Britannia, by William Camden

Yorkshire, EAST-RIDING.

Big E EAst-Riding, or the east part, where the Parisi are seated by Ptolemy, makes the second division of this County; lying East of York. The north and west sides of it are bounded by the winding course of the river Derwent; the south by the æstuary of Humber; and the east by the German Ocean. aestuary estuary That part of it towards the sea and the river Derwent, is pretty fruitful; but the middle is nothing but a heap of Mountains, called Yorkeswold, that is, ⌈as some interpret it⌉ Yorkeshire-hills, ⌈and yet Saxon wold, in Saxon, properly signifies a large Plain without Woods.⌉ The river Derventio, or as we call it Derwent,Derwent, riv. rises near the shore and runs first to the west, but then turns again to the south, and passes by Aiton and Malton; which, because they belong to the North-Riding of this County, I shall reserve to their proper places. As soon as the river has enter’d this Division, it runs on not far from the remains of that old castle Montserrant,Montserrant. which belonged formerly to the Fossards,Historia Meauxensis. men of great Honour and Estate. But William Fossard of this family being in ward to the King, and committed to the guardianship of William le Grosse Earl of Albemarle, enraged the Earl so, by debauching his sister, though he was then but very young, that in revenge he demolished this castle ⌈(which Leland says, in his time, was clearly defaced, so as bushes grew where it had formerly stood,)⌉ and also forced the noble young Gentleman to forsake his country. Yet after the death of the Earl, he recovered his estate; and left an only daughter, married to R. de Tornham, by whom she had a daughter, afterwards married to Peter de Malo-lacu; whose posterity, being enriched with this estate of the Fossards, became very famous Barons. ⌈Of this family de Malo-lacu (or as Leland calls them, Mauley) there were eight who successively enjoyed the Estate, all Peters; but the last of these leaving only two daughters, the one was married to Bygod, and the other to Salwayne; though the Records of the Family of Fairfax give us an account somewhat different, That Constantia, daughter of Peter the 7th, and sister and co-heir of Peter de Malo-lacu, the 8th and last Baron, was first married to William Fairfax Esq; by whom he had issue Thomas, Ancestor to the Lords of that name, and after his death to Sir John Bygod Knight.⌉

Not far from hence, stands a place seated upon the bank of the river, called Kirkham,Kirkham. i.e. the place of the Church; for here was a College of Canons, founded by Walter Espec, a very great man, whose daughter brought a vast estate by marriage to the family of the Rosses. Next, but somewhat lower upon the Derwent, there stood a city of the same name, which Antoninus calls Derventio,Derventio. and makes it seven miles distant from York. The Notitia mentions a Captain over ¦ ¦ Numeri Derventiensis.the Company of the Derventienses under the General of Britain, that quarter’d here: and in the time of the Saxons it seems to have been the Royal Village situated near the river Doreventio (says Bede,) where Eumer, that Assassin (as the same Author has it) made a push with his Sword at Edwin King of Northumberland, and had run him through, if one of his retinue had not interpos’d, and sav’d his master’s life with the loss of his own. But this place I could never have discover’d, without the light which I received from that polite and accurate scholar Robert Marshall. He shewed me, that at the distance from York which I mention’d, there is a little Town seated upon the Derwent call’d Auldby,Auldby. which signifies in Saxon, the old habitation; where some remains of Antiquity are still to be met with; and, upon the top of the hill towards the river, the rubbish of an old Castle: so that this cannot but be the Derventio. ⌈A late * * Gale, Itinerar. p.24.learned Author makes it also the Petuaria of Ptolemy, which he supposes to have been added by him and by the Notitia (where they speak of Peturiense Derventione) to distinguish this from the other Derventio’s: and, as it appears that neither Ptolemy nor Ravennas, who mention Petuaria, do say any thing of Derventio; so it is certain that in Ravennas, this Petuaria stands in the very place that Derventio doth in Antoninus, i.e. between Eboracum and Delgovitia. And whereas the termination Varia always implies a ford or pass, it is plain, that there hath been such an one near this Auldby.⌉

From hence the river flows through Standford-bridge, which, from a battel fought there, is also call’d ⌈by writers, but not by the common people,⌉ Battle-bridge.Battel-bridge. ⌈So we find it named in an InstrumentMonast. Angl. Tom.1. p.334. concerning the Translation of Oswin; which, speaking of this place, adds, Nunc verò Pons Belli dicitur, i.e. at present it is call’d Pons Belli or Battel-bridge.⌉ For here Harald Haardread the Norwegian (who with a Fleet of two hundred sail had annoy’d this Kingdom, and from his landing at Richal had marched thus far with great outrage and devastation) was encounter’d by King Harold of England: who, in a pitch’d battel here, slew him and a great part of his army, and took so much gold among the spoil, that twelve young men could hardly bear it upon their shoulders, as we are told by Adam Bremensis. This engagement was scarce nine days before the coming-in of William the Conquerour; at which time the dissolute luxury of the English seems to have foretold the destruction of this Kingdom. But of this we have spoken already.In the general Part, sub Tit. Normans.

The Derwent (which, as oft as it is encreas’d with rains, is apt to overflow the banks, and lay all the neighbouring Meadows a-float) passes from hence to Wreshil,Wreshil. a Castle neatly built and fortified by Thomas Percy Earl of Worcester, ⌈which deserves to be remember’d here, not only for it’s stately building, of Square-stone (said to be brought from France,) which Leland commends as one of the most proper buildings north of Trent; but chiefly for a Study in an eight square, called Paradisa, which he found furnished with choice Books, and convenient Desks.⌉ Thence it runs more swiftly below Babthorpe,Babthorpe. which has given both seat and name to a famous family of Knights there; and from thence into the Ouse. A father and son, both of this family (I must not forget to be just to their memories, who have been so serviceable to their King and Country) were slain in the battel of St. Albans, fighting for Henry the sixth, and lie buried there with this Epitaph.

Cum patre Radulpho Babthorpe jacet ecce Radulphus
Filius, hoc duro marmore pressus humo:
Henrici sexti dapifer, pater Armiger ejus,
Mors satis id docuit, fidus uterque fuit.

The two Ralph Babthorps, father and his son,
Together lie inter’d beneath this stone.
One Squire, one Sew’r to our sixth Henry was;
Both dy’d i’th’ field, both in their master’s cause.

