Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton

Memb. iii.

Against Poverty and Want, with such other Adversities.

One of the greatest miseries that can befall a man, in the world's esteem, is poverty or want, which makes men steal, bear false witness, swear, forswear, contend, murder and rebel, which breaketh sleep, and causeth death itself. οὐδὲν πενίας βαρύτερον ἐστὶ φορτίον, no burden (saith 3677Menander) so intolerable as poverty: it makes men desperate, it erects and dejects, census honores, census amicitias; money makes, but poverty mars, &c. and all this in the world's esteem: yet if considered aright, it is a great blessing in itself, a happy estate, and yields no cause of discontent, or that men should therefore account themselves vile, hated of God, forsaken, miserable, unfortunate. Christ himself was poor, born in a manger, and had not a house to hide his head in all his life, 3678“lest any man should make poverty a judgment of God, or an odious estate.” And as he was himself, so he informed his Apostles and Disciples, they were all poor, Prophets poor, Apostles poor, (Act. iii. “Silver and gold have I none.”) “As sorrowing” (saith Paul) “and yet always rejoicing; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things,” 1 Cor. vi. 10. Your great Philosophers have been voluntarily poor, not only Christians, but many others. Crates Thebanus was adored for a God in Athens, 3679“a nobleman by birth, many servants he had, an honourable attendance, much wealth, many manors, fine apparel; but when he saw this, that all the wealth of the world was but brittle, uncertain and no whit availing to live well, he flung his burden into the sea, and renounced his estate.” Those Curii and Fabricii will be ever renowned for contempt of these fopperies, wherewith the world is so much affected. Amongst Christians I could reckon up many kings and queens, that have forsaken their crowns and fortunes, and wilfully abdicated themselves from these so much esteemed toys; 3680many that have refused honours, titles, and all this vain pomp and happiness, which others so ambitiously seek, and carefully study to compass and attain. Riches I deny not are God's good gifts, and blessings; and honor est in honorante, honours are from God; both rewards of virtue, and fit to be sought after, sued for, and may well be possessed: yet no such great happiness in having, or misery in wanting of them. Dantur quidem bonis, saith Austin, ne quis mala aestimet: mails autem ne quis nimis bona, good men have wealth that we should not think, it evil; and bad men that they should not rely on or hold it so good; as the rain falls on both sorts, so are riches given to good and bad, sed bonis in bonum, but they are good only to the godly. But 3681compare both estates, for natural parts they are not unlike; and a beggar's child, as 3682Cardan well observes, “is no whit inferior to a prince's, most part better;” and for those accidents of fortune, it will easily appear there is no such odds, no such extraordinary happiness in the one, or misery in the other. He is rich, wealthy, fat; what gets he by it? pride, insolency, lust, ambition, cares, fears, suspicion, trouble, anger, emulation, and many filthy diseases of body and mind. He hath indeed variety of dishes, better fare, sweet wine, pleasant sauce, dainty music, gay clothes, lords it bravely out, &c., and all that which Misillus admired in 3683Lucian; but with them he hath the gout, dropsies, apoplexies, palsies, stone, pox, rheums, catarrhs, crudities, oppilations, 3684melancholy, &c., lust enters in, anger, ambition, according to 3685Chrysostom, “the sequel of riches is pride, riot, intemperance, arrogancy, fury, and all irrational courses.”

3686 ——— turpi fregerunt saecula luxu

Divitiae molles ———

with their variety of dishes, many such maladies of body and mind get in, which the poor man knows not of. As Saturn in 3687Lucian answered the discontented commonalty, (which because of their neglected Saturnal feasts in Rome, made a grievous complaint and exclamation against rich men) that they were much mistaken in supposing such happiness in riches; 3688“you see the best” (said he) “but you know not their several gripings and discontents:” they are like painted walls, fair without, rotten within: diseased, filthy, crazy, full of intemperance's effects; 3689“and who can reckon half? if you but knew their fears, cares, anguish of mind and vexation, to which they are subject, you would hereafter renounce all riches.”

3690O si pateant pectora divitum,

Quantos intus sublimis agit

Fortuna metus? Brutia Coro

Pulsante fretum mitior unda est.

O that their breasts were but conspicuous,

How full of fear within, how furious?

The narrow seas are not so boisterous.

Yea, but he hath the world at will that is rich, the good things of the earth: suave est de magno tollere acervo, (it is sweet to draw from a great heap) he is a happy man, 3691adored like a god, a prince, every man seeks to him, applauds, honours, admires him. He hath honours indeed, abundance of all things; but (as I said) withal 3692“pride, lust, anger, faction, emulation, fears, cares, suspicion enter with his wealth;” for his intemperance he hath aches, crudities, gouts, and as fruits of his idleness, and fullness, lust, surfeiting and drunkenness, all manner of diseases: pecuniis augetur improbitas, the wealthier, the more dishonest. 3693“He is exposed to hatred, envy, peril and treason, fear of death, degradation,” &c. 'tis lubrica statio et proxima praecipitio, and the higher he climbs, the greater is his fall.

3694 ——— celsae graviore casu

Decidunt turres, feriuntque summos

Fulgura montes, the lightning commonly sets on fire the highest towers; 3695in the more eminent place he is, the more subject to fall.

Rumpitur innumeris arbos uberrima pomis,

Et subito nimiae praecipitantur opes.

As a tree that is heavy laden with fruit breaks her own boughs, with their own greatness they ruin themselves: which Joachimus Camerarius hath elegantly expressed in his 13 Emblem cent. 1. Inopem se copia fecit. Their means is their misery, though they do apply themselves to the times, to lie, dissemble, collogue and flatter their lieges, obey, second his will and commands as much as may be, yet too frequently they miscarry, they fat themselves like so many hogs, as 3696Aeneas Sylvius observes, that when they are full fed, they may be devoured by their princes, as Seneca by Nero was served, Sejanus by Tiberius, and Haman by Ahasuerus: I resolve with Gregory, potestas culminis, est tempestas mentis; et quo dignitas altior, casus gravior, honour is a tempest, the higher they are elevated, the more grievously depressed. For the rest of his prerogatives which wealth affords, as he hath more his expenses are the greater. “When goods increase, they are increased that eat them; and what good cometh to the owners, but the beholding thereof with the eyes?” Eccles. iv. 10.

