Britannia, by William Camden

Yorkshire, Richmondshire.

Big T THE rest of this County, which lies to the North-west and is of large extent, is call’d Richmondshire, or Richmountshire. The name is taken from a Castle built by Alan Earl of Bretagne in Armorica, to whom William the Conqueror gave this Shire (which belong’d to Edwin, an English-man) by a short Charter in these words: I William, sirnam’d Bastard, King of England, do give and grant to thee my nephew Alan Earl of Bretagne, and to thy heirs for ever, all the villages and lands which of late belong’d to Earl Eadwin in Yorkshire, with the Knights-fees and other Liberties and Customs, as freely and honourably as the same Eadwin held them. Dated from our Siege before York.

By reason of craggy Rocks and vast Mountains, this Shire is almost one continu’d eminence: the sides of them here and there yield pretty good grass; and the bottoms and valleys are not unfruitful. The hills afford great store of Brass, Lead, and Pit-coal.Lead, Pit-Coal, and also Brass. In a Charter of Edward the fourth, there is mention made of a Mineral or Mine of Copper near the very city of Richmond. But covetousness, which makes men dig even to Hell, has not yet mov’d them to sink into these Mountains; being diverted perhaps by the difficulties of the Carriage.fossils

On the tops of these Mountains, as likewise in other places, there have been found stonesStone-cockles. resembling Sea-cockles and other Water-animals; which, if they are not Miracles of Nature, I cannot but think, with Orosius a Christian Historian, to be certain tokens of the universal Deluge in the time of Noah. The Sea (as he says) being in Noah’s time spread over all the earth, and a deluge pour’d forth upon it (so that the whole world was overflow’d, and the Sea, as heaven, surrounded the earth;) all mankind was destroy’d, but only those few sav’d in the ark for their Faith, to propagate posterity; as is clearly taught by the most faithful Writers. That this was so, those persons have also been witnesses, who, knowing neither past times, nor the Author of them, yet from the signs and indications of those stones (which we often find on mountains distant from the Sea, but over-spread with cockles and oysters, yea oft-times hollow’d by the water) have learn’d it by conjecture and inference. ⌈As to these stones like Cockles, a diligent Observer of these Curiosities affirms, that he could never hear of any that were met-with lying single and dispers’d; but that plenty of them, as well here as in other places of the North, are found in firm rocks and beds of Lime-stone; sometimes at six or eight fathom within ground. Whence the Miners call them Run-Limestone; they supposing these figures to be produced by a more than ordinary heat, and a quicker fermentation than they allow to the production of the other parts of the quarry. And this, perhaps, is as rational an account of these sports of Nature (supposing them such) as any that our modern Virtuosi have hitherto pitch’d upon.⌉

Where this Shire touches upon the County of Lancaster, the prospect among the hills is so wild, solitary, and unsightly, and all things are so still, that the neighbouring Inhabitants have call’d some brooks there, Hell-becks,Hell-becks. that is to say, Hell or Stygian Rivulets; especially that, at the head of the river Ure, which, with a bridge over it of one entire stone, falls so deep, that it strikes one with horror to look down. Here is safe harbour in this tract, for goats, deer, and stags; which for their unusual bulk and branchy heads are very remarkable and extraordinary.

The river Ure, which we have often mention’d, has its rise here out of the western mountains; and first runs through the middle of the vale Wentsedale,Wentsedale. sufficiently stock’d with cattel, and in some places with lead. Not far from its spring, while it is yet but small, it is encreased by the little river Baint from the south, which issues from the pool Semur with a strange murmur. At the confluence of these two streams (where are some few cottages, call’d from the first bridge over the Ure, Baintbrig) there was formerlyBracchium. a Roman garrison; of which some remains are still to be seen. For upon the hill (which from the burrough, they now call Burgh) there are the ground-works of an old fortification, about five acres in compass; and under it, to the east, the tracks of many houses are still visible. Where, among several proofs of Roman Antiquity, I lately saw this fragment of an old Inscription, in a very fair character, with a winged Victory supporting it.

imp. cæs. l. septimio
pio pertinaci avgv.--
imp cæsari. m. avrelio a-
pio felici avgvsto----
- - - - - - - - - - - - -The name of Geta eras’d.
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
bracchio cæmenticivm--
vi nerviorvm svb cvra la
senecion amplissimi
operi l. vi spivs præ--
   ----legio.----

From whence we may conjecture, that this Fort at Burgh, was formerly call’d Bracchium, which before had been made of turf, but then was built of stone and mortar; and that the sixth Cohort of the Nervii garrison’d here, who also seem to have had a Summer-camp upon that high entrench’d Hill, hard by, which is now call’d Ethelbury. Statue of Commodus the Emperor. It is not long, since a Statue of Aurelius Commodus the Emperor, was dug-up here, who (as Lampridius has it) was stil’d by his flatterers Britannicus, even when the Britains were for chusing another Emperor against him. This Statue seems to have been set up, when, through an extravagant Esteem of himself he arriv’d to that pitch of folly, as to command every one to call him, The Roman Hercules, son of Jupiter. For it is in the habit of Hercules, with his right-hand arm’d with a club; and under it (as I am inform’d) was this broken and imperfect Inscription, which had been ill copy’d, and was lost before I came hither:

— cæsari avgvsto
marci avrelii filio
———
sen ionis amplissimi
vents      pivs.

