Britannia, by William Camden

Lancashire.

Big I I Must now strike into another Road, and proceed to the remaining part of the Brigantes, who settl’d beyond the Mountains towards the Western Ocean. And first, of those of Lancashire, whom I approach with a kind of dread: may it forebode no ill! But I fear I shall be so far from satisfying the Reader, that I shall not satisfie my self. For after I had survey’d the far greater part of this County, I found very few Discoveries to my mind; the ancient names seem’d every where to be so much obscur’d and destroy’d by age. However, that I may not seem wanting to this County, I will run the hazard of the attempt; hoping that the Divine assistance which hath favour’d me in the rest, will not fail me in this.

The County Palatine of Lancaster map, left
The County Palatine of Lancaster map, right

The County Palatine of Lancaster

Under the Mountains (which, as I have often observ’d, run through the middle of England, and, if I may so say, make themselves Umpires, and distinguish the several Tracts and Counties) lyes the County of Lancaster on the West; call’d in Saxon Saxon Loncaster-scyre, and commonly Lonka-shire, Lancashire, and the County Palatine of Lancaster, because it is dignified with the title of Palatine. County Palatine. See the beginning of Cheshire. It lies pent-up between Yorkshire on the East, and the Irish Sea to the West; but on the South-side towards Cheshire, it is broader; and by little and little, as it shoots out to the North, where it borders upon Westmorland, it grows narrower. And there, by the breaking in of the Sea, it is divided by an Arm thereof: so as a considerable part lies beyond the Bay, and joyns to Cumberland.

Where this County is plain and level, it yields Barley and Wheat pretty well; at the foot of the hills, Oats grow best. The Soil is every where tolerable, except in some moist and unwholsome places, call’d Mosses;Mosses. which notwithstanding make amends for these inconveniences, by Benefits that very much overbalance them. For the surface of them being par’d off, makes an excellent fat TurfTurfs. for fuel; and sometimes they yield Trees, that have either grown under-ground, or lain long buried there. Lower down, in some parts, they find great store of Marle to manure their ground; whereby that soil which was reckon’d uncapable of Corn, is so kindly improv’d, that we may rather suppose Mankind to blame for their Idleness, than the Earth for Ingratitude. But as for the goodness of this Country, we see it in the very complexion of the Natives, who are exceeding well-favour’d and comely; nay, and if we will observe it, in the Cattle too. For in the OxenLancashire Oxen. (which have huge horns, and * * Composito corpore.compact bodies) you miss nothing of that perfection, which Mago the Carthaginian, in Columella, requires.

On the South, it is divided from Cheshire by the river Mersey; which springs out of the middle of the Mountains, and becomes the boundary as soon as it is got a little from its rise, and runs with a gentle stream towards the West, as it were inviting other rivers (to use the words of the Poet) into his azure lap; and forthwith receives the Irwell from the North, and with it all the rivers of this Eastern part. The most noted is the river Roch, upon which, in a valley, stands RochdaleRochdale., a market-town of no small resort; as also Bury upon the Irwell it self, a market-town no way inferiour to the other. ⌈The first of these gives the title of Baron to the Lord Byron; whose ancestor, Sir John Byron, was, for his great valour, and eminent loyalty to King Charles the first, created Lord Byron of Rochdale.⌉ Near Bury, while I sought for Coccium mentioned by Antoninus, I saw CockleyCockley. a wooden Chapel set round with Trees; Turton-ChapelTurton. situate in a dirty steep place: Turton-tower, and Entweissel† So said, ann. 1607.neat and elegant houses. The latter of which belong’d formerly to an honourable Family of the name; the former ¦ ¦ Is at this day, C.was the seat of the famous family of the Orells, ⌈and now of the Cheethams.⌉ Where the Irk runs into the Irwell, on the left-hand bank (which is a kind of reddish stone) and scarce three miles from the Mersey, stands that ancient Town, called in Antoninus, according to different copies, MancuniumMancunium. and Manutium; which old name it has not quite lost at this day, being now call’d ManchesterManchester.. This surpasses all the Towns hereabouts in building, populousness, woollen-manufacture, market-place, and Church; and in its College, which was founded in the reign of Henry the fifth, by Thomas Lord La-Ware, who was in Orders, and was the last heir-male of the family. He was descended from the Greleys, who were, by report, the ancient Lords of the Town. (⌈That stately stone-building is now wholly employ’d for the use of the Hospital and Library.) But in the * * So said, ann. 1607. and it is so still.last age, this place was much more eminent for its Woollen-cloth or Manchester-Cottons;Manchester Cottons. and also for the privilege of a Sanctuary, which by Act of Parliament in Henry the eighth’s time was transferred to Chester.⌉ ⌈But the growth of this Place, in this and the last age, having been so considerable, and what has set it so far above its neighbours in all respects; it may deservedly claim a particular account to be given of its present state. For although it is neither a Corporation, nor does it send Burgesses to Parliament; yet perhaps, as an in-land town, it has the best trade of any in those Northern parts. The Fustian Manufacture, call’d Manchester-Cottons, still continues there, and is of late very much improv’d by some modern inventions of dying and printing; and this, with the great variety of other manufactures, known by the name of Manchester-Wares, renders not only the town it self, but also the Parish about it, rich, populous and industrious. Eighty years ago, there were computed near 20000 Communicants in the town and Parish; since which time the inhabitants are much more numerous, proportionable to the increase of trade; and, of late, the Town hath been much improved by the building of many fair and stately Houses; which make a very handsom Street. At the end of this, a beautiful ChurchChurches. hath also been lately erected, by the voluntary Contributions of the Inhabitants, and others; for which end, we find a Statute pass’d in Parliament, in theCap.6. seventh year of her Majesty Queen Anne.

The Collegiate Church (which was built in the year 1422.) is also a very large, beautiful, and stately edifice; and the Quire is particularly remarkable for its neat and curious carv’d work. The Town is likewise beautify’d with three remarkable Foundations, a College, a Hospital, and a Publick School; the following account whereof we owe to the late worthy Warden of this place.

College. The College was founded A.D. 1421. by Thomas de la Ware, at first Rector of the said Parish-Church, and brother to the Lord de la Ware; to whom he succeeded in the estate and honour, and then founded a College here, consisting of one Master or Keeper, eight Fellow-Chaplains, four Clerks, and six Choristers, in honour of St. Mary (to whom the said Parish-Church was formerly dedicated) and of St. Dennis of France, and St. George of England. This foundation was dissolved 1547, in the first year of King Edward the sixth, and the lands and revenues of it were taken into the King’s hands, and by him demised to the Earl of Derby; and the College-house and some lands were sold to the said Earl. The College was re-founded by Queen Mary, who restored most of the lands and revenues; only the College it self, and some of its revenues, remain’d still in the hands of the Earl of Derby. It was also founded a-new by Queen Elizabeth A.D 1578, by the name of Christ’s-College in Manchester, consisting of one Warden, four Fellows, two Chaplains, four Singing-men, and four Choristers; the number being lessen’d, because the revenues were also lessen’d, chiefly by the covetousness and false-dealing of Thomas Herle then Warden, and his Fellows, who sold away, or made such long leases of the revenues, as could never yet, some of them, be retriev’d. It was, last of all, re-founded by King Charles the first, A.D. 1636, constituting therein one Warden, four Fellows, two Chaplains, four Singing-men, and four Choristers, and incorporating them by the name of the Warden and Fellows of Christ’s College in Manchester; the Statutes for the same being drawn up by Archbishop Laud.

Hospital. The Hospital was founded by Humphrey Cheetham Esquire, and incorporated by King Charles the second; being designed by the said bountiful Benefactor for the maintenance of forty poor boys, out of the Town and Parish of Manchester, and some other neighbouring Parishes. But since, it is enlarged to the number of sixty by the Governours of the said Hospital, to be taken-in between the age of six and ten, and there maintained with meat, drink, lodging, and cloaths, to the age of fourteen, and then to be bound Apprentices to some honest trade or calling at the charge of the said Hospital. For the maintenance whereof, he endowed it with * * 420 l. per ann.a large yearly revenue, which is since † † To 517 l. 8 s. 4 d. per ann.much improved by the care and good husbandry of the Feoffees or Governours,Ann. 1695. who laid out ¦ ¦ 1825 l.a large sum in the purchase of lands, which was saved out of the yearly income over and above the maintenance of the poor children, and others belonging to the said Hospital; wherein there are annually near seventy persons provided for.

