Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton

Memb. ii.

Subsect. i.

Love of Men, which varies as his Objects, Profitable, Pleasant, Honest.

Valesius, lib. 3. contr. 13, defines this love which is in men, “to be 4505an affection of both powers, appetite and reason.” The rational resides in the brain, the other in the liver (as before hath been said out of Plato and others); the heart is diversely affected of both, and carried a thousand ways by consent. The sensitive faculty most part overrules reason, the soul is carried hoodwinked, and the understanding captive like a beast. 4506“The heart is variously inclined, sometimes they are merry, sometimes sad, and from love arise hope and fear, jealousy, fury, desperation.” Now this love of men is diverse, and varies, as the object varies, by which they are enticed, as virtue, wisdom, eloquence, profit, wealth, money, fame, honour, or comeliness of person, &c. Leon Hubreus, in his first dialogue, reduceth them all to these three, utile, jucundum, honestum, profitable, pleasant, honest; (out of Aristotle belike 8. moral.) of which he discourseth at large, and whatsoever is beautiful and fair, is referred to them, or any way to be desired. 4507“To profitable is ascribed health, wealth, honour, &c., which is rather ambition, desire, covetousness, than love:” friends, children, love of women, 4508all delightful and pleasant objects, are referred to the second. The love of honest things consists in virtue and wisdom, and is preferred before that which is profitable and pleasant: intellectual, about that which is honest. 4509St. Austin calls “profitable, worldly; pleasant, carnal; honest, spiritual. 4510Of and from all three, result charity, friendship, and true love, which respects God and our neighbour.” Of each of these I will briefly dilate, and show in what sort they cause melancholy.

Amongst all these fair enticing objects, which procure love, and bewitch the soul of man, there is none so moving, so forcible as profit; and that which carrieth with it a show of commodity. Health indeed is a precious thing, to recover and preserve which we will undergo any misery, drink bitter potions, freely give our goods: restore a man to his health, his purse lies open to thee, bountiful he is, thankful and beholding to thee; but give him wealth and honour, give him gold, or what shall be for his advantage and preferment, and thou shalt command his affections, oblige him eternally to thee, heart, hand, life, and all is at thy service, thou art his dear and loving friend, good and gracious lord and master, his Mecaenas; he is thy slave, thy vassal, most devote, affectioned, and bound in all duty: tell him good tidings in this kind, there spoke an angel, a blessed hour that brings in gain, he is thy creature, and thou his creator, he hugs and admires thee; he is thine for ever. No loadstone so attractive as that of profit, none so fair an object as this of gold; 4511nothing wins a man sooner than a good turn, bounty and liberality command body and soul:

Munera (crede mihi) placant hominesque deosque;
Placatur donis Jupiter ipse datis.

Good turns doth pacify both God and men,

And Jupiter himself is won by them.

Gold of all other is a most delicious object; a sweet light, a goodly lustre it hath; gratius aurum quam solem intuemur, saith Austin, and we had rather see it than the sun. Sweet and pleasant in getting, in keeping; it seasons all our labours, intolerable pains we take for it, base employments, endure bitter flouts and taunts, long journeys, heavy burdens, all are made light and easy by this hope of gain: At mihi plaudo ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca. The sight of gold refresheth our spirits, and ravisheth our hearts, as that Babylonian garment and 4512 golden wedge did Achan in the camp, the very sight and hearing sets on fire his soul with desire of it. It will make a man run to the antipodes, or tarry at home and turn parasite, lie, flatter, prostitute himself, swear and bear false witness; he will venture his body, kill a king, murder his father, and damn his soul to come at it. Formosior auri massa, as 4513 he well observed, the mass of gold is fairer than all your Grecian pictures, that Apelles, Phidias, or any doting painter could ever make: we are enamoured with it,

4514Prima fere vota, et cunctis notissima templis,

Divitiae ut crescant. ———

All our labours, studies, endeavours, vows, prayers and wishes, are to get, how to compass it.

4515Haec est illa cui famulatur maximus orbis,

Diva potens rerum, domitrixque pecunia fati.