This was to be seen at Nappa,Nappa. a house built with turrets, and the chief seat of the Medcalfs,The numerous family of Medcalf. which is counted the most numerous family this day in England. For I have heard that Sir Christopher Medcalf Knight, and chief of the family, being † † So said, ann. 1607.lately Sheriff of the County, was attended with three hundred Horse, all of this family and name, and all in the same habit, to receive the Justices of Assize, and conduct them to York.crayfish Longevity From hence the Ure runs very swiftly, with abundance of Crey-fish;Crey-fish. ever since C. Medcalf, within the memory of * * So said, ann. 1607.this age, brought that sort of fish hither from the south parts of England; ⌈(which, however, he might have had much nearer hand; the rivers of Kent, Lowther, &c. in the County of Westmorland, being plentifully stock’d with them:)⌉ And, between two rocks (from which the place is called Att-scarre) it violently rolls down its chanel, not far from Bolton,Bolton. the ancient seat of the Barons de Scrope,Barons le Scrope. and a stately Castle which Richard Lord le Scrope, Chancellour of England in Richard the second’s time, built at a very great charge. ⌈This place is now honoured, by giving the title of Duke, to Charles Powlet, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; whose Ancestors for many generations have enjoy’d the Titles of Earl of Wiltshire, and Marquiss of Winchester, and whose Father was advanced to this higher dignity, in the first year of King William and Queen Mary. In the Parish, not long since, lived one Henry Jenkins,Philosoph. Trans. N.221, 228. a much more noted instance of Longævity, than the famous Par; as dying (Dec. 8. 1670.) at the age of 169 years. He could easily remember the Dissolution of Monasteries, and hath given Evidence of ancient customs, in Courts of Justice, for above 140 years. After he was past the age of 100, he used frequently to swim in rivers. He had been Butler to the Lord Coniers, and after that, a Fisherman, and at last, a Beggar.⌉

Ure, taking its course eastward, comes to the Town of Midelham,Midelham. the Honour of which (as we read in the Genealogy of the Nevils) Alan Earl of Richmond gave to his younger brother * * By others Ribald.Rinebald, with all the lands, which before their coming had belong’d to Gilpatrick the Dane. His grandchild by his son Ralph, called Robert Fitz-Ralph,Lords of Midleham. had all Wentsedale bestow’d on him by Conanus Earl of Bretagne and Richmond, and built a very strong castle at Midleham. Ranulph his son built a small Monastery for Canons at CoverhamAn ancient Genealogy. (now contracted into Corham) in Coverdale; and his son Ralph had a daughter Mary, who being married to Robert Lord Nevill, brought this large estate, for her portion, to the family of the Nevils. This Robert Nevill, having had many children by his wife, was taken in adultery, unknown, and had his privy members cut off by the adultress’s husband in revenge; which threw him into such an excess of grief, that he soon after dy’d.museum musaeum

⌈Near Midleham, is Thoresby,Thoresby. the Seat of an ancient Family of that name, of which was John Thoresby Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England; and of which also (being the eldest branch) was Mr. John Thoresby late of Leeds, an eminent Antiquary, and famous for his Musæum; which is now possess’d and very much augmented by his son Mr. Ralph Thoresby, a person excellently skilled in the subject of Antiquities.⌉

From Midleham, the Ure having pass’d a few miles, washes Jervis or Jorvalle-Abbey,Jorvalle-Abbey. which is now reduced to ruins; and then runs by Masham,Masham. which belonged to the Scropes of Masham (who, as they are descended from the Scropes of Bolton, so are they again grafted into the same Family by marriage;) ⌈but now to the Danbies.⌉ On the other side of this river, but more inward, stands Snath,Snath. the chief seat of the Barons de Latimer, whose noble extraction is from G. Nevill, younger son of Ralph Nevill first Earl of Westmorland, who had this honourable title confer’d on him by King Henry the sixth, when the elder family of the Latimers ended in a female:Barons Latimer. and so they flourish’d in a continu’d succession, till * * So said, ann. 1607.our time, when for want of heirs male of the last Baron, this noble inheritance was parted among his daughters, who were married into the families of the Percies, Cecils, D’anvers, and Cornwallis. There is no other place in these parts remarkable upon the Ure, but Tanfeld,Tanfeld. formerly the seat of the Gernegans Knights, from whom it descended to the Marmions:Marmion.
Inq.6. H.6.
the last of these, left Amice, his heir, second wife of John Lord Grey of Rotherfield; whose two children, taking the name of Marmion, were heirs to their mother; and one of them left an only daughter and heir, Elizabeth, the wife of Fitz-Hugh a famous Baron.

