii. avg. f.

⌈Besides this, there are several others, collected, and carefully placed in order, by Sir Richard Grahme Knight and Baronet, Grandfather to the honourable Richard late Viscount Preston. Here was found lately a gold Coin of Nero of good value; and two Stones with the following Inscriptions. The one, IMP. COMM. COS. i.e. Imperatori Commodo Consuli, which (I suppose) was erected in the year of Christ 184, when that Emperour was saluted by the title of Imperator Britannicus. The other,

Deo marti
Ro. vr. rp. caii
Orvsii. m.

Whereby it appears that Belatucadrus was the same with Mars, under a more terrible name. It is probable, it comes from Bel, Baal, and Belinus, the great Idol of the Assyrians, which Cedrenus says was the same with Mars; and which the Roman and German Soldiers might like better, under a more harsh and round termination.⌉

Where the Lid joins the Esk, stood formerly Liddel,Barony of Liddell. a Castle (as I have been told) and a Barony of the Estotevills, who held Lands in Cornage, which Earl Ranulph (as we read in an old Inquisition) gave to Turgiss Brundas. From Estotevill it descended by Inheritance to the Wakes,Lidesdal. and by them to the Earls of Kent. John Earl of Kent granted it to King Edward the third;An. 1 R.2. and King Richard the second, to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Beyond the Esk also, the Country for some miles is reckon’d English ground; in which compass is Sollom-moss,The Battel of Sollommoss. noted for the taking great numbers of the Scotch Nobility, prisoners, in the year 1543. For when the Scots were ready to attack the English (who were commanded by Th. Wharton, Lord Warden of the Marches,) and found that Oliver Sincler, a person whom they despis’d, was appointed General; each look’d upon it as an affront to himself, and they were so incens’d, as to revenge the injury (such was the construction they put upon it) with their own disgrace and damage: for they fell into mutinies, broke their ranks, and put all in disorder. The English, who were posted upon the higher ground, observing that, fell upon them, and put them to flight. Great numbers were taken; for they threw down their Arms, and submitted generally to the English and the Moss-troopers; so that only a Soldier here and there was kill’d. This, James the fifth King of Scotland, laid so much to heart; that he dy’d of grief. The neighbouring lands are call’d Batable-ground,Batable-ground. or The ground in debate, because the English and Scots * * Cannot, C.could not agree about it. For the Inhabitants on both sides, as living upon the Frontiers, * * Are, C.were a swift, subtil, and nimble sort of Soldiers;Limitanei. being train’d up to it by frequent skirmishes. ⌈This was the former state; but since the happy Union of the two Kingdoms in King James the first, and much more since that under her Majesty Queen Anne, all these Feuds and Quarrels upon the Borders are ceased; and one lives there with as much security, as in any other place whatsoever.⌉

Leven,Leven, riv. the other of the rivers which I mentioned, arising in the very limits of the two Kingdoms, runs by nothing memorable, besides BeucastleBeu-Castle. (as they commonly call it,) a Castle of the Kings, which in those solitary parts † † Is, C.was defended by a small Garrison. In the publick Records it is written Bueth-castle; so that the name seems to be deriv’d from that Bueth, who about Henry the first’s time had almost got the entire government of those parts. However, it is certain that in Edward the third’s reign, it belong’d to John Baron Strivelin,Baron Strivelin. who marry’d the daughter and coheir of Adam de Swinborn. In the Church, † † So said, ann. almost in ruins, there lies, instead of a Grave-stone, this Inscription, which has been brought from some other place:

Leg ii avg

In the Church-yard, is a Cross, of one entire square stone, about twenty foot high, and curiously wrought; there is an Inscription too, but the ¦ ¦ A mistake, vid. infrà.letters are so dim, that they are not legible. But seeing the Cross * * Ita interstincta. Is chequy. of the same kind, as that in the Arms of the Vaulx, we may suppose that it has been erected by some of that Family.

