Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton

Sect. ii. Memb. i.

Subsect. i.

Heroical love causeth Melancholy. His Pedigree, Power, and Extent.

In the preceding section mention was made, amongst other pleasant objects, of this comeliness and beauty which proceeds from women, that causeth heroical, or love-melancholy, is more eminent above the rest, and properly called love. The part affected in men is the liver, and therefore called heroical, because commonly gallants. Noblemen, and the most generous spirits are possessed with it. His power and extent is very large, 4630 and in that twofold division of love, φιλεῖν and ἐρᾶν 4631those two veneries which Plato and some other make mention of it is most eminent, and κατ' ἐξοχὴν called Venus, as I have said, or love itself. Which although it be denominated from men, and most evident in them, yet it extends and shows itself in vegetal and sensible creatures, those incorporeal substances (as shall be specified), and hath a large dominion of sovereignty over them. His pedigree is very ancient, derived from the beginning of the world, as 4632Phaedrus contends, and his 4633 parentage of such antiquity, that no poet could ever find it out. Hesiod makes 4634Terra and Chaos to be Love's parents, before the Gods were born: Ante deos omnes primum generavit amorem. Some think it is the self-same fire Prometheus fetched from heaven. Plutarch amator. libello, will have Love to be the son of Iris and Favonius; but Socrates in that pleasant dialogue of Plato, when it came to his turn to speak of love, (of which subject Agatho the rhetorician, magniloquus Agatho, that chanter Agatho, had newly given occasion) in a poetical strain, telleth this tale: when Venus was born, all the gods were invited to a banquet, and amongst the rest, 4635Porus the god of bounty and wealth; Penia or Poverty came a begging to the door; Porus well whittled with nectar (for there was no wine in those days) walking in Jupiter's garden, in a bower met with Penia, and in his drink got her with child, of whom was born Love; and because he was begotten on Venus's birthday, Venus still attends upon him. The moral of this is in 4636Ficinus. Another tale is there borrowed out of Aristophanes: 4637in the beginning of the world, men had four arms and four feet, but for their pride, because they compared themselves with the gods, were parted into halves, and now peradventure by love they hope to be united again and made one. Otherwise thus, 4638Vulcan met two lovers, and bid them ask what they would and they should have it; but they made answer, O Vulcane faber Deorum, &c. “O Vulcan the gods' great smith, we beseech thee to work us anew in thy furnace, and of two make us one; which he presently did, and ever since true lovers are either all one, or else desire to be united.” Many such tales you shall find in Leon Hebreus, dial. 3. and their moral to them. The reason why Love was still painted young, (as Phornutus 4639and others will) 4640“is because young men are most apt to love; soft, fair, and fat, because such folks are soonest taken: naked, because all true affection is simple and open: he smiles, because merry and given to delights: hath a quiver, to show his power, none can escape: is blind, because he sees not where he strikes, whom he hits, &c.” His power and sovereignty is expressed by the 4641poets, in that he is held to be a god, and a great commanding god, above Jupiter himself; Magnus Daemon, as Plato calls him, the strongest and merriest of all the gods according to Alcinous and 4642Athenaeus. Amor virorum rex, amor rex et deum, as Euripides, the god of gods and governor of men; for we must all do homage to him, keep a holiday for his deity, adore in his temples, worship his image, (numen enim hoc non est nudum nomen) and sacrifice to his altar, that conquers all, and rules all:

4643Mallem cum icone, cervo et apro Aeolico,

Cum Anteo et Stymphalicis avibus luctari

Quam cum amore ———

“I had rather contend with bulls, lions, bears, and giants, than with Love;” he is so powerful, enforceth 4644all to pay tribute to him, domineers over all, and can make mad and sober whom he list; insomuch that Caecilius in Tully's Tusculans, holds him to be no better than a fool or an idiot, that doth not acknowledge Love to be a great god.

4645Cui in manu sit quem esse dementem velit,

Quem sapere, quam in morbum injici, &c.

That can make sick, and cure whom he list. Homer and Stesichorus were both made blind, if you will believe 4646Leon Hebreus, for speaking against his godhead: and though Aristophanes degrade him, and say that he was 4647scornfully rejected from the council of the gods, had his wings clipped besides, that he might come no more amongst them, and to his farther disgrace banished heaven for ever, and confined to dwell on earth, yet he is of that 4648power, majesty, omnipotency, and dominion, that no creature can withstand him.

4649Imperat Cupido etiam diis pro arbitrio,

Et ipsum arcere ne armipotens potest Jupiter.

He is more than quarter-master with the gods,

4650 ——— Tenet

Thetide aequor, umbras Aeaco, coelum Jove:

and hath not so much possession as dominion. Jupiter himself was turned into a satyr, shepherd, a bull, a swan, a golden shower, and what not, for love; that as 4651Lucian's Juno right well objected to him, ludus amoris tu es, thou art Cupid's whirligig: how did he insult over all the other gods, Mars, Neptune, Pan, Mercury, Bacchus, and the rest? 4652 Lucian brings in Jupiter complaining of Cupid that he could not be quiet for him; and the moon lamenting that she was so impotently besotted on Endymion, even Venus herself confessing as much, how rudely and in what sort her own son Cupid had used her being his 4653mother, “now drawing her to Mount Ida, for the love of that Trojan Anchises, now to Libanus for that Assyrian youth's sake. And although she threatened to break his bow and arrows, to clip his wings, 4654and whipped him besides on the bare buttocks with her pantofle, yet all would not serve, he was too headstrong and unruly.” That monster-conquering Hercules was tamed by him:

Quem non mille ferae, quem non Sthenelejus hostis,

Nec potuit Juno vincere, vicit amor.

Whom neither beasts nor enemies could tame,

Nor Juno's might subdue, Love quell'd the same.

Your bravest soldiers and most generous spirits are enervated with it, 4655ubi mulieribus blanditiis permittunt se, et inquinantur amplexibus. Apollo, that took upon him to cure all diseases, 4656could not help himself of this; and therefore 4657Socrates calls Love a tyrant, and brings him triumphing in a chariot, whom Petrarch imitates in his triumph of Love, and Fracastorius, in an elegant poem expresseth at large, Cupid riding, Mars and Apollo following his chariot, Psyche weeping, &c.

In vegetal creatures what sovereignty love hath, by many pregnant proofs and familiar examples may be proved, especially of palm-trees, which are both he and she, and express not a sympathy but a love-passion, and by many observations have been confirmed.