The Ure how receives the SwaleSwale, a sacred river. (so call’d, as Tho. Spot has it, from its swiftness) which joins it with a great leaping of the waters. This also rises out of the western mountains, scarce five miles above the head of the river Ure, and runs to the east. It was very sacred among the Saxons; because when they were first converted to Christianity, there were baptiz’d in it in one day, by Paulinus Archbishop of York (to their great joy) above ten thousand men, besides women and children. The course of the Swale lies through a pretty broad vale, which from thence is called Swaldale,Swaldale. and has grass enough, but wants wood; first, by Marricke,Marricke. where stood a Cloister built by the Askes, a Family of great note heretofore: then by Mask,Mask. where there is great store of lead: from thence, by Richmond,Richmond. the chief City of this Shire, enclos’d with walls of a small compass; yet, by the suburbs, which shoots out in length to the three gates, it is pretty populous. It was built by Alan the first Earl (who did not dare to rely upon Gilling,Gilling. his village or manour hard by, to withstand the assaults of the Saxons and Danes, whom the Normans had strip’d of their inheritances) and honoured by him with this name, which signifies a Rich Mount, and fortify’d with walls and a very strong castle situated upon a rock; from whence it looks down upon the river Swale, which with a terrible noise seems to rush, rather than run, among the Rocks. The village Gilling was more holy on account of Religion, than strong in respect of Fortifications; ever since Oswius King of Northumberland, by the treachery of his † Hospitis.Host, was slain in this place; which is call’d by Bede Gethling. To expiate whose murder, a Monastery was built here; which was highly esteem’d and honour’d by our Ancestors. More to the north, stands Ravenswath,Ravenswath. a Castle encompass’d with a pretty large wall, but now ruinous; which belong’d to the Barons call’d Fitz-HughBaron Fitz-Hugh. (descended from those Saxons that were Lords of this place before the Norman Conquest) who flourish’d till the time of Henry the seventh, being enrich’d with great estates by marriages with the heirs of the famous families of the Forneaux and Marmions; which came at last by females to the Fienes Lords Dacre in the South, and to the Parrs.

Three miles below Richmond, the Swale flows by that ancient City which Ptolemy and Antoninus call CaturactoniumCaturactonium. and Catarracton,Catarricke. but Bede * * Dr. Gale thinks, this was Aikburgh, three miles off.Catarracta, and in another place the village near Catarracta; which makes me think the name was given it from a Catarract, seeing here is a great fall of water hard by, though nearer Richmond; where (as I before observ’d) the Swale rather rushes than runs; its waters being dashed and broken by the Rocks in its way. And why should he call it a village near Catarracta, if there had been no catarract of waters there? That it was a city of great note in those times, may be inferr’d from Ptolemy, because an Observation of the Heavens was made there.aequator equator For in his Magna ConstructioLib.2. c.6. he describes the 24th parallel to be through Catarractonium in Britain, and makes it to be distant from the æquator, 57 degrees. Yet in his Geography he defines the longest day to be 18 Equinoctial hours: so that according to his own calculation, it is distant 58 degrees. But at this day (as the Poet says)Magnum nil nisi nomen habet. it has nothing great, but the name. For it is a very small village, call’d Catarrick, and Catarrick-bridge;Catarrick-bridge. yet remarkable for its situation by a Roman high-way, which crosses the river here; and for those ¦ ¦ Rudetis.heaps of rubbish here and there, which carry a face of antiquity: especially near Ketterickswart, and Burghale, which are at some distance from the bridge; and more eastward, hard by the river, where I saw a huge mount with the appearance of four bulwarks, cast up with great labour to a considerable height. ⌈Tho’ therefore the name of the old Caturactonium be left in Catarick, yet are the remains of it met with about three flight-shots from the bridge, at a farm-house call’d Thornburgh, standing upon a high ground; where, as well as at Brampton upon Swale on the other side of the river, they have found Roman Coins. Upon the bank of the river (which here is very steep,) are foundations of some great walls, more like a castle than a private building; and the large prospect makes it very convenient for a Frontier-garrison. It is credibly reported, that about a hundred years ago, these walls were dug into, out of hopes of finding some treasure, and that the workmen at last came to a pair of Iron-gates. Overjoy’d at this, and thinking their end compass’d, they went to refresh themselves; but before their return, a great quantity of hanging ground had fall’n in, and the vast labour of removing the rubbish discouraged them from any further attempt.caesar

The level plot of ground upon the hill adjoyning to the Farm-house, may be about ten acres; in several parts whereof Roman Coins have been plow’d-up; one particularly of gold, with this Inscription, Nero Imp. Cæsar. and on the Reverse, Jupiter Custos. Within this compass also, they have met with the bases of old pillars, and a floor of brick with a pipe of lead passing perpendicularly down into the earth; which is thought by some to have been a place where sacrifice was done to the Infernal Gods, and that the blood descended by those pipes. Likewise heretofore, in plowing, the Plow-share stuck fast in the ear of a great brass-pot; which, upon removing the earth, they observ’d to be cover’d with flat-stones, and, upon opening, found it (as it is receiv’d from our Ancestors by tradition) to be almost full of Roman Coins, mostly copper, but some of silver. Great quantities have been given away by the Predecessors of Sir John Lawson (to which family the Estate came by marriage,) and he himself gave a good number, to be preserv’d among other Rarities, in King Charles’s Closet. The Pot was redeem’d at the price of eight Pounds, from the Sequestrators of Sir John Lawson’s Estate in the late Civil War, the Metal being an unusual sort of composition. It was fix’d in a Furnace to brew in, and contains some twenty four gallons of water.

Further, very lately (anno 1703.)Dr. Gale, Itinerar. p.13. some of the Inhabitants, digging the ground to make a Lime-kiln (on the higher-bank of the river, scarce a hundred paces below the bridge,) met with a Vault, fill’d with five Urns; viz. a large one in the middle, encompass’d with two on each side which were less: And to this place also belongs the following Inscription:

Inscription

Now, from all this, why should not we conclude that Thornburrow, belonging to Burgh-hall, was the Vicus juxta Catarractam; since Catarick-bridge, and the grounds adjoyning, belong not to Catarick, but to Brough? In this place, we will also add the following Inscription,

Inscription

Upon the South-end of the bridge, stands a little Chapel of stone, where tradition says, Mass was formerly said every day at eleven a clock, for the Benefit of Travellers, who would stay and hear it.⌉

What it suffer’d from the Picts and Saxons, when they laid waste the Cities of Britain with fire and sword, we have no certain account; yet after the Saxon Government was establish’d, it seems to have flourish’d (tho’ Bede always calls it a village,) till in the year 769. it was burnt by Eanredus or Beanredus the tyrant, who † Convulsit.destroy’d the Kingdom of Northumberland. But immediately after, he himself was miserably burnt, and Catarractonium began to raise its head again: for, in the 77th year after, King Ethelred solemniz’d his marriage with the daughter of Offa, King of the Mercians, in this place. Yet it did not continue long in a flourishing condition; for in those Devastations of the Danes which follow’d, it was utterly destroy’d.