3697Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum,

Non tuus hinc capiet venter plus quam meus ———

“an evil sickness,” Solomon calls it, “and reserved to them for an evil,” 12 verse. “They that will be rich fall into many fears and temptations, into many foolish and noisome lusts, which drown men in perdition.” 1 Tim. vi. 9. “Gold and silver hath destroyed many,” Ecclus. viii. 2. divitia saeculi sunt laquei diaboli: so writes Bernard; worldly wealth is the devil's bait: and as the Moon when she is fuller of light is still farthest from the Sun, the more wealth they have, the farther they are commonly from God. (If I had said this of myself, rich men would have pulled me to pieces; but hear who saith, and who seconds it, an Apostle) therefore St. James bids them “weep and howl for the miseries that shall come upon them; their gold shall rust and canker, and eat their flesh as fire,” James v. 1, 2, 3. I may then boldly conclude with 3698Theodoret, quotiescunque divitiis affluentem, &c. “As often as you shall see a man abounding in wealth,” qui gemmis bibit et Serrano dormit in ostro, “and naught withal, I beseech you call him not happy, but esteem him unfortunate, because he hath many occasions offered to live unjustly; on the other side, a poor man is not miserable, if he be good, but therefore happy, that those evil occasions are taken from him.”

3699Non possidentem multa vocaveris

Recte beatum; rectius occupat

Nomen beati, qui deorum

Muneribus sapienter uti,

Duramque callet pauperiem pati,

Pejusque laetho flagitium timet.

He is not happy that is rich,

And hath the world at will,

But he that wisely can God's gifts

Possess and use them still:

That suffers and with patience

Abides hard poverty,

And chooseth rather for to die;

Than do such villainy.

Wherein now consists his happiness? what privileges hath he more than other men? or rather what miseries, what cares and discontents hath he not more than other men?

3700Non enim gazae, neque consularis

Summovet lictor miseros tumultus

Mentis, et curas laqueata circum

Tecta volantes.

3677. Nullum paupertate gravius onus.

3678. Ne quis irae divinae judicium putaret, aut paupertas exosa foret. Gault. in cap. 2. ver. 18. Lucae.

3679. Inter proceres Thebanos numeratus, lectum habuit genus, frequens famulitium, domus amplas, &c. Apuleius Florid. l. 4.

3680. P. Blesensis ep. 72. et 232. oblatos respui honores ex onere metiens; motus arabitiosos rogatus non ivi, &c.

3681. Sudat pauper foras in opere, dives in cogitatione; hic os aperit oscitatione, ille ructatione; gravius ille fastidio, quam hic inedia cruciatur. Ber. ser.

3682. In Hysperchen. Natura aequa est, puerosque videmus mendicorum nulla ex parte regum filiis dissimiles, plerumque saniores.

3683. Gallo Tom. 2.

3684. Et e contubernio foedi atque olidi ventris mors tandem educit. Seneca ep. 103.

3685. Divitiarum sequela, luxus, intemperies, arroganta, superbia, furor injustus, omnisque irrationibilis motus.

3686. Juven. Sat. 6. “Effeminate riches have destroyed the age by the introduction of shameful luxury.”

3687. Saturn. Epist.

3688. Vos quidem divites putatis felices, sed nescitis eorum miserias.

3689. Et quota pars haec eorum quae istos discruciant? si nossetis metus et curas, quibus obnoxii sunt, plane fugiendas vobis divitias existimaretis.

3690. Seneca in Herc. Oeteo.

3691. Et diis similes stulta cogitatio facit.

3692. Flamma simul libidinis ingreditur; ira, furor et superbia, divitiarum sequela. Chrys.

3693. Omnium oculis, odio, insidiis expositus, semper solicitus, fortunae ludibrium.

3694. Hor. 2. 1. od. 10.

3695. Quid me felicem toties jactastis amici? Qui cecidit, stabili non fuit ille loco. Boeth.

3696. Ut postquam impinguati fuerint, devorentur.

3697. Hor. “Although a hundred thousand bushels of wheat may have been threshed in your granaries, your stomach will not contain more than mine.”

3698. Cap. 6. de curat. graec. affect. rap. de providentia; quotiescunque divitiis affluentem hominem videmus, cumque pessimum, ne quaeso hunc beatissimum putemus, sed infelicem, censeamus, &c.

3699. Hor. l. 2. Od. 9.

3700. Hor. lib. 2.

Nor treasures, nor majors officers remove

The miserable tumults of the mind:

Or cares that lie about, or fly above

Their high-roofed houses, with huge beams combin'd.

'Tis not his wealth can vindicate him, let him have Job's inventory, sint Craesi et Crassi licet, non hos Pactolus aureas undas agens, eripiat unquum e miseriis, Croesus or rich Crassus cannot now command health, or get himself a stomach. 3701“His worship,” as Apuleius describes him, “in all his plenty and great provision, is forbidden to eat, or else hath no appetite,” (sick in bed, can take no rest, sore grieved with some chronic disease, contracted with full diet and ease, or troubled in mind) “when as, in the meantime, all his household are merry, and the poorest servant that he keeps doth continually feast.” 'Tis Bracteata felicitas, as 3702 Seneca terms it, tinfoiled happiness, infelix felicitas, an unhappy kind of happiness, if it be happiness at all. His gold, guard, clattering of harness, and fortifications against outward enemies, cannot free him from inward fears and cares.

Reveraque metus hominum, curaeque sequaces

Nec metuunt fremitus armorum, aut ferrea tela,

Audacterque inter reges, regumque potentes

Versantur, neque fulgorem reverentur ab auro.

Indeed men still attending fears and cares

Nor armours clashing, nor fierce weapons fears:

With kings converse they boldly, and kings peers,

Fearing no flashing that from gold appears.

Look how many servants he hath, and so many enemies he suspects; for liberty he entertains ambition; his pleasures are no pleasures; and that which is worst, he cannot be private or enjoy himself as other men do, his state is a servitude. 3703A countryman may travel from kingdom to kingdom, province to province, city to city, and glut his eyes with delightful objects, hawk, hunt, and use those ordinary disports, without any notice taken, all which a prince or a great man cannot do. He keeps in for state, ne majestatis dignitas evilescat, as our China kings, of Borneo, and Tartarian Chams, those aurea mancipia, are said to do, seldom or never seen abroad, ut major sit hominum erga se observantia, which the 3704Persian kings so precisely observed of old. A poor man takes more delight in an ordinary meal's meat, which he hath but seldom, than they do with all their exotic dainties and continual viands; Quippe voluptatem commendat rarior usus, 'tis the rarity and necessity that makes a thing acceptable and pleasant. Darius, put to flight by Alexander, drank puddle water to quench his thirst, and it was pleasanter, he swore, than any wine or mead. All excess, as3705Epictetus argues, will cause a dislike; sweet will be sour, which made that temperate Epicurus sometimes voluntarily fast. But they being always accustomed to the same3706dishes, (which are nastily dressed by slovenly cooks, that after their obscenities never wash their bawdy hands) be they fish, flesh, compounded, made dishes, or whatsoever else, are therefore cloyed; nectar's self grows loathsome to them, they are weary of all their fine palaces, they are to them but as so many prisons. A poor man drinks in a wooden dish, and eats his meat in wooden spoons, wooden platters, earthen vessels, and such homely stuff: the other in gold, silver, and precious stones; but with what success? in auro bibitur venenum, fear of poison in the one, security in the other. A poor man is able to write, to speak his mind, to do his own business himself; locuples mittit parasitum, saith 3707Philostratus, a rich man employs a parasite, and as the major of a city, speaks by the town clerk, or by Mr. Recorder, when he cannot express himself. 3708Nonius the senator hath a purple coat as stiff with jewels as his mind is full of vices; rings on his fingers worth 20,000 sesterces, and as3709Perox the Persian king, an union in his ear worth one hundred pounds weight of gold:3710Cleopatra hath whole boars and sheep served up to her table at once, drinks jewels dissolved, 40,000 sesterces in value; but to what end?