Now the Derwent, ⌈(for the making of which navigable to the river of Ouse, an Act of Parliament pass’d in the first yearCap. xx. of the reign of Queen Anne)⌉ glides on with a larger stream near Howden,Howden. a market-town, remarkable neither for neatness nor resort, but for giving name to the neighbouring territory, which from it is call’d Howdenshire; and † † So said, ann. 1607.not long since, for a little Collegiate Church of five Prebendaries, to which a house of the Bishops of Durham adjoins, who have large possessions hereabouts. Walter Skirlaw, one of them, who flourish’d about the year 1390. (as we find in the book of Durham) built a very tall steeple to this Church, that in case of a sudden inundation, the inhabitants might save themselves in it. ⌈It was formerly call’d Hovedene, as is plain from several Records in the time of Edward the second and Edward the third, as also from * * Itin. MS.Leland’s calling the first Canon of the place John Hovedene. Here the bowels of Walter Skirlaw Bishop of Durham were bury’d, ¦ ¦ appear’d by the Inscription on a very fair stone varii marmoris, as Leland calls it. The same person had good cause to build that high Belfrey, in order to secure them against Inundations; inasmuch as the several Commissions which have been issu’d out for repairing the banks thereabouts, argue the great danger they were in: and within these few years, the Ebb, by reason of great freshes coming down the Ouse, broke through the banks, and did considerable damage both to Howden and the neighbouring parts. Here, the Londoners keep a Mart every year, beginning about the fourteenth of September, and continuing about nine days; where they furnish, by wholesale, the Country Tradesmen with all sorts of Goods.⌉

Not far from hence is Metham,Metham. which gave name and seat to the ancient and famous family of the Methams. ⌈Upon the Moors in this neighbourhood, hath been discover’d a Roman Pottery, where their Urns were made, about a mile from the military High-way; and pieces of broken Urns, and cinders, are found up and down there: And at Youle, nigh the meeting of Dun and Humber, have been dug-upPhil. Trans. n.228.
subterraneous Trees, suppos’d to be Firrs; which appear, by the remaining roots and other circumstances, to have been natives of the Place.⌉Estuary AEstuary underground

The Ouse, grown more spacious, runs with a swift and violent stream into the ÆstuaryÆstuary of Abus. Abus, the name by which it is express’d in Ptolemy: but the Saxons, and we at this day, call it Humber;Humber. and from it, all that part of the country on the other side, was in general call’d Nordan-humbria. Both names seem to be derivatives from the British Aber, which signifies the mouth of a river, and was perhaps given to this by way of excellence, because the Urus or Ouse, with all those streams that fall into it, and many other considerable rivers, discharge themselves here. ⌈But although the Abus and the Humber be generally look’d on as one and the same; yet Ptolemy’s Greek text seems to be a corrupt Greek reading of the old name Ouse, rather than to have sprung from the British Aber. It is plain, however, by that expression, Greek text Greek text Greek text, i.e. the emptying of the river Abus, that he meant, the river had that name before ever it came to the Out-let.⌉ It is, without question, the most spacious Æstuary, and the best stor’d with fish, of any in that Kingdom. At every tide, it flows as the sea does, and at ebb returns its own waters with those borrow’d from the Ocean, with a vast force and noise, and not without great danger to sailors and passengers. Hence Necham:

Fluctibus æquoreis Nautis suspectior Humber
Dedignans urbes visere, rura colit.

Humber, whom more than seas the Pilots fear,
Scorning great towns, doth through the country steer.

The same Author, following the British history, as if the Humber deriv’d this name from a King of the Hunns, continues:

Hunnorum princeps ostendens terga Locrino,
Submersus nomen contulit Humbris aquæ.

The Hunne’s great Prince by Locrin’s arms subdu’d,
Here drown’d, gave name to Humber’s mighty flood.

Another Poet also says of the same river:

Dum fugit, obstat ei flumen, submergitur illic,
Deque suo tribuit nomine nomen aquæ.

Here stopt in’s flight by the prevailing stream,
He fell, and to the waters left his name.

In Necham’s time, there were no Towns upon this Æstuary; though before, and in after-ages, there flourish’d one or two in those parts. In the Roman times, not far from its bank upon the little river Foulnesse (where Wighton,Wighton. a small town, but well-stock’d with husbandmen, now stands,) there seems to have formerly stood Delgovitia;Delgovitia. as is probable both from the likeness and the signification of the name, without drawing any further proof from its distance from Derventio. For the British word Delgwe ⌈or rather ddelw,⌉ signifies the Statues or Images of the Heathen Gods; and in a little village not far off, there stoodBede. an Idol-Temple, which was in very great honour even in the Saxon times, and, from the Heathen Gods in it, was then call’d God-mundingham, and now in the same sense, Godmanham.Godmanham. Nor do I question, but here was some famous Oracle, even in the British times; when blindness and ignorance had betray’d all Nations into these superstitions. A Temple of the Gods. ⌈A late learned Author thinks it was a Temple of the Druids, such as Weightelberg in Germany, and that in the wood Deirwald (which he derives from Derwen an Oak) were their Groves.⌉ But after Paulinus had preach’d Christ to the Northumbrians, Coyfi, who had been a Priest of these heathen Ceremonies, and was now converted to Christianity, first prophaned this Temple, the House of impiety (as Bede tells us) * * Injecta throwing a spear into it; nay destroy’d, and burnt it, with all itsSeptis.fences. ⌈But here it is to be observ’d, that proper cover’d Temples appear not to have been erected for the service of those Pagan-Idols, which the Saxons here worship’d. Polluit & destruxit eas, quas ipse sacraverat, ædes, says the Latin * * Lib.2. c.13.Bede, speaking of this Coyfi (i.e. he polluted and destroy’d the Temple which himself had consecrated;) where the Saxon-Paraphrase uses the word Saxon wigbed, or (as some Copies have it) Saxon: weofede Saxon: thaes Saxon: haethenan Saxon: gyldes; implying not a Temple, but an Altar, as is evident from the Saxon Translation of the † † Mat. v.23. xxiii. 18, 19.Gospels. No, they were only surrounded with a hedge to defend their ditches from the annoyance of cattel; as is sufficiently intimated by another expression in the same Chapter, Saxon: Mid Saxon: heora Saxon: hegum Saxon: the Saxon: hi Saxon: ymbsette Saxon: waeron, i.e. with the hedges herewith they were surrounded.