⌈The letters of this Inscription appear still legible upon a later view. A few of them were copied (but unskilfully) A.D. 1618, as † † Vid. Olai Wormii Mon. Dan. pag.161.Sir Henry Spelman witnesses. Others are explain’d in a Letter to Mr. Walker, sent him by the same learned, and now ¦ ¦ Bishop Nicholson.right Reverend person, who communicated his thoughts of that at Bridekirk to Sir William Dugdale. For your satisfaction, be pleased to take his account at large:

Carlisle, Nov. 2. 1685.


IT is now high time to make good my promise of giving you a more perfect account of our two Runic Inscriptions at Beau-castle and Bridekirk. The former is fallen into such an untoward part of our Country, and so far out of the common Road, that I could not much sooner have either an opportunity or the courage to look after it. I was assur’d by the Curate of the place (a person of good sence and learning in greater matters) that the Characters were so miserably worn out since the Lord William Howard’s time (by whom they were communicated to Sir H. Spelman, and mention’d by Wormius, Mon. Dan. p.161) that they were now wholly defac’d, and nothing to be met with worth my while. The former part of this Relation I found to be true: for (though it appears that the forementioned Inscription has been much larger than Wormius has given it, yet) it is at present so far lost, that in six or seven lines none of the Characters are fairly discernible, save only, Runic, looks like: n F up-arrow reverse-N R semi-colon and these too are incoherent, and at great distance from each other. However, this Epistylium Crucis (as Sir H. Spelman in his Letter to Wormius has called it) is to this day a noble Monument, and highly merits the view of a curious Antiquary. The best account, Sir, I am able to give you of it, be pleased to take as follows:

It is one entire Free-stone, of about five yards in height, wash’d over (as the Font at Bridekirk) with a white oily Cement, to preserve it the better from the injuries of time and weather. The figure of it inclines to a square Pyramid, each side whereof is near two foot broad at the bottom, but upwards more tapering. On the west-side of the Stone we have three fair Draughts, which evidently enough manifest the Monument to be Christian. The lowest of these represents the Portraicture of a Layman, with a Hawk or Eagle perch’d on his Arm. Over his Head are the forementioned ruins of the Lord Howard’s Inscription. Next to these, the Picture of some Apostle, Saint, or other Holy man, in a sacerdotal habit, with a Glory round his Head. On the top stands the Effigies of the B. V. with the Babe in her Arms, and both their Heads encircled with Glories, as before.

On the North we have a great deal of Chequer-work, subscribed with the following Characters fairly legible:


Upon the first sight of these Letters, I greedily ventured to read them Rynburu; and was wonderfully pleased to fansy, that this word thus singly written, must necessarily betoken the final extirpation and burial of the Magical Runæ in these parts, reasonably hoped for upon the conversion of the Danes to the Christian Faith: for that the Danes were anciently, as well as some of the Laplanders at present, gross Idolaters and Sorcerers, is beyond Controversie; and I could not but remember, that all our Historians tell us, that they brought Paganism along with them into this Kingdom. Runae Cacodaemones And therefore it was not very difficult to imagine, that they might for some time practise their Hocus tricks here in the North, where they were most numerous and least disturbed. This conceit was the more heightened, by reflecting upon the natural superstition of our borderers at this day, who are much better acquainted with, and do more firmly believe, their old Legendary Stories of Fairies and Witches, than the Articles of their Creed. And to convince me yet further, that they are not utter strangers to the Black Arts of their forefathers, I accidentally met with a Gentleman in the neighbourhood, who shew’d me a Book of Spells and Magical Receipts, taken (two or three days before) in the Pocket of one of our Moss-Troopers; wherein, among many other conjuring feats, was prescrib’d a certain Remedy for an Ague, by applying a few barbarous Characters to the Body of the party distemper’d. These, methought, were very near akin to Wormius’s RAMRUNER, which, he says, differ’d wholly in figure and shape from the common Runæ. For though he tells us, that these Ramruner were so call’d, Eo quod molestias, dolores, morbosque hisce infligere inimicis soliti sint Magi; yet his friend Arng. Jonas, more to our purpose, says, That—His etiam usi sunt ad benefaciendum, juvandum, medicandum tam animi quam Corporis morbis; atque ad ipsos Cacodæmones pellendos & fugandos. I shall not trouble you with a draught of this Spell, because I have not yet had an opportunity of learning whether it may not be an ordinary one, and to be met with (among others of the same nature) in Paracelsus or Cornelius Agrippa.