“This is the great goddess we adore and worship; this is the sole object of our desire.” If we have it, as we think, we are made for ever, thrice happy, princes, lords, &c. If we lose it, we are dull, heavy, dejected, discontent, miserable, desperate, and mad. Our estate and bene esse ebbs and flows with our commodity; and as we are endowed or enriched, so are we beloved and esteemed: it lasts no longer than our wealth; when that is gone, and the object removed, farewell friendship: as long as bounty, good cheer, and rewards were to be hoped, friends enough; they were tied to thee by the teeth, and would follow thee as crows do a carcass: but when thy goods are gone and spent, the lamp of their love is out, and thou shalt be contemned, scorned, hated, injured. 4516Lucian's Timon, when he lived in prosperity, was the sole spectacle of Greece, only admired; who but Timon? Everybody loved, honoured, applauded him, each man offered him his service, and sought to be kin to him; but when his gold was spent, his fair possessions gone, farewell Timon: none so ugly, none so deformed, so odious an object as Timon, no man so ridiculous on a sudden, they gave him a penny to buy a rope, no man would know him.

'Tis the general humour of the world, commodity steers our affections throughout, we love those that are fortunate and rich, that thrive, or by whom we may receive mutual kindness, hope for like courtesies, get any good, gain, or profit; hate those, and abhor on the other side, which are poor and miserable, or by whom we may sustain loss or inconvenience. And even those that were now familiar and dear unto us, our loving and long friends, neighbours, kinsmen, allies, with whom we have conversed, and lived as so many Geryons for some years past, striving still to give one another all good content and entertainment, with mutual invitations, feastings, disports, offices, for whom we would ride, run, spend ourselves, and of whom we have so freely and honourably spoken, to whom we have given all those turgent titles, and magnificent eulogiums, most excellent and most noble, worthy, wise, grave, learned, valiant, &c., and magnified beyond measure: if any controversy arise between us, some trespass, injury, abuse, some part of our goods be detained, a piece of land come to be litigious, if they cross us in our suit, or touch the string of our commodity, we detest and depress them upon a sudden: neither affinity, consanguinity, or old acquaintance can contain us, but 4517rupto jecore exierit Caprificus. A golden apple sets altogether by the ears, as if a marrowbone or honeycomb were flung amongst bears: father and son, brother and sister, kinsmen are at odds: and look what malice, deadly hatred can invent, that shall be done, Terrible, dirum, pestilens, atrox, ferum, mutual injuries, desire of revenge, and how to hurt them, him and his, are all our studies. If our pleasures be interrupt, we can tolerate it: our bodies hurt, we can put it up and be reconciled: but touch our commodities, we are most impatient: fair becomes foul, the graces are turned to harpies, friendly salutations to bitter imprecations, mutual feastings to plotting villainies, minings and counterminings; good words to satires and invectives, we revile e contra, nought but his imperfections are in our eyes, he is a base knave, a devil, a monster, a caterpillar, a viper, a hog-rubber, &c. Desinit in piscem mulier formosa superne;4518 the scene is altered on a sudden, love is turned to hate, mirth to melancholy: so furiously are we most part bent, our affections fixed upon this object of commodity, and upon money, the desire of which in excess is covetousness: ambition tyranniseth over our souls, as 4519I have shown, and in defect crucifies as much, as if a man by negligence, ill husbandry, improvidence, prodigality, waste and consume his goods and fortunes, beggary follows, and melancholy, he becomes an abject, 4520odious and “worse than an infidel, in not providing for his family.”

4505. Affectus nunc appetitivae potentiae, nunc rationalis, alter cerebro residet, alter hepate, corde, &c.

4506. Cor varie inclinatur, nunc gaudens, nunc moerens; statim ex timore nascitur Zelotypia, furor, spes, desperatio.

4507. Ad utile sanitas refertur; utilium est ambitio, cupido desiderium potius quam amor excessus avaritia.

4508. Picolom. grad. 7. cap. 1.

4509. Lib. de amicit. utile mundanum, carnale jucundum, spirituale honestum.

4510. Ex. singulis tribus fit charitas et amicitia, quae respicit deum et proximum.

4511. Benefactores praecipue amamus. Vives 3. de anima.

4512. Jos. 7.

4513. Petronius Arbiter.

4514. Juvenalis.

4515. Job. Second, lib. sylvarum.

4516. Lucianus Timon.

4517. Pers.

4518. “bust of a beautiful woman with the tail of a fish.”

