Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton

Sect. v. Memb. i.

Subsect. i.

Particular Cure of the three several Kinds; of Head Melancholy.

The general cures thus briefly examined and discussed, it remains now to apply these medicines to the three particular species or kinds, that, according to the several parts affected, each man may tell in some sort how to help or ease himself. I will treat of head melancholy first, in which, as in all other good cures, we must begin with diet, as a matter of most moment, able oftentimes of itself to work this effect. I have read, saith Laurentius, cap. 8. de Melanch. that in old diseases which have gotten the upper hand or a habit, the manner of living is to more purpose, than whatsoever can be drawn out of the most precious boxes of the apothecaries. This diet, as I have said, is not only in choice of meat and drink, but of all those other non-natural things. Let air be clear and moist most part: diet moistening, of good juice, easy of digestion, and not windy: drink clear, and well brewed, not too strong, nor too small. “Make a melancholy man fat,” as 4244Rhasis saith, “and thou hast finished the cure.” Exercise not too remiss, nor too violent. Sleep a little more than ordinary. 4245Excrements daily to be voided by art or nature; and which Fernelius enjoins his patient, consil. 44, above the rest, to avoid all passions and perturbations of the mind. Let him not be alone or idle (in any kind of melancholy), but still accompanied with such friends and familiars he most affects, neatly dressed, washed, and combed, according to his ability at least, in clean sweet linen, spruce, handsome, decent, and good apparel; for nothing sooner dejects a man than want, squalor, and nastiness, foul, or old clothes out of fashion. Concerning the medicinal part, he that will satisfy himself at large (in this precedent of diet) and see all at once the whole cure and manner of it in every distinct species, let him consult with Gordonius, Valescus, with Prosper Calenius, lib. de atra bile ad Card. Caesium, Laurentius, cap. 8. et 9. de mela. Aelian Montaltus, de mel. cap. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Donat. ab Altomari, cap. 7. artis med. Hercules de Saxonia, in Panth. cap. 7. et Tract. ejus peculiar. de melan. per Bolzetam, edit. Venetiis 1620. cap. 17. 18. 19. Savanarola, Rub. 82. Tract. 8. cap. 1. Sckenkius, in prax. curat. Ital. med. Heurnius, cap. 12. de morb. Victorius Faventius, pract. Magn. et Empir. Hildesheim, Spicel. 2. de man. et mel. Fel. Plater, Stockerus, Bruel. P. Baverus, Forestus, Fuchsius, Capivaccius, Rondoletius, Jason Pratensis, Sullust. Salvian. de remed. lib. 2. cap. 1. Jacchinus, in 9. Rhasis, Lod. Mercatus, de Inter. morb. cur. lib. 1. cap. 17. Alexan. Messaria, pract. med. lib. 1. cap. 21. de mel. Piso. Hollerius, &c. that have culled out of those old Greeks, Arabians, and Latins, whatsoever is observable or fit to be used. Or let him read those counsels and consultations of Hugo Senensis, consil. 13. et 14. Reinerus Solenander, consil. 6. sec. 1. et consil. 3. sec. 3. Crato, consil. 16. lib. 1. Montanus 20. 22. and his following counsels, Laelius a Fonte Egubinus, consult. 44. 69. 77. 125. 129. 142. Fernelius, consil. 44. 45. 46. Jul. Caesar Claudinus, Mercurialis, Frambesarius, Sennertus, &c. Wherein he shall find particular receipts, the whole method, preparatives, purgers, correctors, averters, cordials in great variety and abundance: out of which, because every man cannot attend to read or peruse them, I will collect for the benefit of the reader, some few more notable medicines.

4244. Cont. lib. 1. c. 9, festines ad impinguationem, et cum impinguantur, removetur malum.

4245. Beneficium ventris.

Subsect. ii.

Bloodletting.

Phlebotomy is promiscuously used before and after physic, commonly before, and upon occasion is often reiterated, if there be any need at least of it. For Galen, and many others, make a doubt of bleeding at all in this kind of head-melancholy. If the malady, saith Piso, cap. 23. and Altomarus, cap. 7. Fuchsius, cap. 33. 4246“shall proceed primarily from the misaffected brain, the patient in such case shall not need at all to bleed, except the blood otherwise abound, the veins be full, inflamed blood, and the party ready to run mad.” In immaterial melancholy, which especially comes from a cold distemperature of spirits, Hercules de Saxonia, cap. 17. will not admit of phlebotomy; Laurentius, cap. 9, approves it out of the authority of the Arabians; but as Mesue, Rhasis, Alexander appoint, 4247“especially in the head,” to open the veins of the forehead, nose and ears is good. They commonly set cupping-glasses on the party's shoulders, having first scarified the place, they apply horseleeches on the head, and in all melancholy diseases, whether essential or accidental, they cause the haemorrhoids to be opened, having the eleventh aphorism of the sixth book of Hippocrates for their ground and warrant, which saith, “That in melancholy and mad men, the varicose tumour or haemorrhoids appearing doth heal the same.” Valescus prescribes bloodletting in all three kinds, whom Sallust. Salvian follows. 4248“If the blood abound, which is discerned by the fullness of the veins, his precedent diet, the party's laughter, age, &c., begin with the median or middle vein of the arm; if the blood be ruddy and clear, stop it, but if black in the spring time, or a good season, or thick, let it run, according to the party's strength: and some eight or twelve days after, open the head vein, and the veins in the forehead, or provoke it out of the nostrils, or cupping-glasses,” &c. Trallianus allows of this, 4249“If there have been any suppression or stopping of blood at nose, or haemorrhoids, or women's months, then to open a vein in the head or about the ankles.” Yet he doth hardly approve of this course, if melancholy be situated in the head alone, or in any other dotage, 4250“except it primarily proceed from blood, or that the malady be increased by it; for bloodletting refrigerates and dries up, except the body be very full of blood, and a kind of ruddiness in the face.” Therefore I conclude with Areteus, 4251“before you let blood, deliberate of it,” and well consider all circumstances belonging to it.

4246. Si ex primario cerebri affectu melancholici evaserint, sanguinis detractione non indigent, nisi ob alias causas sanguis mittatur, si multus in vasis, &c. frustra enim fatigatur corpus, &c.

4247. Competit iis phlebotomia frontis.

4248. Si sanguis abundet, quod scitur ex venarum repletione, victus ratione praecedente, risu aegri, aetate et aliis. Tundatur mediana; et si sanguis apparet clarus et ruber, supprimatur; aut si yere, si niger aut crassus permittatur fluere pro viribus aegri, dein post 8. vel. 12. diem aperiatur cephalica partis magis affectae, et vena frontis, aut sanguis provocetur setis per nares, &c.

4249. Si quibus consuetae suae suppressae sunt menses, &c. talo secare oportet, aut vena frontis si sanguis peccet cerebro.

4250. Nisi ortum ducat a sanguine, ne morbus inde augeatur; phlebotomia refrigerat et exiceat, nisi corpus sit valde sanguineum, rubicundum.

4251. Cum sanguinem detrahere oportet, deliberatione indiget. Areteus, lib. 7. c. 5.

Subsect. iii.

Preparatives and Purgers.