If this conjecture be not allowable; I have, Sir, one more, which (it may be) you will think more plausible than the former. For if, instead of making the third and fourth Letters to be two Runic N.N. we should suppose them to be Runic E. E. the word will then be Ryeeburu; which I take to signifie, in the old Danish Language, Cœmiterium or Cadaverum Sepulchrum. Coemiterium cemetery For, though the true old Runic word for Cadaver be usually written Runic Hrae; yet the H may, without any violence to the Orthography of that tongue, be omitted at pleasure; and then the difference of spelling the word, here at Beau-castle, and on some of the ragged Monuments in Denmark, will not be great. And for the countenancing of this latter Reading, I think the above-mentioned Chequer-work may be very available: since in that we have a notable Emblem of the Tumuli, or burying places of the Ancients. (Not to mention the early custom of erecting Crosses and Crucifixes in Church-yards: which perhaps, being well weigh’d, might prove another encouragement to this second Reading.) I know the Checquer to be the Arms of the Vaux’s, or De Vallibus, the old Proprietors of this part of the North; but that, I presume, will make nothing for our turn. Because this, and the other carved work on the Cross, must of necessity be allow’d to bear a more ancient date than any of the Remains of that Name and Family; which cannot be run up higher than the Conquest.

On the East we have nothing but a few Flourishes, Draughts of Birds, Grapes and other Fruits: all which I take to be no more than the Statuary’s fancy.

On the South, flourishes and conceits, as before, and towards the bottom, the following decay’d Inscription:


The Defects in this short piece are sufficient to discourage me from attempting to expound it. But (possibly) it may be read thus:

Gag Ubbo Erlat, i.e.

Latrones Ubbo Vicit.

I confess this has no affinity (at least, being thus interpreted) with the foregoing Inscription: but may well enough suit with the manners of both ancient and modern Inhabitants of this Town and Country.

Thus far, of that ancient Monument; besides which, there is a large † † Hist. MS. Northumb. Par.6.Inscription on the west; and on the south side of the Stone, these Letters are fairly discernible,


More to South and West, and further in the Country, lies Gillesland-Barony:Gillesland. a tract * * Ita impedita. so cut and mangled with the brooks (which they call † † The bottom wherein the brook runs is the Gill.Gilles,) that I should have thought, it had taken the name from them; if I had not read in the book of Lanercost-Church, that one Gill the son of Bueth (call’d also Gilbert in a Charter of Henry the second) was formerly possess’d of it: so that probably it had this name from him. ⌈It might also take it from Hubert de Vallibus (or Vaux;) since de Vallibus and Gills signifie the same thing: and it is offer’d to consideration by others, whether it might not, after all, be so called from the river Gelt, which runs along the middle of it.⌉ Through this tract, Severus’s wall (that famous monument of Britain) runs from Carlisle to the East, almost in a streight line, by Stanwicks a little village; and Scalby,Scalby-Castle. a Castle formerly belonging to the Tilleols (once a famous Family in those parts) from whom it came to the Pickerings. ⌈At this Castle (the seat of the Gilpins) are preserv’d three Altars, which were dug up in those parts. One, not far from the Castle, found in the river Irdin, on a stone colour’d with a sort of yellow, and of this figure:


The second was dug-up at Cambeck, in the ruins of an old stone wall, and is of this form.


This third is imperfect; and in what place it was found I cannot positively say;