3711Num tibi cum fauces urit sitis, aurea quaeris

Pocula? ———

Doth a man that is adry desire to drink in gold? Doth not a cloth suit become him as well, and keep him as warm, as all their silks, satins, damasks, taffeties and tissues? Is not homespun cloth as great a preservative against cold, as a coat of Tartar lamb's-wool, died in grain, or a gown of giant's beards? Nero, saith3712Sueton., never put on one garment twice, and thou hast scarce one to put on? what's the difference? one's sick, the other sound: such is the whole tenor of their lives, and that which is the consummation and upshot of all, death itself makes the greatest difference. One like a hen feeds on the dunghill all his days, but is served up at last to his Lord's table; the other as a falcon is fed with partridge and pigeons, and carried on his master's fist, but when he dies is flung to the muck-hill, and there lies. The rich man lives like Dives jovially here on earth, temulentus divitiis, make the best of it; and “boasts himself in the multitude of his riches,” Psalm xlix. 6. 11. he thinks his house “called after his own name,” shall continue for ever; “but he perisheth like a beast,” verse 20. “his way utters his folly,” verse 13. male parta, male dilabuntur; “like sheep they lie in the grave,” verse 14. Puncto descendunt ad infernum, “they spend their days in wealth, and go suddenly down to hell,” Job xxi. 13. For all physicians and medicines enforcing nature, a swooning wife, families' complaints, friends' tears, dirges, masses, naenias, funerals, for all orations, counterfeit hired acclamations, eulogiums, epitaphs, hearses, heralds, black mourners, solemnities, obelisks, and Mausolean tombs, if he have them, at least,3713he, like a hog, goes to hell with a guilty conscience (propter hos dilatavit infernos os suum), and a poor man's curse; his memory stinks like the snuff of a candle when it is put out; scurrilous libels, and infamous obloquies accompany him. When as poor Lazarus is Dei sacrarium, the temple of God, lives and dies in true devotion, hath no more attendants, but his own innocency, the heaven a tomb, desires to be dissolved, buried in his mother's lap, and hath a company of3714Angels ready to convey his soul into Abraham's bosom, he leaves an everlasting and a sweet memory behind him. Crassus and Sylla are indeed still recorded, but not so much for their wealth as for their victories: Croesus for his end, Solomon for his wisdom. In a word,3715“to get wealth is a great trouble, anxiety to keep, grief to lose it.”

3716Quid dignum stolidis mentibus imprecer?

Opes, honores ambiant:

Et cum falsa gravi mole paraverint,

Tum vera cognoscant bona.

But consider all those other unknown, concealed happinesses, which a poor man hath (I call them unknown, because they be not acknowledged in the world's esteem, or so taken) O fortunatos nimium bona si sua norint: happy they are in the meantime if they would take notice of it, make use, or apply it to themselves. “A poor man wise is better than a foolish king,” Eccles. ii. 13. 3717“Poverty is the way to heaven,” 3718“the mistress of philosophy,” 3719“the mother of religion, virtue, sobriety, sister of innocency, and an upright mind.” How many such encomiums might I add out of the fathers, philosophers, orators? It troubles many that are poor, they account of it as a great plague, curse, a sign of God's hatred, ipsum scelus, damned villainy itself, a disgrace, shame and reproach; but to whom, or why? 3720“If fortune hath envied me wealth, thieves have robbed me, my father have not left me such revenues as others have,” that I am a younger brother, basely born — cui sine luce genus, surdumque parentum — nomen, of mean parentage, a dirt-dauber's son, am I therefore to be blamed? “an eagle, a bull, a lion is not rejected for his poverty, and why should a man?” 'Tis 3721fortunae telum, non culpae, fortune's fault, not mine. “Good Sir, I am a servant,” (to use 3722Seneca's words) “howsoever your poor friend; a servant, and yet your chamber-fellow, and if you consider better of it, your fellow-servant.” I am thy drudge in the world's eyes, yet in God's sight peradventure thy better, my soul is more precious, and I dearer unto him. Etiam servi diis curae sunt, as Evangelus at large proves in Macrobius, the meanest servant is most precious in his sight. Thou art an epicure, I am a good Christian; thou art many parasangs before me in means, favour, wealth, honour, Claudius's Narcissus, Nero's Massa, Domitian's Parthenius, a favourite, a golden slave; thou coverest thy floors with marble, thy roofs with gold, thy walls with statues, fine pictures, curious hangings, &c., what of all this? calcas opes, &c., what's all this to true happiness? I live and breathe under that glorious heaven, that august capitol of nature, enjoy the brightness of stars, that clear light of sun and moon, those infinite creatures, plants, birds, beasts, fishes, herbs, all that sea and land afford, far surpassing all that art and opulentia can give. I am free, and which 3723Seneca said of Rome, culmen liberos texit, sub marmore et auro postea servitus habitavit, thou hast Amaltheae cornu, plenty, pleasure, the world at will, I am despicable and poor; but a word overshot, a blow in choler, a game at tables, a loss at sea, a sudden fire, the prince's dislike, a little sickness, &c., may make us equal in an instant; howsoever take thy time, triumph and insult awhile, cinis aequat, as 3724Alphonsus said, death will equalise us all at last. I live sparingly, in the mean time, am clad homely, fare hardly; is this a reproach? am I the worse for it? am I contemptible for it? am I to be reprehended? A learned man in 3725 Nevisanus was taken down for sitting amongst gentlemen, but he replied, “my nobility is about the head, yours declines to the tail,” and they were silent. Let them mock, scoff and revile, 'tis not thy scorn, but his that made thee so; “he that mocketh the poor, reproacheth him that made him,” Prov. xi. 5. “and he that rejoiceth at affliction, shall not be unpunished.” For the rest, the poorer thou art, the happier thou art, ditior est, at non melior, saith 3726Epictetus, he is richer, not better than thou art, not so free from lust, envy, hatred, ambition.

Beatus ille qui procul negotiis

Paterna rura bobus exercet suis.

Happy he, in that he is 3727freed from the tumults of the world, he seeks no honours, gapes after no preferment, flatters not, envies not, temporiseth not, but lives privately, and well contented with his estate;

Nec spes corde avidas, nec curam pascit inanem

Securus quo fata cadant.