After bloodletting we must proceed to other medicines; first prepare, and then purge, Augeae stabulum purgare, make the body clean before we hope to do any good. Walter Bruel would have a practitioner begin first with a clyster of his, which he prescribes before bloodletting: the common sort, as Mercurialis, Montaltus cap. 30. &c. proceed from lenitives to preparatives, and so to purgers. Lenitives are well known, electuarium lenitivum, diaphenicum diacatholicon, &c. Preparatives are usually syrups of borage, bugloss, apples, fumitory, thyme and epithyme, with double as much of the same decoction or distilled water, or of the waters of bugloss, balm, hops, endive, scolopendry, fumitory, &c. or these sodden in whey, which must be reiterated and used for many days together. Purges come last, “which must not be used at all, if the malady may be otherwise helped,” because they weaken nature and dry so much, and in giving of them, 4252 “we must begin with the gentlest first.” Some forbid all hot medicines, as Alexander, and Salvianus, &c. Ne insaniores inde fiant, hot medicines increase the disease 4253“by drying too much.” Purge downward rather than upward, use potions rather than pills, and when you begin physic, persevere and continue in a course; for as one observes, 4254movere et non educere in omnibus malum est; to stir up the humour (as one purge commonly doth) and not to prosecute, doth more harm than good. They must continue in a course of physic, yet not so that they tire and oppress nature, danda quies naturae, they must now and then remit, and let nature have some rest. The most gentle purges to begin with, are 4255senna, cassia, epithyme, myrabolanea, catholicon: if these prevail not, we may proceed to stronger, as the confection of hamech, pil. Indae, fumitoriae, de assaieret, of lapis armenus and lazuli, diasena. Or if pills be too dry; 4256some prescribe both hellebores in the last place, amongst the rest Aretus, 4257“because this disease will resist a gentle medicine.” Laurentius and Hercules de Saxonia would have antimony tried last, “if the 4258party be strong, and it warily given.” 4259Trincavelius prefers hierologodium, to whom Francis Alexander in his Apol. rad. 5. subscribes, a very good medicine they account it. But Crato in a counsel of his, for the duke of Bavaria's chancellor, wholly rejects it.

I find a vast chaos of medicines, a confusion of receipts and magistrals, amongst writers, appropriated to this disease; some of the chiefest I will rehearse. 4260To be seasick first is very good at seasonable times. Helleborismus Matthioli, with which he vaunts and boasts he did so many several cures, 4261“I never gave it” (saith he), “but after once or twice, by the help of God, they were happily cured.” The manner of making it he sets down at large in his third book of Epist. to George Hankshius a physician. Walter Bruel, and Heurnius, make mention of it with great approbation; so doth Sckenkius in his memorable cures, and experimental medicines, cen. 6. obser. 37. That famous Helleborisme of Montanus, which he so often repeats in his consultations and counsels, as 28. pro. melan. sacerdote, et consil. 148. pro hypochondriaco, and cracks, 4262 “to be a most sovereign remedy for all melancholy persons, which he hath often given without offence, and found by long experience and observations to be such.”

Quercetan prefers a syrup of hellebore in his Spagirica Pharmac. and Hellebore's extract cap. 5. of his invention likewise (“a most safe medicine and not unfit to be given children”) before all remedies whatsoever. 4263

Paracelsus, in his book of black hellebore, admits this medicine, but as it is prepared by him. 4264“It is most certain” (saith he) “that the virtue of this herb is great, and admirable in effect, and little differing from balm itself; and he that knows well how to make use of it, hath more art than all their books contain, or all the doctors in Germany can show.”

Aelianus Montaltus in his exquisite work de morb. capitis, cap. 31. de mel. sets a special receipt of his own, which, in his practice 4265“he fortunately used; because it is but short I will set it down.”

℞. Syrupe de pomis ℥ij, aquae borag. ℥iiij. Ellebori nigri per noctem infusi in ligatura 6 vel 8 gr. mane facta collatura exhibe.

Other receipts of the same to this purpose you shall find in him. Valescus admires pulvis Hali, and Jason Pratensis after him: the confection of which our new London Pharmacopoeia hath lately revived. 4266“Put case” (saith he) “all other medicines fail, by the help of God this alone shall do it, and 'tis a crowned medicine which must be kept in secret.”

℞. Epithymi semunc. lapidis lazuli, agarici ana ℥ij. Scammnonii. ℨj, Chariophillorum numero, 20 pulverisentur Omnia, et ipsius pulveris scrup. 4. singulis septimanis assumat.

To these I may add Arnoldi vinum Buglossalum, or borage wine before mentioned, which 4267Mizaldus calls vinum mirabile, a wonderful wine, and Stockerus vouchsafes to repeat verbatim amongst other receipts. Rubeus his 4268compound water out of Savanarola; Pinetus his balm; Cardan's Pulvis Hyacinthi, with which, in his book de curis admirandis, he boasts that he had cured many melancholy persons in eight days, which 4269Sckenkius puts amongst his observable medicines; Altomarus his syrup, with which 4270he calls God so solemnly to witness, he hath in his kind done many excellent cures, and which Sckenkius cent. 7. observ. 80. mentioneth, Daniel Sennertus lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 12. so much commends; Rulandus' admirable water for melancholy, which cent. 2. cap. 96. he names Spiritum vitae aureum, Panaceam, what not, and his absolute medicine of 50 eggs, curat. Empir. cent. 1. cur. 5. to be taken three in a morning, with a powder of his. 4271Faventinus prac. Emper. doubles this number of eggs, and will have 101 to be taken by three and three in like sort, which Sallust Salvian approves de red. med. lib. 2. c. 1. with some of the same powder, till all be spent, a most excellent remedy for all melancholy and mad men.

℞. Epithymi, thymi, ana drachmas duas, sacchari albi unciam unam, croci grana tria, Cinamomi drachmam unam; misce, fiat pulvis.

All these yet are nothing to those 4272chemical preparatives of Aqua Chalidonia, quintessence of hellebore, salts, extracts, distillations, oils, Aurum potabile, &c. Dr. Anthony in his book de auro potab. edit. 1600. is all in all for it. 4273“And though all the schools of Galenists, with a wicked and unthankful pride and scorn, detest it in their practice, yet in more grievous diseases, when their vegetals will do no good,” they are compelled to seek the help of minerals, though they “use them rashly, unprofitably, slackly, and to no purpose.” Rhenanus, a Dutch chemist, in his book de Sale e puteo emergente, takes upon him to apologise for Anthony, and sets light by all that speak against him. But what do I meddle with this great controversy, which is the subject of many volumes? Let Paracelsus, Quercetan, Crollius, and the brethren of the rosy cross, defend themselves as they may. Crato, Erastus, and the Galenists oppugn Paracelsus, he brags on the other side, he did more famous cures by this means, than all the Galenists in Europe, and calls himself a monarch; Galen, Hippocrates, infants, illiterate, &c. As Thessalus of old railed against those ancient Asclepiadean writers, 4274“he condemns others, insults, triumphs, overcomes all antiquity” (saith Galen as if he spake to him) “declares himself a conqueror, and crowns his own doings. 4275One drop of their chemical preparatives shall do more good than all their fulsome potions.” Erastus, and the rest of the Galenists vilify them on the other side, as heretics in physic; 4276“Paracelsus did that in physic, which Luther in Divinity. 4277A drunken rogue he was, a base fellow, a magician, he had the devil for his master, devils his familiar companions, and what he did, was done by the help of the devil.” Thus they contend and rail, and every mart write books pro and con, et adhuc sub judice lis est: let them agree as they will, I proceed.