Deo. cocidi
Coh. i. a e l--
----- a----vs ⌉

Then the Wall is cross’d by the little river Cambeck upon which the Barons Dacre built AskertonAskerton-Castle. a small Castle, wherein the Governour of Gillesland (call’d commonly Land Sergeant) kept Garrison. Below the Wall, it joyns the river Irthing, where is Irthington,Irthington. the Capital Manour of the Barony of Gillesland: and here, at Castle-steed, appear very great ruins. Hard by, is Brampton,Brampton. a little market-town; ⌈where is an Hospital for six poor men, and as many poor women, with a Salary for a Chaplain; founded and endow’d by the Right Honourable Elizabeth Countess Dowager of Carlisle, mother to the present Earl of Carlisle.⌉ This I take to be the Bremeturacum along the WallBremeturacum ad lineam valli. (for it is scarce a mile from the Wall;) where, formerly, the first Cohort of the TungriCohors 1 Tungrorum. from Germany, and in the decline of the Roman Empire, the Cuneus Armaturarum, under the Governour of Britain, were in Garrison.Armaturae Those Armaturæ,Armaturæ. were Horse arm’d Cap-a-pee:Veget. l.2. c.7. but whether they were Duplares or Simplares, my Author has not told us. The Duplares were such as * * Binas conseque­bantur annonas.had a double allowance of Provision, the Simplares, such as had a single allowance. Nor must I omit, that at Brampton there is a high hill call’d the Mote, ditch’d round at the top; from whence is a large prospect into all the Country round. Below this, and at Castle-steeds, i.e. the place of a Castle, as also at Trederman hard by, were found these Inscriptions, which the Right Honourable William Lord Howard of Naworth, third son of his Grace † † Ann. 1607.Thomas Duke of Norfolk, copy’d out for me with his own hand: a person admirably well vers’d in the study of Antiquities, and a peculiar favourer of that study; who in right of his wife, the sister and coheir of the last Lord Baron Dacre, came to a large estate in those parts; ⌈which his Posterity still enjoy.⌉


This also was found there in an old Vault; in which the name of the Emperour’s Lieutenant and Proprætor in Britain, is unluckily worn out.Propraetor


Near Brampton, runs the little river Gelt; on the bank of which, in a rock call’d Helbeck, is this gaping Inscription, set up by an Ensign of the second Legion call’d Augusta (possibly Optio) under Agricola the Proprætor; with some others, of which Time has depriv’d us.


Perhaps Proprætore. Rock inscription

In the same rock also, we read in a more modern character,

OFICIV Saxon M RO Saxon MANORV Saxon M.

Here, the Gelt empties it self into the river Irthing,Irthing, riv. which runs with a violent rapid stream by Naworth-Castle,Naworth-Castle.† Now belonging, C.belonging to William Howard before-mentioned, who ¦ ¦ Is repairing it,’d it; but lately to the Barons of Dacre; the last of whom * * So said, ann. 1607.some years ago dy’d young, and Leonard his Uncle (chosing rather to try for the Estate, with his Prince in War, than with his Nieces in Law) seiz’d upon this Castle, and got together a company of seditious Rebels.

But the Lord Hunsdon, with the garrison of Berwick, easily defeated them; putting a great many to the sword, and the rest (among whom was Leonard himself) † Fuga flight.

⌈It is now in the possession of the Right Honourable Charles Howard Earl of Carlisle (great great grandson to the Lord William before-mentioned) who has repair’d the Castle, and made it fit for the reception of a Family. Here is a Library, formerly well furnished with Books; and there are still in it † Catal. Lib. MS. Oxon.many Manuscripts of value, relating chiefly to Heraldry and English History. In the Hall, are the Pictures of all the Kings of England, down from the Saxon times; which were brought from Kirk-Oswald-Castle, when that was demolish’d, above a hundred years ago.

In the garden-wall, are a great many stones with Roman Inscriptions, which were collected and placed there by this Family. Some of them are not legible, but others are. On one is,

ivl. avg. dvo..m silv.. vm.

On another,

.i.o.m....ii. æl. dac.. c.p...est
vrelivs. fa. l. s. trib. pet. vo. cos.

On a third,

leg. ii. avg.

On a fourth,

coh. i. æl. dac. cord..alec. per....

With some others, which are evidently the same with those that were copied out in the last age and represented before, and which in all likelihood were brought hither from Willy-ford.⌉

Nearer the Wall, stood the Priory of Lanercost, founded by R. de Vallibus, Lord of Gillesland. ⌈Not far from whence is a medicinal spring, which issues out of a rock; the water is impregnated with Sulphur, Nitre, and Vitriol, and is said to be very good for the Spleen, the Stone, and all Cutaneous distempers. In the summer time, it is much frequented both by the Scotch and English.⌉ Upon the wall, is Burd-Oswald;Burd-Oswald. and below this, where the Picts-Wall pass’d the river Irthing by an arch’d bridge, at a place now call’d Willoford, was the Station of the Cohors prima Ælia Dacorum; as appears by the Notitia, and by several Altars which were erected by that Cohort, and inscrib’d to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Some of them I think proper to give you, though much defac’d, and worn with age:

Jovi optimo Maximo.I. O. M.