4658Vivunt in venerem frondes, omnisque vicissim

Felix arbor amat, nutant et mutua palmae

Foedera, populeo suspirat populus ictu,

Et platano platanus, alnoque assibilat alnus.

Constantine de Agric. lib. 10. cap. 4. gives an instance out of Florentius his Georgics, of a palm-tree that loved most fervently, 4659 “and would not be comforted until such time her love applied herself unto her; you might see the two trees bend, and of their own accords stretch out their boughs to embrace and kiss each other: they will give manifest signs of mutual love.” Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. 24, reports that they marry one another, and fall in love if they grow in sight; and when the wind brings the smell to them, they are marvellously affected. Philostratus in Imaginibus, observes as much, and Galen lib. 6. de locis affectis, cap. 5. they will be sick for love; ready to die and pine away, which the husbandmen perceiving, saith 4660Constantine, “stroke many palms that grow together, and so stroking again the palm that is enamoured, they carry kisses from the one to the other:” or tying the leaves and branches of the one to the stem of the other, will make them both flourish and prosper a great deal better: 4661“which are enamoured, they can perceive by the bending of boughs, and inclination of their bodies.” If any man think this which I say to be a tale, let him read that story of two palm-trees in Italy, the male growing at Brundusium, the female at Otranto (related by Jovianus Pontanus in an excellent poem, sometimes tutor to Alphonsus junior, King of Naples, his secretary of state, and a great philosopher) “which were barren, and so continued a long time,” till they came to see one another growing up higher, though many stadiums asunder. Pierius in his Hieroglyphics, and Melchior Guilandinus, Mem. 3. tract. de papyro, cites this story of Pontanus for a truth. See more in Salmuth Comment. in Pancirol. de Nova repert. Tit. 1. de novo orbe Mizaldus Arcanorum lib. 2. Sand's Voyages, lib. 2. fol. 103. &c.

If such fury be in vegetals, what shall we think of sensible creatures, how much more violent and apparent shall it be in them!

4662Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarum,

Et genus aequoreum, pecudes, pictaeque volucres

In furias ignemque ruunt; amor omnibus idem.

All kind of creatures in the earth,

And fishes of the sea,

And painted birds do rage alike;

This love bears equal sway.

4663Hic Deus et terras et maria alta domat.

Common experience and our sense will inform us how violently brute beasts are carried away with this passion, horses above the rest — furor est insignis equarum. 4664“Cupid in Lucian bids Venus his mother be of good cheer, for he was now familiar with lions, and oftentimes did get on their backs, hold them by the mane, and ride them about like horses, and they would fawn upon him with their tails.” Bulls, bears, and boars are so furious in this kind they kill one another: but especially cocks, 4665 lions, and harts, which are so fierce that you may hear them fight half a mile off, saith 4666Turberville, and many times kill each other, or compel them to abandon the rut, that they may remain masters in their places; “and when one hath driven his co-rival away, he raiseth his nose up into the air, and looks aloft, as though he gave thanks to nature,” which affords him such great delight. How birds are affected in this kind, appears out of Aristotle, he will have them to sing ob futuram venerem for joy or in hope of their venery which is to come.

4667Aeeriae primum volucres te Diva tuumque

significant initum, perculsae corda tua vi.

“Fishes pine away for love and wax lean,” if 4668Gomesius's authority may be taken, and are rampant too, some of them: Peter Gellius, lib. 10. de hist, animal. tells wonders of a triton in Epirus: there was a well not far from the shore, where the country wenches fetched water, they, 4669tritons, stupri causa would set upon them and carry them to the sea, and there drown them, if they would not yield; so love tyranniseth in dumb creatures. Yet this is natural for one beast to dote upon another of the same kind; but what strange fury is that, when a beast shall dote upon a man? Saxo Grammaticus, lib. 10. Dan. hist. hath a story of a bear that loved a woman, kept her in his den a long time and begot a son of her, out of whose loins proceeded many northern kings: this is the original belike of that common tale of Valentine and Orson: Aelian, Pliny, Peter Gillius, are full of such relations. A peacock in Lucadia loved a maid, and when she died, the peacock pined. 4670“A dolphin loved a boy called Hernias, and when he died, the fish came on land, and so perished.” The like adds Gellius, lib. 10. cap. 22. out of Appion, Aegypt. lib. 15. a dolphin at Puteoli loved a child, would come often to him, let him get on his back, and carry him about, 4671“and when by sickness the child was taken away, the dolphin died.” 4672“Every book is full” (saith Busbequius, the emperor's orator with the Grand Signior, not long since, ep. 3. legat. Turc.), “and yields such instances, to believe which I was always afraid lest I should be thought to give credit to fables, until I saw a lynx which I had from Assyria, so affected towards one of my men, that it cannot be denied but that he was in love with him. When my man was present, the beast would use many notable enticements and pleasant motions, and when he was going, hold him back, and look after him when he was gone, very sad in his absence, but most jocund when he returned: and when my man went from me, the beast expressed his love with continual sickness, and after he had pined away some few days, died.” Such another story he hath of a crane of Majorca, that loved a Spaniard, that would walk any way with him, and in his absence seek about for him, make a noise that he might hear her, and knock at his door, 4673“and when he took his last farewell, famished herself.” Such pretty pranks can love play with birds, fishes, beasts:

(4674Coelestis aestheris, ponti, terrae claves habet Venus,
Solaque istorum omnium imperium obtinet.)