Not far from Wighton, is Holme,Holme. from which the Loyal Sir Marmaduke Langdale, had the title of Baron Langdale of Holme, confer’d upon him during the Exile of King Charles the second; being the first Englishman that was advanced to the dignity of a Peer by that Prince. Also Londesburgh,Londesburg. in this neighbourhood, gives the title of Baron Clifford of Lansbrough to the Earl of Burlington, who has here one of the noblest seats in this part of South-Britain. Elizabeth, Countess of Burlington (daughter and sole heir of Henry Earl of Cumberland) founded and endow’d here an Alms-house for twelve aged persons, being decay’d Farmers, &c.⌉

Somewhat more eastward, the river Hull runs into the Humber: the rise of it is near a village call’d Driffeild,Driffeild. remarkable for the monument of Alfred, the most learned King of the Northumbrians; and likewise for the many Barrows rais’d hereabouts. The same river runs with a swift course, not far from Leckenfield,Leckenfield. a house of the Percies Earls of Northumberland; near which, at a place call’d Schorburg, is the habitation of a truly famous and ancient family, the Hothams; and at Garthum,Garthum. the ruins of an old castle, which belong’d to P. de Mauley.

The river Hull begins now to approach Beverley,Beverley. in Saxon Saxon Beuer-lega, (which Bede seems to call Monasterium in Deirwaud, that is, the Monastery in the wood of the Deiri,) a town, large and very populous. From its name and situation, one would imagin it to be thePetuaria. * * Vid. Auldby, before.Petuaria Parisiorum; though it pretends to nothing of greater antiquity, than that John sirnam’d de Beverley, Archbishop of York (a man, as Bede represents him, both devout and learned) when, out of a pious aversion to the world, he renounced his Bishoprick, retir’d hither; where, about the year 721, he died. Life of Jo. de Beverley. The memory of this man was so sacred among our Kings (particularly Athelstan, who honour’d him as his Guardian-Saint after he had defeated the Danes,) that they endow’d this place with many considerable Immunities. They granted it the privilege ofAsylum. a Sanctuary, to be an inviolable protection to all Debtors, and persons suspected of Capital Crimes. Within it stood a Chair of stone, with this Inscription:

HæC Sedes Lapidea Freedstooll
Dicitur, I.E. Pacis Cathedra, Ad
Qvam Revs Fvgiendo Perveniens
Omnimodam Habet

That is,

This Stone-seat is call’d Freedstooll, i.e. the Chair of Peace, to which what Criminal soever flies, has full protection.

By this means, the Town grew to a considerable bigness; strangers thronged thither daily, and the Towns-men drew a chanel from the river Hull,The river Hull. for the conveyance of foreign commodities by boats and barges. The Magistrates were first, twelve Wardens, which were after that chang’d to Governors and Wardens. But at this day, by the favour of Queen Elizabeth, the Town has a Mayor and Governors. ⌈The place was call’d formerly Beverlac, quasi locus vel lacus Castorum, à Castoribus quibus Hulla aqua vicina abundabat (says Leland * * Vid. Monast. Angl. t.1. p.170.from an old Anonymous Manuscript concerning the Antiquities of Beverolac or Beverley, ) i.e. from Castors, with which that river abounds; and the same Manuscript informs us, that it had a Church before the time of John of Beverley, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist; which that Archbishop converted into a Chapel for his new-erected Monastery.

In the Year 1664.Sept. 13. upon opening a Grave, they met with a Vault of squared free-stone, fifteen foot long, and two foot broad at the head, but at the feet a foot and a half broad. Within it, was a sheet of lead four foot long, and in that, the ashes, and six beads (whereof three crumbled to dust with a touch; and of three remaining, two were suppos’d to be Cornelians,) with three great brass pins, and four large iron nails. Upon the sheet, lay a leaden Plate, with this Inscription:

Cross Anno ab incarnatione domini
mclxxxviii. Combvsta fvit
hæc ecclesia in mense septembri,
in seqventi nocte post
festvm sancti mathæi apostoli:
et in an. Mcxcvii. Vi. Idvs
martii facta fvit inqvisitio
reliqviarvm beati johannis in
hoc loco, et inventa svnt
hæc ossa in orientali parte
sepvlchri et hic recondita, et
pvlvis cemento mixtvs ibidem
inventus est et reconditvs.

In English thus.

In the year of our Lord 1188. this Church was burnt in the Month of September, on the night following the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle; and in the year 1197, on the sixth of the Ides of March, Inquisition was made after the Reliques of St. John in this place, and these bones were found in the east part of the Sepulchre, and were buried here; and there also, Dust mixed with Mortar, was found, and buried.

Cross over this, lay a box of lead, about seven inches long, six broad, and five high; wherein were several pieces of bones, mix’d with a little dust, and yielding a sweet smell; as also a knife, and beads. All these things were carefully re-inter’d in the middle Alley of the body of the Minster, where they were taken up. But a Seal, which was also found therein, was not re-inter’d with the rest, but came into the possession of a † † Marmaduke Nelson.private hand. Which account agrees not with what Bishop Godwin has left us about this Saint; namely, that he was bury’d in the Church-porch. For though what is mention’d in the Inscription was only a Re-interment upon the Inquisition made, yet it looks a little strange, that they should not lay the Reliques in the same place where they found them: unless we solve it this way, that but part of the Church was then standing, and they might lay him there with a design to remove him when it should be rebuilt, but afterwards either neglected or forgot it.

The Minster here, is a very fair and neat Structure; and the roof, an arch of Stone. In it, are several Monuments of the Percies Earls of Northumberland, who have added a little Chapel to the Quire; in the window whereof are the Pictures of several of that family, drawn in the glass. At the upper-end of the Quire, on the right-side of the Altar-place, stands the Freed-stool beforemention’d, made of one entire stone (said to have been remov’d from Dunbar in Scotland,) with a Well of water behind it. At the upper end of the body of the Church, next the Quire, hangs an ancient Table with the pictures of St. John (from whom the Church is nam’d) and of King Athelstan the founder of it: and, between them, this Distich;

Als free make I thee,
As heart can wish, or egh can see

Hence, the Inhabitants of Beverley pay no Toll or Custom in any Port or Town in England; to which Immunity (I suppose) they owe in a great measure their riches and flourishing condition. For indeed, one is surpris’d to find so large and handsome a Town within six miles of Hull. In the body of the Church stands an ancient Monument, which they call the Virgins Tomb, because two Virgin-sisters lie buried there; who gave the Town a piece of Land, into which any Free-man may put three milch-kine from Lady-day to Michaelmas. At the lower end of the body of the Church, stands a fair large Font of Agate-stone. Near the Minster, on the south-side, is a place named Hall-garth, wherein they keep a Court of Record call’d Provost’s Court. In this, may be try’d Causes for any Sum, arising within its Liberties, which are very large; having about a hundred towns and parts of towns in Holderness and other places of the East-Riding belonging to it. It is said to have also a Power in Criminal Matters; though at present that is not us’d. But to come to the condition of the Town. It is above a mile in length, being of late much improv’d in its buildings; and has pleasant Springs running quite through it. It is more especially beautified with two stately Churches; and has a Free-school, that is improv’d and encouraged by two Fellowships, six Scholarships, and three Exhibitions in St. John’s College in Cambridge, belonging to it, besides six Alms-houses, the largest whereof was built by the Executors of Michael Wharton Esq; who by his last Will left one thousand Pounds for that use. The Mayor and Aldermen (having sometimes been deceiv’d in their choice) admit none into their Alms-houses, but such as will give Bond to leave their effects to the poor when they die: which is mention’d here, as a good example to other places.