I. O. M.
C.--C.--A. GETA

I. O. M.
CoH. ī AEL.
DAC. C. P.¦ Fortissimo Cæsari.


Leg. vi.
Vic. p. f.

I. o. m.

Coh i ael. dac
Tetriciano ro
---c. p. p. lvtic
----v. s. desig

I. o. m.

Coh. i. ael.
Dac. gord.
Ana. c. p--

    i. o. m.
----h. i. ael. dac.
----c. praeesi.---
----flius fa
----s trib.----

⌈In those parts, are many rivulets, called by the name of Glen or Glyn; from whence the Amblogana ad lineam Valli, mentioned in the Notitia, might, not improbably, take the name, * * V. Ambleside, in Westmorland.supposing it to be rightly fix’d at this place, or the neighbourhood of it.⌉

Lords of Gillesland. Out of an old Missal. The first Lord of Gillesland that I read of, was William Meschines, brother of Ralph Lord of Cumberland (not that William who was brother of RanulphR. Cooke, Clarenceux, calls him Ralph; as also the MSS. of Fountain and Holme-Abbies. Earl of Chester from whom sprang Ranulph de Ruelent, but the brother of Ralph;) who was not able to get it out of the hands of the Scots: for Gill the son of Bueth, held the greatest part of it by force of Arms; ⌈(though this could be but for a little while: for the father was banished into Scotland in Earl Randolph’s time, and the Son Gillesbueth (as he was called) was slain by Robert de Vallibus, at a meeting for Arbitration of all differences; so that that Family seems never to have claimed it after. The murther was barbarous, and Robert, to atone for it, built the Abbey of Lanercost, and gave to it the Lands which had caused the quarrel. But this by the way:)⌉ After his death, King Henry the second bestow’d it upon Hubert de Vallibus or Vaulx, whose Coat Armour was Chequey, Argent and Gules. His son Robert founded and endow’d the Priory of Lanercost. But the Estate, within a few years, came by marriage to the Moltons, and from them by a daughter to Ranulph Lord Dacre, whose posterity have flourished in great honour down to our time. ⌈However, it is to be observ’d, that in the account of the Lords of Gillesland, the Chronicles differ very much. For, according to others,Chron. Cumbriæ. Dugd. Mon. vol.1. p.400. Id. Bar. v.1. p.525. Ranulph and Radulph are the same name, and Ranulph de Mechinis is call’d indifferently by these two names. Then Ranulph de Micenis, who was Lord of Cumberland by Grant from the Conqueror, was the very same who was afterwards Earl of Chester by descent, after the death of his Cousin-german Richard, second Earl of Chester, who was son to John Bohun and Margaret his wife, sister to Hugh Lupus first Earl of Chester. Again, William de Micenis, brother to Randolph de Micenis, was Lord of Coupland, but not of Gillesland; for upon Randolph’s resignation of the County of Cumberland into the hands of King Henry the first, Randolph had given Gillesland to Hubert de Vallibus, which Grant the King confirm’d to him, and his Successors enjoy’d it. The Right Honourable Charles Howard present Earl of Carlisle, and Lord of Gillesland, claims descent from him by the mother’s side, according to the pedigree of the Family, which is to be seen in the Chapel at Naworth-Castle.⌉cumbriae

Having thus taken a Survey of the Sea-coast and inner parts of Cumberland, we must pass to the East (a lean, hungry, and desolate Country;) though it afford nothing remarkable besides the head of South-Tine in a wet spungy ground, and an ancient Roman stone Causey, * * 8 Ulnas.above ten yards broad. It is call’d the Maiden-way,Maiden-way. and comes out of Westmoreland: and, at the confluence of the little river Alon and the Tine, on the side of a gentle ascent, there are the remains of a large old Town; which to the North has been fortify’d with a fourfold Rampire, and to the West † † Sescuplo.with one and a half. The place is now call’d Whitley-castle;Whitley-castle. and, as a testimony of it’s Antiquity, shows this imperfect Inscription ¦ ¦ Compendiosa scribendi ratione literis implexis.compendiously written with the Letters link’d one in another: from which we learn, that the third Cohort of the Nervii built a * * Ædem.Temple here to Antoninus the Emperour, Son of Severus.AEdem