and if all be certain that is credibly reported, with the spirits of the air, and devils of hell themselves, who are as much enamoured and dote (if I may use that word) as any other creatures whatsoever. For if those stories be true that are written of incubus and succubus, of nymphs, lascivious fauns, satyrs, and those heathen gods which were devils, those lascivious Telchines, of whom the Platonists tell so many fables; or those familiar meetings in our days, and company of witches and devils, there is some probability for it. I know that Biarmannus, Wierus, lib. 1. cap. 19. et 24. and some others stoutly deny it, that the devil hath any carnal copulation with women, that the devil takes no pleasure in such facts, they be mere fantasies, all such relations of incubi, succubi, lies and tales; but Austin, lib. 15. de civit. Dei. doth acknowledge it: Erastus de Lamiis, Jacobus Sprenger and his colleagues, &c. 4675 Zanchius, cap. 16. lib. 4. de oper. Dei. Dandinus, in Arist. de Anima, lib. 2. text. 29. com. 30. Bodin, lib. 2. cap. 7. and Paracelsus, a great champion of this tenet amongst the rest, which give sundry peculiar instances, by many testimonies, proofs, and confessions evince it. Hector Boethius, in his Scottish history, hath three or four such examples, which Cardan confirms out of him, lib. 16. cap. 43. of such as have had familiar company many years with them, and that in the habit of men and women Philostratus in his fourth book de vita Apollonii, hath a memorable instance in this kind, which I may not omit, of one Menippus Lycius, a young man twenty-five years of age, that going between Cenchreas and Corinth, met such a phantasm in the habit of a fair gentlewoman, which taking him by the hand, carried him home to her house in the suburbs of Corinth, and told him she was a Phoenician by birth, and if he would tarry with her, 4676“he should hear her sing and play, and drink such wine as never any drank, and no man should molest him; but she being fair and lovely would live and die with him, that was fair and lovely to behold.” The young man a philosopher, otherwise staid and discreet, able to moderate his passions, though not this of love, tarried with her awhile to his great content, and at last married her, to whose wedding, amongst other guests, came Apollonius, who, by some probable conjectures, found her out to be a serpent, a lamia, and that all her furniture was like Tantalus's gold described by Homer, no substance, but mere illusions. When she saw herself descried, she wept, and desired Apollonius to be silent, but he would not be moved, and thereupon she, plate, house, and all that was in it, vanished in an instant: 4677“many thousands took notice of this fact, for it was done in the midst of Greece.” Sabine in his Comment on the tenth of Ovid's Metamorphoses, at the tale of Orpheus, telleth us of a gentleman of Bavaria, that for many months together bewailed the loss of his dear wife; at length the devil in her habit came and comforted him, and told him, because he was so importunate for her, that she would come and live with him again, on that condition he would be new married, never swear and blaspheme as he used formerly to do; for if he did, she should be gone: 4678“he vowed it, married, and lived with her, she brought him children, and governed his house, but was still pale and sad, and so continued, till one day falling out with him, he fell a swearing; she vanished thereupon, and was never after seen.” 4679“This I have heard,” saith Sabine, “from persons of good credit, which told me that the Duke of Bavaria did tell it for a certainty to the Duke of Saxony.” One more I will relate out of Florilegus, ad annum 1058, an honest historian of our nation, because he telleth it so confidently, as a thing in those days talked of all over Europe: a young gentleman of Rome, the same day that he was married, after dinner with the bride and his friends went a walking into the fields, and towards evening to the tennis-court to recreate himself; whilst he played, he put his ring upon the finger of Venus statua, which was thereby made in brass; after he had sufficiently played, and now made an end of his sport, he came to fetch his ring, but Venus had bowed her finger in, and he could not get it off. Whereupon loath to make his company tarry at present, there left it, intending to fetch it the next day, or at some more convenient time, went thence to supper, and so to bed. In the night, when he should come to perform those nuptial rites, Venus steps between him and his wife (unseen or felt of her), and told her that she was his wife, that he had betrothed himself unto her by that ring, which he put upon her finger: she troubled him for some following nights. He not knowing how to help himself, made his moan to one Palumbus, a learned magician in those days, who gave him a letter, and bid him at such a time of the night, in such a cross-way, at the town's end, where old Saturn would pass by with his associates in procession, as commonly he did, deliver that script with his own hands to Saturn himself; the young man of a bold spirit, accordingly did it; and when the old fiend had read it, he called Venus to him, who rode before him, and commanded her to deliver his ring, which forthwith she did, and so the gentleman was freed. Many such stories I find in several 4680authors to confirm this which I have said; as that more notable amongst the rest, of Philinium and Machates in 4681Phlegon's Tract, de rebus mirabilibus, and though many be against it, yet I, for my part, will subscribe to Lactantius, lib. 14. cap. 15. 4682“God sent angels to the tuition of men; but whilst they lived amongst us, that mischievous all-commander of the earth, and hot in lust, enticed them by little and little to this vice, and defiled them with the company of women:” and to Anaxagoras, de resurrect. 4683“Many of those spiritual bodies, overcome by the love of maids, and lust, failed, of whom those were born we call giants.” Justin Martyr, Clemens Alexandrinus, Sulpicius Severus, Eusebius, etc., to this sense make a twofold fall of angels, one from the beginning of the world, another a little before the deluge, as Moses teacheth us, 4684openly professing that these genii can beget, and have carnal copulation with women. At Japan in the East Indies, at this present (if we may believe the relation of 4685travellers), there is an idol called Teuchedy, to whom one of the fairest virgins in the country is monthly brought, and left in a private room, in the fotoqui, or church, where she sits alone to be deflowered. At certain times 4686the Teuchedy (which is thought to be the devil) appears to her, and knoweth her carnally. Every month a fair virgin is taken in; but what becomes of the old, no man can tell. In that goodly temple of Jupiter Belus in Babylon, there was a fair chapel, 4687saith Herodotus, an eyewitness of it, in which was splendide stratus lectus et apposita mensa aurea, a brave bed, a table of gold, &c., into which no creature came but one only woman, which their god made choice of, as the Chaldean priests told him, and that their god lay with her himself, as at Thebes in Egypt was the like done of old. So that you see this is no news, the devils themselves, or their juggling priests, have played such pranks in all ages. Many divines stiffly contradict this; but I will conclude with 4688Lipsius, that since “examples, testimonies, and confessions, of those unhappy women are so manifest on the other side, and many even in this our town of Louvain, that it is likely to be so. 4689One thing I will add, that I suppose that in no age past, I know not by what destiny of this unhappy time, have there ever appeared or showed themselves so many lecherous devils, satyrs, and genii, as in this of ours, as appears by the daily narrations, and judicial sentences upon record.” Read more of this question in Plutarch, vit. Numae, Austin de civ. Dei. lib. 15. Wierus, lib. 3. de praestig. Daem. Giraldus Cambrensis, itinerar. Camb. lib. 1. Malleus malefic. quaest. 5. part. 1. Jacobus Reussus, lib. 5. cap. 6. fol. 54. Godelman, lib. 2. cap. 4. Erastus, Valesius de sacra philo. cap. 40. John Nider, Fornicar. lib. 5. cap. 9. Stroz. Cicogna. lib. 3. cap. 3. Delrio, Lipsius Bodine, daemonol. lib. 2. cap. 7. Pererius in Gen. lib. 8. in 6. cap. ver. 2. King James, &c.

4630. Memb. 1. Subs. 2.

4631. Amor et amicitia.

4632. Phaedrus orat. in laudem amoris Platonis convivio.

4633. Vide Boccas. de Genial deorum.

4634. See the moral in Plut. of that fiction.

4635. Affluentiae Deus.

4636. Cap. 7. Comment. in Plat. convivium.

4637. See more in Valesius, lib. 3. cont. med. et cont. 13.

4638. Vives 3. de anima; oramus te ut tuis artibus et caminis nos refingas, et ex duobus unum facias; quod et fecit, et exinde amatores unum sunt et unum esse petunt.