Library. Within the Hospital, and by the bounty of the said Founder, is also erected a very fair and spacious Library, already furnished with a competent stock of choice and valuable books, and daily encreasing; with * * 116 l. per ann.a large yearly income settled upon the same by the said worthy benefactor, to buy Books for ever, and to afford a competent salary for a Library-keeper. There is also a large School for the Hospital-boys, where they are daily instructed, and taught to write and read.

School. The Publick School was founded A.D. 1519, by Hugh Oldham D.D. and Bishop of Exeter, who bought the Lands on which the School stands, and took the Mills there in † † For 60 years.lease of the Lord De la Ware. Afterwards, with the Bishop’s money, Hugh Bexwick, and Joan his sister, purchased of the Lord De la Ware his Lands in Ancoates, and the Mills upon Irk, and left them in Feoffment to the said Free-school forever. Which Revenues are of late very much encreas’d by the Feoffees of the School, who, out of the improvements, have considerably augmented as well the Masters salaries, as the Exhibitions annually allowed to the maintenance of such scholars at the University, as the Warden of the College and the high Master shall think requisite; and have besides, for some years past, added a third Master, for whom they have lately erected a new and convenient School at the end of the other.

Besides these publick Benefactions and Endowments, there have been several other considerable sums of money, and annual revenues, left and bequeathed to the Poor of the said Town; who are thereby, with the kindness and charity of the present inhabitants, competently provided for, without starving at home, or being forced to seek relief abroad.

The Town gives title to an honourable family; Henry Montague (Lord Montague of Kimbolton and Viscount Mandevil) having been created Earl of Manchester by King Charles the first, A.D. 1625; who was succeeded therein by Edward his son and heir, Lord Chamberlain of the Houshold to King Charles the second. To him succeeded in the same Titles, first, Robert his son and heir; and then, Charles his Grandson, who hath been Ambassador Extraordinary to Venice, and to the French Court; and was soon after constituted one of the Principal Secretaries of State; and who also, in consideration of these and the like Services to his Country, hath been advanced by King George, to the higher honour of Duke of Manchester.

In a neighbouring Park, ⌈heretofore⌉ belonging to the Earls of Derby, call’d † † Aldport, Leigh.Alparc, I saw the foundation of an old square Fort, which they call Mancastle;Mancastle. where the river Medloc joins the Irwell. I will not say, that this was the ancient Mancunium, the compass of it is so little; but rather that it was some Roman station. Here I saw an ancient Stone with this Inscription;

Rev. C Candidi
Fides. Xx.
Iiii.

This other was copied for me, by the famous Mathematician, J. Dee Warden of Manchester College.

Coho. I. Frisin
Rev. C Masavonis
p. xxiii.

They seem to have been erected to the memory of those Centurions, in consideration of their approved loyalty for so many years.

⌈Another Inscription was dug-up at the same place, by the river Medlock, in the year 1612.

Fortvnae
conserva
trici
l. senecia
nivs mar
tivs Rev. Eleg
Vi. Vict.

The Stone is three quarters long, fifteen inches broad, and eleven thick; and is preserv’d entire in the garden at Hulme, the seat of the Blands, Lords of the Town of Manchester by marriage with the heiress of the Moseleys. “It seems to be an Altar dedicated to Fortune by L. Senecianus Martius the third Governour or Commander in the sixth Legion, which remain’d at York in the time of Severus’s being there, after he had vanquish’d Albinus General of the Britains, and reduc’d their State under his obedience. It was sirnam’d Victrix,Lib. 55. p.645, 646. and is plac’d by Dio in Lower Britain; and the 20th Legion, sirnam’d also Victrix, remain’d at Chester,Edit. Steph. 1592. which he placeth in higher Britain. This division, it seemeth, was made by the same Severus.” So saith a Manuscript, written by Mr. Hollingworth (once Fellow of the Collegiate Church here,) and now preserv’d in the Publick Library at Manchester. But as to Senecianus’s being third Governour or Commander; it is a way of expressing the particular station of a single person in the army, which is hardly to be met with in their Inscriptions. Besides, their Numerals, both in Coins, Medals, and Inscriptions, were always express’d by Capital Figures, and not in that abbreviated way which we use now-a-days. So that one would rather imagine, that what he calls 3, was design’d to express the Office which he bore in that Legion.⌉

In the year 920, Edward the elder, as Marianus says, sent an Army of the Mercians into Northumberland (for then this belong’d to the Kings of Northumberland) that they should repair the City of Manchester, and put a Garrison in it. ⌈This passage, Marianus had from the Saxon Chronicle, and Florence of Worcester transcrib’d it from him: and so it was handed down as current to the rest of our Historians. Which consent hath induc’d some more modern Writers to close with the receiv’d Opinion.multae But in the Saxon Annals (which are the original of this story) we are told, that An. 922. Edward repair’d Saxon manige ceaster, by which a * * Bishop Nicholson.learned Antiquary (taking it appellatively) will have only multæ civitates, many Cities, to be meant; without confining it to any particular one. And this opinion is confirm’d, not only by the writing of the Copies (for they make them two distinct words,) but also by the deriving of the present name from the old Mancunium, whereby the relation that it might seem to have to the Saxons, and the supposition of its Original from thence, is made of no force.⌉

This Town seems to have been destroy’d in the Danish wars; and because the Inhabitants behav’d themselves bravely against them, they will have their Town call’d Manchester; that is, as they explain it, a City of men: and of this notion they are strangely fond, as seeming to contribute much to their honour. But these well-meaning People are not sensible, that Mancunium was the name of it in the British times; so that an original fetch’d from our English tongue, will by no means hold. And therefore I had rather derive it from the British word Main, which signifies a stone. For it stands upon a stony hill; and beneath the Town at Colyhurst,Colyhurst. there are noble and famous Stone-Quarries.

But to return. The Mersey, now enlarged by the river Irwell, runs towards the Sea, by Trafford,Trafford. which hath given both name and habitation to the famous family of the Traffords: and by Chatmoss,Chatmoss. a wet marshy ground of great extent; a considerable part whereof, in the memory of † † So said, ann. 1607.our Fathers, was wash’d away by a river-flood, not without great danger to the neighbours; causing also a corruption of the waters, which destroy’d abundance of the fish in those rivers. Mosses, how they come. In this tract there is now a Valley water’d by a small river; and * * See Leigh, l.1. p.21.Trees have been discover’d lying flat in the ground. From whence one would think, that (while the earth lay uncultivated, and the ditches unscour’d in these low plains, and, either by neglect or depopulation, the water-passages were stop’d up,) those grounds that lay lower than the rest, turned into such boggy Mosses, or else into standing Pools. If this be true, there is no reason to admire, that so many Trees in places of this nature all over England, but particularly in this County,Trees underground. do lie bury’d in the ground. For when the roots of them were loosen’d by the too great moisture of the earth, it was impossible but they should fall, and so sink and be drown’d in such a spungy Soil. The People hereabouts use poles and spits to discover where they lie; and having found the place, they dig for them, and use them for firing. For they burn as bright and clear as a Torch; which perhaps is caused by the bituminous earth that they have lain in.caesar tsunami For this reason, the common people think they have been Firr-trees;No Firs in Britain in Cæsar’s days. which Cæsar denies to have grown in Britain. I know the Opinion generally receiv’d, is, that these have remain’d here ever since the Deluge, and were then beaten down by the violence of the waters: and the rather, because they are sometimes dug-up in the higher grounds. However, they deny not, but these higher grounds they speak of, are wet and quaggy. This kind of huge Trees is like-wise often found in Holland in Germany; which the learned there suppose, either to have been undermin’d by the Waves on the Sea-shore, or blown down by Storms, and so carry’d into these low washy places, and there sunk into the ground. But these Points are more proper to be consider’d by a College of Virtuosi.Caesar pine-cone surnames