4252. A lenioribus auspicandum. (Valescus, Fiso, Bruel) rariusque medicamentis purgantibus utendum, ni sit opus.

4253. Quia corpus exiccant, morbum augent.

4254. Guianerius Tract. 15. c. 6.

4255. Piso.

4256. Rhasis, saepe valent ex Helleboro.

4257. Lib. 7. Exigius medicamentis morbus non obsequitur.

4258. Modo caute detur et robustis.

4259. Consil. 10. l. 1.

4260. Plin. l. 31. c. 6. Navigationes ob vomitionem prosunt plurimis morbis capitis, et omnibus ob quae Helleborum bibitur. Idem Dioscorides, lib. 5. cap. 13. Avicenna tertia imprimis.

4261. Nunquam dedimus, quin ex una aut altera assumptione, Deo juvante, fuerint ad salutem restituti.

4262. Lib. 2. Inter composita purgantia melancholiam.

4263. Longo experimento a se observatum esse, melancholicos sine offensa egregie curandos valere. Idem responsione ad Aubertum, veratrum nigrum, alias timidum et periculosum vini spiritu etiam et olco commodum sic usui redditur ut etiam pueris tuto administrari possit.

4264. Certum est hujus herbae virtutem maximam et mirabilem esse, parumque distare a balsamo. Et qui norit eo recte uti, plus habet artis quam tota scribentium cohors aut omnes doctores in Germania.

4265. Quo feliciter usus sum.

4266. Hoc posito quod aliae medicina non valeant, ista tune Dei misericordia valebit, et est medicina coronata, quae secretissime tenentur.

4267. Lib. de artif. med.

4268. Sect. 3. Optimum remedium aqua composita Savanarolae.

4269. Sckenkius, observ. 31.

4270. Donatus ab Altomari, cap. 7. Tester Deum, me multos melancholicos hujus solius syrupi usu curasse, facta prius purgatione.

4271. Centum ova et unum, quolibet mane sumant ova sorbilia, cum sequenti pulvere supra ovum aspersa, et contineant quousque assumpserint centum et unum, maniacis et melancholicis utilissimum remedium.

4272. Quercetan, cap. 4. Phar. Oswaldus Crollius.

4273. Cap. 1. Licet tota Galenistarum schola, mineralia non sine impio et ingrato fastu a sua practica detestentur; tamen in gravioribus morbis omni vegetabilium derelicto subsidio, ad mineralia confugiunt, licet ea temere, ignaviter, et inutiliter usurpent. Ad finem libri.

4274. Veteres maledictis incessit, vincit, et contra omnem antiquitatem coronatur, ipseque a se victor declaratur. Gal. lib. 1. meth. c. 2.

4275. Codronchus de sale absynthii.

4276. Idem Paracelsus in medicina, quod Lutherus in Theologia.

4277. Disput. in eundem, parte 1. Magus ebrius, illiteratus, daemonem praeceptorem habuit, daemones familiares, & c.

Subsect. iv.

Averters.

Averters and purgers must go together, as tending all to the same purpose, to divert this rebellious humour, and turn it another way. In this range, clysters and suppositories challenge a chief place, to draw this humour from the brain and heart, to the more ignoble parts. Some would have them still used a few days between, and those to be made with the boiled seeds of anise, fennel, and bastard saffron, hops, thyme, epithyme, mallows, fumitory, bugloss, polypody, senna, diasene, hamech, cassia, diacatholicon, hierologodium, oil of violets, sweet almonds, &c. For without question, a clyster opportunely used, cannot choose in this, as most other maladies, but to do very much good; Clysteres nutriunt, sometimes clysters nourish, as they may be prepared, as I was informed not long since by a learned lecture of our natural philosophy 4278reader, which he handled by way of discourse, out of some other noted physicians. Such things as provoke urine most commend, but not sweat. Trincavelius consil. 16. cap. 1. in head-melancholy forbids it. P. Byarus and others approve frictions of the outward parts, and to bathe them with warm water. Instead of ordinary frictions, Cardan prescribes rubbing with nettles till they blister the skin, which likewise 4279Basardus Visontinus so much magnifies.

Sneezing, masticatories, and nasals are generally received. Montaltus c. 34. Hildesheim spicel. 3. fol. 136 and 238. give several receipts of all three. Hercules de Saxonia relates of an empiric in Venice 4280“that had a strong water to purge by the mouth and nostrils, which he still used in head-melancholy, and would sell for no gold.”

To open months and haemorrhoids is very good physic, 4281“If they have been formerly stopped.” Faventinus would have them opened with horseleeches, so would Hercul. de Sax. Julius Alexandrinus consil. 185. Scoltzii thinks aloes fitter: 4282most approve horseleeches in this case, to be applied to the forehead, 4283nostrils, and other places.

Montaltus cap. 29. out of Alexander and others, prescribes 4284 “cupping-glasses, and issues in the left thigh.” Aretus lib. 7. cap. 5. 4285Paulus Regolinus, Sylvius will have them without scarification, “applied to the shoulders and back, thighs and feet:” 4286Montaltus cap. 34. “bids open an issue in the arm, or hinder part of the head.” 4287Piso enjoins ligatures, frictions, suppositories, and cupping-glasses, still without scarification, and the rest.

Cauteries and hot irons are to be used 4288“in the suture of the crown, and the seared or ulcerated place suffered to run a good while. 'Tis not amiss to bore the skull with an instrument, to let out the fuliginous vapours.” Sallus. Salvianus de re medic. lib. 2. cap. 1. 4289“because this humour hardly yields to other physic, would have the leg cauterised, or the left leg, below the knee, 4290and the head bored in two or three places,” for that it much avails to the exhalation of the vapours; 4291 “I saw” (saith he) “a melancholy man at Rome, that by no remedies could be healed, but when by chance he was wounded in the head, and the skull broken, he was excellently cured.” Another, to the admiration of the beholders, 4292“breaking his head with a fall from on high, was instantly recovered of his dotage.” Gordonius cap. 13. part. 2. would have these cauteries tried last, when no other physic will serve. 4293 “The head to be shaved and bored to let out fumes, which without doubt will do much good. I saw a melancholy man wounded in the head with a sword, his brainpan broken; so long as the wound was open he was well, but when his wound was healed, his dotage returned again.” But Alexander Messaria a professor in Padua, lib. 1. pract. med. cap. 21. de melanchol. will allow no cauteries at all, 'tis too stiff a humour and too thick as he holds, to be so evaporated.

Guianerius c. 8. Tract. 15. cured a nobleman in Savoy, by boring alone, 4294“leaving the hole open a month together,” by means of which, after two years' melancholy and madness, he was delivered. All approve of this remedy in the suture of the crown; but Arculanus would have the cautery to be made with gold. In many other parts, these cauteries are prescribed for melancholy men, as in the thighs, (Mercurialis consil. 86.) arms, legs. Idem consil. 6. & 19. & 25. Montanus 86. Rodericus a Fonseca tom. 2. cousult. 84. pro hypochond. coxa dextra, &c., but most in the head, “if other physic will do no good.”