4519. Part. 1. sec. 2. memb. sub. 12.

4520. 1 Tim. i. 8.

Subsect. ii.

Pleasant Objects of Love.

Pleasant objects are infinite, whether they be such as have life, or be without life; inanimate are countries, provinces, towers, towns, cities, as he said, 4521Pulcherrimam insulam videmus, etiam cum non videmus we see a fair island by description, when we see it not. The 4522sun never saw a fairer city, Thessala Tempe, orchards, gardens, pleasant walks, groves, fountains, &c. The heaven itself is said to be 4523fair or foul: fair buildings, 4524fair pictures, all artificial, elaborate and curious works, clothes, give an admirable lustre: we admire, and gaze upon them, ut pueri Junonis avem, as children do on a peacock: a fair dog, a fair horse and hawk, &c. 4525Thessalus amat equum pullinum, buculum Aegyptius, Lacedaemonius Catulum, &c., such things we love, are most gracious in our sight, acceptable unto us, and whatsoever else may cause this passion, if it be superfluous or immoderately loved, as Guianerius observes. These things in themselves are pleasing and good, singular ornaments, necessary, comely, and fit to be had; but when we fix an immoderate eye, and dote on them over much, this pleasure may turn to pain, bring much sorrow and discontent unto us, work our final overthrow, and cause melancholy in the end. Many are carried away with those bewitching sports of gaming, hawking, hunting, and such vain pleasures, as 4526I have said: some with immoderate desire of fame, to be crowned in the Olympics, knighted in the field, &c., and by these means ruinate themselves. The lascivious dotes on his fair mistress, the glutton on his dishes, which are infinitely varied to please the palate, the epicure on his several pleasures, the superstitious on his idol, and fats himself with future joys, as Turks feed themselves with an imaginary persuasion of a sensual paradise: so several pleasant objects diversely affect diverse men. But the fairest objects and enticings proceed from men themselves, which most frequently captivate, allure, and make them dote beyond all measure upon one another, and that for many respects: first, as some suppose, by that secret force of stars, (quod me tibi temperat astrum?) They do singularly dote on such a man, hate such again, and can give no reason for it. 4527Non amo te Sabidi, &c. Alexander admired Ephestion, Adrian Antinous, Nero Sporus, &c. The physicians refer this to their temperament, astrologers to trine and sextile aspects, or opposite of their several ascendants, lords of their genitures, love and hatred of planets; 4528 Cicogna, to concord and discord of spirits; but most to outward graces. A merry companion is welcome and acceptable to all men, and therefore, saith 4529Gomesius, princes and great men entertain jesters and players commonly in their courts. But 4530Pares cum paribus facillime congregantur, 'tis that 4531similitude of manners, which ties most men in an inseparable link, as if they be addicted to the same studies or disports, they delight in one another's companies, “birds of a feather will gather together:” if they be of divers inclinations, or opposite in manners, they can seldom agree. Secondly, 4532affability, custom, and familiarity, may convert nature many times, though they be different in manners, as if they be countrymen, fellow-students, colleagues, or have been fellow-soldiers, 4533brethren in affliction, (4534acerba calamitatum societas, diversi etiam ingenii homines conjungit) affinity, or some such accidental occasion, though they cannot agree amongst themselves, they will stick together like burrs, and bold against a third; so after some discontinuance, or death, enmity ceaseth; or in a foreign place:

Pascitur in vivis livor, post fata quiescit:

Et cecidere odia, et tristes mors obruit iras.