The Swale, after a long course (not without obstructions) flows pretty near Hornby,Hornby. a castle of the family of S. Quintin, which afterwards came to the Cogniers; and, except pleasant pastures and country villages, sees nothing but Bedal,Bedal. situate upon another little river that runs into it, which in the time of King Edward the first glory’d in its Baron Brian Fitz-Alan,Fitz-Alan. of a very ancient Family, being descended from the Dukes of Britain and the Earls of Richmond: but, for want of issue-male, this inheritance came by daughters to the Stapletons, and the Greys of Rotherfeld.

The Swale being now past Richmondshire, draws nearer to the Ure, where it sees Topcliffe,Topcliffe. the chief seat of the Percies, call’d by Marianus Saxon Taden-clife; who says, that in the year 949. the States of Northumberland took an oath of Allegiance there, to King Eldred the West-Saxon, brother to Edmund; ⌈But Ingulphus, who had better opportunities than Marianus to know that matter, says, it was done by Chancellor Turketyl at York.⌉ At the very confluence of the two rivers, stands Mitton,Mitton. a very small village, but memorable for no small slaughter there. For, in the year 1319, when England was extremely weaken’d by a Plague, the Scots continu’d their Ravages to this place, and easily routed a considerable body of Priests and Peasants, which the Archbishop of York had drawn together against them. But to return. From Catarractonium, the military-way falls into two roads. That towards the north lies by Caldwell,Caldwell. and by AldburghAldburgh. (that is, an old burgh.) By what name this formerly went, I cannot easily guess. It seems to have been a great City from its large ruins; and near it, through a village called Stanwig, lies a ditch about eight miles long, drawn between the Tees and the Swale. The Way running to the † Circium.north-west, twelve miles off, comes to Bowes,Bowes. at present a little village, and sometimes writ Bough; where, in former ages, the Earls of Richmond had a small castle, and a tribute called Thorough-Toll, and their Gallows.lavatrae levatrae But more anciently, it was call’d in Antoninus’s Itinerary LavatræLavatræ. and Levatræ; as both the distance and the situation by a military way (which is here visible by the ridge) do plainly demonstrate. The Antiquity of it is further confirmed by an old Stone in the Church (us’d * * So said, ann. 1607.not long ago for a Communion-table) with this Inscription in honour of Hadrian the Emperor.Propraetor

IMP. CÆSARI DIVI TRAIANI PARTHICI. Max filio.
DIVI NERVÆ NEPOTI TRAIANO. Hadria
NO AVG. PONT. MAXM.------------
COS. I. ---- P.P. COH. IIII. F.----
IO. SEV.

This fragment was also dug-up there.

-----------
-----------
no l. cae
frontinvs.
coh. i. thrac.
   -----

In Severus’s reign, when Virius Lupus was Legate and Proprætor of Britain, the first Cohort of the Thracians was garrison’d here; to which he restored the BalneumBalineum, or Balneum. or Bath (called also Balineum,) as appears from this Inscription, which was remov’d hence to Connington, the house of the most famous and learned Sir Robert Cotton, Knight.

dae .. fortvnæInstead of Deæ fortunæ.
virivs lvpvs
leg. avg. pr. pr.
balinevm vi
ignis e xv
stvm. coh. i.
thracvm restitvit.
cvrante
val. frontone
præf----
eq. alae vetto.

Here, I must correct an errour in those, who, from a false draught of this Inscription which has it Balingium corruptly for Balineum, imagine the place to have been call’d Balingium; for upon a nearer inspection, it plainly appears to be Balineum in the stone: A word, used for Balneum by the ancients, as the learned very well know; who are not ignorant, that Baths were as well us’d by Soldiers as any other persons, both for the sake of health and cleanliness (for in that age, they were wont to wash every day, before they eat;) and also that Baths, both publick and private, were built in all places at such a lavish rate, that Seneca.the man thought himself poor and mean, who had not the walls of his BathSee Flintshire. shining with great and costly * * Orbibus.Bosses. In these, men and women wash’d promiscuously; though that was often prohibited, both by the Laws of the Emperours, and by Synodical Decrees.

In the decline of the Roman Empire, a † † Numerus Exploratorum.Band of the Exploratores, with their Præfect under the command of the * * Ducis Britanniæ.Governour of Britain, had their Station here; as is manifest from the Notitia, where it is nam’d Lavatres.Praefect Britanniae Lavatrae Now, seeing these Baths were also call’d Lavacra by the Latins, perhaps some Critick will imagin that this place was call’d Lavacra instead of Lavatræ; yet I should rather derive it from that little river hard by, which I hear is call’d Laver. This modern name Bowes (seeing the old Town was burn’d down, according to a tradition among the Inhabitants) seems to me to be deriv’d from that accident. For that which is burn’d with fire, is call’d by the Britains, Boeth; and so the Suburbs of Chester beyond the Dee, which the English call Hanbridge, is called by the Welsh or Britons, from its being burn’d down in a Welsh in-road, Treboth, that is, a little burnt Town.