⌈As to that Opinion of Cæsar, that no Fir-trees ever grew in Britain; it is not only confuted by Firs lying under-ground, but, as Sir Robert Sibbald tells us, by whole forests of those trees in the north of Scotland. And * * Chron. p.160.Speed gives us this memorable passage, That at Lough-Argick in the north-west of that Kingdom, there grew Firs of great height and thickness. At the root they bore twenty eight handfuls about; and the bodies mounted to ninety foot in length, bearing twenty inches diameter throughout. This, he tells us, was certify’d to King James the first, by Commissioners who were sent purposely to enquire for such timber, for masts. Nay, and it is demonstrable, that most of our Moss-wood is of this kind. In this very County also, at HeyHey. (formerly a seat of the Heys) these Trees grow in great abundance, by the industry and contrivance of Thomas Brotherton Esq; to whom the world is indebted for many curious Observations and Experiments concerning the growth of Trees.pine cone pinecone Phil. Trans. N.187. And to shew that Fir-trees grew in these parts anciently, as well as now;Leigh, l.1. p.21. in the draining of a large Meer, they have found not only Fir-Stocks but Fir-Apples also: and however the Wood might be altered into something like Firr by the bituminous matter it lay in; it is certain, the Apples could not belong to a Tree of any other kind.⌉

Next to Chatmoss, we see Holcroft,Holcroft. which gaveLib. Inq. in Scaccar. both seat and name to the famous family of the Holcrofts, formerly enriched by marriage with the Coheir of Culchit. For this place stands hard by; which Gilbert de Culchit held in fee of Almarick Butler, as Almarick held it in Fee of the Earl de Ferrariis in Henry the third’s time. Whose eldest daughter and heir being marry’d to Richard the son of Hugh de Hindley, he took the name of Culchit; also Thomas his brother, who marry’d the second daughter, was call’d from the estate, Holcroft;Variety of names. another, for the same reason, took the name of Peasfalong; and the fourth, that of de Riseley. Which I mention, for a testimony, that as our Ancestors were grave and settl’d in other things, so in rejecting old and taking new names from their Estates, they were very light and changeable. And this was a thing commonly practis’d heretofore, in other parts of England. Hereabouts, are many little Towns (as also through this whole County, and Cheshire, and other Northern parts) which have given names to famous Families, and continue in the hands of those of the name to † † Ann. 1607.this very day. As Aston of Aston, Atherton of Atherton, Tillesley of Tillesley, Standish of Standish, Bold of Bold, Hesket of Hesket, Worthington of Worthington, Torbeck of Torbeck, &c. It would be endless to reckon up all; and it is not my design to give an account of eminent Families, but to survey Places of Antiquity. Yet, as these and such-like families in the Northern Counties (that I may observe it once for all, ) rose by their Bravery, and improv’d in Wealth by their frugality, and by the good old self-contented plainness and simplicity; so in the South parts of England, Luxury, Usury, Debauchery, and Cheating, have undone the most flourishing families in a short time; insomuch that many complain, how fast the old race of our Nobility † †  So said, ann. 1607.fades and decays.

Let us now go on with the Mersey; which runs by Warrington,Warrington. remarkable for its Lords the Butlers, who obtain’d for it the privilege of a Market, from Edward the first. ⌈Here is a fine bridge over the Mersey. The Town is pretty large and its Market considerable. In the second year of King William and Queen Mary, Henry Booth Lord Delamere of Dunham Massey (son of the eminently loyal Sir George Booth) was created Earl of Warrington, which title is enjoy’d at present by George, his son.⌉ Hence, northward, at no great distance, stands Winwick,Winwick. ⌈suppos’d by someUsher. Primord. p.33. to be the City Cair Guntin among the Britains; which is call’d by Ninnius Cair Guintguic, and is⌉ famous for being one of the best * * Sacerdotia.Benefices in England. Here, in the uppermost part of the Church, are these Verses in an old barbarous character, concerning King Oswald.

Hic locus, Oswalde, quondam placuit tibi valde,
Northanhumbrorum fueras Rex, nuncque Polorum
Regna tenes, loco passus
Marcelde vocato.

This happy Place did holy Oswald love,
Who once Northumbria rul’d, now reigns above,
And from Marcelde did to Heaven remove.

From Warrington, the Mersey grows broader, and soon after contracts again; but at last opens into a wide mouth very commodious for trade, and then runs into the Sea near Litherpoole,Litherpoole. in Saxon Saxon Liferpole, commonly Lirpoole; so call’d (as it is thought) from the water spread there like a fen. Liverpool It is the most convenient and usual place for setting sail into Ireland; but not so eminent for Antiquity, as for neatness and populousness. ⌈Such persons as are free of this Town, have the benefit of being Free-men also of Waterford and Wexford in that Kingdom, as also of Bristol in this. To this (with their trade to the West-Indies, and the several Manufactures in the parts adjacent) is probably owing the vast growth of the Town, of late years. Insomuch, that it’s buildings and people are more than doubly augmented, and the Customs eight or tenfold encreas’d, in the present Age. They have built a Town-house plac’d on pillars and arches of hewn stone, with a publick Exchange for the Merchants underneath it; and a publick Charity-School, which is a large and beautiful Structure. It is principally indebted to the Mores of Blankhall, chief Lords and Owners of the greatest part of it; by whom it was beautified with goodly buildings of hewn stone: so that some of the streets are nam’d, from their relation to that family. In the tenth year of the reign of King William, a Statute was passed to enable them to build a Church and endow the same, and to make the Town and Liberties thereof a Parish of it self distinct from Walton. And in the eighth year of Queen Anne, was pass’d another Law, for making here a convenient Dock or Bason, for the Security of all Ships trading to and from this Port; and a third, the same year, for bringing fresh water into the Town, for the convenience of the Inhabitants. They have a Free-School, which was formerly a Chapel; at the west-end whereof, next the river, there stood the statue of St. Nicholas (long since defac’d and gone) to whom the Mariners offer’d, when they went to Sea. To add to the reputation of this Town, it hath had several Mayors who were persons of the most considerable families in this County, both before and since the Restoration.⌉

The name is not to be met with in old Writers; but only that Roger of Poictiers, who was Lord of the Honour of Lancaster (according to the language of those days) built a Castle here; the Government whereof was enjoy’d for a long time by the noble family of theMolineaux. Molineaux, Knights, ⌈and now Lords Molineaux, whose chief Seat is hard by at Sefton,Sefton. which the same Roger de Poictiers bestow’d upon Vivian de Molineaux, a little after the coming-in of the Normans; for all the Land between the Ribell and the Mersey, belong’d to the said Roger, as appears by Domesday. ⌈Their ordinary Residence is at a House newly built, about three miles from this place.

Near Sefton, is Crosby magna,Crosby-magna. where they have a Grammar-School, founded by one Harrison a native of the place. It is a fair building of free-stone, and ** 50 l. per ann. well endow’d, besides † 7 l. or 8 l. per ann. a provision for Repairs and Visitations. At a little distance is Crosby parva,Crosby-parva. within which Lordship, in a place call’d Harkirke, several Saxon Coins have been dug-up, the portraictures whereof were printed in a Copper-plate by William Blundel, Esquire.⌉

Near Sefton aforesaid, the little river Alt runs into the Sea; leaving its name to Altmouth a small village at the mouth of it; and running at a little distance from † † Ferneby, C.
Formby.
Formby, where, in the mossy grounds, they cast up Turves, which serve the Inhabitants both for fire and candle. Under the Turf there lies a blackish dead water, which has a kind of oily fat substance floating upon it, and little fishes swimming in it,Fishes dug-up. which are taken by the Diggers ** Nothing like this is to be seen, or heard of, at present.; so that we may say, we have Fish dug out of the ground in England, as well as they have about Heraclea and Tius in Pontus. Nor is this strange; since in watry places of this nature, the fish following the water, often swim under-ground; and so men are forc’d to fish for them with spades. But, that in Paphlagonia many fish are dug-up, and those good ones too, in places not at all watery; has somewhat of a peculiar and more hidden cause in it. That of Seneca was pleasantly said, What reason is there why fish should not travel the Land, if we traverse the Sea? ⌈As to the oily matter abovementioned, a Chymist in the neighbourhood extracted from it an Oyl extraordinary Soveraign in Paralytick Distempers; having first congealed it into a turf.⌉

From hence the shore is bare and open, with a very great winding. More inward from the Sea, stands Ormeskirke,Ormeskirke. a Market-town, remarkable for being the burial-place of the Stanleys, Earls of Derby; whose chief Seat ¦ ¦ Is, C.was LathamLatham. hard by, a House large and stately, which from the time of Henry the fourth * * Has, C.had been continually enlarging. At that time, Sir John Stanley Knight (father of John Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, descended from the same stock with the Barons of Audley) marry’d the daughter and heir of Thomas Latham an eminent Knight; to whom this great Estate, with many others, had come in right of his wife. From that time the StanleysStanleys, Earls of Derby. liv’d here; of whom Thomas (son of Thomas Lord Stanley) was made Earl of Derby by King Henry the seventh, and had by Eleanor Nevill, daughter to the Earl of Salisbury, George Lord Le Strange. For he had marry’d Joan, the only daughter and heir of John Baron Le Strange of Knockin, who dy’d during the life of his father, leaving a son, Thomas, the second Earl of Derby. He by his wife Ann, daughter of Edward Lord Hastings, had a son, Edward, the third Earl of Derby; who by Dorothy, the daughter of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, had Henry, the fourth Earl; whose wife was Margaret, daughter of Henry Clifford Earl of Cumberland, and mother of Ferdinand the † † Who dy’d lately, C.fifth Earl; and of William the sixth Earl, who succeeded his brother ⌈and whose son was James, the seventh Earl, a person of eminent Loyalty and Valour; father of Charles the eighth, and of James the ninth Earl, who at present, enjoys the honour.