A third cause of love and hate, may be mutual offices, acceptum beneficium, 4535commend him, use him kindly, take his part in a quarrel, relieve him in his misery, thou winnest him for ever; do the opposite, and be sure of a perpetual enemy. Praise and dispraise of each other, do as much, though unknown, as 4536Schoppius by Scaliger and Casaubonus: mulus mulum scabit; who but Scaliger with him? what encomiums, epithets, eulogiums? Antistes sapientiae, perpetuus dictator, literarum ornamentum, Europae miraculum, noble Scaliger, 4537 incredibilis ingenii praestantia, &c., diis potius quam hominibus per omnia comparandus, scripta ejus aurea ancylia de coelo delapsa poplitibus veneramur flexis, &c.,4538 but when they began to vary, none so absurd as Scaliger, so vile and base, as his books de Burdonum familia, and other satirical invectives may witness, Ovid, in Ibin, Archilocus himself was not so bitter. Another great tie or cause of love, is consanguinity: parents are clear to their children, children to their parents, brothers and sisters, cousins of all sorts, as a hen and chickens, all of a knot: every crow thinks her own bird fairest. Many memorable examples are in this kind, and 'tis portenti simile, if they do not: 4539“a mother cannot forget her child:” Solomon so found out the true owner; love of parents may not be concealed, 'tis natural, descends, and they that are inhuman in this kind, are unworthy of that air they breathe, and of the four elements; yet many unnatural examples we have in this rank, of hard-hearted parents, disobedient children, of 4540disagreeing brothers, nothing so common. The love of kinsmen is grown cold, 4541“many kinsmen” (as the saying is) “few friends;” if thine estate be good, and thou able, par pari referre, to requite their kindness, there will be mutual correspondence, otherwise thou art a burden, most odious to them above all others. The last object that ties man and man, is comeliness of person, and beauty alone, as men love women with a wanton eye: which κατ' ἐξοχὴν is termed heroical, or love-melancholy. Other loves (saith Picolomineus) are so called with some contraction, as the love of wine, gold, &c., but this of women is predominant in a higher strain, whose part affected is the liver, and this love deserves a longer explication, and shall be dilated apart in the next section.

4521. Lips, epist. Camdeno.

4522. Leland of St. Edmondsbury.

4523. Coelum serenum, coelum visum foedum. Polid. lib. 1. de Anglia.

4524. Credo equidem vivos ducent e marmore vultus.

4525. Max. Tyrius, ser. 9.

4526. Part 1. sec. 2. memb. 3.

4527. Mart.

4528. Omnif. mag. lib. 12. cap. 3.

4529. De sale geniali, l. 3. c. 15.

4530. Theod. Prodromus, amor. lib. 3.

4531. Similitudo morum parit amicitiam.

4532. Vives 3. de anima.

4533. Qui simul fecere naufragium, aut una pertulere vincula vel consilii conjurationisve societate junguntur, invicem amant: Brutum et Cassium invicem infensos Caesarianus dominatus conciliavit. Aemilius Lepidus et Julius Flaccus, quum essent inimicissimi, censores renunciati simultates illico deposuere. Scultet. cap. 4. de causa amor.

4534. Papinius.

4535. Isocrates demonico praecipit ut quum alicujus amicitiam vellet illum laudet, quod laus initium amoris sit, vituperatio simultatum.

4536. Suspect, lect. lib. 1. cap. 2.

4537. “The priest of wisdom, perpetual dictator, ornament of literature, wonder of Europe.”

4538. “Oh incredible excellence of genius, &c., more comparable to gods' than man's, in every respect, we venerate your writings on bended knees, as we do the shield that fell from heaven.”

4539. Isa. xlix.

4540. Rara est concordia fratrum.

4541. Grad. 1. cap. 22.

Subsect. iii.

Honest Objects of Love.