4278. Master D. Lapworth.

4279. Ant. Philos. cap. de melan. frictio vertice, &c.

4280. Aqua fortissima purgans os, nares, quam non vult auro vendere.

4281. Mercurialis consil. 6. et 30. haemorroidum et mensium provocatio juvat, modo ex eorum suppressione ortum habuerit.

4282. Laurentius, Bruel, &c.

4283. P. Bayerus, l. 2. cap. 13. naribus, &c.

4284. Cucurbitulae siccae, et fontanellae crure sinistro.

4285. Hildesheim spicel. 2. Vapores a cerebro trahendi sunt frictionibus universi, cucurbitulis siccis, humeris ac dorso affixis, circa pedes et crura.

4286. Fontanellam aperi juxta occipitum, aut brachium.

4287. Baleni, ligaturae, frictiones, &c.

4288. Canterium fiat sutura coronali, diu fluere permittantur loca ulcerosa. Trepano etiam cranii densitas imminui poterit, ut vaporibus fuliginosis exitus pateat.

4289. Quoniam difficulter cedit aliis medicamentis, ideo fiat in vertice cauterium, aut crure sinistro infra genu.

4290. Fiant duo aut tria cauteria, cum ossis perforatione.

4291. Vidi Romae melancholicum qui adhibitis multis remediis, sanari non poterat; sed cum cranium gladio fractum esset, optime sanatus est.

4292. Et alterum vidi melancholicum, qui ex alto cadens non sine astantium admiratione, liberatus est.

4293. Radatur caput et fiat cauterium in capite; procul dubio ista faciunt ad fumorum exhalationem; vidi melancholicum a fortuna gladio vulneratum, et cranium fractum, quam diu vulnus apertum, curatus optime; at cum vulnus sanatum, reversa est mania.

4294. Usque ad duram matrem trepanari feci, et per mensam aperte stetit.

Subsect. v.

Alteratives and Cordials, corroborating, resolving the Reliques, and mending the Temperament.

Because this humour is so malign of itself, and so hard to be removed, the reliques are to be cleansed, by alteratives, cordials, and such means: the temper is to be altered and amended, with such things as fortify and strengthen the heart and brain, 4295“which are commonly both affected in this malady, and do mutually misaffect one another:” which are still to be given every other day, or some few days inserted after a purge, or like physic, as occasion serves, and are of such force, that many times they help alone, and as 4296Arnoldus holds in his Aphorisms, are to be “preferred before all other medicines, in what kind soever.”

Amongst this number of cordials and alteratives, I do not find a more present remedy, than a cup of wine or strong drink, if it be soberly and opportunely used. It makes a man bold, hardy, courageous, 4297“whetteth the wit,” if moderately taken, (and as Plutarch 4298saith, Symp. 7. quaest. 12.) “it makes those which are otherwise dull, to exhale and evaporate like frankincense, or quicken” (Xenophon adds) 4299as oil doth fire. 4300“A famous cordial” Matthiolus in Dioscoridum calls it, “an excellent nutriment to refresh the body, it makes a good colour, a flourishing age, helps concoction, fortifies the stomach, takes away obstructions, provokes urine, drives out excrements, procures sleep, clears the blood, expels wind and cold poisons, attenuates, concocts, dissipates all thick vapours, and fuliginous humours.” And that which is all in all to my purpose, it takes away fear and sorrow. 4301Curas edaces dissipat Evius. “It glads the heart of man,” Psal. civ. 15. hilaritatis dulce seminarium. Helena's bowl, the sole nectar of the gods, or that true nepenthes in 4302Homer, which puts away care and grief, as Oribasius 5. Collect, cap. 7. and some others will, was nought else but a cup of good wine. “It makes the mind of the king and of the fatherless both one, of the bond and freeman, poor and rich; it turneth all his thoughts to joy and mirth, makes him remember no sorrow or debt, but enricheth his heart, and makes him speak by talents,” Esdras iii. 19, 20, 21. It gives life itself, spirits, wit, &c. For which cause the ancients called Bacchus, Liber pater a liberando, and 4303sacrificed to Bacchus and Pallas still upon an altar. 4304“Wine measurably drunk, and in time, brings gladness and cheerfulness of mind, it cheereth God and men,” Judges ix. 13. laetitiae Bacchus dator, it makes an old wife dance, and such as are in misery to forget evil, and be 4305merry.

Bacchus et afflictis requiem mortalibus affert,

Crura licet duro compede vincta forent.

Wine makes a troubled soul to rest,

Though feet with fetters be opprest.

Demetrius in Plutarch, when he fell into Seleucus's hands, and was prisoner in Syria, 4306“spent his time with dice and drink that he might so ease his discontented mind, and avoid those continual cogitations of his present condition wherewith he was tormented.” Therefore Solomon, Prov. xxxi. 6, bids “wine be given to him that is ready to 4307perish, and to him that hath grief of heart, let him drink that he forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.” Sollicitis animis onus eximit, it easeth a burdened soul, nothing speedier, nothing better; which the prophet Zachariah perceived, when he said, “that in the time of Messias, they of Ephraim should be glad, and their heart should rejoice as through wine.” All which makes me very well approve of that pretty description of a feast in 4308 Bartholomeus Anglicus, when grace was said, their hands washed, and the guests sufficiently exhilarated, with good discourse, sweet music, dainty fare, exhilarationis gratia, pocula iterum atque iterum offeruntur, as a corollary to conclude the feast, and continue their mirth, a grace cup came in to cheer their hearts, and they drank healths to one another again and again. Which as I. Fredericus Matenesius, Crit. Christ. lib. 2. cap. 5, 6, & 7, was an old custom in all ages in every commonwealth, so as they be not enforced, bibere per violentiam, but as in that royal feast of 4309 Ahasuerus, which lasted 180 days, “without compulsion they drank by order in golden vessels,” when and what they would themselves. This of drink is a most easy and parable remedy, a common, a cheap, still ready against fear, sorrow, and such troublesome thoughts, that molest the mind; as brimstone with fire, the spirits on a sudden are enlightened by it. “No better physic” (saith 4310Rhasis) “for a melancholy man: and he that can keep company, and carouse, needs no other medicines,” 'tis enough. His countryman Avicenna, 31. doc. 2. cap. 8. proceeds farther yet, and will have him that is troubled in mind, or melancholy, not to drink only, but now and then to be drunk: excellent good physic it is for this and many other diseases. Magninus Reg. san. part. 3. c. 31. will have them to be so once a month at least, and gives his reasons for it, 4311“because it scours the body by vomit, urine, sweat, of all manner of superfluities, and keeps it clean.” Of the same mind is Seneca the philosopher, in his book de tranquil. lib. 1. c. 15. nonnunquam ut in aliis morbis ad ebrietatem usque veniendum; Curas deprimit, tristitiae medetur, it is good sometimes to be drunk, it helps sorrow, depresseth cares, and so concludes this tract with a cup of wine: Habes, Serene charissime, quae ad, tranquillitatem animae, pertinent. But these are epicureal tenets, tending to looseness of life, luxury and atheism, maintained alone by some heathens, dissolute Arabians, profane Christians, and are exploded by Rabbi Moses, tract. 4. Guliel, Placentius, lib. 1. cap. 8. Valescus de Taranta, and most accurately ventilated by Jo. Sylvaticus, a late writer and physician of Milan, med. cont. cap. 14. where you shall find this tenet copiously confuted.