This place is memorable, as for its Earls, so also for that personal and successful defence of it, made by Sherlotta the loyal Countess of Derby, against a close and long siege of the Parliament-Army in the year 1644. For a more particular account of her bravery, the Reader is referred to Sir William Dugdale’s account of this Action, in his Baronage. However, this ancient House of Lathom, after a second siege, was laid almost flat in the dust, and the head of James, that heroick Earl of Derby, was cut off at Bolton in this County, Octob. 15. 1651. by the prevailing power of the Parliament. Near Lathom-Park, is a Mineral-water or Spaw, as deeply impregnated with the Iron and Vitriol Minerals, as any either in this County, or in Yorkshire. The want of convenient Lodging and other Accommodations, make it less frequented; but it is certain, it has done some notable Cures. On each side of the Bay, which divides the shore, was a large Meer,Leigh, l.1. p.18. known by the name of Martin-meer: the larger of which was drained some years since; and in draining it, they found no less than eight Canoos, which, in figure and dimension, were not much unlike those that are used in America.⌉ canoes

Here Dugless,Dugless river. a small brook, runs with a still gentle stream; near which our Arthur (as Ninnius tells us) defeated the Saxons in a memorable battel. Near the rise of it, stands Wiggin,Wiggin. a Town (as they say) formerly called Saxon wibiggin. I have nothing to say of the name, but that in Lancashire they call buildings Biggin;Biggin, what. nor of the place, but that it is neat and plentiful, and a Corporation consisting of a Mayor and Burgesses: also, that the Rector of the Church is (as I have been told) Lord of the Town. Hard by, stands Holland,Family of Hollands. from which the Hollands a famous family (who were Earls of Kent and Surrey, and Dukes of Exeter) took their name and original. The daughter and heir of the eldest brother (who flourish’d here with the degree and title of Knight,) being at last marry’d to the Lovels, brought them both the Estate and theArms of the Hollands. Arms of this Family, namely, In a field Azure * * With flowers de Lyz.florete Argent a Lion rampant gardant Arg.

⌈In Haigh,Haigh. near Wiggin, are very plentiful and profitable Mines of an extraordinary Coal. Besides the clear flame it yields in burning, it has been curiously polish’d into the appearance of black marble, and fram’d into large Candlesticks, Sugar-boxes, and Spoons, with many other such sorts of Vessels; which have been presented as Curiosities, and met with good acceptance, both at home and abroad. North from hence lies Whittle,Whittle. near Chorley, where a Mine of Lead has been lately found, and wrought with good success; possibly, the first that has been wrought in this County. And near the same place is a plentiful Quarry of Mill-stones, no less memorable than those which are mentioned before in the Peake of Derby. Within a mile and half of Wiggin, is a Well:Burning-well. which does not appear to be a spring, but rather rain-water. At first sight, there is nothing about it that seems extraordinary; but upon emptying it, there presently breaks out a sulphureous vapour, which makes the water bubble up as if it boyl’d. When a Candle is put to it, it presently takes fire, and burns like brandy. The flame, in a calm season, will continue sometimes a whole day; by the heat whereof they can boyl eggs, meat, &c. tho’ the water it self be cold. By this bubbling, the water does not encrease; but is only kept in motion by the constant Halitus of the vapours breaking out. The same water taken out of the Well, will not burn; as neither the mud upon which the Halitus has beat: * * Philosoph. Trans. N.26.and this shews, that it is not so much the water that takes fire, as some bituminous or sulphureous fumes that break out there.⌉

Near the mouth of the Dugless, lies Merton,Merton. a large broad lake, that empties it self into this river; which, at the mouth or bay, is joyn’d by the river Ribell.AEstuary Estuary penguin Chamaemorus After the Mersey; this is the next river that falls into the Ocean: the old name whereof is not entirely lost; for Ptolemy calls the Æstuary here, Bellisama,Bellisama. and we Ribell; perhaps by joyning to it the Saxon word Rhe, which signifies a river. This river, running with a very swift stream from Yorkshire-hills, first passes southward, by three high mountains: Ingleborrow-hill,Ingle­borrow-hill. near the head of it; which is a wonderful sight, for it shoots out in a vast ridge rising gradually to the westward, and towards the end mounts up as if another hill were laid upon the back of it. Penigent,Penigent. so call’d perhaps from it’s white and snowy head; for that is the signification of Pengwin in British: it is a huge mountain, but not so high as the other. Where the Ribell enters Lancashire (for the two that I have mention’d, are in Yorkshire) stands Pendle-hill,Pendle-hill. of great height; and which, on the very top, produces ** A peculiar Plant, C. a plant, call’d Clowdesberry,Clowdesberry. as if it were the off-spring of the Clouds. ⌈Some of our Botanists have given it the name of Vaccinia nubis; but the more common, and the truer, is Chamæmorus: for it is a Dwarf-mulberry. It is not peculiar to Pendle-hill, but grows plentifully on the boggy tops of most of the high mountains both in England and Scotland. In Norway also, and other Northern Countries, it is plentiful enough. Instead of Gerard’s mistaken name of Clowdberry, the Northern Peasants call it Cnout-berry; and have a tradition that the Danish King Knute, being (God knows when) distress’d for some time in these wasts, was reliev’d, by feeding upon these dainties. I know not whether it will countenance the story, to observe, that this King’s name is in our ancient Records † † See Selden’s Titles of Honour. p.501.sometimes written Knout. But this berry is not the only edible that bears his name to this day: for in this County, it is said that they have a Bird of a luscious taste, ¦ ¦ Drayt. Polyolb. p.112.which (in remembrance of King Cnute) they call Knot-bird. But to return.⌉ This hill is chiefly famous for the great damage done to the lower grounds heretofore, by a terrible fall of water which it sent down, and for being an infallible prognostick of rain, when the top of it is in a cloud. Penninae I the rather make mention of these, both because they are the highest hills in our English Appennine (and therefore it is commonly said,

Ingleborrow, Pendle, and Penigent,
Are the highest hills between Scotland and Trent
:)

and also, that what I have already observ’d may be the better understood, viz. How the highest AlpsAlpes Penninae. come to be call’d Penninæ, and the very top of a hill, Pennum; and why the Appennines were so called, by the old Gauls. For PenPen, what in British. in British signifies the tops of mountains.

⌈Not far from this hill, is Colne,Colne. where Roman Coins are frequently dug-up, but without any other appearance of a Roman Town or Station here, such as Fortifications, Altars, Boundaries, or the like: which makes the LearnedDr. Leigh, p.12. Antiquary and Historian of this County, conclude those Coins to have been hid there by some of the Roman Soldiers, upon a foresight of their falling into the Enemies hands, or upon some other accidental occasion.⌉ At the bottom of Pendle-hill stands Clithero-castle,Clithero-castle. which was built by the Laceys, at a small distance from the Rhibell; and near it, Whaley, Whaley.in Saxon Saxon Walaleg, remarkable for a Monastery built by the Laceys, which was translated from Stanlaw in the County of Chester, in the year 1296. And in the year 798. Duke Wada was defeated in a Battel, by Ardulph King of the Northumbrians, here at Billangho, now by contraction call’d Langho. ⌈Not far from Whaley to the west, is Brunly, † † Philosoph. Trans. N.244.in which Parish have been found several ancient Roman Coins, many of them Consular, with the antique form of the Caput Urbis, without Inscription, instead of the Emperor’s head.⌉

The Rhibell turning short to the west, gives name to a village call’d at this day Rible-chester,Riblechester. where so many marks of Roman Antiquity, as Statues, Coins, Pillars, Pedestals, Chapiters, Altars, Marbles, and Inscriptions, are commonly dug-up, that this hobbling rhyme of the Inhabitants does not seem to be altogether groundless:

It is written upon a wall in Rome,
Ribchester was as rich as any Town in Christendome.