The principal Trade of the Town, is, making of Malt, Oat-meal, and Tann’d-leather; but the poor people mostly support themselves by working of Bone-lace, which of late has met with particular encouragement; the children being maintain’d at School, to learn to read, and to work this sort of lace. The Cloth-trade was formerly follow’d in this Town; but † † Itin. MS.Leland tells us, that even in his time it was very much decay’d. They have several Fairs; but one more especially remarkable, beginning about nine days before Ascension, and kept in a Street leading to the Minster-garth call’d Londoner-street. For then the Londoners bring down their Wares, and furnish the Country Tradesmen by whole-sale.

About a mile from Beverley to the east, in a Pasture belonging to the Town, is a kind of Spaw; tho’ they say it cannot be judg’d by the taste whether or no it comes from any Mineral: Yet, taken inwardly, it is a great dryer; and being wash’d-in, it dries scorbutick scurf, and all sorts of scabs; and also, very much helps the King’s-Evil.⌉

More to the east, flourish’d Meaux-Abbey,Regist. Monast. de Meaux. so nam’d from one Gamell born at Meaux in France, who obtain’d the Place of William the Conqueror for a Seat. Here William le Gross, Earl of Albemarle, founded a Monastery for Monks of the Cluniack Order, to compound for a vow which he had made, to go in pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Somewhat lower, stands Cottingham,Cottingham. a long Country-town, where are the ruins of an old Castle, built (with King John’s permission) by Robert Estotevill,Estotevill. who was descended from Robert Grundebeofe a Norman Baron, and a man of great note in those times; whose estate came by marriage to the Lords de Wake, and afterwards by a daughter of John de Wake to Edmund Earl of Kent, from whom descended Joan, wife to Edward the warlike Prince of Wales, who defeated the French in so many Engagements. The river Hull, about six miles from hence, falls into the Humber. Just at its mouth, stands a Town, call’d from it Kingston upon HullKingston upon Hull. ⌈in all writings of concernment;⌉ but commonly, Hull. The Town is of no great antiquity; for King Edward the first, whose royal virtues deservedly rank him among the greatest and bestPlac. an.44.
Ed.3. Ebor.24.
of Kings, having observ’d the advantagious situation of the place (which was first call’d Wik) obtain’d it, by way of exchange, of the Abbot de Meaux; and instead of the Vaccarii and Bercarii (that is, as I apprehend, Cribs for Cows and Sheepfolds) which he found there, he built the Town call’d Kingston, that is, the King’s Town; and there (as the words of the Record are) he made a harbour and a free burgh, making the inhabitants of it free burgesses, and granting them divers liberties. ⌈The walls, and town-ditch were made by leave from King Edward the second, but Richard the second gave them the present harbour. In the 33d year of King Henry the eighth, a specialCap.33. Act of Parliament passed concerning the privileges of Kingston upon Hull; and in the 37th year of the same Prince, it was by Cap.18.Act of Parliament also erected into an Honour; and in the 9th year of King William, the inhabitants were enabled, by the same Authority,Cap.47. to erect work-houses, and houses of Correction, for the employment and maintenance of their poor.⌉

By degrees it has grown to such a Figure, that for stately buildings, strong forts, rich fleets, resort of merchants, and plenty of all things, it is the most celebrated Mart-town in these parts. All this increase is owing, partly to Michael de la Pole, who, upon his advancement to the Earldom of Suffolk by King Richard the second, procur’d them their privileges; and partly to their trade of Iseland-fish dry’d and harden’d, and by them call’d Stock-fish:Stock-fish. which has strangely enrich’d the Town. Immediately upon this their rise, they fortify’d the place with a brick-wall and many towers on that side where they are not defended by the river; and brought in such a quantity of stonesCoblestones. for ballast, as was sufficient to pave all the parts of the Town very beautifully. As I have been inform’d by the Citizens, they were first govern’d by a Warden, then by Bailiffs, and after that by a Mayor and Bailiffs; and at last they obtain’d of Henry the sixth, that they should be govern’d by a Mayor and Sheriff, and that the City should be a County incorporate of it self. Concerning the first Mayor, let it not be tedious to relate this passage, from the Register of the Abbey de Melsa or de Meaux, tho’ the stile be barbarous. William de la Pole,De la Pole. Knight, was first a Merchant at Ravens-rod; skilful in the arts of trade, and inferior to no English Merchant whatever. Afterwards, living at Kingston upon Hull, he was the first Mayor of that town, and founded the Monastery of St. Michael, which now belongs to the Carthusian Monks, near the said Kingston. His eldest son Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, caus’d the said Monastery to be inhabited by that Order. William de la Pole aforesaid lent King Edward many thousand pounds of gold, during his abode at Antwerp in Brabant. In consideration whereof, the King made him chief Baron of his Exchequer, gave him by Deed the Seigniory of Holderness, with many other Lands then belonging to the Crown, and made him a Baneret. If any one question the truth of this, the RecordsCl.5. E.R.3. m.28. of the Tower will, I hope, satisfy him: there, it is expressly, William de la Pole dilectus, valectus, & mercator noster. Now ValectusValectus or Valettus. (that I may observe it once for all)J. Tilius. was then an honourable title both in France and England, but afterwards came to be apply’d to servants; upon which, the Nobility dislik’d it, and the title was changed, and he was call’d Gentleman of the Bed-chamber. ⌈It is a Town, as hath been said, very considerable for Merchandise (being the Scale of trade to York, Leeds, Nottingham, Gainsborough and several other places,) as also for importing goods from beyond sea. And (to speak now of its more modern Improvements) they have, for the better convenience of managing their Trade, an Exchange for Merchants, built in 1621, and much beautify’d in 1673. Above that, is the Custom-house; and near these the Wool-house, made use of formerly, without all doubt, for the selling and weighing of Wool, as well as Lead; but now only for the latter, when it is to be sold or ship’d here. On the east-side of the river, is built a strong Citadel, begun in the year 1681, and including the Castle and south Block-house. It hath convenient Apartments for lodging a good many Soldiers, with distinct houses for the Officers; it has also an engine for making salt-water fresh, and is well-furnish’d with Ordnance. But yet the strength of the Town consists not so much in it’s walls or fortifications, as it’s situation: for all the Country being a perfect level, by cutting the sea-banks they can let in the flood, and lay it under water five miles round.