He is not troubled with state matters, whether kingdoms thrive better by succession or election; whether monarchies should be mixed, temperate, or absolute; the house of Ottomans and Austria is all one to him; he inquires not after colonies or new discoveries; whether Peter were at Rome, or Constantine's donation be of force; what comets or new stars signify, whether the earth stand or move, there be a new world in the moon, or infinite worlds, &c. He is not touched with fear of invasions, factions or emulations;

3728Felix ille animi, divisque simillimus ipsis,

Quem non mordaci resplendens gloria fuco

Solicitat, non fastosi mala gaudia luxus,

Sed tacitos sinit ire dies, et paupere cultu

3729 Exigit innocuae tranquilla silentia vitae.

A happy soul, and like to God himself,

Whom not vain glory macerates or strife.

Or wicked joys of that proud swelling pelf,

But leads a still, poor, and contented life.

A secure, quiet, blissful state he hath, if he could acknowledge it. But here is the misery, that he will not take notice of it; he repines at rich men's wealth, brave hangings, dainty fare, as 3730Simonides objected to Hieron, he hath all the pleasures of the world, 3731in lectis eburneis dormit, vinum phialis bibit, optimis unguentis delibuitur, “he knows not the affliction of Joseph, stretching himself on ivory beds, and singing to the sound of the viol.” And it troubles him that he hath not the like: there is a difference (he grumbles) between Laplolly and Pheasants, to tumble i' th' straw and lie in a down bed, betwixt wine and water, a cottage and a palace. “He hates nature” (as 3732Pliny characterised him) “that she hath made him lower than a god, and is angry with the gods that any man goes before him;” and although he hath received much, yet (as 3733Seneca follows it) “he thinks it an injury that he hath no more, and is so far from giving thanks for his tribuneship, that he complains he is not praetor, neither doth that please him, except he may be consul.” Why is he not a prince, why not a monarch, why not an emperor? Why should one man have so much more than his fellows, one have all, another nothing? Why should one man be a slave or drudge to another? One surfeit, another starve, one live at ease, another labour, without any hope of better fortune? Thus they grumble, mutter, and repine: not considering that inconstancy of human affairs, judicially conferring one condition with another, or well weighing their own present estate. What they are now, thou mayst shortly be; and what thou art they shall likely be. Expect a little, compare future and times past with the present, see the event, and comfort thyself with it. It is as well to be discerned in commonwealths, cities, families, as in private men's estates. Italy was once lord of the world, Rome the queen of cities, vaunted herself of two 3734myriads of inhabitants; now that all-commanding country is possessed by petty princes, 3735Rome a small village in respect. Greece of old the seat of civility, mother of sciences and humanity; now forlorn, the nurse of barbarism, a den of thieves. Germany then, saith Tacitus, was incult and horrid, now full of magnificent cities: Athens, Corinth, Carthage, how flourishing cities, now buried in their own ruins! Corvorum, ferarum, aprorum et bestiarum lustra, like so many wildernesses, a receptacle of wild beasts. Venice a poor fisher-town; Paris, London, small cottages in Caesar's time, now most noble emporiums. Valois, Plantagenet, and Scaliger how fortunate families, how likely to continue! now quite extinguished and rooted out. He stands aloft today, full of favour, wealth, honour, and prosperity, in the top of fortune's wheel: tomorrow in prison, worse than nothing, his son's a beggar. Thou art a poor servile drudge, Foex populi, a very slave, thy son may come to be a prince, with Maximinus, Agathocles, &c. a senator, a general of an army; thou standest bare to him now, workest for him, drudgest for him and his, takest an alms of him: stay but a little, and his next heir peradventure shall consume all with riot, be degraded, thou exalted, and he shall beg of thee. Thou shalt be his most honourable patron, he thy devout servant, his posterity shall run, ride, and do as much for thine, as it was with 3736Frisgobald and Cromwell, it may be for thee. Citizens devour country gentlemen, and settle in their seats; after two or three descents, they consume all in riot, it returns to the city again.

3737 ——— Novus incola venit;

Nam propriae telluris herum natura, neque illum.

Nec me, nec quenquam statuit; nos expulit ille:

Illum aut nequities, aut vafri inscitia juris.

——— have we liv'd at a more frugal rate,

Since this new stranger seiz'd on our estate?

Nature will no perpetual heir assign,

Or make the farm his property or mine.

He turn'd us out: but follies all his own,

Or lawsuits and their knaveries yet unknown,

Or, all his follies and his lawsuits past,

Some long-liv'd heir shall turn him out at last.

A lawyer buys out his poor client, after a while his client's posterity buy out him and his; so things go round, ebb and flow.

Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli

Dictus erat, nulli proprius, sed cedit in usum

Nunc mihi, nunc aliis; ———

The farm, once mine, now bears Umbrenus' name;

The use alone, not property, we claim;

Then be not with your present lot depressed,

And meet the future with undaunted breast;

as he said then, ager cujus, quot habes Dominos? So say I of land, houses, movables and money, mine today, his anon, whose tomorrow? In fine, (as 3738Machiavel observes) “virtue and prosperity beget rest; rest idleness; idleness riot; riot destruction from which we come again to good laws; good laws engender virtuous actions; virtue, glory, and prosperity;” “and 'tis no dishonour then” (as Guicciardine adds) “for a flourishing man, city, or state to come to ruin,” 3739“nor infelicity to be subject to the law of nature.” Ergo terrena calcanda, sitienda coelestia, (therefore I say) scorn this transitory state, look up to heaven, think not what others are, but what thou art: 3740Qua parte locatus es in re: and what thou shalt be, what thou mayst be. Do (I say) as Christ himself did, when he lived here on earth, imitate him as much as in thee lies. How many great Caesars, mighty monarchs, tetrarchs, dynasties, princes lived in his days, in what plenty, what delicacy, how bravely attended, what a deal of gold and silver, what treasure, how many sumptuous palaces had they, what provinces and cities, ample territories, fields, rivers, fountains, parks, forests, lawns, woods, cells, &c.? Yet Christ had none of all this, he would have none of this, he voluntarily rejected all this, he could not be ignorant, he could not err in his choice, he contemned all this, he chose that which was safer, better, and more certain, and less to be repented, a mean estate, even poverty itself; and why dost thou then doubt to follow him, to imitate him, and his apostles, to imitate all good men: so do thou tread in his divine steps, and thou shalt not err eternally, as too many worldlings do, that run on in their own dissolute courses, to their confusion and ruin, thou shalt not do amiss. Whatsoever thy fortune is, be contented with it, trust in him, rely on him, refer thyself wholly to him. For know this, in conclusion, Non est volentis nec currentis, sed miserentis Dei, 'tis not as men, but as God will. “The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich, bringeth low, and exalteth” (1 Sam. ii. ver. 7. 8), “he lifteth the poor from the dust, and raiseth the beggar from the dunghill, to set them amongst princes, and make them inherit the seat of glory;” 'tis all as he pleaseth, how, and when, and whom; he that appoints the end (though to us unknown) appoints the means likewise subordinate to the end.