Moreover, two Military-ways led hither: one, which is plain by it’s high causey, from York; the other from the north through Bowland, a large forest; and this also appears very plain for several miles together. But the Inscriptions are so defac’d by the country-people, that though I met with many, I had much ado to read one or two of them. At Salisbury-Hall,Salisbury-Hall. hard by, ⌈heretofore⌉ the Seat of the noble and ancient family of the Talbots, on the pedestal of a Pillar, I saw this Inscription;

Deo
Marti, et
Victoriæ
Dd. avgg.
Et cc---nn

In the Wall adjoyning, there is another Stone with the portraicture of Cupid and another little Image; and from the back-part of it this Inscription was copy’d for me. After a great deal of study, being able to make no sense of it, I have here subjoyn’d it, that others also may try their skill.

Seoesam
Rolnason
Osalvedn
Λl.q.q.sar
Brevenm
Bedianis
Antoni
Vs meg. vi.
Ic. dom v
Eliter.

For my part, I have no Conjecture to offer, but that many of the words are the British names of places hereabouts. In the year 1603. when I came a second time to see this place, I met with an Altar, the largest and the fairest that I ever saw, with this Inscription;

DEIS MATRIBVSIn the house of Thomas Rhodes.
Ann. 1607.

M. INGENVI-
VS ASIATICVS* Perhaps Decurio Alæ Asturum susceptum solvit (sc. votum) libens lubens merito.
*DEC. AL. AST.
SS. LL. M.

Upon enquiry who † Juno & Diana, Leigh.these Deæ Matres are, I can find nothing (for among all the Inscriptions in the world, except in one other found here in Britain, there is not the least mention of them,) but only that Enguium,Deæ Matres.
Vid. Bishop of Durham.
Plut. in M. Marcello.
a little town in Sicily, was famous for the presence of the Mother Goddesses, where some spears and brass-helmets were shown, which had been consecrated to those Goddesses by Metio and Ulysses.Deae

I saw also another little Altar cast out among the rubbish, with this Inscription;

Pacife
Ro marti
Elegavr
Ba pos
Vit ex vo
To.

This is so small, that it seems to have been the portable Altar of some poor man, only for the offering of incense, or salt flour; whereas that other of a much greater size, must have been us’d in the sacrificing of larger beasts. The Heathen Altars. Gen. viii. These things were certainly done by after-ages, in imitation of Noah, even when they had revolted from the worship of the true God. Nor was it to the Gods only that they rais’d these Altars, but, out of a servile flattery, to their Emperours likewise, under the impious title of NVMINI MAJESTATIQVE EORVM. At these, they fell on their knees, and worship’d; these they embrac’d and pray’d to; before these they took their Oaths; and to be short, in these and their Sacrifices, the whole of their Religion consisted. So that those among them who had no Altar, were suppos’d to have no Religion, and to acknowledge no Deity.

Here was also lately dug-up, a Stone with the Portraicture of a naked man on horseback, without saddle or bridle, brandishing his spear with both hands, and insulting over a naked man prostrate, who defends himself with something in the form of a square. Between the horse and the person prostrate, stand the letters D. M.Sarmatae Under the prostrate man, are * * Possibly, C. Al. for Centurio Alæ Sarmatarum.GAL. SARMATA. The other letters (for there were many more) are so defaced, that they cannot be read; and I shall not venture to guess at them. It should seem, both from the Inscription before, and this which many years ago was found hard by, that a wing of the Sarmatæ had their station here:

His. terris. tegitvr
Ael. matrona qv------
Vix. an. xxviii. m. ii. d. viii.
Et m. ivlivs maximvs. fil.
vix. an. vi. m. iii. d. xx. et camOut of the Papers of William Lambard.
Pania. dvbba. mater
Vix. an l. ivlivs maximvs
-----alae. sar. conivx
Conivgi. incomparabili
Et. filio. patri pientis
Simo. et socerae. tena
cissimae. memoriae. p.

⌈Another Altar hath been also found, with this Inscription,

Deo marti et
Victoriæ dec.
Asiatic. al. sarmat.
Ss. ll. m.i.t. c.c. nn.

“This (saith Dr. Leigh)Pag.8. seems to be an Altar dedicated to Mars and Victory, the Genii of the place, by one of the Decuriones by birth an Asiatick, commanding in a wing of the Sarmatæ; and the six last Letters may be Imperatori Triumphanti Cæsari Coccio Nervæ; from whom this place was by Antoninus called Coccium.”

“There was,Pag.9. also, one eminent piece of Antiquity dug-up here, viz. a large Stone, now a corner-stone in Salisbury-hall, which (as hath been said) did anciently belong to the Talbots; on one side, is Apollo with his quiver on his shoulder, leaning on his plectrum or harp, with a loose mantle or velamen; and on the other side, two of his Priests in the same habit, with an Oxe’s head in their hands, sacrificing to him; also, the heads of various Animals, lying prostrate at his feet.”caesar nervae

Likewise,See Leigh, p.6, 7. at a Fortification called Anchor-hill, and at other places in and about this ancient Station, have been found Roman Coins, Platters, Tyles, and Bricks, with an ancient Pavement of Bricks, and a Pillar about seventeen inches diameter; but the Inscription not legible. All which demonstrate it to have been a place of great note and consideration in the Roman Times.⌉

None of these afford any ⌈clear⌉ light, whereby to discover the ancient name of the place, for which we are utterly at a loss; except it has changed the name; a thing, not at all unusual: for Ptolemy places Rigodunum hereabouts; and if we may suppose that to be a corruption of Ribodunum,Ribodunum. it is not altogether unlike Riblechester; ⌈(unless Rixton or Rishton in this neighbourhood may rather be supposed to have some Remains of Rigodunum, the common Reading:)⌉ and at the same distance from Mancunium or Manchester, viz. eighteen miles, Antoninus fixes Coccium,Coccium. which is also read Goccium in some copies.

When this City came to its fatal Period, and was destroy’d either by wars, or (as the common people believe) by an earthquake; somewhat lower where the tide flows up the Ribell, and is call’d by the Geographer Bellisama Æstuarium, near PenworthPenworth, otherwise call’d Penverdant. (where was a castle in the Conqueror’s time, as appears by the records of that King:) there sprang out of the ruins of Riblechester, Preston,Preston. a large Town, handsom and populous for these parts; and so call’d from the Religious, for the name in English signifies Priest’s-town.aestuarium Below it, the Ribell is joyn’d by the Derwen, a little river, which runs first by Black-burneBlack-burne. a Market-town; so call’d from the blackness of the water. It belong’d formerly to the Lacies, and has given the name of Blackburneshire to a small neighbouring Tract. From hence it runs by Haughton-Tower,Haughton-Tower. which gave name to an eminent family that has long dwelt there; and by Waleton,Waleton. which William Lord of Lancaster, King Stephen’s son, gave to Walter de Waleton: afterwards, it belong’d to the famous family of the Langtons, who are descended from the Waltons. But to return.

Preston, just now mention’d, is commonly call’d Preston in Andernesse,Andernesse. instead of Acmundesnesse; for so the Saxons called this part of the Country, because, between the rivers Ribell and Cocar, it hangs out for a long way into the Sea like a Nose: it was also afterwards call’d Agmonder-nes. In William the Conqueror’s time, there were in it only sixteen villages, inhabited, the rest lay wast; as we find in Domesday; and it was possess’d by Roger of Poictiers. Afterwards, it belong’d to Theobald Walter (from whom the Butlers of Ireland are descended;) for so we read in a Charter of Richard the first: Know ye, that we have given, and by this present Charter confirm’d, to Theobald Walter, for his homage and service, all Agmondernes, with the appurtenances thereunto belonging, &c. This Soil bears oats pretty plentifully, but is not so good for barley; it is excellent pasture, especially towards the Sea, where it is partly champain; whence a great parcel of it is call’d the File;The File. as one would guess, for the Field. Yet in the records of the Tower, it is express’d by the latin word Lima, which signifies a File, the Smith’s Instrument, wherewith Iron and other things are polish’d. In other places it is fenny, and therefore counted unhealthful. The Wyr,Wyr, river. a little river, † Hanc citus perstringit.touches here; which coming from Wierdale,Wierdale. a solitary and dismal place, runs with a swift stream by Grenhaugh-castle,Grenhaugh-castle. built by Thomas Stanley, the first Earl of Derby of that family; while he was under apprehension of danger from certain of the Nobility of this County, who had been outlaw’d, and whose estates had been given him by Henry the seventh: for they made several attempts upon him, and many Inroads into his grounds; till at last these feuds were extinguish’d, by the temper and prudence of that excellent person.