The Town hath two Churches, one call’d Trinity (or the High-Church) a very spacious and beautiful building; on the south-side of the Quire whereof is a place now alter’d from a Chapel into a neat Library, consisting mostly of modern Books. For before the Reformation, it had twelve Chantries or private-Mass-Chapels on the north and south-sides of the Quire; and at the west end of the Churchyard, is a row of houses, twelve in number, which to this day retains the name of Priest-row. The other Church is St. Mary (or Low-Church) supposed to have been the Chapel Royal, when King Henry the eighth resided here; and the Steeple whereof the same Prince is said to have order’d to be pull’d down to the ground, because it spoiled the prospect of his house over-against it,Ann. 1538. wherein he had his residence for some months; but it is now of late rebuilt, at the charge of the Inhabitants. Near the High-Church, is the Free-school, first founded by John Alcock Bishop of Worcester, and then of Ely; and in the year 1583. built by Mr. William Gee; with the Merchants Hall over it. North-west of the said Church, is the Trinity-house, begun at first by a joint contribution of well-disposed Persons, for the relief of distressed Sea-men and their wives. But afterwards, a Patent was obtain’d from the Crown with several privileges; by the advantage of which they maintain many distressed Sea-men, with their widows, both at Hull, and other places, members of the Port of Hull. The Government consists of twelve elder brethren, with six Assistants: out of the twelve, by the majority of them and of the six Assistants, and the younger brethren, are annually chosen two Wardens; and two Stewards out of the younger brethren. These Governours have a power to determine matters, in Sea-Affairs, not contrary to Law, chiefly between Masters and Sea-men; and also in Tryals at Law, in Sea Affairs, their judgments are much regarded. But here, take an accurate description of this House, as it was given by a curious and ingenious * * Mr. Ray.Person who actually view’d it. “The Trinity-House belongs to a Society of Merchants, and is endow’d with good revenues. There are maintain’d thirty poor Women call’d Sisters, each of whom hath a little chamber or cell to live in. The building consists of a chapel, two rows of chambers beneath stairs for the sisters, and two rooms above stairs; one, in which the brethren of the Society have their meetings; and another large one, wherein they make Sails, with which the Town drives a good trade. In the midst of this room, hangs the effigies of a native of Groenland, with a loose skin-coat upon him, sitting in a small boat or Canoe cover’d with skins; and having his lower part under deck. For the boat is deck’d or cover’d above with the same whereof it is made, having only a round hole fitted to his body, through which he puts down his legs and lower parts into the boat. He had in his right-hand (as I then thought) a pair of wooden oars, whereby he rowed and managed his boat; and in his left, a dart, with which he struck fishes. But it appearing by the Supplement to the North-East Voyages lately publish’d, that they have but † † This had but one long Oar, which was oar about six foot long, with a paddle six inches broad at either end; I am inclin’d to think, that, the boat hanging so high, I might be mistaken. The same Book hath given us an account of their make; to which I refer you. This, on his forehead had a bonnet, like a trencher, to fence his eyes from sun or water. Behind him lay a bladder or bag of skins, in which I suppose he bestow’d the fish he caught. Some told us, it was a bladder full of oyl, wherewith he allured the fish to him. This is the same individual Canoe that was taken in the year 1613. by Andrew Barker, with all its furniture, and the boat-man. The Groenlander that was taken, refus’d to eat, and dy’d within three days after. I have since seen several of these boats in publick Town-houses and Cabinets of the Virtuosi. Here, I cannot but reflect upon and admire the hardiness and audaciousness of these petty water-men, who dare venture out to sea single in such pitiful vessels as are not sufficient to support much more than the weight of one man in the water, and which if they happen to be overturn’d, the rower must needs be lost. And a wonder it is to me, that they should keep themselves upright, if the sea be ever so little rough. It is true, the dashing of the waves cannot do them much harm, because the Canoe is cover’d above, and the skin-coat they have upon them keeps off the water from getting in at the round hole, receiving and encompassing their body.”

A little above the bridge (which consists of fourteen arches, and goes over into Holderness) stands the Groenland-house, built in the year 1674. at the joint charge of several Merchants; but by reason of the bad success of that trade, it is now only employ’d for the laying up of corn and other merchandise. At a little distance from this, is God’s-house,God’s-house. which, with the Chapel over-against it to the north, was pull’d down in the late Civil wars, for preventing inconveniences when the Place was besieg’d. But now both are built again, and the house is enlarg’d; and the Arms of the De la Poles, being found among the rubbish cut in stone, are now set over the door, with this Inscription: Deo & pauperibus posuit D. Michael de la Pole. A.D. 1384. i.e. Michael de la Pole founded this for God and the Poor, A.D. 1384. The Chapel over-against it is built on the old foundation, with this Inscription over the door; Hoc sacellum Deo & pauperibus posuit D. Mich. de la Pole An. Do. 1384. quod ingruente bello civili dirutum 1643. tandem auctius instauratum fuit 1673. Ricardo Kitson S. T. B. Rectore domus Dei super Hull. i.e. Michael de la Pole built this Chapel for God and the Poor A.D. 1384, which, at the beginning of the Civil wars Ann. 1643. was pull’d down, but rebuilt in a more stately manner Ann. 1673. Richard Kitson, S. T. B. being Rector of God’s-house above Hull. Near this Chapel, to the east, is built a new Hospital for the better reception of the poor belonging to this house; the other being not large enough to contain all the poor, together with the Master and his family. This new one hath over the door; Deo & pauperibus posuit Michael de la Pole. Hæc omnes reparata domus perduret in annos. W. Ainsworth, Rector, An. Dom. 1663. i.e. Michael de la Pole built this for God and the Poor. Being thus repair’d, may it for ever stand. W. Ainsworth, Rector, A.D. 1663.