⌈Not far from Bowes, is Greata-bridge,Greata-bridge. where has been a Camp of the Romans, and their old Coins are often found here, and of late also an Altar with this Inscription,

Greata-bridge Altar Inscription

And at Rookby,Rookby. in the neighbourhood of Greata-bridge, an Altar with the following Inscription was dug-up in the year 1702.

Rookby Altar Inscription

In this Tract also, hard by, is Eggleston,Eggleston-Abbey. where Conan Earl of Richmond built a Monastery (which hath by severalCamd.
Speed.
Harpsfield.
Writers been misplaced at Eggleston in the Bishoprick of Durham, about five miles higher, on the Tees;) where also, out of the Rocks, they hew Marble.⌉

Here begins that mountainous and vast tract, always expos’d to wind and weather; which being rough and stony is call’d by the Inhabitants, Stanemore:Stanemore. it is desolate and solitary throughout; except one InnSpittle on Stanemore. in the middle for the entertainment of Travellers: and near this, is the remainder of a Cross, which we call Rere-cross,Rere-cross. and the Scots, Rei-cross, that is, a Royal Cross. Hector Boetius, the Scotch Historian, says, that this Stone was set for a boundary between England and Scotland, when William the first gave Cumberland to the Scots, upon this condition, that they should hold it of him by fealty, and attempt nothing to the prejudice of the Crown of England. Somewhat lower, just by the Roman Military way, was a small Roman Fort of a square form, which is now call’d Maiden-castle.Maiden-castle. From hence, as I had it from the Borderers, this Military Roman way ran with many windings to Caer Vorran.

As the favour of Princes vary’d,Earls of Richmond. there have been several Earls of Richmond, and of different families: of whom I will give you the Succession, with all the accuracy and certainty that I can. Alan Rufus, Earl of Britain in Armorica; Alan Niger, to whom William the Conqueror gave this County; Stephen Earl of Britain his brother; Alan Earl of Britain, the son of Stephen. About this time, Overus de St. Martino is mention’d as Earl of Richmond. Conanus Earl of Britain, his son, who by the assistance of Henry the second King of England, recover’d Britain from his Father-in-law the Sheriff of Porhoet, who had seis’d it; Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Henry the second King of England, whose first wife was Constantia, only daughter of Conanus: Arthur his son, who is said to have been made away by King John. Upon this account King John was certainly impeach’d by the French as Duke of Normandy;Normandy taken from the King of England. and they pass’d Sentence upon him, tho’ he was absent, unheard, had made no confession, nor was convict; and yet they adjudg’d him depriv’d of Normandy and his hereditary Lands in France. Whereas he had publickly promis’d to answer before the Judicature at Paris concerning the death of Arthur, who, as his Subject, had taken an oath of Allegiance to him, and yet had broken the same, and raised a rebellion, and was taken prisoner in the course of the war. At that time, a question was rais’d, Whether the Peers of France could sit Judges upon a Crown’d head, that is, upon their Superiour; seeing every greater dignity, as it were drowns the less, and the King of England and Duke of Normandy at that time was the self-same person. But to put an end to this digression: After Arthur, there succeeded in the Earldom of Richmond, Guy Viscount of Thouars, second husband of Constantia aforesaid; Ranulph the third, Earl of Chester, third husband of the said Constantia: Peter de Dreux, descended from the Blood-royal of France, who marry’d Alice only daughter of Constantia by her husband Guy of Thouars. Peter of Savoy, Uncle of Eleanor, Consort to King Henry the third; who finding the Nobility and Commons of England much incens’d against Foreigners, voluntarily renounc’d this honour: John Earl of Britain, Son of Peter de Dreux: John the first Duke of Britain, and son of him who marry’d Beatrice daughter of Henry the third King of England. He had issue, Arthur Duke of Britain, who, according to some Writers, was alsoRobert de Arthois was not Earl of Richmond (as Frossardus has it) but of Bellomont.
Lib. Feod. Richmondiæ.
Earl of Richmond: Certain it is, that John his younger brother, presently after the death of his father, enjoy’d this honour; who added to the ancient Arms of Dreux, with the Canton of Britain, the Lions of England in bordure. He was * * Custos.Governour of Scotland under Edward the second, where he was kept prisoner three years, and at last dy’d without issue in the reign of Edward the third; and John Duke of Britain his Nephew, the son of Arthur, succeeded in this Earldom. He dying without issue, at a time when the Dutchy of Britain was warmly † † Between John de Monteforti, and Joan Clauda wife of Charles of Blois.contended for, Edward the third, to advance his Interest in France, gave to John Earl of Montford (who had sworn fealty to him for the Dutchy of Britain) all this Earldom, till such time as he should recover his Lands in France; he seeming preferable to the daughter of his brother deceas’d, as he was a Man, as he was nearer ally’d, and as he had a better title in Law. His lands being at length regain’d by means of the English, the same King gave this to John of Gaunt his son, who at last restor’d it to the King his father for other Lands in exchange. The King forthwith created John Earl of Montford (the second Duke of Britain, sirnam’d the Valiant, to whom he had marry’d his daughter) Earl of Richmond, that he might oblige him to his interest by the strongest ties; being a warlike man, and an inveterate enemy to the French. Yet, by Authority of Parliament, in the 14th year of Richard the second, he was depriv’d of this Earldom, for adhering to the French against the English. However, he retain’d the title, and left it to his posterity. The Estate belonging to the Earldom was given by the King to Joan of Britain his sister, widow of Ralph Basset of Draiton. After her death, first Ralph Nevil Earl of Westmorland, by the bounty of Henry the fourth, had the Castle and County of Richmond for term of Life; and then, John Duke of Bedford. Afterwards, Henry the sixth confer’d the title of Earl of Richmond upon Edmund de Hadham his brother by the mother’s side, with this peculiar privilege, That he should take place in Parliament next to the Dukes. To him succeeded Henry his son, afterwards King of England by the name of Henry the seventh. But while he was in exile, George Duke of Clarence, and Richard Duke of Glocester, had this County bestow’d upon them by King Edward the fourth their brother. Next Henry, a natural Son of Henry the eighth, was by his father invested Duke of Richmond;Dukes of Richmond. but in the year of our Lord 1535. he dy’d without issue.