Beauty is the common object of all love, 4542“as jet draws a straw, so doth beauty love:” virtue and honesty are great motives, and give as fair a lustre as the rest, especially if they be sincere and right, not fucate, but proceeding from true form, and an incorrupt judgment; those two Venus' twins, Eros and Anteros, are then most firm and fast. For many times otherwise men are deceived by their flattering gnathos, dissembling camelions, outsides, hypocrites that make a show of great love, learning, pretend honesty, virtue, zeal, modesty, with affected looks and counterfeit gestures: feigned protestations often steal away the hearts and favours of men, and deceive them, specie virtutis et umbra, when as revera and indeed, there is no worth or honesty at all in them, no truth, but mere hypocrisy, subtlety, knavery, and the like. As true friends they are, as he that Caelius Secundus met by the highway side; and hard it is in this temporising age to distinguish such companions, or to find them out. Such gnathos as these for the most part belong to great men, and by this glozing flattery, affability, and such like philters, so dive and insinuate into their favours, that they are taken for men of excellent worth, wisdom, learning, demigods, and so screw themselves into dignities, honours, offices; but these men cause harsh confusion often, and as many times stirs as Rehoboam's counsellors in a commonwealth, overthrew themselves and others. Tandlerus and some authors make a doubt, whether love and hatred may be compelled by philters or characters; Cardan and Marbodius, by precious stones and amulets; astrologers by election of times, &c. as 4543I shall elsewhere discuss. The true object of this honest love is virtue, wisdom, honesty, 4544real worth, Interna forma, and this love cannot deceive or be compelled, ut ameris amabilis esto, love itself is the most potent philtrum, virtue and wisdom, gratia gratum faciens, the sole and only grace, not counterfeit, but open, honest, simple, naked, 4545“descending from heaven,” as our apostle hath it, an infused habit from God, which hath given several gifts, as wit, learning, tongues, for which they shall be amiable and gracious, Eph. iv. 11. as to Saul stature and a goodly presence, 1 Sam. ix. 1. Joseph found favour in Pharaoh's court, Gen. xxxix, for 4546his person; and Daniel with the princes of the eunuchs, Dan. xix. 19. Christ was gracious with God and men, Luke ii. 52. There is still some peculiar grace, as of good discourse, eloquence, wit, honesty, which is the primum mobile, first mover, and a most forcible loadstone to draw the favours and good wills of men's eyes, ears, and affections unto them. When “Jesus spake, they were all astonished at his answers,” (Luke ii. 47.) “and wondered at his gracious words which proceeded from his mouth.” An orator steals away the hearts of men, and as another Orpheus, quo vult, unde vult, he pulls them to him by speech alone: a sweet voice causeth admiration; and he that can utter himself in good words, in our ordinary phrase, is called a proper man, a divine spirit. For which cause belike, our old poets, Senatus populusque poetarum, made Mercury the gentleman-usher to the Graces, captain of eloquence, and those charities to be Jupiter's and Eurymone's daughters, descended from above. Though they be otherwise deformed, crooked, ugly to behold, those good parts of the mind denominate them fair. Plato commends the beauty of Socrates; yet who was more grim of countenance, stern and ghastly to look upon? So are and have been many great philosophers, as 4547Gregory Nazianzen observes, “deformed most part in that which is to be seen with the eyes, but most elegant in that which is not to be seen.” Saepe sub attrita latitat sapientia veste. Aesop, Democritus, Aristotle, Politianus, Melancthon, Gesner, &c. withered old men, Sileni Alcibiadis, very harsh and impolite to the eye; but who were so terse, polite, eloquent, generally learned, temperate and modest? No man then living was so fair as Alcibiades, so lovely quo ad superficiem, to the eye, as 4548Boethius observes, but he had Corpus turpissimum interne, a most deformed soul; honesty, virtue, fair conditions, are great enticers to such as are well given, and much avail to get the favour and goodwill of men. Abdolominus in Curtius, a poor man, (but which mine author notes, 4549“the cause of this poverty was his honesty”) for his modesty and continency from a private person (for they found him digging in his garden) was saluted king, and preferred before all the magnificoes of his time, injecta ei vestis purpura auroque distincta, “a purple embroidered garment was put upon him, 4550and they bade him wash himself, and, as he was worthy, take upon him the style and spirit of a king,” continue