Yea, but their present estate crucifies and torments most mortal men, they have no such forecast, to see what may be, what shall likely be, but what is, though not wherefore, or from whom, hoc anget, their present misfortunes grind their souls, and an envious eye which they cast upon other men's prosperities, Vicinumque pecus grandius uber habet, how rich, how fortunate, how happy is he? But in the meantime he doth not consider the other miseries, his infirmities of body and mind, that accompany his estate, but still reflects upon his own false conceived woes and wants, whereas if the matter were duly examined, 3741he is in no distress at all, he hath no cause to complain.

3742 ——— tolle querelas,

Pauper enim non est cui rerum suppetit usus,

Then cease complaining, friend, and learn to live.

He is not poor to whom kind fortune grants,

Even with a frugal hand, what Nature wants.

he is not poor, he is not in need. 3743“Nature is content with bread and water; and he that can rest satisfied with that, may contend with Jupiter himself for happiness.” In that golden age, 3744somnos dedit umbra salubres, potum quoque lubricus amnis, the tree gave wholesome shade to sleep under, and the clear rivers drink. The Israelites drank water in the wilderness; Samson, David, Saul, Abraham's servant when he went for Isaac's wife, the Samaritan woman, and how many besides might I reckon up, Egypt, Palestine, whole countries in the 3745Indies, that drank pure water all their lives. 3746The Persian kings themselves drank no other drink than the water of Chaospis, that runs by Susa, which was carried in bottles after them, whithersoever they went. Jacob desired no more of God, but bread to eat, and clothes to put on in his journey, Gen. xxviii. 20. Bene est cui deus obtulit Parca quod satis est manu; bread is enough 3747“to strengthen the heart.” And if you study philosophy aright, saith 3748 Maudarensis, “whatsoever is beyond this moderation, is not useful, but troublesome.” 3749Agellius, out of Euripides, accounts bread and water enough to satisfy nature, “of which there is no surfeit, the rest is not a feast, but a riot.” 3750S. Hierome esteems him rich “that hath bread to eat, and a potent man that is not compelled to be a slave; hunger is not ambitious, so that it have to eat, and thirst doth not prefer a cup of gold.” It was no epicurean speech of an epicure, he that is not satisfied with a little will never have enough: and very good counsel of him in the 3751poet, “O my son, mediocrity of means agrees best with men; too much is pernicious.”

Divitiae grandes homini sunt vivere parce,

Aequo animo. ———

And if thou canst be content, thou hast abundance, nihil est, nihil deest, thou hast little, thou wantest nothing. 'Tis all one to be hanged in a chain of gold, or in a rope; to be filled with dainties or coarser meat.

3752Si ventri bene, si lateri, pedibusque tuis, nil

Divitiae poterunt regales addere majus.

If belly, sides and feet be well at ease,

A prince's treasure can thee no more please.

Socrates in a fair, seeing so many things bought and sold, such a multitude of people convented to that purpose, exclaimed forthwith, “O ye gods what a sight of things do not I want?” 'Tis thy want alone that keeps thee in health of body and mind, and that which thou persecutest and abhorrest as a feral plague is thy physician and 3753chiefest friend, which makes thee a good man, a healthful, a sound, a virtuous, an honest and happy man. For when virtue came from heaven (as the poet feigns) rich men kicked her up, wicked men abhorred her, courtiers scoffed at her, citizens hated her, 3754and that she was thrust out of doors in every place, she came at last to her sister Poverty, where she had found good entertainment. Poverty and Virtue dwell together.

3755 ——— O vitae tuta facultas

Pauperis, angustique lares, o munera nondum

Intellecta deum.

How happy art thou if thou couldst be content. “Godliness is a great gain, if a man can be content with that which he hath,” 1 Tim. vi. 6. And all true happiness is in a mean estate. I have a little wealth, as he said, 3756sed quas animus magnas facit, a kingdom in conceit;

3757 ——— nil amplius opto

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis;

I have enough and desire no more.

3758Dii bene fecerunt inopis me quodque pusilli

Fecerunt animi ———

'tis very well, and to my content. 3759Vestem et fortunam concinnam potius quam laxam probo, let my fortune and my garments be both alike fit for me. And which 3760Sebastian Foscarinus, sometime Duke of Venice, caused to be engraven on his tomb in St. Mark's Church, “Hear, O ye Venetians, and I will tell you which is the best thing in the world: to contemn it.” I will engrave it in my heart, it shall be my whole study to contemn it. Let them take wealth, Stercora stercus amet so that I may have security: bene qui latuit, bene vixit; though I live obscure, 3761 yet I live clean and honest; and when as the lofty oak is blown down, the silky reed may stand. Let them take glory, for that's their misery; let them take honour, so that I may have heart's ease. Duc me O Jupiter et tu fatum, 3762&c. Lead me, O God, whither thou wilt, I am ready to follow; command, I will obey. I do not envy at their wealth, titles, offices;

3763Stet quicunque volet potens

Aulae culmine lubrico,

Me dulcis saturet quies.

let me live quiet and at ease. 3764Erimus fortasse (as he comforted himself) quando illi non erunt, when they are dead and gone, and all their pomp vanished, our memory may flourish:

3765 ——— dant perennes

Stemmata non peritura Musae.

Let him be my lord, patron, baron, earl, and possess so many goodly castles, 'tis well for me 3766that I have a poor house, and a little wood, and a well by it, &c.

His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si

Quaestor avus pater atque meus, patruusque fuissent.

With which I feel myself more truly blest

Than if my sires the quaestor's power possess'd.

I live, I thank God, as merrily as he, and triumph as much in this my mean estate, as if my father and uncle had been lord treasurer, or my lord mayor. He feeds of many dishes, I of one: 3767qui Christum curat, non multum curat quam de preciosis cibis stercus conficiat, what care I of what stuff my excrements be made? 3768“He that lives according to nature cannot be poor, and he that exceeds can never have enough,” totus non sufficit orbis, the whole world cannot give him content. “A small thing that the righteous hath, is better than the riches of the ungodly,” Psal. xxxvii. 19; “and better is a poor morsel with quietness, than abundance with strife,” Prov. xvii. 7. Be content then, enjoy thyself, and as 3769 Chrysostom adviseth, “be not angry for what thou hast not, but give God hearty thanks for what thou hast received.”

3770Si dat oluscula

Mensa minuscula

pace referta,

Ne pete grandia,

Lautaque prandia

lite repleta.