Howsoever you say, if this be true, that wine and strong drink have such virtue to expel fear and sorrow, and to exhilarate the mind, ever hereafter let's drink and be merry.

4312Prome reconditum, Lyde strenua, caecubum,

Capaciores puer huc affer Scyphos,

Et Chia vina aut Lesbia.

Come, lusty Lyda, fill's a cup of sack,

And, sirrah drawer, bigger pots we lack,

And Scio wines that have so good a smack.

I say with him in 4313A. Gellius, “let us maintain the vigour of our souls with a moderate cup of wine,” 4314Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis, “and drink to refresh our mind; if there be any cold sorrow in it, or torpid bashfulness, let's wash it all away.” — Nunc vino pellite curas; so saith 4315Horace, so saith Anacreon,

Μεθύοντα γαρ με κεῖσθαι
Πολὺ κρεισσον ἤ θανόντα.

Let's drive down care with a cup of wine: and so say I too, (though I drink none myself) for all this may be done, so that it be modestly, soberly, opportunely used: so that “they be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess,” which our 4316Apostle forewarns; for as Chrysostom well comments on that place, ad laetitiam datum est vinum, non ad ebrietatem, 'tis for mirth wine, but not for madness: and will you know where, when, and how that is to be understood? Vis discere ubi bonum sit vinum? Audi quid dicat Scriptura, hear the Scriptures, “Give wine to them that are in sorrow,” or as Paul bid Timothy drink wine for his stomach's sake, for concoction, health, or some such honest occasion. Otherwise, as 4317 Pliny telleth us; if singular moderation be not had, 4318“nothing so pernicious, 'tis mere vinegar, blandus daemon, poison itself.” But hear a more fearful doom, Habac. ii. 15. and 16. “Woe be to him that makes his neighbour drunk, shameful spewing shall be upon his glory.” Let not good fellows triumph therefore (saith Matthiolus) that I have so much commended wine, if it be immoderately taken, “instead of making glad, it confounds both body and soul, it makes a giddy head, a sorrowful heart.” And 'twas well said of the poet of old, “Vine causeth mirth and grief,” 4319nothing so good for some, so bad for others, especially as 4320one observes, qui a causa calida male habent, that are hot or inflamed. And so of spices, they alone, as I have showed, cause head-melancholy themselves, they must not use wine as an 4321ordinary drink, or in their diet. But to determine with Laurentius, c. 8. de melan. wine is bad for madmen, and such as are troubled with heat in their inner parts or brains; but to melancholy, which is cold (as most is), wine, soberly used, may be very good.

I may say the same of the decoction of China roots, sassafras, sarsaparilla, guaiacum: China, saith Manardus, makes a good colour in the face, takes away melancholy, and all infirmities proceeding from cold, even so sarsaparilla provokes sweat mightily, guaiacum dries, Claudinus, consult. 89. & 46. Montanus, Capivaccius, consult. 188. Scoltzii, make frequent and good use of guaiacum and China, 4322“so that the liver be not incensed,” good for such as are cold, as most melancholy men are, but by no means to be mentioned in hot.

The Turks have a drink called coffee (for they use no wine), so named of a berry as black as soot, and as bitter, (like that black drink which was in use amongst the Lacedaemonians, and perhaps the same,) which they sip still of, and sup as warm as they can suffer; they spend much time in those coffeehouses, which are somewhat like our alehouses or taverns, and there they sit chatting and drinking to drive away the time, and to be merry together, because they find by experience that kind of drink, so used, helpeth digestion, and procureth alacrity. Some of them take opium to this purpose.

Borage, balm, saffron, gold, I have spoken of; Montaltus, c. 23. commends scorzonera roots condite. Garcius ab Horto, plant. hist. lib. 2. cap. 25. makes mention of an herb called datura, 4323“which, if it be eaten for twenty-four hours following, takes away all sense of grief, makes them incline to laughter and mirth:” and another called bauge, like in effect to opium, “which puts them for a time into a kind of ecstasy,” and makes them gently to laugh. One of the Roman emperors had a seed, which he did ordinarily eat to exhilarate himself. 4324Christophorus Ayrerus prefers bezoar stone, and the confection of alkermes, before other cordials, and amber in some cases. 4325“Alkermes comforts the inner parts;” and bezoar stone hath an especial virtue against all melancholy affections, 4326“it refresheth the heart, and corroborates the whole body.” 4327Amber provokes urine, helps the body, breaks wind, &c. After a purge, 3 or 4 grains of bezoar stone, and 3 grains of ambergris, drunk or taken in borage or bugloss water, in which gold hot hath been quenched, will do much good, and the purge shall diminish less (the heart so refreshed) of the strength and substance of the body.

℞. confect. Alkermes ℥ß lap. Bezor. ℈j. Succini albi subtiliss. pulverisat. ℈jj. cum Syrup, de cort. citri; fiat electuarium.

To bezoar stone most subscribe, Manardus, and 4328many others; “it takes away sadness, and makes him merry that useth it; I have seen some that have been much diseased with faintness, swooning, and melancholy, that taking the weight of three grains of this stone, in the water of oxtongue, have been cured.” Garcias ab Horto brags how many desperate cures he hath done upon melancholy men by this alone, when all physicians had forsaken them. But alkermes many except against; in some cases it may help, if it be good and of the best, such as that of Montpelier in France, which 4329Iodocus Sincerus, Itinerario Galliae, so much magnifies, and would have no traveller omit to see it made. But it is not so general a medicine as the other. Fernelius, consil. 49, suspects alkermes, by reason of its heat, 4330“nothing” (saith he) “sooner exasperates this disease, than the use of hot working meats and medicines, and would have them for that cause warily taken.” I conclude, therefore, of this and all other medicines, as Thucydides of the plague at Athens, no remedy could be prescribed for it, Nam quod uni profuit, hoc aliis erat exitio: there is no Catholic medicine to be had: that which helps one, is pernicious to another.

Diamargaritum frigidum, diambra, diaboraginatum, electuarium laetificans Galeni et Rhasis, de gemmis, dianthos, diamoscum dulce et amarum, electuarium conciliatoris, syrup. Cidoniorum de pomis, conserves of roses, violets, fumitory, enula campana, satyrion, lemons, orange-pills, condite, &c., have their good use.

4331℞. Diamoschi dulcis et amari ana ℨjj. Diabuglossati, Diaboraginati, sacchari violacei ana j. misce cum syrupo de pomis.

Every physician is full of such receipts: one only I will add for the rareness of it, which I find recorded by many learned authors, as an approved medicine against dotage, head-melancholy, and such diseases of the brain. Take a 4332ram's head that never meddled with an ewe, cut off at a blow, and the horns only take away, boil it well, skin and wool together; after it is well sod, take out the brains, and put these spices to it, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, mace, cloves, ana ℥ß, mingle the powder of these spices with it, and heat them in a platter upon a chafing-dish of coals together, stirring them well, that they do not burn; take heed it be not overmuch dried, or drier than a calf's brains ready to be eaten. Keep it so prepared, and for three days give it the patient fasting, so that he fast two hours after it. It may be eaten with bread in an egg or broth, or any way, so it be taken. For fourteen days let him use this diet, drink no wine, &c. Gesner, hist. animal. lib. 1. pag. 917. Caricterius, pract. 13. in Nich. de metri. pag. 129. Iatro: Wittenberg. edit. Tubing. pag. 62, mention this medicine, though with some variation; he that list may try it, 4333and many such.