IMP. CAES, Lucii Septimi Severi Ara-
TR. POT.--X--IMP.----COS. IIII. P.p.---
----------LEGATO AVG.
PR----COH. III. NERVIO-------
RVM---G. R. POS.

Now, seeing the third Cohort of the Nervii was quarter’d in this place, seeing also the Notitia sets them at Alione, as Antoninus does at Alone, and a little river running under it is call’d Alne; if I should think this the very Alone, I could not indeed deliver it for a positive truth, because the injuries of time, and the violence of wars, have long since obscur’d and obliterated these things; but it would at least amount to a probability.

Upon the decay of the Roman Power in Britain, though this Country was cruelly harrass’d by the Scots and Picts, yet did it keep its original Inhabitants the Britains, longest of any, and fell late under the power of the Saxons. But when the Danish wars had well-nigh broken the Saxon government, it had its petty Kings, stil’d Kings of Cumberland,Kings of Cumberland. to the year of our Lord 946. At which time (as Florilegus tells us) King Edmund, by the assistance of Leolin King of South-Wales, spoil’d Cumberland of all its riches, and having put out the eyes of the two sons of Dummail King of that Country, granted that Kingdom to Malcolm King of Scots, to hold of him, and to protect the North-parts of England by Sea and Land against the incursions of Enemies. cumbriae praefecti Upon which, the eldest sons of the Kings of Scotland, as well under the Saxons as Danes, were stil’d * * Cumbriæ Præfecti.Governours of Cumberland. But when England had yielded to the Normans, this County submitted among the rest, and fell to the share of Ralph de Meschines, whose eldest son Ranulph was Lord of Cumberland, and at the same time, in right of his mother and by the favour of his Prince, Earl of Chester. However, King Stephen, to ingratiate himself with the Scots, restor’d it to them, to † Clientelari jure tenerent.hold of him and his Successors Kings of England. But his immediate Successor Henry the second, considering what prejudice this profuse Liberality of Stephen was like to prove both to him and his Kingdom, demanded back from the Scots, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland. And the Scotch King (as Neubrigensis has it) wisely considering, that since the King of England had both a better title, and was much stronger in those parts (though he could have alledg’d the oath which was said to have been made to his grandfather David, when he was knighted by him,) did very fairly and honestly restore the foresaid bounds, at the King’s demand, and in lieu of them had Huntingdonshire restor’d, which belong’d to him by ancient right.

Earls of Cumberland. Cumberland had no Earls before Henry the eighth’s time; who created Henry Clifford, descended from the Lords de Veteri ponte or Vipont, first Earl of Cumberland. He, by Margaret, daughter of Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, had Henry the second Earl, who by his first wife, daughter of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, had Margaret Countess of Derby; and by his second wife, daughter of Baron Dacre of Gillesland, had two sons, George and Francis. George the third Earl, famous for his Naval Exploits, and a person undaunted and indefatigable, dy’d in the year 1505, leaving one only daughter Anne. Francis his brother, the fourth Earl, succeeded him; in whom ⌈even when young⌉ ¦ ¦ Appears, C.appear’d a strong inclination to Virtue, becoming the issue of such honourable Ancestors; ⌈who dying in the year of our Lord 1641, was succeeded by his only son Francis, who dy’d at York, 1643, leaving issue one only daughter, so that the male line of that most ancient and noble family is now extinct. Of later years, his Royal Highness Prince George of Denmark (a Prince of known Valour, and a great example of Prudence, Wisdom, and Conjugal Affection,) honour’d this County, by having the title of Duke of Cumberland; which had been also enjoy’d before him, by Prince Rupert, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, a person of great Courage and Bravery.⌉

This County has 58 Parish-Churches, besides Chapels.


Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06