his continency and the rest of his good parts. Titus Pomponius Atticus, that noble citizen of Rome, was so fair conditioned, of so sweet a carriage, that he was generally beloved of all good men, of Caesar, Pompey, Antony, Tully, of divers sects, &c. multas haereditates (4551Cornelius Nepos writes) sola bonitate consequutus. Operae, pretium audire, &c. It is worthy of your attention, Livy cries, 4552“you that scorn all but riches, and give no esteem to virtue, except they be wealthy withal, Q. Cincinnatus had but four acres, and by the consent of the senate was chosen dictator of Rome.” Of such account were Cato, Fabricius, Aristides, Antonius, Probus, for their eminent worth: so Caesar, Trajan, Alexander, admired for valour, 4553 Haephestion loved Alexander, but Parmenio the king: Titus deliciae humani generis, and which Aurelius Victor hath of Vespasian, the darling of his time, as 4554Edgar Etheling was in England, for his 4555excellent virtues: their memory is yet fresh, sweet, and we love them many ages after, though they be dead: Suavem memoriam sui reliquit, saith Lipsius of his friend, living and dead they are all one. 4556“I have ever loved as thou knowest” (so Tully wrote to Dolabella) “Marcus Brutus for his great wit, singular honesty, constancy, sweet conditions; and believe it” 4557 “there is nothing so amiable and fair as virtue.” “I 4558do mightily love Calvisinus,” (so Pliny writes to Sossius) “a most industrious, eloquent, upright man, which is all in all with me:” the affection came from his good parts. And as St. Austin comments on the 84th Psalm, 4559“there is a peculiar beauty of justice, and inward beauty, which we see with the eyes of our hearts, love, and are enamoured with, as in martyrs, though their bodies be torn in pieces with wild beasts, yet this beauty shines, and we love their virtues.” The 4560stoics are of opinion that a wise man is only fair; and Cato in Tully 3 de Finibus contends the same, that the lineaments of the mind are far fairer than those of the body, incomparably beyond them: wisdom and valour according to 4561Xenophon, especially deserve the name of beauty, and denominate one fair, et incomparabiliter pulchrior est (as Austin holds) veritas Christianorum quam Helena Graecorum. “Wine is strong, the king is strong, women are strong, but truth overcometh all things,” Esd. i. 3, 10, 11, 12. “Blessed is the man that findeth wisdom, and getteth understanding, for the merchandise thereof is better than silver, and the gain thereof better than gold: it is more precious than pearls, and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared to her,” Prov. ii. 13, 14, 15, a wise, true, just, upright, and good man, I say it again, is only fair: 4562it is reported of Magdalene Queen of France, and wife to Lewis 11th, a Scottish woman by birth, that walking forth in an evening with her ladies, she spied M. Alanus, one of the king's chaplains, a silly, old, 4563hard-favoured man fast asleep in a bower, and kissed him sweetly; when the young ladies laughed at her for it, she replied, that it was not his person that she did embrace and reverence, but, with a platonic love, the divine beauty of 4564his soul. Thus in all ages virtue hath been adored, admired, a singular lustre hath proceeded from it: and the more virtuous he is, the more gracious, the more admired. No man so much followed upon earth as Christ himself: and as the Psalmist saith, xlv. 2, “He was fairer than the sons of men.” Chrysostom Hom. 8 in Mat. Bernard Ser. 1. de omnibus sanctis; Austin, Cassiodore, Hier. in 9 Mat. interpret it of the 4565beauty of his person; there was a divine majesty in his looks, it shined like lightning and drew all men to it: but Basil, Cyril, lib. 6. super. 55. Esay. Theodoret, Arnobius, &c. of the beauty of his divinity, justice, grace, eloquence, &c. Thomas in Psal. xliv. of both; and so doth Baradius and Peter Morales, lib de pulchritud. Jesu et Mariae, adding as much of Joseph and the Virgin Mary — haec alias forma praecesserit omnes, 4566according to that prediction of Sibylla Cumea. Be they present or absent, near us, or afar off, this beauty shines, and will attract men many miles to come and visit it. Plato and Pythagoras left their country, to see those wise Egyptian priests: Apollonius travelled into Ethiopia, Persia, to consult with the Magi, Brachmanni, gymnosophists. The Queen of Sheba came to visit Solomon; and “many,” saith 4567Hierom, “went out of Spain and remote places a thousand miles, to behold that eloquent Livy:” 4568Multi Romam non ut urbem pulcherrimam, aut urbis et orbis dominum Octavianum, sed ut hunc unum inviserent audirentque, a Gadibus profecti sunt. No beauty leaves such an impression, strikes so deep 4569, or links the souls of men closer than virtue.