4639. See more in Natalis Comes Imag. Deorum Philostratus de Imaginibus. Litius Giraldus Syntag. de diis. Phornutus, &c.

4640. Juvenis pingitur quod amore plerumque juvenes capiuntur; sic et mollis, formosus, nudus, quod simplex et apertus hic affectus; ridet quod oblectamentum prae se ferat, cum pharetra, &c.

4641. A petty Pope claves habet superorum et inferorum, as Orpheus, &c.

4642. Lib. 13. cap. 5. Dypnoso.

4643. Regnat et in superos jus habet ille deos. Ovid.

4644. Plautus.

4645. Selden pro leg. 3. cap. de diis Syris.

4646. Dial. 3.

4647. A concilia Deorum rejectus et ad majorem ejus ignominiam, &c.

4648. Fulmine concitatior.

4649. Sophocles.

4650. “He divides the empire of the sea with Thetis — of the Shades, with Aeacus — of the Heaven, with Jove.”

4651. Tom. 4.

4652. Dial. deorum, tom. 3.

4653. Quippe matrem ipsius quibus modis me afficit, nunc in Idam adigens Anchisae causa, &c.

4654. Jampridem et plagas ipsi in nates incussi sandalio.

4655. Altopilus, fol. 79.

4656. Nullis amor est medicabilis herbis.

4657. Plutarch in Amatorio. Dictator quo creato cessant reliqui magistratus.

4658. Claadian. descript. vener. aulae. “Trees are influenced by love, and every flourishing tree in turn feels the passion: palms nod mutual vows, poplar sighs to poplar, plane to plane, and alder breathes to alder.”

4659. Neque prius in iis desiderium cessat dum dejectus consoletur; videre enim est ipsam arborem incurvatam, ultro ramis ab utrisque vicissim ad osculum exporrectis. Manifesta dant mutui desiderii signa.

4660. Multas palmas contingens quae simul crescant, rursusque ad amantem regrediens, eamque manu attingens, quasi osculum mutuo ministrare videtur, et expediti concubitus gratiam facit.

4661. Quam vero ipsa desideret affectu ramorum significat, et adullam respicit; amantur, &c.

4662. Virg. 3. Georg.

4663. Propertius.

4664. Dial. deorum. Confide mater, leonibus ipsis familiaris jam factus sum, et saepe conscendi eorum terga et apprehendi jubas; equorum more insidens eos agito, et illi mihi caudis adblandiuntur.

4665. Leones prae amore furunt, Plin. l. 8. c. 16. Arist. l. 6. hist. animal.

4666. Cap. 17. of his book of hunting.

4667. Lucretius.

4668. De sale lib. 1. c. 21. Pisces ob amorem marcescunt, pallescunt, &c.

4669. Hauriendae aquae causa venientes ex insidiis a Tritone comprehensae, &c.

4670. Plin. l. 10. c. 5 quumque aborta tempestate periisset Hernias in sicco piscis expiravit.

4671. Postquam puer morbo abiit, et ipse delphinus periit.

4672. Pleni sunt libri quibus ferae in homines inflammatae fuerunt, in quibus ego quidem semper assensum sustinui, veritus ne fabulosa crederem; Donec vidi lyncem quem habui ab Assyria, sic affectum erga unum de meis hominibus, &c.

4673. Desiderium suum testatus post inediam aliquot dierum interiit.

4674. Orpheus hymno Ven. “Venus keeps the keys of the air, earth, sea, and she alone retains the command of all.”

4675. Qui haec in artrae bilis aut Imaginationis vim referre conati sunt, nihil faciunt.

4676. Cantantem audies et vinum bibes, quale antea nunquam bibisti; te rivalis turbabit nullus; pulchra autem pulchro autem pulchro contente vivam, et moriar.

4677. Multi factum hoc cognovere, quod in media Graecia gestum sit.

4678. Rem curans domesticam, ut ante, peperit aliquot liberos, semper tamen tristis et pallida.

4679. Haec audivi a multis fide dignis qui asseverabant ducem Bavariae eadem retulisse Duci Saxoniae pro veris.

4680. Fabula Damarati et Aristonis in Herodoto lib. 6. Erato.

4681. Interpret. Mersio.

4682. Deus Angelos misit ad tutelam cultumque generis humani; sed illos cum hominibus commorantes, dominator ille terrae salacissimus paulatim ad vitia pellexit, et mulierum congressibus inquinavit.

4683. Quidam ex illo capti sunt amore virginum, et libidine victi defecerunt, ex quibus gigantes qui vocantur, nati sunt.

4684. Pererius in Gen. lib. 8. c. 6. ver. 1. Zanc. &c.

4685. Purchas Hack posth. par. 1. lib. 4. Cap. 1. S. 7.

4686. In Clio.

4687. Deus ipse hoc cubili requiescens.

4688. Physiologiae Stoicorum l. 1. cap. 20. Si spiritus unde semen iis, &c. at exempla turbant nos; mulierum quotidianae confessiones de mistione omnes asserunt, et sunt in hac urbe Loviano exempla.

4689. Unum dixero, non opinari me ullo retro aevo tantam copiam Satyrorum, et salacium istorum Geniorum se ostendisse, quantum nunc quotidianae narrationes, et judiciales sententiae proferunt.

Subsect. ii.

How Love tyranniseth over men. Love, or Heroical Melancholy, his definition, part affected.

You have heard how this tyrant Love rageth with brute beasts and spirits; now let us consider what passions it causeth amongst men. 4690Improbe amor quid non mortalia pectora cogis? How it tickles the hearts of mortal men, Horresco referens — I am almost afraid to relate, amazed, 4691and ashamed, it hath wrought such stupendous and prodigious effects, such foul offences. Love indeed (I may not deny) first united provinces, built cities, and by a perpetual generation makes and preserves mankind, propagates the church; but if it rage it is no more love, but burning lust, a disease, frenzy, madness, hell. 4692Est orcus ille, vis est immedicabilis, est rabies insana; 'tis no virtuous habit this, but a vehement perturbation of the mind, a monster of nature, wit, and art, as Alexis in 4693Athenaeus sets it out, viriliter audax, muliebriter timidium, furore praeceps, labore infractum, mel felleum, blanda percussio, &c. It subverts kingdoms, overthrows cities, towns, families, mars, corrupts, and makes a massacre of men; thunder and lightning, wars, fires, plagues, have not done that mischief to mankind, as this burning lust, this brutish passion. Let Sodom and Gomorrah, Troy, (which Dares Phrygius, and Dictis Cretensis will make good) and I know not how many cities bear record — et fuit ante Helenam, &c., all succeeding ages will subscribe: Joanna of Naples in Italy, Fredegunde and Brunhalt in France, all histories are full of these basilisks. Besides those daily monomachies, murders, effusion of blood, rapes, riot, and immoderate expense, to satisfy their lusts, beggary, shame, loss, torture, punishment, disgrace, loathsome diseases that proceed from thence, worse than calentures and pestilent fevers, those often gouts, pox, arthritis, palsies, cramps, sciatica, convulsions, aches, combustions, &c., which torment the body, that feral melancholy which crucifies the soul in this life, and everlastingly torments in the world to come.