A new way of making Salt; of which see Mr. Ray, Northern words, p.209. In many places along this coast, there are heaps of sand, upon which they pour water from time to time, till they grow brackish; and then, with a turf-fire, they boil them into a white salt. Here are also Quick-sands,Quick-sands. very dangerous to those travellers, who when the tide is out take the shortest cut; and who had need be very careful, lest (as Sidonius expresses it) they be shipwrack’d at land. Especially, near the mouth of the Cockar; where, in a field of quick-sands, stands Cockarsand-Abbey,Syrticus Ager. formerly a small Monastery for Cluniack Monks, founded by Ranulph de Meschines. It lies expos’d to the winds, between the mouth of the Cockar and the Lune, commonly call’d the Lone; with a large prospect into the Irish Sea.

The Lone, commonly call’d Lune,Lune, riv. which has its rise among the mountains of Westmoreland, runs southward within uneaven banks, and in a crooked chanel, by which the Current is much hinder’d. To the great gain of the neighbouring Inhabitants, it affords store of SalmonSalmon. in the Summer-season; for this sort of Fish, taking great delight in clear water and particularly in sandy fords, come up in great shoals into this and the other rivers on the same coast. As soon as the Lone enters Lancashire, the Lac, a little river, joyns it from the east. In this place, stands Overburrow,Over-burrow. a small country-village; but that it was formerly a great City upon a large plot of ground between the Lac and the Lone, and being besieg’d, was forc’d to surrender by famine; is what the Inhabitants told me, who have it by tradition from their Ancestors. And certain it is, that the place makes proof of its own Antiquity, by many ancient Monuments, Inscriptions, chequer’d Pavements, and Roman Coins; as also by this modern name, which signifies a Burrow. If it ever recover its ancient name, it must owe it to others, and not to me; though I have sought it with all the diligence imaginable. And indeed, we are not to reckon, that the particular name of every place in Britain is set down in Ptolemy, Antoninus, or the Notitia, or mention’d in Classick Authors. If I may have the liberty of a conjecture, I must confess I should take it to be BremetonacumBreme­tonacum. (which was a distinct place from Brementuracum, as Jerom Surita a Spaniard has well observ’d, in his notes on Antoninus) upon account of its distance from Coccium or Riblechester.

From this Burrough, the river Lone runs by Thurland-Tunstalls,Thurland-Tunstalls. a fort built in Henry the fourth’s time by Sir Thomas Tunstall Knight; the King having granted him leave to fortifie and kernel his mansion,What it is to kernel. that is, to embattel it; and then by Hornby,Hornby-castle. a noble Castle, which glories in its founder N. de Mont Begon, and in its Lords the Harringtons, and the Stanleys Barons of Mont-Eagle,Barons Monteagle. descended from Thomas Stanley the first Earl of Derby. William Stanley, the third and last of these, left Elizabeth his only daughter and heir, who was marry’d to Edward Parker, Lord Morley, and was mother of William Parker, who was restor’d by King James ⌈the first⌉ to the honour of his ancestors, the Barony of Mont-Eagle, and must be acknowledg’d, by us and our posterity for ever, to have been a wonderful Blessing to these Kingdoms: for, by an obscure Letter privately sent to him, and produced by him in the very nick of time, the most horrid and detestable TreasonGun-powder Plot. that Hell it self could project, was discover’d and prevented, when the Kingdom was upon the very brink of ruin; while a wicked Generation, under the execrable masque of Religion, stood ready to blow up their King and Country in a moment, with a great quantity of Gun-powder, lodg’d under the Parliament-house for that purpose.

The Lone, after it has got some miles further, sees LancasterLancaster. on it’s south-bank; the chief Town of the County, which the Inhabitants call more truly Loncaster, and the Scots Loncastell, from the river Lon. Both the present name, and that of the river, seem to mark it out for the old Longovicum; where, under the Lieutenant of Britain (as the Notitia informs us) a Company of the Longovici, who took that name from the place, were in garrison. Though * * So said, ann. 1607. but now, a thriving Town and Port.at present the Town is not populous, and the Inhabitants thereof are all husbandmen (for the grounds about it are well cultivated, open, and fresh, and without any want of wood:) yet, in proof of its Roman Antiquity, they sometimes meet with Coins of the Emperors, especially where the Fryers had their cloyster: For there (as they report) was the Area of an ancient City; which the Scots (who, in a sudden inroad in the year 1322, destroy’d every thing they met with) burnt to the ground. From that time, they began to build nearer a green hill, by the river; upon which stands a Castle, not very great nor ancient, but fair and strong; and on the very top of the hill, a Church, the only one in the town, where was heretofore a Cell of Monks-Aliens. Below this, near a very fine bridge over the Lone, on the steepest part of the hill, there hangs a piece of a very ancient wall which is Roman: they call it Wery-wall, probably from the later British name of the town, who call’d it Caer Werid, that is, a green City, in all likelyhood from the green hill; but I leave the further discovery of this to others. Leigh, p.10. ⌈Lately, in digging of a Cellar, were found several Roman Disci, and Sympuria, or Cups used in Sacrifice, with the figures of various Creatures on the sides, and Julius Flavius in letters. On the bottom of one of them, appeared very legibly these Letters Regina I. which (saith Dr. Leigh)Ibid. we may easily interpret a discus used in Sacrifice to Juno, as she was stiled Regina Cœli.⌉Coeli

John Lord of Moriton and Lancaster, who was afterwards King of England, confirm’d by Charter, to his Burgesses of Lancaster, all the liberties which he had granted to the Burgesses of Bristow. Edward the third, in the 36th year of his reign, granted to the Mayor and Bailiffs of the village of Lancaster, that Pleas and Sessions should be held no where else, but there. The latitude of this place, (not to omit it) is 54 degrees 5 minutes, and the longitude 20 degrees, 48 minutes.

From the top of this hill, while I look’d round to see the mouth of the Lone (which empties it self not much lower,) I saw FornessForness. the other part of the County, to the west, which is almost sever’d from this part by the Sea: for whereas the shore lay out a great way westward into the Ocean, the Sea (as if enrag’d at it) ceas’d not to slash and mangle it. Nay, it has swallow’d the shore quite up, at some boisterous tide or other; and thereby has made three large bays, namely, KentsandKentsand. (which receives the river Ken,) Levensand,Levensand. and Duddensand.Duddensand. ⌈These three Sands are very dangerous to Travellers, both by reason of the uncertainty of the Tides (which are quicker and slower, according as the winds blow more or less from the Irish-sea;) and also of the many quicksands, which are caus’d principally by much rainy weather. Upon this account, there is a guide on horse-back appointed to each Sand, for the direction of such persons who shall have occasion to pass over; and each of the three has a yearly Salary paid him out of his Majesty’s revenue.⌉ Between these, the land shoots so much like a Promontory into the Sea, that this part of the County takes its name from it; (for Forness and Foreland signifie the same with us, which Promontorium anterius, that is, a Fore-promontory, does in Latin;) ⌈unless we should rather chuse to derive the name from the Furnaces there, which in old time were numerous, as the Rents and Services paid for them do testifie: (For many Tenants in this County do still pay a rent called Bloom-Smithy-Rent.Bloom-Smithy-Rent:) In the same manner, FoulneyFoulney. hath its name from the great store of Fowl usually there.⌉