Without the walls, westward of the town, stands the Water-house, which at first came from Julian-Well; it appearing by an Inquisition made in the 3d of Henry the fourth, that the drawing a new Sewer from thence to the town through the meadows and pastures of Anlabie, would be no damage to the King or any other person. But in the latter end of the said King’s reign, upon a motion to supply the town from thence, it was consider’d, that part of the spring descending from the Priory of Haltemprise, it could not be done without licence from the Pope; and so the Grant thereof was seal’d to the town from Rome in the year 1412. under the hands and seals of three Cardinals. Afterward, the course of that spring altering, and running into the grounds of Sir John Barrington, the town was forc’d to come to a composition with him.vitae

The Mayor of this town hath two swords, the one given by King Richard the second, and the other, which is the larger, by King Henry the eighth, yet but one is born before him at a time: also a Cap of maintenance, and another Ensign of honour, viz. an Oar of Lignum-vitæ-wood, which is a badge of his Admiralty within the limits of the Humber. The Poor are extraordinarily provided for in this place; there being several considerable Hospitals erected by private Benefactors; besides the two famous ones of Trinity and Charter-house.

The town hath given the honourable title of Earl to Robert Pierpoint of Holme, Viscount Newark, created July 25. 4 Car. 1. who was succeeded by Henry his son, created also Marquiss of Dorchester, March 25. 1645. during life only. Which Henry, dying without issue-male, was succeeded in the Earldom, by Robert Pierpoint, son of Robert, the son of William Pierpoint of Thowersby; who dying unmarry’d, left this honour to William his brother and heir; and he also dying without issue, it descended to Evelyn his brother; who hath been further advanced to the higher Honours of Marquiss of Dorchester, and Duke of Kingston.⌉Coelosyria

From Hull, a large promontory shoots out into the Sea, call’d by Ptolemy Ocellum,Ocellum. and by us at this day Holderness.Holderness. A certain Monk has call’d it Cava Deira, that is to say, the hollow Country of the Deiri, in the same sense that Cœlosyria is so called, that is, the hollow Syria. ⌈It hath afforded the title of Earl, first to John Ramsey Viscount Hardington, created Dec. 30. 18 Jac. 1. who dying without issue, the title was confer’d Jan. 24. 1643. upon Prince Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine. Since which time, the right honourable Coniers D’Arcie hath been created Earl of Holderness; in which title he was succeeded by Coniers his son, and Robert his great grandson. The true ancient writing of the name is Saxon Hol-deir-ness, as much as to say, the promontory of Saxon Hol-deire, so call’d to distinguish it from Saxon Deira-wal, now the Wolds. Though, after all, the Country may seem rather to have had this name of distinction given it from the river Hull, which passes through it, than (as Holland, both in Lincolnshire, and beyond sea) from hol, cavus or hollow. The Seigniory of Holderness belongs to the right honourable Robert Viscount Dunbar; and the town of Hedon finds him a prison for those who are taken in the Liberty of Holderness, till they can be sent to the Castle of York. The same town finds him a Hall, wherein he holds a Court call’d Wapentak-Court, for tryal of Actions under forty shillings.⌉

The first place we come to, on a winding shore, is the fore-mention’d Headon,Headon. which formerly (if we believe same, that always magnifies) was a very considerable place for merchants and shipping. For my part, I have faith enough to believe it ⌈(there being the remains of two Churches, besides the one which they still have,)⌉ notwithstanding it is now so decay’d (partly by its nearness to Hull, and partly because the Harbour is block’d up) that it has not the least shew of the grandeur it pretends to have had; which may teach us, that the condition of Towns and Cities is every jot as unstable as that of Men. King John granted to Baldwin Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, and to his wife Hawis, free Burgage here, so that the Burgesses might hold in free burgage by the same customs with York and * * Nichol is Lincoln.Nichol. ⌈In St. Austin’s, the present Church, are the pictures of a King and a Bishop, with this Inscription (much the same as that, which we meet with at Beverley,)

Als free make I thee,
As heart may think or eigh see

At † † So said, ann. 1607.present, the Town begins to flourish again, and has some hopes of attaining by degrees its former greatness. ⌈The old Haven nigh the town, being grown up, there is a new cut made on the south-east, which helps to scowre that part of the Haven now left; but without any hopes of rendring it so useful as formerly it was. In the year 1656. a great part of the Town was consum’d with fire; and not many years since, several houses in the market-place suffer’d the same fate: but now the greatest part is rebuilt, and the town thereby render’d much more beautiful. Of late years they have grown in wealth more than formerly; which is suppos’d to be owing principally to the several Fairs procur’d for them. The Inhabitants have a tradition, that the Danes destroy’d this town; and there is a Close belonging to it, call’d Danesfield to this day.⌉Praetorium Praetoria

Somewhat farther on the same Promontory, stands an ancient Town call’d PrætoriumPrætorium. by Antoninus, but by us, Patrington;Patrington. as the Italians call’d Petrovina from the Town Prætorium. That I am not mistaken here, the distance from Delgovitia, and the name still remaining, do both shew; which also seems to imply, that this is the * * Vid. Auldby, pag.887.Petuaria that is corruptly so call’d in the Copies of Ptolemy, for Prætorium. But whether it took the name from the Prætorium, which was their Court of Justice, or from some large and stately edifice (for such also the Romans call’d Prætoria,) does not appear. ⌈Besides these two acceptations of Prætorium, there is a third; which seems to give the most probable reason why Antoninus should call our Patrington, Prætorium: I mean, the General’s tent in their ordinary encampments; in which sense the most learned † † De. Milit. Rom. lib.5. p.40, 41.Lipsius has shown it to be us’d. And this may seem to some more agreeable to the Roman affairs in Britain, than either of the other two significations; but * * Gale, Itinerar. p.26.a late judicious Author still believes it most probable, that it was a Place where Justice was done between Merchant and Merchant.⌉

The Inhabitants boast of their antiquity, and of the former excellencie of their harbour; nor may they less glory in their situation, having a very pleasant prospect, on one side as looking toward the Ocean, and on the other, as surveying the Humber and the shores about it, together with the green skirts of Lincolnshire. The Roman way from the Picts wall, which Antoninus the Emperor first trac’d out, ends here. So Ulpian tells us, That High-ways of that kind do end at the sea, or at a River, or at a City. Somewhat lower stands Winsted,Winsted. the Seat of the Hildeards, Knights: and a little higher, Rosse, which gave both name and seat to that famous race ofBarons of Rosse. Barons de Rosse: and upon the sea, Grimston-garth,Grimston. where the Grimstons long flourish’d. At a little distance from hence, stands Rise, formerly the seat of those Noblemen, who were call’d de Faulconberge. On the very tip of this Promontory, where it draws most towards a Point, and is call’d Spurnhead,Ravernspur and Ravensburg. stands the little village Kellnsey;Kellnsey. which name shews plainly that this is the Ocellum in Ptolemy: for as Kellnsey comes from Ocellum, so without doubt Ocellum is deriv’d from Y-kill, which signifies in British a Promontory, or a narrow slip of ground, as I have already said. ⌈Upon the Spurnhead (the utmost part of the Promontory,) call’d by some Conny-hill, is a Light-house built in the year 1677. by one Mr. Justinian Angel of London, who had a Patent for it from King Charles the second; and in the year 1684. a Day-mark was also erected, being a Beacon with a barrel on the top of it.⌉