Notwithstanding they know these and many such miseries, threats, tortures, will surely come upon them, rewards, exhortations, e contra; yet either out of their own weakness, a depraved nature, or love's tyranny, which so furiously rageth, they suffer themselves to be led like an ox to the slaughter: (Facilis descensus Averni) they go down headlong to their own perdition, they will commit folly with beasts, men “leaving the natural use of women,” as 4694Paul saith, “burned in lust one towards another, and man with man wrought filthiness.”

Semiramis equo, Pasiphae tauro, Aristo Ephesius asinae se commiscuit, Fulvius equae, alii canibus, capris, &c., unde monstra nascuntur aliquando, Centauri, Sylvani, et ad terrorem hominum prodigiosa spectra: Nec cum brutis, sed ipsis hominibus rem habent, quod peccatum Sodomiae vulgo dicitur; et frequens olim vitium apud Orientalis illos fuit, Graecos nimirum, Italos, Afros, Asianos: 4695Hercules Hylam habuit, Polycletum, Dionem, Perithoonta, Abderum et Phryga; alii et Euristium ab Hercule amatum tradunt. Socrates pulchrorum Adolescentum causa frequens Gymnasium adibat, flagitiosque spectaculo pascebat oculos, quod et Philebus et Phaedon, Rivales, Charmides et 4696reliqui Platonis Dialogi, satis superque testatum faciunt: quod vero Alcibiades de eodem Socrate loquatur, lubens conticesco, sed et abhorreo; tantum incitamentum praebet libidini. At hunc perstrinxit Theodoretus lib. de curat. graec. affect. cap. ultimo. Quin et ipse Plato suum demiratur Agathonem, Xenophon, Cliniam, Virgilius Alexin, Anacreon Bathyllum: Quod autem de Nerone, Claudio, caeterorumque portentosa libidine memoriae proditum, mallem a Petronio, Suetonio, caeterisque petatis, quando omnem fidem excedat, quam a me expectetis; sed vetera querimur. 4697Apud Asianos, Turcas, Italos, nunquam frequentius hoc quam hodierno die vitium; Diana Romanorum Sodomia; officinae horum alicubi apud Turcas — “qui saxis semina mandant” — arenas arantes; et frequentes querelae, etiam inter ipsos conjuges hac de re, “quae virorum concubitum illicitum calceo in oppositam partem verso magistratui indicant”; nullum apud Italos familiare magis peccatum, qui et post 4698Lucianum et 4699Tatium, scriptis voluminibis defendunt. Johannes de la Casa, Beventinus Episcopus, divinum opus vocat, suave scelus, adeoque jactat, se non alia, usum Venere. Nihil usitatius apud monachos, Cardinales, sacrificulos, etiam 4700furor hic ad mortem, ad insaniam. 4701Angelus Politianus, ob pueri amorem, violentas sibi inanus injecit. Et horrendum sane dictu, quantum apud nos patrum memoria, scelus detestandum hoc saevierit! Quum enim Anno 1538. “prudentissimus Rex Henricus Octavus cucullatorum coenobia, et sacrificorum collegia, votariorum, per venerabiles legum Doctores Thomam Leum, Richardum Laytonum visitari fecerat, &c., tanto numero reperti sunt apud eos scortatores, cinaedi, ganeones, paedicones, puerarii, paederastae, Sodomitae”, (4702Balei verbis utor) “Ganimedes, &c. ut in unoquoque eorum novam credideris Gomorrham”. Sed vide si lubet eorundem Catalogum apud eundem Balcum; “Puellae” (inquit) “in lectis dormire non poterant ob fratres necromanticos”. Haec si apud votarios, monachos, sanctos scilicet homunciones, quid in foro, quid in aula factum suspiceris? quid apud nobiles, quid inter fornices, quam non foeditatem, quam non spurcitiem? Sileo interim turpes illas, et ne nominandas quidem monachorum 4703 mastrupationes, masturbatores. 4704Rodericus a Castro vocat, tum et eos qui se invicem ad Venerem excitandam flagris caedunt, Spintrias, Succubas, Ambubeias, et lasciviente lumbo Tribades illas mulierculas, quae se invicem fricant, et praeter Eunuchos etiam ad Venerem explendam, artificiosa illa veretra habent. Immo quod magis mirere, faemina foeminam Constantinopoli non ita pridem deperiit, ausa rem plane incredibilem, mutato cultu mentita virum de nuptiis sermonem init, et brevi nupta est: sed authorem ipsum consule, Busbequium. Omitto 4705Salanarios illos Egyptiacos, qui cum formosarum cadaveribus concumbunt; et eorum vesanam libidinem, qui etiam idola et imagines depereunt. Nota est fabula Pigmalionis apud 4706Ovidium; Mundi et Paulini apud Aegesippum belli Jud. lib. 2. cap. 4. Pontius C. Caesaris legatus, referente Plinio, lib. 35. cap. 3. quem suspicor eum esse qui Christum crucifixit, picturis Atalantae et Helenae adeo libidine incensus, ut tollere eas vellet si natura tectorii permisisset, alius statuam bonae Fortunae deperiit (Aelianus, lib. 9. cap. 37.) alius bonae deae, et ne qua pars probro vacet. 4707“Raptus ad stupra” (quod ait ille) “et ne 4708os quidem a libidine exceptum.” Heliogabalus, per omnia cava corporis libidinem recepit, Lamprid. vita ejus. 4709Hostius quidam specula fecit, et ita disposuit, ut quum virum ipse pateretur, aversus omnes admissarii motus in speculo videret, ac deinde falsa magnitudine ipsius membri tanquam vera gauderet, simul virum et foeminam passus, quod dictu foedum et abominandum. Ut veram plane sit, quod apud 4710Plutarchum Gryllus Ulyssi objecit. “Ad hunc usque diem apud nos neque mas marem, neque foemina foeminam amavit, qualia multa apud vos memorabiles et praeclari viri fecerunt: ut viles missos faciam, Hercules imberbem sectans socium, amicos deseruit, &c. Vestrae libidines intra suos naturae fines coerceri non possunt, quin instar fluvii exundantis atrocem foeditatum, tumultum, confusionemque naturae gignant in re Venerea: nam et capras, porcos, equos inierunt viri et foeminae, insano bestiarum amore exarserunt, imde Minotauri, Centauri, Sylvani, Sphinges”, &c. Sed ne confutando doceam, aut ea foras efferam, quae, non omnes scire convenit (haec enim doctis solummodo, quod causa non absimili 4711Rodericus, scripta velim) ne levissomis ingentis et depravatis mentibus focdissimi sceleris notitiam, &c., nolo quem diutius hisce sordibus inquinare.