The whole tract, except by the Sea-side, is all high mountains and great rocks (they call them Forness-fells,)Forness-Fells. among which the Britains liv’d securely for a long time, relying upon these fortifications wherewith Nature had guarded them; but nothing prov’d impregnable to the Saxon Conqueror. For, that the Britains lived here in the 228th year after the coming of the Saxons, is plain from hence, that at that time Egfrid King of the Northumbrians gave to St. Cuthbert the land called Carthmell, and all the Britains in it; for so it is related in his life. Now Carthmell,Carthmell. every one knows, was part of this County, near Kentsand; and a little Town in it keeps the name to this day, wherein William Mareschal the elder, Earl of Pembroke, built and endowed a Priory. If, in Ptolemy, one might read SetantiorumSetantiorum Lacus. Greek (a lake) as some books have it, and not Setantiorum Greek, (a haven;) I would venture to affirm, that the Britains in these parts were the Setantii; for among those Mountains lies the greatest lake in England, now call’d Winander-mereWin­ander-mere., in Saxon Saxon Winwadremer, perhaps from its winding Banks; about ten miles in length; the bottom pav’d, as it were, with one continued rock; wonderful deep in some places (as the neighbouring Inhabitants tell you,) and well stored with a sort of Fish ⌈commonly said to be⌉ bred no where else, which they call Chare.Chare, a fish. ⌈But this is a sort of golden Alpine Trout, and to be had in other of the Northern Lakes, as Ulles-water, Butter-meer, &c. as well as here. They have also the same fish in some parts of North-Wales, where it is called Tor-goch or Red-belly.⌉ History of Mailros. Upon this Lake stands a little Village of the same name, where in the year 792. Eathred, King of the Northumbrians, † † Slew, C.is said to have slain the sons of King Elfwold, after he had taken them from York; that, by his own wickedness and their blood, he might secure himself in the Kingdom: ⌈But, to the truth of this Story, it is the less probable, because this Eathred was himself King Elfwold’s Son.⌉

Between this Lake and the river Dudden, is the Promontory which we commonly call Forness; with the Island Walney like a Counter-scarp before it, for a long way together; and a small arm of the Sea between. The Entrance is defended by a Fort call’d The Pile of Fouldrey,The Pile of Fouldrey. situate upon a rock in the middle of the water, and built by the Abbot of Forness in the first year of King Edward the third; ⌈but now quite ruinated.⌉

Upon the Promontory there is nothing to be seen, but the ruins of Forness-Abbey,Lib. Fornesiens. which Stephen Earl of Bullen, afterwards King of England, built in the year 1127. in a place formerly call’d Bekensgill; or rather translated it, from Tulket in Anderness. Out of the Monks of this place, and no other (as themselves relate) the Bishops of the Isle of Man, which lies over-against it, were wont, by ancient custom, to be chosen: this being the mother of several Monasteries both in that Island and in Ireland. More to the East, stands Aldingham,Aldingham. the ancient estate of the family of the Harringtons,Harringtons. to whom it came from the Flemings by the Cancefelds; and whose inheritance went by a daughter to William Bonvill of Devonshire, and by him at last to the Greys Marquisses of Dorset. ⌈Within the Manour of Aldingham is Gleston-Castle,Gleston-Castle. which has been very large and firm; having four strong Towers of a great height, besides many other buildings with very thick walls. To observe it here once for all; many persons of quality, especially towards Scotland, had either Castles or Towers to dwell in, to defend themselves and their Tenants from the inroads of the Scots. Anciently, they had their houses kernell’d, fortify’d, or embattel’d; and divers Commissions have been awarded (in pursuance of an Act of Parliament made in the † † 1 & 2 Phil. & Mar. c.1.reign of Philip and Mary) unto certain persons, to enquire how many and which Castles, Fortresses, &c. have been decay’d, which were fit to be re-edify’d, and how many new ones necessary to be erected. This of Gleston is seated in a fertile vale amongst rich meadows, and shelter’d from the Sea by fruitful hills; all which render it one of the most pleasant Seats in this Country.⌉

Somewhat higher, lies Ulverston,Ulverston. memorable upon this account, that Edward the third gave a moiety of it to John Coupland, one of the most warlike men of that age; whom he also advanced to the honour of a Banneret, for taking David the second, King of Scots, prisoner, in the battel of Durham. After his death, the said King gave it, with other great estates in these parts, and with the title of Earl of Bedford, to Ingelram Lord Coucy a Frenchman; he having marry’d his daughter Isabella, and his Ancestors having been possess’d of great Revenues in England, in right of Christiana de Lindsey. ⌈In this corner, round Ulverston, lie the following Places, which deserve our notice: Kirkby-Ireleth,Kirkby-Ireleth. the Manour-house whereof (Kirkby-Cross-house,Kirkby-Cross-house. so call’d from a Cross plac’d before the gates, the top of which was broken off, as is said, by Archbishop Sandys’s order) is a stately Seat, giving name to the Kirkbys, the Lords of it from the time of the Conquest. Broughton,Broughton. formerly the chief seat of a family of that name, till in the reign of Henry the seventh, it was forfeited for Treason by Sir Thomas Broughton Knight, who then took part with the counterfeit Plantagenet that landed in Fourness. And here it may not be improper to observe a mistake in the History of that King’s reign, where it is affirm’d that Sir Thomas Broughton was slain at Stokefield; whereas, in truth he escap’d from that battel, to Witherslack, a Manour then belonging to him in the County of Westmorland. Here he liv’d incognito a good while among his Tenants; here also he dy’d and was bury’d; and his grave is known, and is to be seen, at this day. Coniside,Coniside. anciently call’d Conyngesheved; heretofore an Hospital, or Priory, founded by William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal, and formerly the possession of the Sandys. It is said, that Edward Sandys, Archbishop of York, was born here. Swartmoor,Swartmoor. so call’d from Martin Swart (who came in with the counterfeit Plantaganet at the Pile of Fouldrey, in King Henry the seventh’s time.) Here it was also, that Anno 1652. George Fox, and some of his Fellow-Quakers, first shew’d themselves in this Country. Plumpton,Plumpton. where were formerly Mines and a Forge; from whence, a pretty way to the North, is Coningston,Coningston. a Manour plac’d between Coningston-Fells (very high Mountains, wherein are many Mines of Copper, Lead, &c.) and Coningston-water, a Lake five miles long, and near a mile broad. The Town is sometimes call’d Fleming-Coningston (to distinguish it from another lying on the contrary side of the Lake, nam’d Monk Coningston, as formerly belonging to the Abbey of Fourness.) For in the reign of Henry the third, it came by marriage from the Urswicks to Sir Richard le Fleming of Caernarvon-Castle, and has been ever since enjoy’d by his heir-males; Sir William Fleming of Rydal-hall in the County of Westmorland Knight, being the present owner. This Manour of Rydal came to them by Sir Thomas le Fleming’s marrying Isabel, one of the daughters and coheirs of Sir John de Lancaster of Rydal and of Holgil-castle in the same County, Knight. The Chapel here was made Parochial, among divers others in this Country, by Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. By the Sand-side is Wraysholme-tower,Wraysholme-tower. near which was not long since discover’d a Medicinal Spring of a brackish taste. The Water is now drunk by many, every Summer; being esteem’d a very good remedy for Worms, Stone, Gout, Itch, and several other Distempers.⌉