Odoraments to smell to, of rosewater, violet flowers, balm, rose-cakes, vinegar, &c., do much recreate the brains and spirits, according to Solomon. Prov. xxvii. 9. “They rejoice the heart,” and as some say, nourish; 'tis a question commonly controverted in our schools, an odores nutriant; let Ficinus, lib. 2. cap. 18. decide it; 4334many arguments he brings to prove it; as of Democritus, that lived by the smell of bread alone, applied to his nostrils, for some few days, when for old age he could eat no meat. Ferrerius, lib. 2. meth. speaks of an excellent confection of his making, of wine, saffron, &c., which he prescribed to dull, weak, feeble, and dying men to smell to, and by it to have done very much good, aeque fere profuisse olfactu, et potu, as if he had given them drink. Our noble and learned Lord 4335Verulam, in his book de vita et morte, commends, therefore, all such cold smells as any way serve to refrigerate the spirits. Montanus, consil. 31, prescribes a form which he would have his melancholy patient never to have out of his hands. If you will have them spagirically prepared, look in Oswaldus Crollius, basil. Chymica.

Irrigations of the head shaven, 4336“of the flowers of water lilies, lettuce, violets, camomile, wild mallows, wether's-head, &c.,” must be used many mornings together. Montan. consil. 31, would have the head so washed once a week. Laelius a Fonte Eugubinus consult. 44, for an Italian count, troubled with head-melancholy, repeats many medicines which he tried, 4337“but two alone which did the cure; use of whey made of goat's milk, with the extract of hellebore, and irrigations of the head with water lilies, lettuce, violets, camomile, &c., upon the suture of the crown.” Piso commends a ram's lungs applied hot to the fore part of the head, 4338or a young lamb divided in the back, exenterated, &c.; all acknowledge the chief cure in moistening throughout. Some, saith Laurentius, use powders and caps to the brain; but forasmuch as such aromatical things are hot and dry, they must be sparingly administered.

Unto the heart we may do well to apply bags, epithems, ointments, of which Laurentius, c. 9. de melan. gives examples. Bruel prescribes an epithem for the heart, of bugloss, borage, water-lily, violet waters, sweet-wine, balm leaves, nutmegs, cloves, &c.

For the belly, make a fomentation of oil, 4339in which the seeds of cumin, rue, carrots, dill, have been boiled.

Baths are of wonderful great force in this malady, much admired by 4340 Galen, 4341Aetius, Rhasis, &c., of sweet water, in which is boiled the leaves of mallows, roses, violets, water-lilies, wether's-head, flowers of bugloss, camomile, melilot, &c. Guianer, cap. 8. tract. 15, would have them used twice a day, and when they came forth of the baths, their back bones to be anointed with oil of almonds, violets, nymphea, fresh capon grease, &c.

Amulets and things to be borne about, I find prescribed, taxed by some, approved by Renodeus, Platerus, (amuleta inquit non negligenda) and others; look for them in Mizaldus, Porta, Albertus, &c. Bassardus Viscontinus, ant. philos. commends hypericon, or St. John's wort gathered on a 4342Friday in the hour of “Jupiter, when it comes to his effectual operation (that is about the full moon in July); so gathered and borne, or hung about the neck, it mightily helps this affection, and drives away all fantastical spirits.” 4343Philes, a Greek author that flourished in the time of Michael Paleologus, writes that a sheep or kid's skin, whom a wolf worried, 4344Haedus inhumani raptus ab ore lupi, ought not at all to be worn about a man, “because it causeth palpitation of the heart,” not for any fear, but a secret virtue which amulets have. A ring made of the hoof of an ass's right fore foot carried about, &c. I say with 4345Renodeus, they are not altogether to be rejected. Paeony doth cure epilepsy; precious stones most diseases; 4346a wolf's dung borne with one helps the colic, 4347a spider an ague, &c. Being in the country in the vacation time not many years since, at Lindley in Leicestershire, my father's house, I first observed this amulet of a spider in a nut-shell lapped in silk, &c., so applied for an ague by 4348my mother; whom, although I knew to have excellent skill in chirurgery, sore eyes, aches, &c., and such experimental medicines, as all the country where she dwelt can witness, to have done many famous and good cures upon diverse poor folks, that were otherwise destitute of help: yet among all other experiments, this methought was most absurd and ridiculous, I could see no warrant for it. Quid aranea cum febre? For what antipathy? till at length rambling amongst authors (as often I do) I found this very medicine in Dioscorides, approved by Matthiolus, repeated by Alderovandus, cap. de Aranea, lib. de insectis, I began to have a better opinion of it, and to give more credit to amulets, when I saw it in some parties answer to experience. Some medicines are to be exploded, that consist of words, characters, spells, and charms, which can do no good at all, but out of a strong conceit, as Pomponatius proves; or the devil's policy, who is the first founder and teacher of them.

4295. Cordis ratio semper habenda quod cerebro compatitur, et sese invicem officiunt.

4296. Aphor. 38. Medicina Theriacalis praecaeteris eligenda.

4297. Galen, de temp. lib. 3. c. 3. moderate vinum sumptum, acuit ingenium.

4298. Tardos aliter et tristes thuris in modum exhalare facit.

4299. Hilaritatem ut oleum flammam excitat.

4300. Viribus retinendis cardiacum eximium, nutriendo corpori ailimentum optimum, aetatem floridam facit, calorem innatum fovet, concoctionem juvat, stomachum roborat, excrementis viam parat, urinam movet, somnum conciliat, venena frigidos flatus dissipat, crassos humores attenuat, co quit, discutit, &c.

4301. Hor. lib. 2. od. 11. “Bacchus dissipates corroding cares.”

4302. Odyss. A.

4303. Pausanias.

4304. Siracides, 31. 28.

4305. Legitur et prisci Catonis. Saepe mero caluisse virtus.

4306. In pocula et aleam se praecipitavit, et iis fere tempus traduxit, ut aegram crapula mentem levaret, et conditionis praesentis cogitationes quibus agitabatur sobrius vitaret.

4307. So did the Athenians of old, as Suidas relates, and so do the Germans at this day.

4308. Lib. 6. cap. 23. et 24. de rerum proprietat.

4309. Esther, i. 8.

4310. Tract. 1. cont. l. 1. Non est res laudabilior eo, vel cura melior; qui melancholicus, utatur societate hominum et biberia; et qui potest sustinere usum vini, non indiget alia medicina, quod eo sunt omnia ad usum necessaria hujus passionis.

4311. Tum quod sequatur inde sudor, vomitio, urina, a quibus superfluitates a corpore removentur et remanet corpus mundum.

4312. Hor.

4313. Lib. 15. 2. noct. Alt. Vigorem animi moderate vini usu tueamur, et calefacto simul, refotoque animo si quid in eo vel frigidae tristitiae, vel torpentis verecundiae fuerit, diluamus.