From Ocellum, the shore draws back gradually, and with a small bending runs northward, by Overthorne and Witherensey, two little Churches, call’d from the sisters who built them, Sisters-kirks;Sisterskirks. and not far from Constable-Burton,Constable. so nam’d from the Lords of it, who by marriages are ally’d to very honourable families, and flourish in great splendour at this day. Robert of this family (as we find it in the book of Meaux-Abbey) was one of the Knights of the Earl of Albemarle; who being old and full of days, took upon him the Cross, and went with King Richard to the Holy Land. Then, by Skipsey,Skipsey. which Drugo the first Lord of Holderness fortify’d with a Castle. Here the shore begins to shoot again into the Sea, and makes that Bay, which is call’d in Ptolemy † † Falsely, in some Copies, Greek.Greek Gabrantovicorum, and which some Latin Translators render Portuosus sinus,Sinus Salutataris. and others Salutaris. * Recessu. Neither of them expresses the sense of the Greek word better than that little town in the return of it, call’d Suerby. Suerby. For that which is safe and free from danger, is by the Britains and Gauls call’d Seur; as we also call it in English, deriving it probably from the Britains. There is no reason therefore why we should question, whether this was the very Greek of the Gabrantovici,Gabrantovici. a People that liv’d in this neighbourhood. ⌈In these parts of Holderness, there have been several towns swallow’d up by the Humber and the Sea. FrismerckFrismerck. particularly; which, upon the grant of a tenth and fifteenth to the King about the 18th of Edward the third, represented to the King and Parliament how much they had suffer’d by the Sea and River, breaking in upon them, and petition’d to have a proportionable deduction made in the Rating. Whereupon, Commissioners were appointed to make enquiry concerning it; who certify’d that a third part of their lands were totally destroy’d by the tides: and thereupon, the King issued out his Precept to the Assessors and Collectors to supersede, &c. and they were assess’d according to their moveables at 1 l. 6 s. 8 d. for each of the two years. He also sent his Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer, commanding that neither then, nor on the like occasion for the future, they should be rated at any greater summ. The like Mandate was directed to the Collectors of Wooll in the East-Riding, for a proportionable abatement to the Inhabitants of the town of Frismerk.

In the 16th of Edward the third, among other Towns in Holderness bordering on the Sea and Humber, mention is made of Tharlethorp, Redmayr, and Penysthorp; but now not one of them is to be heard of. At what time precisely they were lost, does not appear; but about the 30th of Edward the third, the tides in the rivers of Humber and Hull flow’d higher by four foot than usual; it is likely, therefore, that they might then be overflow’d. Probably also, about the same time, Ravensere (which seems to be the same with Ravenspur, and Ravensburg) was much damnify’d, and not long after totally lost. The Inhabitants hereabouts talk of two other towns, Upsall and Potterfleet, which are quite destroy’d. About the 38th of Edward the third, the Lands and Meadows between Sudcote-steel and Hull were much overflow’d; when probably Ravensere was greatly damnify’d (as it was afterwards entirely lost;) and the town of Dripool, with the adjoyning grounds, were also very much damnify’d: at which town, it is said they of Ravensere design’d to settle, but were forc’d to go to Hull. Likewise before, about the 30th of Edward the third, the High-way betwixt Anlaby and Hull, as also the Grounds and Pastures lying between both these places and Hessel, were all drown’d; but the said King by his Letters Patents order’d several persons to see that an old ditch thereabouts should be dress’d, and a new one (twenty-four foot broad) should be made, and the way rais’d higher; which was accordingly effected.⌉

Near this Bay, is Bridlington,Bridlington. a town famous for John de Bridlington a Monkish Poet, whose rhyming prophecies, which are very ridiculous, I have seen; ⌈and yet he has to this day, in all that neighbourhood, the reputation of a Saint. And very justly too, if all the mighty things were true of him which Nicholas Harpsfield in his Ecclesiastical HistoryP.557. has related, with gravity and assurance. Mr. William Husler (grandfather to Sir William Husler) was a considerable Benefactor to this Town; and in the 16th of Charles the second Richard Boyl Baron Clifford, &c. was created Earl of Bridlington or Burlington; in which title he was succeeded by Charles his grandson; and it is now enjoy’d by a great grandson of both his names, the right honourable Richard Earl of Burlington. For repair of the Piers of this place, two several Acts of Parliament have been obtain’d, in the reigns of8 W.3. King William and 1 Georg.King George.⌉

Not far from hence, for a great way towards Drifield, a ditch was drawn by the Earls of Holderness to divide the Lands, call’d Earls-dike. But why this little People was call’d Gabrantovici, I dare not so much as conjecture, unless perhaps the name was taken from Goats, which the Britains call Gaffran, and of which there are not greater numbers in any part of Britain, than in this place. AEgira Boeotia earthquake Nor is this derivation to be look’d on as absurd, seeing that Ægira in Achaia has its name from Goats; Nebrodes in Sicily, from Deer; and Bœotia in Greece, from Oxen. The little Promontory which by its bending makes this Bay, is commonly call’d Flamborough-head,Flamborough. but by Saxon Authors Saxon Fleamburg; who write that IdaIda. the Saxon (he who first subdu’d these parts) landed here. Some think it took the name from a Watch-tower, in which were Lights for the direction of Sailors into the Harbour. For the Britains still retain the Provincial word Flam, and the Mariners paint this Creek with a flaming-head, in their Sea-Charts. Others are of opinion, that this name came into England out of Angloen in Denmark, the ancient Seat of the Angli; there being a town call’d Flemsburg, from which they think the English gave it that name; as the Gauls (according to Livy) nam’d Mediolanum in Italy, from the town Mediolanum which they had left in Gaul. For a little village in this Promontory is call’d Flamborough, which gave original to another noble family of Constables,Constables of Flamborough. by some deriv’d from the Lacies Constables of Chester. ⌈Going from Bridlington we come to the Marr,Marr. a water pretty deep and always fresh, about a mile and a half long, and half a mile broad, well-stor’d with the best Pikes, Perches, and Eels. Whether it has been caus’d at first by some Earth-quake with an overflow that might follow it, is hard to say; but they tell you, that there have been old trees seen floating upon it, and decay’d nuts found on the shore. And it is certain, that in the Sea-cliffs against Hornsey, both have been met with: at present also there is (or was, not long since) a vein of wood, looking as black as if it had been burnt; which possibly has been occasion’d by the Sea-water, as preserving wood better than fresh-water, and by its saltness (and consequently greater heat) helping to turn it black. Upon the Coast of the German Ocean is Hornsey,Hornsey. the Church-steeple whereof, being a high broach or spire, is a notable Sea-mark; though now it is much fallen to ruin, and the Inhabitants are scarce able to repair it. Not many years ago, there was a small street adjoyning to the Sea, call’d Hornsey-beck, which is now wash’d away, except one or two houses; and about Skipsie before-mention’d, a few miles north of Hornsey, they have a tradition, of a town call’d Hide being devour’d by the Sea. More inward into the Land, is Rudston,Rudston. where, in the Church-yard, is a kind of Pyramidal-stone of great height. Whether the name of the town may not have some relation to it, can be known only from the private History of the place; but if the stone bear any resemblance to a Cross, Saxon Rod in Saxon doth imply so much.⌉