4570Non per deos aut pictor posset,

Aut statuarius ullus fingere

Talem pulchritudinem qualem virtus habet;

“no painter, no graver, no carver can express virtue's lustre, or those admirable rays that come from it, those enchanting rays that enamour posterity, those everlasting rays that continue to the world's end.” Many, saith Phavorinus, that loved and admired Alcibiades in his youth, knew not, cared not for Alcibiades a man, nunc intuentes quaerebant Alcibiadem; but the beauty of Socrates is still the same; 4571virtue's lustre never fades, is ever fresh and green, semper viva to all succeeding ages, and a most attractive loadstone, to draw and combine such as are present. For that reason belike, Homer feigns the three Graces to be linked and tied hand in hand, because the hearts of men are so firmly united with such graces. 4572“O sweet bands (Seneca exclaims), which so happily combine, that those which are bound by them love their binders, desiring withal much more harder to be bound,” and as so many Geryons to be united into one. For the nature of true friendship is to combine, to be like affected, of one mind,

4573Velle et nolle ambobus idem, satiataque toto

Mens aevo ———

as the poet saith, still to continue one and the same. And where this love takes place there is peace and quietness, a true correspondence, perfect amity, a diapason of vows and wishes, the same opinions, as between 4574 David and Jonathan, Damon and Pythias, Pylades and Orestes, 4575Nysus and Euryalus, Theseus and Pirithous, 4576they will live and die together, and prosecute one another with good turns. 4577Nam vinci in amore turpissimum putant, not only living, but when their friends are dead, with tombs and monuments, nenias, epitaphs elegies, inscriptions, pyramids, obelisks, statues, images, pictures, histories, poems, annals, feasts, anniversaries, many ages after (as Plato's scholars did) they will parentare still, omit no good office that may tend to the preservation of their names, honours, and eternal memory. 4578Illum coloribus, illum cera, illum aere, &c. “He did express his friends in colours, in wax, in brass, in ivory, marble, gold, and silver” (as Pliny reports of a citizen in Rome), “and in a great auditory not long since recited a just volume of his life.” In another place, 4579speaking of an epigram which Martial had composed in praise of him, 4580“He gave me as much as he might, and would have done more if he could: though what can a man give more than honour, glory, and eternity?” But that which he wrote peradventure will not continue, yet he wrote it to continue. 'Tis all the recompense a poor scholar can make his well-deserving patron, Mecaenas, friend, to mention him in his works, to dedicate a book to his name, to write his life, &c., as all our poets, orators, historiographers have ever done, and the greatest revenge such men take of their adversaries, to persecute them with satires, invectives, &c., and 'tis both ways of great moment, as 4581 Plato gives us to understand. Paulus Jovius, in the fourth book of the life and deeds of Pope Leo Decimus, his noble patron, concludes in these words, 4582“Because I cannot honour him as other rich men do, with like endeavour, affection, and piety, I have undertaken to write his life; since my fortunes will not give me leave to make a more sumptuous monument, I will perform those rites to his sacred ashes, which a small, perhaps, but a liberal wit can afford.” But I rove. Where this true love is wanting, there can be no firm peace, friendship from teeth outward, counterfeit, or for some by-respects, so long dissembled, till they have satisfied their own ends, which, upon every small occasion, breaks out into enmity, open war, defiance, heart-burnings, whispering, calumnies, contentions, and all manner of bitter melancholy discontents. And those men which have no other object of their love, than greatness, wealth, authority, &c., are rather feared than beloved; nec amant quemquam, nec amantur ab ullo: and howsoever borne with for a time, yet for their tyranny and oppression, griping, covetousness, currish hardness, folly, intemperance, imprudence, and such like vices, they are generally odious, abhorred of all, both God and men.

Non uxor salvum te vult, non filius, omnes

Vicini oderunt ———

“wife and children, friends, neighbours, all the world forsakes them, would feign be rid of them,” and are compelled many times to lay violent hands on them, or else God's judgments overtake them: instead of graces, come furies. So when fair 4583Abigail, a woman of singular wisdom, was acceptable to David, Nabal was churlish and evil-conditioned; and therefore 4584Mordecai was received, when Haman was executed, Haman the favourite, “that had his seat above the other princes, to whom all the king's servants that stood in the gates, bowed their knees and reverenced.” Though they flourished many times, such hypocrites, such temporising foxes, and blear the world's eyes by flattery, bribery, dissembling their natures, or other men's weakness, that cannot so apprehend their tricks, yet in the end they will be discerned, and precipitated in a moment: “surely,” saith David, “thou hast set them in slippery places,” Psal. xxxvii. 5. as so many Sejani, they will come down to the Gemonian scales; and as Eusebius in 4585 Ammianus, that was in such authority, ad jubendum Imperatorem, be cast down headlong on a sudden. Or put case they escape, and rest unmasked to their lives' end, yet after their death their memory stinks as a snuff of a candle put out, and those that durst not so much as mutter against them in their lives, will prosecute their name with satires, libels, and bitter imprecations, they shall male audire in all succeeding ages, and be odious to the world's end.