But what wantest thou, to expostulate the matter? or what hast thou not better than a rich man? 3771“health, competent wealth, children, security, sleep, friends, liberty, diet, apparel, and what not,” or at least mayst have (the means being so obvious, easy, and well known) for as he inculcated to himself,

3772Vitam quae faciunt beatiorem,

Jucundissime Martialis, haec sunt;

Res non parta labore, sed relicta,

Lis nunquam, &c.

I say again thou hast, or at least mayst have it, if thou wilt thyself, and that which I am sure he wants, a merry heart. “Passing by a village in the territory of Milan,” saith 3773St. Austin, “I saw a poor beggar that had got belike his bellyful of meat, jesting and merry; I sighed, and said to some of my friends that were then with me, what a deal of trouble, madness, pain and grief do we sustain and exaggerate unto ourselves, to get that secure happiness which this poor beggar hath prevented us of, and which we peradventure shall never have? For that which he hath now attained with the begging of some small pieces of silver, a temporal happiness, and present heart's ease, I cannot compass with all my careful windings, and running in and out,” 3774“And surely the beggar was very merry, but I was heavy; he was secure, but I timorous. And if any man should ask me now, whether I had rather be merry, or still so solicitous and sad, I should say, merry. If he should ask me again, whether I had rather be as I am, or as this beggar was, I should sure choose to be as I am, tortured still with cares and fears; but out of peevishness, and not out of truth.” That which St. Austin said of himself here in this place, I may truly say to thee, thou discontented wretch, thou covetous niggard, thou churl, thou ambitious and swelling toad, 'tis not want but peevishness which is the cause of thy woes; settle thine affection, thou hast enough.

3775Denique sit finis quaerendi, quoque habeas plus,

Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborem

Incipias; parto, quod avebas, utere.

Make an end of scraping, purchasing this manor, this field, that house, for this and that child; thou hast enough for thyself and them:

3776 ——— Quod petis hic est,

Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus.

'Tis at hand, at home already, which thou so earnestly seekest. But

——— O si angulus ille

Proximus accedat, qui nunc denormat agellum,

O that I had but that one nook of ground, that field there, that pasture, O si venam argenti fors quis mihi monstret —. O that I could but find a pot of money now, to purchase, &c., to build me a new house, to marry my daughter, place my son, &c. 3777“O if I might but live a while longer to see all things settled, some two or three years, I would pay my debts,” make all my reckonings even: but they are come and past, and thou hast more business than before. “O madness, to think to settle that in thine old age when thou hast more, which in thy youth thou canst not now compose having but a little.” 3778Pyrrhus would first conquer Africa, and then Asia, et tum suaviter agere, and then live merrily and take his ease: but when Cyneas the orator told him he might do that already, id jam posse fieri, rested satisfied, condemning his own folly. Si parva licet componere magnis, thou mayst do the like, and therefore be composed in thy fortune. Thou hast enough: he that is wet in a bath, can be no more wet if he be flung into Tiber, or into the ocean itself: and if thou hadst all the world, or a solid mass of gold as big as the world, thou canst not have more than enough; enjoy thyself at length, and that which thou hast; the mind is all; be content, thou art not poor, but rich, and so much the richer as 3779Censorinus well writ to Cerellius, quanto pauciora optas, non quo plura possides, in wishing less, not having more. I say then, Non adjice opes, sed minue cupiditates ('tis 3780Epicurus' advice), add no more wealth, but diminish thy desires; and as 3781Chrysostom well seconds him, Si vis ditari, contemne divitias; that's true plenty, not to have, but not to want riches, non habere, sed non indigere, vera abundantia: 'tis more glory to contemn, than to possess; et nihil agere, est deorum, “and to want nothing is divine.” How many deaf, dumb, halt, lame, blind, miserable persons could I reckon up that are poor, and withal distressed, in imprisonment, banishment, galley slaves, condemned to the mines, quarries, to gyves, in dungeons, perpetual thraldom, than all which thou art richer, thou art more happy, to whom thou art able to give an alms, a lord, in respect, a petty prince: 3782be contented then I say, repine and mutter no more, “for thou art not poor indeed but in opinion.”

Yea, but this is very good counsel, and rightly applied to such as have it, and will not use it, that have a competency, that are able to work and get their living by the sweat of their brows, by their trade, that have something yet; he that hath birds, may catch birds; but what shall we do that are slaves by nature, impotent, and unable to help ourselves, mere beggars, that languish and pine away, that have no means at all, no hope of means, no trust of delivery, or of better success? as those old Britons complained to their lords and masters the Romans oppressed by the Picts. mare ad barbaros, barbari ad mare, the barbarians drove them to the sea, the sea drove them back to the barbarians: our present misery compels us to cry out and howl, to make our moan to rich men: they turn us back with a scornful answer to our misfortune again, and will take no pity of us; they commonly overlook their poor friends in adversity; if they chance to meet them, they voluntarily forget and will take no notice of them; they will not, they cannot help us. Instead of comfort they threaten us, miscall, scoff at us, to aggravate our misery, give us bad language, or if they do give good words, what's that to relieve us? According to that of Thales, Facile est alios monere; who cannot give good counsel? 'tis cheap, it costs them nothing. It is an easy matter when one's belly is full to declaim against fasting, Qui satur est pleno laudat jejunia ventre; “Doth the wild ass bray when he hath grass, or loweth the ox when he hath fodder?” Job vi. 5. 3783Neque enim populo Romano quidquam potest esse laetius, no man living so jocund, so merry as the people of Rome when they had plenty; but when they came to want, to be hunger-starved, “neither shame, nor laws, nor arms, nor magistrates could keep them in obedience.” Seneca pleadeth hard for poverty, and so did those lazy philosophers: but in the meantime 3784he was rich, they had wherewithal to maintain themselves; but doth any poor man extol it? “There are those” (saith 3785 Bernard) “that approve of a mean estate, but on that condition they never want themselves: and some again are meek so long as they may say or do what they list; but if occasion be offered, how far are they from all patience?” I would to God (as he said) 3786“No man should commend poverty, but he that is poor,” or he that so much admires it, would relieve, help, or ease others.

3787Nunc si nos audis, atque es divinus Apollo,

Dic mihi, qui nummos non habet, unde petat:

Now if thou hear'st us, and art a good man,

Tell him that wants, to get means, if you can.