⌈Next after Henry-Fitz-Roy, Lodowick, Duke of Lenox, was created Earl of Richmond, 11 Jac.1. Oct. 6, and afterwards in 1623. Duke of Richmond. After him, James Stewart, Duke of Lenox and Earl of March, was created Duke of Richmond by King Charles the first, Aug. 8. 1641, and was succeeded by his Son Esme; who, dying young in the year 1660, was succeeded by Charles Earl of Lichfield his Cousin-german. Which said Charles dying without issue, Charles Lenos natural Son of King Charles the second, was created, Aug. 9. 1675. Baron of Setrington, Earl of March, and Duke of Richmond.⌉

There are reckon’d in this County 104 great Parishes, besides Chapels of Ease.

More rare Plants growing wild in Yorkshire.

Allium montanum bicorne purpureum proliferum. Purple-flower’d mountain Garlick. On the scars of the Mountains near Settle. See the description of it in Synopsis method. stirpium Britannicarum.

Alsine pusilla pulchro flore, folio tenuissimo nostras. Small fine Mountain-chickweed with a milk-white flower. In the Mountains about Settle plentifully.

Bifolium minimum J. B. Ophris minima C. B.  The least Twayblade. On the Heaths and Moors among the Furze in many places. As on Blackay-moor in the way to Gisburgh near Scaling-damm, and in the Moor near Almondbury.Mariae

Calceolus Mariæ Ger. Damasonii species quibusdam seu Calceolus D. Mariæ J. B. Elleborine major seu Calceolus Mariæ Park. Ladies slipper. At the end of Helks-wood near Ingleborough.

Campanula cymbalaria foliis. Ger. Park. Tender Ivy-leav’d Bell-flower. I have observed it in watery places about Sheffield.

Cannabis spuria flore luteo amplo, labio purpureo. Fair-flower’d Nettle-hemp. In the mountainous parts of this Country, among the Corn plentifully.

Carum seu Careum Ger. Carum vulgare Park. Caraways. In the pastures about Hull plentifully, so that they gather the Seed there for the use of the shops.

Caryophyllata montana purpurea Ger. emac. montana seu palustris purpurea Park. aquatica nutante flore C. B. aquatica, flore rubro striato J. B. Purple-Avens. In the Mountains near the Rivulets and Water-courses about Settle, Ingleborough, and other places in the West and North-ridings of this County. Mr. Lawson hath observed this with three or four rows of leaves in the flower.

Caryophyllus marinus minimus Ger. montanus minor C. B. Thrift or Sea-Gillyflower. Mr. Lawson found this in Bleaberry-gill at the head of Stockdale-fields not far from Settle: so that it may not improperly be call’d mountainous as well as maritime.

Cerasus avium nigra & racemosa Ger. racemosa fructu non eduli C. B. avium racemosa Park. racemosa quibusdam, aliis Padus J. B. The Wild-cluster-cherry, or Birds-cherry. In the mountainous parts of the West-riding of this County.Actaea

Christophoriana Ger. vulgaris Park. Aconitum racemosum, Actæa quibusdam J. B. racemosum, an Actæa Plinii l.27. c.7. C. B. Herb-Christopher or Baneberries. In Haselwood-woods near Sir Walter Vavasor’s Park-pale: also among the Shrubs by Malham-Cave.

Cirsium Britannicum repens Clusii J. B. aliud Anglicanum Park. singulari capitulo squamato, vel incanum alterum C. B. The great English soft or gentle Thistle, or Melancholy Thistle. In the Mountains about Ingleborough and elsewhere in the West-riding of Yorkshire.

Cochlearia rotundifolia Ger. folio subrotundo C. B. Common round leav’d Scurvy-grass. This, though it usually be accounted a Sea-plant, yet we found it growing plentifully upon Stanemore near the Spittle; and upon Penigent and Ingleborough-hills; in which places, by reason of the coldness of the air it is so little, that it hath been taken for a distinct Species, and call’d Cochlearia minor rotundifolia; but its Seed being taken and sown in a warm Garden, it soon confesses its Species, growing to the dimensions of the common Garden Scurvy-grass.

Conyza Helenitis foliis laciniatis. Jagged-leav’d Fleabane-mullet. About a stones-cast from the East-end of Shirley-Pool near Rushy-moor. P. B. This hath been already mention’d in several Counties.

Erica baccifera procumbens nigra C. B. Black-berried heath, Crow-berries, or Crake-berries. On the boggy mountains or moors plentifully.