4314. Hor. l. 1. od. 27.

4315. Od. 7. lib. 1. 26. Nam praestat ebrium me quam mortuum jacere.

4316. Ephes. v. 18. ser. 19. in cap. 5.

4317. Lib. 14. 5. Nihil perniciosus viribus si modus absit, venenum.

4318. Theocritus idyl. 13. vino dari laetitiam et dolorem.

4319. Renodeus.

4320. Mercurialis consil. 25. Vinum frigidis optimum, et pessimum ferina melancholia.

4321. Fernelius consil. 44 et 45, vinum prohibet assiduum, et aromata.

4322. Modo jecur non incendatur.

4323. Per 24 horas sensum doloris omnem tollit, et ridere facit.

4324. Hildesheim, spicel. 2.

4325. Alkermes, omnia vitalia viscera mire confortat.

4326. Contra omnes melancholicos affectus confert, ac certum est ipsius usu omnes cordis et corporis vires mirum in modum refici.

4327. Succinum vero albissimum confortat ventriculum, statum discutit, urinam movet, &c.

4328. Gartias ab Horto aromatum lib. 1. cap. 15. adversus omnes morbos melancholicos conducit, et venenum. Ego (inquit) utor in morbis melancholicis, &c. et deploratos hujus usu ad pristinam sanitatem restitui. See more in Bauhinas' book de lap. Bezoar c. 45.

4329. Edit. 1617. Monspelii electuarium fit preciocissimum Alcherm. &c.

4330. Nihil morbum hunc aeque exasperat, ac alimentorum vel calidiorum usus. Alchermes ideo suspectus, et quod semel moneam, caute adhibenda calida medicamenta.

4331. Sckenkius I. I. Observat. de Mania, ad mentis alienationem, et desipientiam vitio cerebri obortam, in manuscripto codice Germanico, tale medicamentum reperi.

4332. Caput arietis nondum experti venerem, uno ictu amputatum, cornibus tantum demotis, integrum cum lana et pelle bene elixabis, tum aperto cerebrum eximes, et addens aromata, &c.

4333. Cinis testudinis ustus, et vino potus melancholiam curat, et rasura cornu Rhinocerotis, &c. Sckenkius.

4334. Instat in matrice, quod sursum et deorsum ad odoris sensum praecipitatur.

4335. Viscount St. Alban's.

4336. Ex decocto florum nympheae, lactuae, violarum, chamomilae, alibeae, capitis vervecum, &c.

4337. Inter auxilia multa adhibita, duo visa sunt remedium adferre, usus seri caprini cum extracto Hellebori, et irrigatio ex lacte Nympheae, violarum, &c. suturae coronali adhibita; his remediis sanitate pristinam adeptus est.

4338. Confert et pulmo arietis, calidus agnus per dorsum divisus, exenteratus, admotus sincipiti.

4339. Semina cumini, rutae, dauci anethi cocta.

4340. Lib. 3. de locis affect.

4341. Tetrab. 2. ser. 1. cap. 10.

4342. Cap. de mel. collectum die vener. hora Jovis cum ad Energiam venit c. 1. ad plenilunium Julii, inde gesta et collo appensa hunc affectum apprime juvat et fanaticos spiritus expellit.

4343. L. de proprietat. animal. ovis a lupo correptae pellem non esse pro indumenta corporis usurpandam, cordis enim palpitationem excitat, &c.

4344. Mart.

4345. Phar. lib. 1. cap. 12.

4346. Aetius cap. 31. Tet. 3. ser. 4.

4347. Dioscorides, Ulysses Alderovandus de aranea.

4348. Mistress Dorothy Burton, she died, 1629.

Subsect. vi.

Correctors of Accidents to procure Sleep. Against fearful Dreams, Redness, &c.

When you have used all good means and helps of alteratives, averters, diminutives, yet there will be still certain accidents to be corrected and amended, as waking, fearful dreams, flushing in the face to some ruddiness, &c.

Waking, by reason of their continual cares, fears, sorrows, dry brains, is a symptom that much crucifies melancholy men, and must therefore be speedily helped, and sleep by all means procured, which sometimes is a sufficient 4349remedy of itself without any other physic. Sckenkius, in his observations, hath an example of a woman that was so cured. The means to procure it, are inward or outward. Inwardly taken, are simples, or compounds; simples, as poppy, nymphea, violets, roses, lettuce, mandrake, henbane, nightshade or solanum, saffron, hemp-seed, nutmegs, willows, with their seeds, juice, decoctions, distilled waters, &c. Compounds are syrups, or opiates, syrup of poppy, violets, verbasco, which are commonly taken with distilled waters.

℞ diacodii ℥j. diascordii ℨß aquae lactucae ℥iijß mista fiat potio ad horam somni sumenda.

Requies Nicholai, Philonium Romanum, Triphera magna, pilulae, de Cynoglossa, Dioscordium, Laudanum Paracelsi, Opium, are in use, &c. Country folks commonly make a posset of hemp-seed, which Fuchsius in his herbal so much discommends; yet I have seen the good effect, and it may be used where better medicines are not to be had.

Laudanum Paracelsi is prescribed in two or three grains, with a dram of Diascordium, which Oswald. Crollius commends. Opium itself is most part used outwardly, to smell to in a ball, though commonly so taken by the Turks to the same quantity 4350for a cordial, and at Goa in, the Indies; the dose 40 or 50 grains.

Rulandus calls Requiem Nicholai ultimum refugium, the last refuge; but of this and the rest look for peculiar receipts in Victorius Faventinus, cap. de phrensi. Heurnius cap. de mania. Hildesheim spicel. 4. de somno et vigil. &c. Outwardly used, as oil of nutmegs by extraction, or expression with rosewater to anoint the temples, oils of poppy, nenuphar, mandrake, purslan, violets, all to the same purpose.

Montan. consil. 24 & 25. much commends odoraments of opium, vinegar, and rosewater. Laurentius cap. 9. prescribes pomanders and nodules; see the receipts in him; Codronchus 4351wormwood to smell to.

Unguentum Alabastritum, populeum are used to anoint the temples, nostrils, or if they be too weak, they mix saffron and opium. Take a grain or two of opium, and dissolve it with three or four drops of rosewater in a spoon, and after mingle with it as much Unguentum populeum as a nut, use it as before: or else take half a dram of opium, Unguentum populeum, oil of nenuphar, rosewater, rose-vinegar, of each half an ounce, with as much virgin wax as a nut, anoint your temples with some of it, ad horam somni.

Sacks of wormwood, 4352mandrake, 4353henbane, roses made like pillows and laid under the patient's head, are mentioned by 4354Cardan and Mizaldus, “to anoint the soles of the feet with the fat of a dormouse, the teeth with ear wax of a dog, swine's gall, hare's ears:” charms, &c.

Frontlets are well known to every good wife, rosewater and vinegar, with a little woman's milk, and nutmegs grated upon a rose-cake applied to both temples.

For an emplaster, take of castorium a dram and a half, of opium half a scruple, mixed both together with a little water of life, make two small plasters thereof, and apply them to the temples.