But no man hears us, we are most miserably dejected, the scum of the world. 3788Vix habet in nobis jam nova plaga locum. We can get no relief, no comfort, no succour, 3789Et nihil inveni quod mihi ferret opem. We have tried all means, yet find no remedy: no man living can express the anguish and bitterness of our souls, but we that endure it; we are distressed, forsaken, in torture of body and mind, in another hell: and what shall we do? When 3790Crassus the Roman consul warred against the Parthians, after an unlucky battle fought, he fled away in the night, and left four thousand men, sore, sick, and wounded in his tents, to the fury of the enemy, which, when the poor men perceived, clamoribus et ululatibus omnia complerunt, they made lamentable moan, and roared downright, as loud as Homer's Mars when he was hurt, which the noise of 10,000 men could not drown, and all for fear of present death. But our estate is far more tragical and miserable, much more to be deplored, and far greater cause have we to lament; the devil and the world persecute us, all good fortune hath forsaken us, we are left to the rage of beggary, cold, hunger, thirst, nastiness, sickness, irksomeness, to continue all torment, labour and pain, to derision and contempt, bitter enemies all, and far worse than any death; death alone we desire, death we seek, yet cannot have it, and what shall we do? Quod male fers, assuesce; feres bene — accustom thyself to it, and it will be tolerable at last. Yea, but I may not, I cannot, In me consumpsit vires fortuna nocendo, I am in the extremity of human adversity; and as a shadow leaves the body when the sun is gone, I am now left and lost, and quite forsaken of the world. Qui jacet in terra, non habet unde cadat; comfort thyself with this yet, thou art at the worst, and before it be long it will either overcome thee or thou it. If it be violent, it cannot endure, aut solvetur, aut solvet: let the devil himself and all the plagues of Egypt come upon thee at once, Ne tu cede malis, sed contra audentior ito, be of good courage; misery is virtue's whetstone.

3791 — serpens, sitis, ardor, arenae,

Dulcia virtuti,

as Cato told his soldiers marching in the deserts of Libya, “Thirst, heat, sands, serpents, were pleasant to a valiant man;” honourable enterprises are accompanied with dangers and damages, as experience evinceth: they will make the rest of thy life relish the better. But put case they continue; thou art not so poor as thou wast born, and as some hold, much better to be pitied than envied. But be it so thou hast lost all, poor thou art, dejected, in pain of body, grief of mind, thine enemies insult over thee, thou art as bad as Job; yet tell me (saith Chrysostom) “was Job or the devil the greater conqueror? surely Job; the 3792devil had his goods, he sat on the muck-hill and kept his good name; he lost his children, health, friends, but he kept his innocency; he lost his money, but he kept his confidence in God, which was better than any treasure.” Do thou then as Job did, triumph as Job did, 3793and be not molested as every fool is. Sed qua ratione potero? How shall this be done? Chrysostom answers, facile si coelum cogitaveris, with great facility, if thou shalt but meditate on heaven. 3794Hannah wept sore, and troubled in mind, could not eat; “but why weepest thou,” said Elkanah her husband, “and why eatest thou not? why is thine heart troubled? am not I better to thee than ten sons?” and she was quiet. Thou art here 3795vexed in this world; but say to thyself, “Why art thou troubled, O my soul?” Is not God better to thee than all temporalities, and momentary pleasures of the world? be then pacified. And though thou beest now peradventure in extreme want, 3796it may be 'tis for thy further good, to try thy patience, as it did Job's, and exercise thee in this life: trust in God, and rely upon him, and thou shalt be 3797crowned in the end. What's this life to eternity? The world hath forsaken thee, thy friends and fortunes all are gone: yet know this, that the very hairs of thine head are numbered, that God is a spectator of all thy miseries, he sees thy wrongs, woes, and wants. 3798“'Tis his goodwill and pleasure it should be so, and he knows better what is for thy good than thou thyself. His providence is over all, at all times; he hath set a guard of angels over us, and keeps us as the apple of his eye,” Ps. xvii. 8. Some he doth exalt, prefer, bless with worldly riches, honours, offices, and preferments, as so many glistering stars he makes to shine above the rest: some he doth miraculously protect from thieves, incursions, sword, fire, and all violent mischances, and as the 3799poet feigns of that Lycian Pandarus, Lycaon's son, when he shot at Menelaus the Grecian with a strong arm, and deadly arrow, Pallas, as a good mother keeps flies from her child's face asleep, turned by the shaft, and made it hit on the buckle of his girdle; so some he solicitously defends, others he exposeth to danger, poverty, sickness, want, misery, he chastiseth and corrects, as to him seems best, in his deep, unsearchable and secret judgment, and all for our good. “The tyrant took the city” (saith 3800Chrysostom), “God did not hinder it; led them away captives, so God would have it; he bound them, God yielded to it: flung them into the furnace, God permitted it: heat the oven hotter, it was granted: and when the tyrant had done his worst, God showed his power, and the children's patience; he freed them:” so can he thee, and can 3801help in an instant, when it seems to him good. 3802 “Rejoice not against me, O my enemy; for though I fall, I shall rise: when I sit in darkness, the Lord shall lighten me.” Remember all those martyrs what they have endured, the utmost that human rage and fury could invent, with what 3803patience they have borne, with what willingness embraced it. “Though he kill me,” saith Job, “I will trust in him.” Justus 3804inexpugnabilis, as Chrysostom holds, a just man is impregnable, and not to be overcome. The gout may hurt his hands, lameness his feet, convulsions may torture his joints, but not rectam mentem his soul is free.

3805 ——— nempe pecus, rem,

Lectos, argentum tollas licet; in manicis, et

Compedibus saevo teneas custode ———

Perhaps, you mean,

My cattle, money, movables or land,

Then take them all. — But, slave, if I command,

A cruel jailor shall thy freedom seize.

3806“Take away his money, his treasure is in heaven: banish him his country, he is an inhabitant of that heavenly Jerusalem: cast him into bands, his conscience is free; kill his body, it shall rise again; he fights with a shadow that contends with an upright man:” he will not be moved.

——— si fractus illabatur orbis,

Impavidum ferient ruinae.

Though heaven itself should fall on his head, he will not be offended. He is impenetrable, as an anvil hard, as constant as Job.

3807Ipse deus simul atque volet me solvet opinor.

A God shall set me free whene'er I please.

Be thou such a one; let thy misery be what it will, what it can, with patience endure it; thou mayst be restored as he was. Terris proscriptus, ad coelum propera; ab hominibus desertus, ad deum fuge. “The poor shall not always be forgotten, the patient abiding of the meek shall not perish for ever,” Psal. x. 18. ver. 9. “The Lord will be a refuge of the oppressed, and a defence in the time of trouble.”

Servus Epictetus, multilati corporis, Irus

Pauper: at haec inter charus erat superis.

Lame was Epictetus, and poor Irus,

Yet to them both God was propitious.

Lodovicus Vertomannus, that famous traveller, endured much misery, yet surely, saith Scaliger, he was vir deo charus, in that he did escape so many dangers, “God especially protected him, he was dear unto him:” Modo in egestate, tribulatione, convalle deplorationis, &c. “Thou art now in the vale of misery, in poverty, in agony,” 3808“in temptation; rest, eternity, happiness, immortality, shall be thy reward,” as Chrysostom pleads, “if thou trust in God, and keep thine innocency.” Non si male nunc, et olim sic erit semper; a good hour may come upon a sudden; 3809 expect a little.