I come at last to that heroical love which is proper to men and women, is a frequent cause of melancholy, and deserves much rather to be called burning lust, than by such an honourable title. There is an honest love, I confess, which is natural, laqueus occultus captivans corda hominum, ut a mulieribus non possint separari, “a secret snare to captivate the hearts of men,” as 4712Christopher Fonseca proves, a strong allurement, of a most attractive, occult, adamantine property, and powerful virtue, and no man living can avoid it. 4713Et qui vim non sensit amoris, aut lapis est, aut bellua. He is not a man but a block, a very stone, aut 4714Numen, aut Nebuchadnezzar, he hath a gourd for his head, a pepon for his heart, that hath not felt the power of it, and a rare creature to be found, one in an age, Qui nunquam visae flagravit amore puellae; 4715for semel insanivimus omnes, dote we either young or old, as 4716he said, and none are excepted but Minerva and the Muses: so Cupid in 4717Lucian complains to his mother Venus, that amongst all the rest his arrows could not pierce them. But this nuptial love is a common passion, an honest, for men to love in the way of marriage; ut materia appetit formam, sic mulier virum. 4718You know marriage is honourable, a blessed calling, appointed by God himself in Paradise; it breeds true peace, tranquillity, content, and happiness, qua nulla est aut fuit unquam sanctior conjunctio, as Daphnaeus in 4719Plutarch could well prove, et quae generi humano immortalitatem parat, when they live without jarring, scolding, lovingly as they should do.

4720Felices ter et amplius

Quos irrupta tenet copula, nec ullis

Divulsus querimoniis

Suprema citius solvit amor die.

Thrice happy they, and more than that,

Whom bond of love so firmly ties,

That without brawls till death them part,

'Tis undissolv'd and never dies.

As Seneca lived with his Paulina, Abraham and Sarah, Orpheus and Eurydice, Arria and Poetus, Artemisia and Mausolus, Rubenius Celer, that would needs have it engraven on his tomb, he had led his life with Ennea, his dear wife, forty-three years eight months, and never fell out. There is no pleasure in this world comparable to it, 'tis summum mortalitatis bonum — 4721hominum divumque voluptas, Alma Venus — latet enim in muliere aliquid majus potentiusque, omnibus aliis humanis voluptatibus, as 4722one holds, there's something in a woman beyond all human delight; a magnetic virtue, a charming quality, an occult and powerful motive. The husband rules her as head, but she again commands his heart, he is her servant, she is only joy and content: no happiness is like unto it, no love so great as this of man and wife, no such comfort as 4723placens uxor, a sweet wife: 4724Omnis amor magnus, sed aperto in conjuge major. When they love at last as fresh as they did at first, 4725Charaque charo consenescit conjugi, as Homer brings Paris kissing Helen, after they had been married ten years, protesting withal that he loved her as dear as he did the first hour that he was betrothed. And in their old age, when they make much of one another, saying, as he did to his wife in the poet,

4726Uxor vivamus quod viximus, et moriamur,

Servantes nomen sumpsimus in thalamo;

Nec ferat ulla dies ut commutemur in aevo,

Quin tibi sim juvenis, tuque puella mihi.

Dear wife, let's live in love, and die together,

As hitherto we have in all good will:

Let no day change or alter our affections.

But let's be young to one another still.

Such should conjugal love be, still the same, and as they are one flesh, so should they be of one mind, as in an aristocratical government, one consent, 4727Geyron-like, coalescere in unum, have one heart in two bodies, will and nill the same. A good wife, according to Plutarch, should be as a looking-glass to represent her husband's face and passion: if he be pleasant, she should be merry: if he laugh, she should smile: if he look sad, she should participate of his sorrow, and bear a part with him, and so should they continue in mutual love one towards another.

4728Et me ab amore tuo deducet nulla senectus,

Sive ego Tythonus, sive ego Nestor ero.

No age shall part my love from thee, sweet wife,

Though I live Nestor or Tithonus' life.

And she again to him, as the 4729Bride saluted the Bridegroom of old in Rome, Ubi tu Caius, ego semper Caia, be thou still Caius, I'll be Caia.

'Tis a happy state this indeed, when the fountain is blessed (saith Solomon, Prov. v. 17.) “and he rejoiceth with the wife of his youth, and she is to him as the loving hind and pleasant roe, and he delights in her continually.” But this love of ours is immoderate, inordinate, and not to be comprehended in any bounds. It will not contain itself within the union of marriage, or apply to one object, but is a wandering, extravagant, a domineering, a boundless, an irrefragable, a destructive passion: sometimes this burning lust rageth after marriage, and then it is properly called jealousy; sometimes before, and then it is called heroical melancholy; it extends sometimes to co-rivals, &c., begets rapes, incests, murders: Marcus Antonius compressit Faustinam sororem, Caracalla Juliam Novercam, Nero Matrem, Caligula sorores, Cyneras Myrrham filiam, &c. But it is confined within no terms of blood, years, sex, or whatsoever else. Some furiously rage before they come to discretion, or age. 4730Quartilla in Petronius never remembered she was a maid; and the wife of Bath, in Chaucer, cracks,

Since I was twelve years old, believe,
Husbands at Kirk-door had I five.