Upon my enquiries in these parts, I heard nothing of those Rivers (call’d Vipseis)Vipseis. which Walter de Heminburgh tells us, flow every other year from unknown Springs, and with a great and rapid current run by this little Promontory to the Sea. However, take what William of Newborough (who was born there) has said of them: These famous waters commonly call’d Vipseis, break out of the earth at several sources, not incessantly, but every other year, and having made a strong current, run through the lower grounds into the Sea. When they are dry’d, it is a good Omen, for the flowing of them is truly said to forbode the misery of an approaching famine. ⌈Concerning these, take the account of the pious Mr. Ray.

“These Vipseys, or suddain eruptions of water— whether the word in Newbrigensis were by mistake of the Scribe, and change of a letter, put in stead of Gipseys; or whether Vipseys were the original name, and in process of time chang’d into Gipseys, I know not; certain it is, they are this day call’d Gipseys: of which Dr. Wittey in his Scarborough-Spaw writes, that they break out in the wolds or downs of this Country, after great rains, and jet and spout up water to a great heighth. Neither are these eruptions of Springs, proper and peculiar to the wolds of this Country, but common to others also, as Dr. Childrey in his Britannica Baconica witnesseth in these words. Sometimes there breaks water, in the manner of a suddain Land-flood, out of certain stones that are like rocks standing aloft in open fields, near the rising of the river Kinet in Kent; which is reputed by the common people a fore-runner of dearth: and Newbrigensis saith the like of the Gipseys, that the flowing of them is said infallibly to portend a future famine. So, we see, these Gipseys do not come at set times, every other year, as Newbrigensis would make us believe, but only after great gluts of rain, and lasting wet weather; and never happen but in wet years: and moreover, that they always portend a dearth, not as a Divine indication or forewarning, but by a natural significancy: it being well known, that cold and wet Springs and Summers mar the Corn, and do almost constantly and infallibly induce a dearth thereof in England; which a drought, how lasting soever it be, hath never in my memory been observed to do.”

“If any be so curious as to enquire, how a glut of rain comes to cause such a springing up of waters? I answer, that there are hereabouts, in the wolds, and in like places where such jets happen, great subterraneous basins or receptables of water, which have issuing out from their bottoms, or near them, some narrow small veins or chanels reaching up to the surface of the earth. So, the water in the basin lying much higher than the place of eruption, by its weight forces that in the veins upward, and makes it spout up to a great height; as is evidently seen in the Lacus Lugeus, or Zirchnitzer-Sea: in which this spouting up of water happens every year after the rains are fallen in the Autumn. These suddain and intermittent fountains or eruptions of water have a particular name in Kent as well as Yorkshire, being there call’d Nailbourns”.⌉

As the Shore winds it self back from hence, a thin slip of land (like a small tongue thrust out) shoots into the Sea, such as the old English call’d File; from which the little village Filey takes its name. More inward stands Flixton, where a Hospital was built in the time of Athelstan, for defending Travellers from Wolves (as it is, word for word, in the * * Regiis Archivis.Publick Records) that they should not be devoured by them. This shews, that in those times, WolvesWolves. infested this tract, which now are to be met with in no part of England, not so much as in the frontiers of Scotland; although in that Kingdom they are † † Both Wolves and wild Boars are long since totally destroyed in that Kingdom. Sibbald. Nun. Scot. Brit. p.2. 9.very numerous.

This small territory of Holderness was given by William the first to Drugo de Bruerer a Fleming, upon whom also he had bestow’d his niece in marriage; but she being poison’d by him, he was forc’d to fly for his life, and was succeeded by Stephen the son of Odo,Earls of Albemarle and Holderness. Genealogiæ Antiquæ. Lord of Albemarle in Normandy, descended from the family of the Earls of Champaigne, whom William the first (his nephew by a half sister on the mother’s side) is said to have made Earl of Albemarle; and his posterity retain’d that title in England, notwithstanding Albemarle is a place in Normandy. He was succeeded by his son William, sirnam’d * * Le Gross.Crassus. His only daughter Avis was married to three husbands successively: to William Magnavill Earl of Essex, to Baldwin de Beton, and to William Forts, or de Fortibus. By this last husband only she had issue, viz. William, who left also a son William to succeed him. His only daughter Avelin, being married to Edmund ¦ ¦ Gibbosus.Crouchback Earl of Lancaster, dy’d without issue. And so (as it is said in the Book of Meaux-Abbey) for want of heirs, the Earldom of Albemarle and the Honour of Holderness were seized into the King’s hands. Yet, in after-times, King Richard the second created Thomas de Woodstock his Uncle, Duke of Albemarle; and afterwards Edward Plantagenet, son to the Duke of York, in the life-time of his father. Henry the fourth also made his son Thomas, Duke of Clarence and Earl of Albemarle; which title King Henry the sixth added afterwards as a farther honour to Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick. ⌈After the said Richard de Beauchamp, the title lay vacant, till, upon the Restoration of King Charles the second, George Monk (who had been the chief Instrument therein) was advanc’d to the Honours of Baron Monk of Potheridge, Beauchamp,12 Car.2. and Teyes, as alsoJuly 7. of Earl of Torrington and Duke of Albemarle. Who departing this Life in 1669, was succeeded in his Estate and Titles by Christopher his son and heir. But he dying without issue, King William the third bestow’d the title of Earl of Albemarle, upon Arnold Joost van Keppel, descended from an ancient Family of the Nobles of Gelderland; whose Son and Heir doth now enjoy that Honour.⌉

Last updated Friday, March 7, 2014 at 13:06