4542. Vives 3. de anima, ut paleam succinum sic formam amor trahit.

4543. Sect. seq.

4544. Nihil divinius homine probo.

4545. James iii. 10.

4546. Gratior est pulchro veniens e corpore virtus.

4547. Oral. 18. deformes plerumque philosophi ad id quod in aspectum cadit ea parte elegantes quae oculos fugit.

4548. 43 de consol.

4549. Causa ei paupertatis, philosophia, sicut plerisque probitas fuit.

4550. Ablue corpus et cape regis animum, et in eam fortunam qua dignus es continentiam istam profer.

4551. Vita ejus.

4552. Qui prae divitiis humana spernunt, nec virtuti locum putant nisi opes affluant. Q. Cincinnatus consensu patrum in dictatorem Romanum electus.

4553. Curtius.

4554. Edgar Etheling, England's darling.

4555. Morum suavitas, obvia comitas, prompta officia mortalium animos demerentur.

4556. Epist. lib. 8. Semper amavi ut tu scis, M. Brutum propter ejus summum ingenium, suavissimos mores, singularem probitatem et constantiam: nihil est, mihi crede, virtute formosius, nihil amabilius.

4557. Ardentes amores excitaret, si simulacrum ejus ad oculos penetraret. Plato Phaedone.

4558. Epist. lib. 4. Validissime diligo virum rectum, disertum, quod apud me potentissimum est.

4559. Est quaedam pulchritudo justitiae quam videmus oculis cordis, amamus, et exardescimus, ut in martyribus, quum eorum membra bestiae lacerarent, etsi alias deformes, &c.

4560. Lipsius manuduc. ad Phys. Stoic. lib. 3. diff. 17, solus sapiens pulcher.

4561. Fortitudo et prudentia pulchritudinis laudem praecipue merentur.

4562. Franc. Belforist. in hist. an. 1430.

4563. Erat autem foede deformis, et ea forma, qua citius pueri terreri possent, quam invitari ad osculum puellae.

4564. Deformis iste etsi videatur senex, divinum animum habet.

4565. Fulgebat vultu suo: fulgor et divina majestas homines ad se trahens.

4566. “She excelled all others in beauty.”

4567. Praefat. bib. vulgar.

4568. Pars inscrip. Tit. Livii statuae Patavii.

4569. A true love's knot.

4570. Stobaeus e Graeco.

4571. Solinus, pulchri nulla est facies.

4572. O dulcissimi laquei, qui tam feliciter devinciunt, ut etiam a vinctis diligantur, qui a gratiis vincti sunt, cupiunt arctius deligari et in unum redigi.

4573. Statius.

4574. “He loved him as he loved his own soul,” 1 Sam. xv. 1. “Beyond the love of women.”

4575. Virg. 9. Aen. Qui super exanimem sese conjecit amicum confessus.

4576. Amicus animae dimidium, Austin, confess. 4. cap. 6. Quod de Virgilio Horatius, et serves animae dimidium meae.

4577. Plinius.

4578. Illum argento et auro, illum ebore, marmore effingit, et nuper ingenti adhibito auditorio ingentem de vita ejus librum recitavit. epist. lib. 4. epist. 68.

4579. Lib. iv. ep. 61. Prisco suo; Dedit mihi quantum potuit maximum, daturas amplius si potuisset. Tametsi quid homini dari potest majus quum gloria, laus, et aeternitas? At non erunt fortasse quae scripsit. Ille tamen scripsit tanquam essent futura.

4580. For. genus irritabile vatum.

4581. Lib. 13 de Legibus. Magnam enim vim habent, &c.

4582. Peri tamen studio et pietate conscribendae vitae ejus munus suscepi, et postquam sumptuosa condere pro fortuna non licuit, exiguo sed eo forte liberalis ingenii monumento justa sanctissimo cineri solventur.

4583. 1 Sam. xxv. 3.

4584. Esther, iii. 2.

4585. Amm. Marcellinus, l. 14.

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/b/burton/robert/melancholy/S3.1.2.html

Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31