Rulandus cent. 1. cur. 17. cent. 3. cur. 94. prescribes epithems and lotions of the head, with the decoction of flowers of nymphea, violet-leaves, mandrake roots, henbane, white poppy. Herc. de Saxonia, stillicidia, or droppings, &c. Lotions of the feet do much avail of the said herbs: by these means, saith Laurentius, I think you may procure sleep to the most melancholy man in the world. Some use horseleeches behind the ears, and apply opium to the place.

4355Bayerus lib. 2. c. 13. sets down some remedies against fearful dreams, and such as walk and talk in their sleep. Baptista Porta Mag. nat. l. 2. c. 6. to procure pleasant dreams and quiet rest, would have you take hippoglossa, or the herb horsetongue, balm, to use them or their distilled waters after supper, &c. Such men must not eat beans, peas, garlic, onions, cabbage, venison, hare, use black wines, or any meat hard of digestion at supper, or lie on their backs, &c.

Rusticus pudor, bashfulness, flushing in the face, high colour, ruddiness, are common grievances, which much torture many melancholy men, when they meet a man, or come in 4356company of their betters, strangers, after a meal, or if they drink a cup of wine or strong drink, they are as red and fleet, and sweat as if they had been at a mayor's feast, praesertim si metus accesserit, it exceeds, 4357they think every man observes, takes notice of it: and fear alone will effect it, suspicion without any other cause. Sckenkius observ. med. lib. 1. speaks of a waiting gentlewoman in the Duke of Savoy's court, that was so much offended with it, that she kneeled down to him, and offered Biarus, a physician, all that she had to be cured of it. And 'tis most true, that 4358Antony Ludovicus saith in his book de Pudore, “bashfulness either hurts or helps,” such men I am sure it hurts. If it proceed from suspicion or fear, 4359Felix Plater prescribes no other remedy but to reject and contemn it: Id populus curat scilicet, as a 4360worthy physician in our town said to a friend of mine in like case, complaining without a cause, suppose one look red, what matter is it, make light of it, who observes it?

If it trouble at or after meals, (as 4361Jobertus observes med. pract. l. 1. c. 7.) after a little exercise or stirring, for many are then hot and red in the face, or if they do nothing at all, especially women; he would have them let blood in both arms, first one, then another, two or three days between, if blood abound; to use frictions of the other parts, feet especially, and washing of them, because of that consent which is between the head and the feet.4362And withal to refrigerate the face, by washing it often with rose, violet, nenuphar, lettuce, lovage waters, and the like: but the best of all is that lac virginale, or strained liquor of litargy: it is diversely prepared; by Jobertus thus; ℞ lithar. argent. unc. j cerussae candidissimae, ℨjjj. caphurae, ℈jj. dissolvantur aquarum solani, lactucae, et nenupharis ana unc. jjj. aceti vini albi. unc. jj. aliquot horas resideat, deinde transmittatur per philt. aqua servetur in vase vitreo, ac ea bis terve facies quotidie irroretur. 4363Quercetan spagir. phar. cap. 6. commends the water of frog's spawn for ruddiness in the face. 4364Crato consil. 283. Scoltzii would fain have them use all summer the condite flowers of succory, strawberry water, roses (cupping-glasses are good for the time), consil. 285. et 286. and to defecate impure blood with the infusion of senna, savory, balm water. 4365Hollerius knew one cured alone with the use of succory boiled, and drunk for five months, every morning in the summer. 4366It is good overnight to anoint the face with hare's blood, and in the morning to wash it with strawberry and cowslip water, the juice of distilled lemons, juice of cucumbers, or to use the seeds of melons, or kernels of peaches beaten small, or the roots of Aron, and mixed with wheat bran to bake it in an oven, and to crumble it in strawberry water, 4367 or to put fresh cheese curds to a red face.

If it trouble them at meal times that flushing, as oft it doth, with sweating or the like, they must avoid all violent passions and actions, as laughing, &c., strong drink, and drink very little, 4368one draught, saith Crato, and that about the midst of their meal; avoid at all times indurate salt, and especially spice and windy meat.

4369Crato prescribes the condite fruit of wild rose, to a nobleman his patient, to be taken before dinner or supper, to the quantity of a chestnut. It is made of sugar, as that of quinces. The decoction of the roots of sowthistle before meat, by the same author is much approved. To eat of a baked apple some advice, or of a preserved quince, cuminseed prepared with meat instead of salt, to keep down fumes: not to study or to be intentive after meals.

℞. Nucleorum persic. seminis melonum ana unc. ℈ß aquae fragrorum l. ij. misce, utatur mane.

4370To apply cupping glasses to the shoulders is very good. For the other kind of ruddiness which is settled in the face with pimples, &c., because it pertains not to my subject, I will not meddle with it. I refer you to Crato's counsels, Arnoldus lib. 1. breviar. cap. 39. 1. Rulande, Peter Forestus de Fuco, lib. 31. obser. 2. To Platerus, Mercurialis, Ulmus, Rondoletius, Heurnius, Menadous, and others that have written largely of it.

Those other grievances and symptoms of headache, palpitation of heart, Vertigo deliquium, &c., which trouble many melancholy men, because they are copiously handled apart in every physician, I do voluntarily omit.

4349. Solo somno curata est citra medici auxilium, fol. 154.

4350. Bellonius observat. l. 3. c. 15. lassitudinem et labores animi tollunt; inde Garcias ab Horto, lib. 1. cap. 4. simp. med.

4351. Absynthium somnos allicit olfactu.

4352. Read Lemnius lib. her. bib. cap. 2. of Mandrake.

4353. Hyoscyamus sub cervicali viridis.

4354. Plantum pedis inungere pinguedine gliris dicunt efficacissimum, et quod vix credi potest, dentes inunctos ex sorditie aurium canis somnum profundum conciliare, &c. Cardan de rerum varietat.

4355. Veni mecum lib.

4356. Aut si quid incautius exciderit aut, &c.

4357. Nam qua parte pavor simul est pudor additus illi. Statius.

4358. Olysipponensis medicus; pudor aut juvat aut laedit.

4359. De mentis alienat.

4360. M. Doctor Ashworth.

4361. Facies nonnullis maxime calet rubetque si se paululum exercuerint; nonnullis quiescentibus idem accidit, faeminis praesertim; causa quicquid fervidum aut halituosum sanguinem facit.

4362. Interim faciei prospiciendum ut ipsa refrigeretur; utrumque praestabit frequens potio ex aqua rosarum, violarum, nenupharis, &c.

4363. Ad faciei ruborem aqua spermatis ranarum.

4364. Recta utantur in aestate floribus Cichorii sacchoro conditis vel saccharo rosaceo, &c.

4365. Solo usu decocti Cichorii.

4366. Utile imprimis noctu faciem illinire sanguine leporino, et mane aqua fragrorum vel aqua floribus verbasci cum succo limonum distillato abluere.

4367. Utile rubenti faciei caseum recentem imponere.

4368. Consil. 22 lib. unico vini haustu sit contentus.

4369. Idem consil. 283. Scoltzii laudatur conditus rosae caninae fructus ante prandium et caenem ad magnitudinem castaneae. Decoctum radium Sonchi, si ante cibum sumatur, valet plurimum.

4370. Cucurbit, ad scapulas apposite.

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