Fucus sive Alga tinctoria P. B. Diers wrack. It is often cast on the shore near Bridlington.

Fungus piperatus albus, lacteo succo turgens C. B. Pepper Mushrome with a milky juice. Found by Dr. Lister in Marton woods under Pinno-moor in Craven plentifully.

Geranium batrachioides montanum nostras. An batrachioides minus seu alterum Clus. hist? batrachioides minus Park? batrachioides folio Aconiti C. B.? batrach. aliud folio Aconiti nitente Clusii J. B.? Mountain Crowfoot-Cranesbill. In the mountainous meadows and bushets in the West-Riding.

G. Geranium moschatum Ger. Park. Musked Cranes-bill, commonly called Musk or Muscovy. It is to be found growing common in Craven. Dr. Lister is my Author.

C. Gnaphalium montanum album sive Pes cati. Mountain-Cudweed or Cats-foot. Upon Ingleborough and other hills in the West-Riding: also in Scosby-leas near Doncaster.

Helleborine foliis longis augustis acutis. Bastard Hellebore with long narrow sharp-pointed leaves. Under Bracken-brow near Ingleton. At the end of a wood near Ingleborough, where the Calceolus Mariæ grows.Mariae

Helleborine altera atro-rubente flore C. B. Elleborine flore atro-rubente Park. Bastard Hellebore with a blackish flower. In the sides of the mountains near Malham, four miles from Settle plentifully; especially at a place call’d Cordil or the Whern.

Hieracium montanum Cichorei folio nostras. An Hieracium Britannicum Clus. Succory-leav’d mountain Hawkweed. In moist and boggy places in some woods about Burnley.

Hordeum polystichon J. B. polystichon hybernum C. B. polystichon vel hybernum Park. Winter or square Barley, or Bear-barley, called in the North-country Big. This endures the winter, and is not so tender as the common Barley; and is therefore sown instead of it in the mountainous part of this country, and all the North over.

M. Lilium convallium Ger. Lilly convally or May-lilly. On Ingleborough and other hills.

Lunaria minor Ger. Park. botrytis J. B. racemosa minor vel vulgaris C. B. Moonwort. Tho’ this grows somewhere or other in most Counties of England; yet have I not found it any where in that plenty, and so rank and large, as on the tops of some mountains near Settle.Chamaenerion

Lysimachia Chamænerion dicta latifoli C. B. Chamænerion Ger. Chamænerion flore Delphinii Park. minùs recté. Rose-bay. Willow-herb. In the meadows near Sheffield, and in divers other places.

Lysimachia lutea flore globoso Ger. Park. bifolia flore globoso luteo C. B. altera lutea Lobelii, flore quasi spicato J. B. Yellow loose strife, with a globular spike or tuft of flowers. Found by Mr. Dodsworth in the East-Riding of this County.

M. Muscus clavatus sive Lycopodium Ger. Park. Club-moss or Wolfs-claw.Plinianae

Muscus clavatus foliis Cupressi C. B. Ger. emac. clavatus cupressiformis Park. terrestris ramosus pulcher J. B. Sabina sylvestris Trag. Selaginis Plinianæ prima species Thal. Cypress-moss or Heath cypress.

Muscus terrestris repens, clavis singularibus foliosis erectis. Smaller creeping Club-moss with erect Heads.

Muscus erectus Abietiformis nobis. terrestris rectus J. B. Selago 3. Thalii. Upright fir-moss.

Muscus terrestris rectus minor polyspermos. Seeding mountain moss. All these sorts are found upon Ingleborough hill. The last about springs and watery places. The first and third are common to most of the moors and fells in the north of England.

Ornithogalum luteum C. B. Park. luteum seu Cepe agraria Ger. Bulbus sylvestris Fuchsii flore luteo, seu Ornithogalum luteum J. B. Yellow Star of Bethlehem. In the woods in the northern part of Yorkshire by the Tees-side, near Greata-bridge and Brignall.

Pentaphylloides fructicosa Shrub-Cinquefoil. On the south bank of the river Tees below a village called Thorp: as also below Eggleston Abbey. At Mickle Force in Teesdale there are thousands of these plants.

Pentaphyllum parvum hirsutum J. B. Small rough Cinquefoil. In the pastures about Kippax, a village three miles distant from Pontefract.

Pyrola Ger. J. B. nostras vulgaris Park. Common Winter-green. We found it near Halifax, by the way leading to Kighley; but most plentifully in the moors south of Heptenstall in the way to Burnley for near a mile’s riding.

Pyrola folio mucronato serrato C. B. serrato J. B. tenerior Park. Secunda tenerior Clusii Ger. Sharp-pointed Winter-green with serrate leaves. In Haselwood-woods near Sir Walter Vavasor’s park.

Polygonatum floribus ex singularibus pediculis J. B. latifolium flore majore odoro C. B. majus flore majore Park. latifolium 2. Clusii Ger. Sweet-smelling Solomon’s seal, with flowers on single foot-stalks. On the ledges of the scars or cliffs near Settle and Wharf.

Primula veris flore rubro Ger. Clus. Paralysis minor flore rubro Park-parad. Verbasculum umbellatum Alpinum minus C. B. Birds-eyn. In the mountainous meadows about Ingleborough and elsewhere in moist and watery places.Europaea

Pyrola Alsines flore Europæa C. B. Park. Herba trientalis J. B. Winter-green with Chick-weed flowers. At the east end of the Rumbles-mear near Helwick.