4731Aratine Lucretia sold her maidenhead a thousand times before she was twenty-four years old, plus milies vendiderant virginitatem, &c. neque te celabo, non deerant qui ut integram ambirent. Rahab, that harlot, began to be a professed quean at ten years of age, and was but fifteen when she hid the spies, as 4732Hugh Broughton proves, to whom Serrarius the Jesuit, quaest. 6. in cap. 2. Josue, subscribes. Generally women begin pubescere, as they call it, or catullire, as Julius Pollux cites, lib. 2. cap. 3. onomast out of Aristophanes, 4733at fourteen years old, then they do offer themselves, and some plainly rage. 4734Leo Afer saith, that in Africa a man shall scarce find a maid at fourteen years of age, they are so forward, and many amongst us after they come into the teens do not live without husbands, but linger. What pranks in this kind the middle ages have played is not to be recorded. Si mihi sint centum linguae, sint oraque centum, no tongue can sufficiently declare, every story is full of men and women's insatiable lust, Nero's, Heliogabali, Bonosi, &c. 4735 Coelius Amphilenum, sed Quintius Amphelinam depereunt, &c. They neigh after other men's wives (as Jeremia, cap. v. 8. complaineth) like fed horses, or range like town bulls, raptores virginum et viduarum, as many of our great ones do. Solomon's wisdom was extinguished in this fire of lust, Samson's strength enervated, piety in Lot's daughters quite forgot, gravity of priesthood in Eli's sons, reverend old age in the Elders that would violate Susanna, filial duty in Absalom to his stepmother, brotherly love in Ammon. towards his sister. Human, divine laws, precepts, exhortations, fear of God and men, fair, foul means, fame, fortune, shame, disgrace, honour cannot oppose, stave off, or withstand the fury of it, omnia vincit amor, &c. No cord nor cable can so forcibly draw, or hold so fast, as love can do with, a twined thread. The scorching beams under the equinoctial, or extremity of cold within the circle arctic, where the very seas are frozen, cold or torrid zone, cannot avoid or expel this heat, fury, and rage of mortal men.

4736Quo fugis ab demens, nulla est fuga, tu licet usque

Ad Tanaim fugias, usque sequetur amor.

Of women's unnatural, 4737insatiable lust, what country, what village doth not complain? Mother and daughter sometimes dote on the same man, father and son, master and servant, on one woman.

4738 — Sed amor, sed ineffrenata libido,

Quid castum in terris intentatumque reliquit?

What breach of vows and oaths, fury, dotage, madness, might I reckon up? Yet this is more tolerable in youth, and such as are still in their hot blood; but for an old fool to dote, to see an old lecher, what more odious, what can be more absurd? and yet what so common? Who so furious?4739 Amare ea aetate si occiperint, multo insaniunt acrius. Some dote then more than ever they did in their youth. How many decrepit, hoary, harsh, writhen, bursten-bellied, crooked, toothless, bald, blear-eyed, impotent, rotten, old men shall you see flickering still in every place? One gets him a young wife, another a courtesan, and when he can scarce lift his leg over a sill, and hath one foot already in Charon's boat, when he hath the trembling in his joints, the gout in his feet, a perpetual rheum in his head, “a continuate cough,” 4740his sight fails him, thick of hearing, his breath stinks, all his moisture is dried up and gone, may not spit from him, a very child again, that cannot dress himself, or cut his own meat, yet he will be dreaming of, and honing after wenches, what can be more unseemly? Worse it is in women than in men, when she is aetate declivis, diu vidua, mater olim, parum decore matrimonium sequi videtur, an old widow, a mother so long since (4741in Pliny's opinion), she doth very unseemly seek to marry, yet whilst she is 4742so old a crone, a beldam, she can neither see, nor hear, go nor stand, a mere 4743carcass, a witch, and scarce feel; she caterwauls, and must have a stallion, a champion, she must and will marry again, and betroth herself to some young man, 4744that hates to look on, but for her goods; abhors the sight of her, to the prejudice of her good name, her own undoing, grief of friends, and ruin of her children.

But to enlarge or illustrate this power and effects of love, is to set a candle in the sun. 4745It rageth with all sorts and conditions of men, yet is most evident among such as are young and lusty, in the flower of their years, nobly descended, high fed, such as live idly, and at ease; and for that cause (which our divines call burning lust) this 4746ferinus insanus amor, this mad and beastly passion, as I have said, is named by our physicians heroical love, and a more honourable title put upon it, Amor nobilis, as 4747Savanarola styles it, because noble men and women make a common practice of it, and are so ordinarily affected with it. Avicenna, lib. 3. Fen, 1. tract. 4. cap. 23. calleth this passion Ilishi, and defines it 4748“to be a disease or melancholy vexation, or anguish of mind, in which a man continually meditates of the beauty, gesture, manners of his mistress, and troubles himself about it:” desiring, (as Savanarola adds) with all intentions and eagerness of mind, “to compass or enjoy her, 4749as commonly hunters trouble themselves about their sports, the covetous about their gold and goods, so is he tormented still about his mistress.” Arnoldus Villanovanus, in his book of heroical love, defines it, 4750“a continual cogitation of that which he desires, with a confidence or hope of compassing it;” which definition his commentator cavils at. For continual cogitation is not the genus but a symptom of love; we continually think of that which we hate and abhor, as well as that which we love; and many things we covet and desire, without all hope of attaining. Carolus a Lorme, in his Questions, makes a doubt, An amor sit morbus, whether this heroical love be a disease: Julius Pollux Onomast. lib. 6. cap. 44. determines it. They that are in love are likewise 4751sick; lascivus, salax, lasciviens, et qui in venerem furit, vere est aegrotus, Arnoldus will have it improperly so called, and a malady rather of the body than mind. Tully, in his Tusculans, defines it a furious disease of the mind. Plato, madness itself. Ficinus, his Commentator, cap. 12. a species of madness, “for many have run mad for women,” Esdr. iv. 26. But 4752Rhasis “a melancholy passion:” and most physicians make it a species or kind of melancholy (as will appear by the symptoms), and treat of it apart; whom I mean to imitate, and to discuss it in all his kinds, to examine his several causes, to show his symptoms, indications, prognostics, effect, that so it may be with more facility cured.