As for those of the Nobility,Lords of Gynes. who have born the title of Lancaster; there were three in the beginning of the Norman Government, who had the titleLords of Lancaster. of Lords of the Honour of Lancaster: Roger of Poictou, son of Roger Montgomery, sirnam’d Pictavensis (as William of Malmesbury says,) because he had marry’d a wife out of Poictou in France. But he being depriv’d of that honour for his disloyalty, King Stephen confer’d it upon his own son William, Earl of Moriton and Warren. Upon whose death, Richard the first bestow’d it on John his brother, who was afterwards King of England. For thus we find it in an ancient History;Gualtar de Hemingford. King Richard shew’d great affection to his brother John.R. Hoveden, p.373.b. For, besides Ireland and the Earldom of Moriton in Normandy, he made such mighty additions in England, that he was a kind of Tetrarch there. He gave him Cornwal, Lancaster, Nottingham, and Derby, with the adjacent Country, and many others. A good while after, King Henry the third, son of King John, did first advance Edmund Crouchback his younger son (to whom he had given the estates and honours of Simon Montfort Earl of Leicester, Robert Ferrars Earl of Derby, and John of Monmouth, for their rebelling against him,) to the Earldom of Lancaster:Earl of Lancaster. giving, in these words, The Honour, Earldom, Castle, and, Town of Lancaster, with theVaccariis.Cow-pastures and Forests of Wiresdale, Lowns-dale, Newcastle under Lime, and the Manour, Forest, and Castle of Pickering, the Manour of Scaleby, the Village of Gomecestre, and the Rents of the Town of Huntendon, &c. after he had lost the Kingdom of Sicily, with which the Pope, by a ring, invested him in vain; and (which made the English the Scoff and Laughter of the World) had caus’d pieces of gold to be coin’d with this Inscription, AIMVNDVS REX SICILIÆ; having first chous’d the credulous King of great sums of money upon that account.Siciliae The said Edmund (his first wife dying without issue, who was the daughter and heir of the Earl of Albemarle; yet by her last Will made him her heir) had by his second wife Blanch of Artois of the * * Domo Francica.Royal Family of France, Thomas and Henry; and John who dy’d very young. Thomas was the second Earl of Lancester, who married Alice the only daughter and heir of Henry Lacy Earl of Lincoln: she convey’d this and her mother’s estate, who was of the family of the Long Espee’s Earls of Salisbury (as her father Henry Lacy had also done with his own Lands, in case Alice should die without issue, as it afterwards happened,) to the family of Lancaster. But this Thomas, for his Insolence towards Edward the second, and for embroiling the State, being taken prisoner, was beheaded, and left no issue. However, the Sentence, in virtue of which he was executed, was afterwards revers’d by Act of Parliament, because he was not try’d by his Peers; and so his brother Henry succeeded him in his estate and honours. He was also enrich’d by his wife Maud, daughter and sole heir of Patrick Chaworth; and that not only with her own, but also with great estates in Wales, namely, of Maurice of London, and of Siward, from whom she was descended. Dukes of Lancaster. He dying, left one only son Henry, whom Edward the third advanc’d from the title of Earl to that of Duke; and he was the second of our Nobility, who bore the title of Duke. But he dy’d without issue-male, leaving two daughters Mawd and Blanch, between whom the Estate was divided. Mawd was married to William of Bavaria, Earl of Holland, Zeland, Friseland, Hanault, and of Leicester too in right of his wife. But she dying without issue, John of Gaunt (so call’d because he was born at Gaunt in Flanders) fourth son of Edward the third, came to the whole Estate, by marriage with Blanch the other daughter of Henry. And now being equal to many Kings in wealth, and created Duke of Lancaster by his father, he also obtain’d the Royalties of him; the King advancing the County of Lancaster into a Palatinate by † Rescriptum.a Patent; wherein he declares the great service that he had done to his Country, both at home and abroad, and then adds, We have granted for us and our heirs to our son aforesaid, that he, during the term of life, shall have, within the County of Lancaster, his Chancery, and his Writs to be issued under his own Seal belonging to the Office of Chancellor; his Justices likewise, as well for Pleas of the Crown, as for other Pleas relating to Common Law; to have cognisance of them, and to have power of making all Executions whatsoever by his Writs and Officers. And to have all other Liberties and Royalties of what kind soever appertaining to a County Palatine, as freely and as fully as the Earl of Chester within the said County is known to have, &c. Nor was he only Duke of Lancaster; but also, by marriage with Constantia, daughter of Peter King of Castile, had for some time the title of King of Leon and Castile. John of Gaunt, K. of Castile. But by agreement, he parted with this title, and in the thirteenth of King Richard the second, was created by consent of Parliament, Duke of Aquitain, to the great dissatisfaction of that Country. At that time, his titles were, John, son to the King of England, Duke of Aquitain and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, and high Steward of England.

After John, Henry de Bullingbroke his son succeeded in the Dutchy of Lancaster; who having deposed Richard the second, and obtain’d the Crown, confer’d this honour upon Henry his son, afterwards King of England.K. Henry the fourth. And that he might entail it upon him and his heirs for ever, he had an Act of Parliament made in these words: We being unwilling, that our said Inheritance, or its Liberties, by reason of our taking upon us the Royal state and dignity, should be any way chang’d, transferr’d, diminish’d, or impair’d; do declare, that our said inheritance, with its rights and liberties aforesaid, in the same manner and form, condition and state, wherein they descended and came to us, and also with all and singular liberties, franchises and other privileges, commodities, and profits whatsoever, with which our Lord and Father in his life-time had and held it for term of life by the grant of the late King Richard; shall be wholly and fully preserv’d, continu’d, and enjoy’d, by us and our heirs, as specified in the said Charters: And by the tenor of these presents, we do, upon our certain knowledge, and with the consent of this our present Parliament, grant, declare, decree and ordain, for us and our heirs, that as well our Dutchy of Lancaster, as all and singular Counties, Honours, Castles, Manours, Fees, Advowsons, Possessions, Annuities, and Seigniories whatsoever, which descended to us before we were rais’d to the Royal Dignity, how or in what place soever, by right of inheritance, * * In dominico Servitio.in the hands of our Tenants, or in reversion, or by any other way; do remain to us and our said heirs, as specified in the Charters abovesaid, after the said manner and form, for ever. Afterwards, Henry the fifth by Act of Parliament annex’d a very great estate to this Dutchy, which had come to him in right of his mother, who was the daughter and coheir of Humphry Bohun, Earl of Hereford. And in this state and condition it remain’d from that time; saving that Edward the fourth, in the first year of his reign, when he had attainted Henry the sixth in Parliament for High Treason, annex’d it to the Crown; that is, to him and his heirs Kings of England. However, Henry the seventh presently broke this Entail; and so † † Ann. 1607.at this day it has its particular Officers, namely, a Chancellor, Attorney, Receiver, Clerk of the Court, six Assessors, a Messenger, two Auditors, three and twenty Receivers, and three Supervisors.

There are reckon’d in this County (besides several Chapels) † 6oOnly 36, C. Parishes; but those very large, and such as, for numbers of Parishioners, do far exceed the greatest Parishes any where else.

More rare Plants growing wild in Lancashire.

Asphodelus Lancastriæ verus Ger. emac. descr. Pseudo-asphodelus palustris Anglicus C. B. Lancashire Asphodel, or Bastard-English-Asphodel. This being a Plant commonly growing in mosses or rotten boggy grounds in many Counties of England, I need not have mentioned here, but that our English Herbarists have been pleased to denominate it from this County, as if it were peculiar to it. Lancastriae Lobel saith, they call it Maiden-hair, because the Women here-about were wont to colour their hair with the flower of it.

Bifolium minimum. The least Tway-blade. Observed upon Pendle-hill among the Heath. See the Synonymes in Yorkshire.

Cerasus Sylvestris fructu minimo cordiformi P. B. Wild Heart-cherry-tree, commonly call’d the Merry-tree. About Bury and Manchester. See Westmorland.

Cochlearia marina folio anguloso parvo D. Lawson. Small Sea Scurvy-grass with a corner’d leaf. In the Isle of Walney. I take this to be the same with the Cochlearia rotundifolia minor nostras & Park. and the Thlaspi hederaceum Lob.

Conyza helenitis foliis laciniatis. Jagged Fleabane-Mullet, or Marsh-Fleabane. In the ditches about Pillinmoss plentifully.

Crithmum spinosum Ger. maritimum spinosum C. B. maritimum spinosum, seu Pastinaca marina Park. Pastinaca marina, quibusdam Secacul & Crithmum spinosum J. B. Prickly Sampire or Sea-Parsnep. Observed by Mr. Lawson at Roosbeck in Low-Fourness.

Echium marinum P. B. Buglossum dulce ex insulis Lancastriæ Park. Sea-Bugloss. Over-against Bigger in the Isle of Walney plentifully.

Eruca Monensis laciniata lutea Cat. Bursae haematodes Ang. An Eruca Sylvestris minor lutea Bursæ pastoris folio C. B. Small jagged yellow Rocket of the Isle of Man. Between Marsh-Grange and the Isle of Walney.

Geranium hæmatodes Lancastrense, flore eleganter striato. Bloody Cranes-bill with a variegated flower. In the Isle of Walney in a Sandy-soil near the Sea-shore.

Juncus Alpinus cum cauda leporina J. B. Hares-tail-Rush, Moss-crops, upon the Mosses, of which there are plenty in this County.

Rosmarinum purpureum. Purple-Goats-beard. On the banks of the river Chalder, near the Lady Hesketh’s house, two milles from Whalley, P. B. This, Mr. Fitz-Roberts, a skilful Herbarist, affirms himself to have found wild, but not in the place mentioned.

Tormentilla quadrifolia radice rotunda. Merret. Pin. Near Wigan in Lancashire.

Sambucus foliis laciniatis. Elder with jagged leaves. In a hedge near Manchester. I suspect that this was no native, but industriously or accidentally planted there.

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Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06