Pyrola Alsines flore Brasiliana C. B. prod. Winter-green Chickweed of Brasil. Found near Gisburgh Cleveland, as was attested to me by Mr. Lawson.

Ranunculus globosus Ger. Park. parad. flore globoso, quibusdam Trollius flos J. B. montanus Aconiti folio, flore globoso C. B. Indeed it ought to be entitled an Aconite or Wolfsbane with a Crowfoot flower. The Globe-flower or Locker gowlons. In the mountainous meadows, and by the sides of the mountains and near water-courses plentifully.

Ribes vulgaris fructu rubro Ger. vulgaris acidus ruber J. B. fructu rubro Park. Grossularia sylvestris rubra C. B. Red Currans. In the woods in the northern part of this County, about Greata-bridge, &c.

Ribes Alpinus dulcis J. B. Sweet Mountain-Currans. Found in this County by Mr. Dodsworth.

Rhodia radix omnium Autorum. Telephium roseum rectius. Rosewort. On the rocks on the north-side of Ingleborough hill plentifully.

Rosa sylvestris pomifera major nostras. Rosa pomifera major Park. parad. The greater English Apple-Rose. In the mountainous parts of this County it is very frequent.potius Chamaerubus

Rosmarinum sylvestre minus nostras Park. Ledum palustre potiùs dicendum. Wild Rosemary or Marsh Holy Rose. On Mosses and moorish grounds.

Rubus saxatilis Ger. Alpinus saxatilis Park. Alpinus Humilis J. B. Chamærubus saxatilis C. B. The stone-Bramble or Raspis. On the sides of Ingleborough hill, and other hills in the West-Riding.

Salix folio laureo seu lato glabro odorato. Bay-leav’d sweet Willow. In the mountainous parts of the West-Riding, by the rivers and rivulets.

Salix pumila montana folio rotundo J. B. Round-leav’d mountainous dwarf Willow. On the rocks upon the top of Ingleborough hill, on the north side: and on an hill called Whernside over-against Ingleborough on the other side of the subterraneous river.caeruleum Ajugae

Sedum Alpinum ericoides cæruleum C. B. J. B. Mountain Sengreen with Heath-like leaves, and large purple flowers. On the uppermost rocks of the north-side of Ingleborough.

Sedum minus Alpinum luteum nostras. Small yellow mountain-Sengreen. On the sides of Ingleborough-hill about the rivers and springing waters on the north-side of the hill plentifully.

Sedum Alpinum trifido folio C. B. Alpinum laciniatis Ajugæ foliis Park. Sedis affinis trisulca Alpina flore albo J. B. Small mountain-Sengreen with jagged leaves. On Ingleborough and many other hills in the north part of this County.

Sedum purpureum pratense J. B. minus palustre Ger. arvense seu palustre flore rubente Park. palustre subhirsutum purpureum C. B. Small Marsh-Sengreen. On the moist Rocks about Ingleborough hill, as you go from the hill to Horton in Ribbles-dale in a ground where Peat is got in great plenty.

Sideritis arvensis latifolia hirsuta flore luteo. Broad-leav’d rough Field-Ironwort with a large flower. In the West-riding of Yorkshire about Sheffield, Darfield, Wakefield, &c. among the Corn plentifully.

Trachelium majus Belgarum. Giant Throat-wort. Every where among the Mountains.

Thalictrum minus Ger. Park. C. B. The lesser Meadow-rue. Nothing more common on the Rocks about Malham and Wharfe.Globulariae potius

Thlaspi foliis Globulariæ J. B. montanum Glasti folio minus Park. C. B. opp. In the mountainous pastures going from Settle to Malham, plentifully.

Thlaspi vel potiùs Leucoium sive Lunaria vasculo sublongo intorto. Lunar Violet with an oblong wreathen cod. On the sides of the Mountains, Ingleborough and Hinckel-haugh, in moist places, and where waters spring.Chamaemorus Idaeo graeca caerulo caerulaea licorice

Vaccinia Nubis Ger. Chamæmorus Clus. Anglica Park. item Cambro-britannica ejusdem. Rubo Idæo minori affinis Chamæmorus J. B. Chamæmorus folio Ribes Anglica C. B. Cloud-berries, Knot-berries, or Knout-berries. This I found plentifully growing and bearing fruit on Hinckel-haugh near Settle. I have found it also in Ingleborough and Pendle hills, but not in flower and fruit. Both Gerard and Parkinson make two Plants of it.

Valeriana Græca Ger. Park. Græca quorundam, colore cæruleo & albo J. B. cærulæa C. B. Greek Valerian, which the vulgar call Ladder to Heaven, and Jacob’s Ladder. Found by Dr. Lister in Carleton-beck in the falling of it into the river Are: but more plentifully both with a blue flower and a white about Malham-cove, in the Wood on the left hand of the water as you go to the Cove plentifully, as also at Cordill or the Whern, a remarkable Cove, where there comes out a great stream of water near the said Malham.

To these I shall add a Plant, which tho’ perchance it be not originally native of this County, yet is planted and cultivated in large Gardens at Pontefract for sale; and hath been taken notice of by Camden and Speed; that is,

Glycyrrhiza vulgaris Ger. emac. vulg. siliquosa Park. siliquosa vel Germanica C. B. radice repente, vulgaris Germanica J. B. Common Liquorice. The quality of this Plant in taking away the sense of hunger and thirst, we have taken notice of in Cambridgeshire-Catalogue.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/c/camden/william/britannia-gibson-1722/part103.html

Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06