The part affected in the meantime, as 4753Arnoldus supposeth, “is the former part of the head for want of moisture,” which his Commentator rejects. Langius, med. epist. lib. 1. cap. 24. will have this passion seated in the liver, and to keep residence in the heart, 4754“to proceed first from the eyes so carried by our spirits, and kindled with imagination in the liver and heart;” coget amare jecur, as the saying is. Medium feret per epar, as Cupid in Anacreon. For some such cause belike 4755 Homer feigns Titius' liver (who was enamoured of Latona) to be still gnawed by two vultures day and night in hell, 4756“for that young men's bowels thus enamoured, are so continually tormented by love.” Gordonius, cap. 2. part. 2. 4757“will have the testicles an immediate subject or cause, the liver an antecedent.” Fracastorius agrees in this with Gordonius, inde primitus imaginatio venerea, erectio, &c. titillatissimam partem vocat, ita ut nisi extruso semine gestiens voluptas non cessat, nec assidua veneris recordatio, addit Gnastivinius Comment. 4. Sect. prob. 27. Arist. But 4758properly it is a passion of the brain, as all other melancholy, by reason of corrupt imagination, and so doth Jason Pratensis, c. 19. de morb. cerebri (who writes copiously of this erotical love), place and reckon it amongst the affections of the brain. 4759Melancthon de anima confutes those that make the liver a part affected, and Guianerius, Tract. 15. cap. 13 et 17. though many put all the affections in the heart, refers it to the brain. Ficinus, cap. 7. in Convivium Platonis, “will have the blood to be the part affected.” Jo. Frietagius, cap. 14. noct. med. supposeth all four affected, heart, liver, brain, blood; but the major part concur upon the brain, 4760'tis imaginatio laesa; and both imagination and reason are misaffected;, because of his corrupt judgment, and continual meditation of that which he desires, he may truly be said to be melancholy. If it be violent, or his disease inveterate, as I have determined in the precedent partitions, both imagination and reason are misaffected, first one, then the other.

4690. Virg.

4691. “For it is a shame to speak of those things which are done of them in secret,” Eph. v. 12.

4692. Plutarch, amator lib.

4693. Lib. 13.

4694. Rom. i. 27.

4695. Lilius Giraldus, vita ejus.

4696. Pueros amare solis Philosophis relinquendum vult Lucianus dial. Amorum.

4697. Busbequius.

4698. Achilles Tatius lib. 2.

4699. Lucianus Charidemo.

4700. Non est haec mentula demens. Mart.

4701. Jovius Musc.

4702. Praefat. lectori lib. de vitis pontif.

4703. Mercurialis cap. de Priapismo. Coelius l. 11. antic. lect. cap. 14. Galenis 6. de locis aff.

4704. De morb. mulier. lib. I. c. 15.

4705. Herodotus l. 2. Euterpae: uxores insignium virorum non statim vita functas tradunt condendas, ac ne eas quidem foeminas quae formosae sunt, sed quatriduo ante defunctas, ne cum iis salinarii concumbant, &c.

4706. Metam. 13.

4707. Seneca de ira, l. 11. c. 18.

4708. Nullus est meatus ad quem non pateat aditus impudicitiae. Clem Alex. paedag, lib. 3. c 3.

4709. Seneca 1. nat. quaest.

4710. Tom. P. Gryllo.

4711. De morbis mulierum l. 1. c. 15.

4712. Amphitheat. amore. cap. 4. interpret. Curtio.

4713. Aeneas Sylvius Juvenal. “And he who has not felt the influence of love is either a stone or a beast.”

4714. Tertul. prover. lib.

4715. “One whom no maiden's beauty has ever affected.”

4716. Chaucer.

4717. Tom. 1. dial. deorum Lucianus. Amore non ardent Musae.

4718. “As matter seeks form, so woman turns towards man.”

4719. In amator. dialog.

4720. Hor.

4721. Lucretius.

4722. Fonseca.

4723. Hor.

4724. Propert.

4725. Simonides, graec. “She grows old in love and in years together.”

4726. Ausonius.

4727. Geryon amicitae symbolum.

4728. Propert. l. 2.

4729. Plutarch. c. 30. Rom. Hist.

4730. Junonem habeam iratam, si unquam meminerim me virginem fuisse. Infans enim paribus inquinata sum, et subinde majoribus me applicui, donec ad aetatem perveni; ut Milo vitulum, &c.

4731. Parnodidasc. dial. lat. interp. Casp. Barthio ex Ital.

4732. Angelico scriptur concentu.

4733. Epictetus c. 42. mulieres statim ab anno 14. movere incipiunt, &c. attrectari se sinunt et exponunt. Levinu Lemnius.

4734. Lib. 3. fol. 126.

4735. Catullus.

4736. “Whithersoever enraged you fly there is no escape. Although you reach the Tanais, love will still pursue you.”

4737. De mulierum inexhausta libidine luxuque insatiabili omnes aeque regiones conqueri posse existimo. Steph.

4738. “What have lust and unrestrained desire left chaste or enviolate upon earth?”

4739. Plautus.

4740. Oculi caligant, aures graviter audiunt, capilli fluunt, cutis arescit, flatus olet, tussis, &c. Cyprian.

4741. Lib. 8. Epist. Ruffinus.

4742. Hiatque turpis inter aridas nates podex.

4743. Cadaverosa adeo ut ab inferis reversa videri possit, vult adhuc catullire.

4744. Nam et matrimoniis est despectum senium. Aeneas Silvius.

4745. Quid toto terrarum orbe communius? quae civitas, quod oppidum, quae familia vacat amatorum exemplis? Aeneas Silvius. Quis trigesimum annum natus nullum amoris causa peregit insigne facinus? ego de me facio conjecturam, quem amor in mille pericula misit.

4746. Forestus. Plato.

4747. Pract. major. Tract. 6. cap. 1. Rub. 11. de aegrit. cap. quod his multum contingat.

4748. Haec aegritudo est solicitudo melancholica in qua homo applicat sibi continuam cogitationem super pulchritudine ipsius quam amat, gestuum morum.

4749. Animi forte accidens quo quis rem habere nimia aviditate concupiscit, ut ludos venatores, aurum et opes avari.

4750. Assidua cogitatio super rem desideratum, cum confidentia obtinendi, ut spe apprehensum delectabile, &c.

4751. Morbus corporis potius quam animi.

4752. Amor est passio melancholica.

4753. Ob calefactionem spirituum pars anterior capitis laborat ob consumptionem humiditatis.

4754. Affectus animi concupiscibilis e desiderio rei amatae per oculus in mente concepto, spiritus in corde et jecore incendens.

4755. Odyss. et Metamor. 4. Ovid.

4756. Quod talem carnificinam in adolescentum visceribus amor faciat inexplebilis.

4757. Testiculi quoad causam conjunctam, epar antecedentem, possunt esse subjectum.

4758. Proprie passio cerebri est ob corruptam imaginationem.

4759. Cap. de affectibus.

4760. Est corruptio imaginativae et aestimativae facultatis, ob formam fortiter affixam, corruptumque judicium, ut semper de eo cogitet, ideoque recte melancholicus appellatur. Concupiscentia vehemens ex corrupto judicio aestimativae virtutis.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/b/burton/robert/melancholy/S3.2.1.html

Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31