Yea, but this expectation is it which tortures me in the mean time; 3810 futura expectans praesentibus angor, whilst the grass grows the horse starves: 3811despair not, but hope well,

3812Spera Batte, tibi melius lux Crastina ducet;

Dum spiras spera ———

Cheer up, I say, be not dismayed; Spes alit agricolas: “he that sows in tears, shall reap in joy,” Psal. cxxvi. 7.

Si fortune me tormente,

Esperance me contente.

Hope refresheth, as much as misery depresseth; hard beginnings have many times prosperous events, and that may happen at last which never was yet. “A desire accomplished delights the soul,” Prov. xiii. 19.

3813Grata superveniet quae non sperabitur hora:

Which makes m'enjoy my joys long wish'd at last,

Welcome that hour shall come when hope is past:

a lowering morning may turn to a fair afternoon, 3814Nube solet pulsa candidus ire dies. “The hope that is deferred, is the fainting of the heart, but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life,” Prov. xiii. 12, 3815suavissimum est voti compos fieri. Many men are both wretched and miserable at first, but afterwards most happy: and oftentimes it so falls out, as 3816Machiavel relates of Cosmo de Medici, that fortunate and renowned citizen of Europe, “that all his youth was full of perplexity, danger, and misery, till forty years were past, and then upon a sudden the sun of his honour broke out as through a cloud.” Huniades was fetched out of prison, and Henry the Third of Portugal out of a poor monastery, to be crowned kings.

Multa cadunt inter calicem supremaque labra,

Many things happen between the cup and the lip,

beyond all hope and expectation many things fall out, and who knows what may happen? Nondum omnium dierum Soles occiderunt, as Philippus said, all the suns are not yet set, a day may come to make amends for all. “Though my father and mother forsake me, yet the Lord will gather me up,” Psal. xxvii. 10. “Wait patiently on the Lord, and hope in him,” Psal. xxxvii. 7. “Be strong, hope and trust in the Lord, and he will comfort thee, and give thee thine heart's desire,” Psal. xxvii. 14.

Sperate et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Hope, and reserve yourself for prosperity.

Fret not thyself because thou art poor, contemned, or not so well for the present as thou wouldst be, not respected as thou oughtest to be, by birth, place, worth; or that which is a double corrosive, thou hast been happy, honourable, and rich, art now distressed and poor, a scorn of men, a burden to the world, irksome to thyself and others, thou hast lost all: Miserum est fuisse, felicem, and as Boethius calls it, Infelicissimum genus infortunii; this made Timon half mad with melancholy, to think of his former fortunes and present misfortunes: this alone makes many miserable wretches discontent. I confess it is a great misery to have been happy, the quintessence of infelicity, to have been honourable and rich, but yet easily to be endured: 3817security succeeds, and to a judicious man a far better estate. The loss of thy goods and money is no loss; 3818 “thou hast lost them, they would otherwise have lost thee.” If thy money be gone, 3819“thou art so much the lighter,” and as Saint Hierome persuades Rusticus the monk, to forsake all and follow Christ: “Gold and silver are too heavy metals for him to carry that seeks heaven.”

3820Vel nos in mare proximum,

Gemmas et lapides, aurum et inutile,

Summi materiam mali

Mittamus, scelerum si hene poenitet.

Zeno the philosopher lost all his goods by shipwreck, 3821he might like of it, fortune had done him a good turn: Opes a me, animum auferre non potest: she can take away my means, but not my mind. He set her at defiance ever after, for she could not rob him that had nought to lose: for he was able to contemn more than they could possess or desire. Alexander sent a hundred talents of gold to Phocion of Athens for a present, because he heard he was a good man: but Phocion returned his talents back again with a permitte me in posterum virum bonum esse to be a good man still; let me be as I am: Non mi aurum posco, nec mi precium3822 — That Theban Crates flung of his own accord his money into the sea, abite nummi, ego vos mergam, ne mergar, a vobis, I had rather drown you, than you should drown me. Can stoics and epicures thus contemn wealth, and shall not we that are Christians? It was mascula vox et praeclara, a generous speech of Cotta in 3823Sallust, “Many miseries have happened unto me at home, and in the wars abroad, of which by the help of God some I have endured, some I have repelled, and by mine own valour overcome: courage was never wanting to my designs, nor industry to my intents: prosperity or adversity could never alter my disposition.” A wise man's mind, as Seneca holds, 3824 “is like the state of the world above the moon, ever serene.” Come then what can come, befall what may befall, infractum invictumque 3825 animum opponas: Rebus angustis animosus atque fortis appare. (Hor. Od. 11. lib. 2.) Hope and patience are two sovereign remedies for all, the surest reposals, the softest cushions to lean on in adversity:

3826Durum sed levius fit patientia,

Quicquid corrigere est nefas.

What can't be cured must be endured.

If it cannot be helped, or amended, 3827make the best of it; 3828 necessitati qui se accommodat, sapit, he is wise that suits himself to the time. As at a game at tables, so do by all such inevitable accidents.

3829Ita vita est hominum quasi cum ludas tesseris,

Si illud quod est maxime opus jactu non cadit,

Illud quod cecidit forte, id arte ut corrigas;

If thou canst not fling what thou wouldst, play thy cast as well as thou canst. Everything, saith 3830Epictetus, hath two handles, the one to be held by, the other not: 'tis in our choice to take and leave whether we will (all which Simplicius's Commentator hath illustrated by many examples), and 'tis in our power, as they say, to make or mar ourselves. Conform thyself then to thy present fortune, and cut thy coat according to thy cloth, 3831Ut quimus (quod aiunt) quando quod volumus non licet, “Be contented with thy loss, state, and calling, whatsoever it is, and rest as well satisfied with thy present condition in this life:”

Este quod es; quod sunt alii, sine quamlibet esse;

Quod non es, nolis; quod potus esse, velis.

Be as thou art; and as they are, so let

Others be still; what is and may be covert.

And as he that is 3832invited to a feast eats what is set before him, and looks for no other, enjoy that thou hast, and ask no more of God than what he thinks fit to bestow upon thee. Non cuivis contingit adire Corinthum, we may not be all gentlemen, all Catos, or Laelii, as Tully telleth us, all honourable, illustrious, and serene, all rich; but because mortal men want many things, 3833“therefore,” saith Theodoret, “hath God diversely distributed his gifts, wealth to one, skill to another, that rich men might encourage and set poor men at work, poor men might learn several trades to the common good.” As a piece of arras is composed of several parcels, some wrought of silk, some of gold, silver, crewel of diverse colours, all to serve for the exornation of the whole: music is made of diverse discords and keys, a total sum of many small numbers, so is a commonwealth of several unequal trades and callings. 3834If all should be Croesi and Darii, all idle, all in fortunes equal, who should till the land? As 3835Menenius Agrippa well satisfied the tumultuous rout of Rome, in his elegant apologue of the belly and the rest of the members. Who should build houses, make our several stuffs for raiments? We should all be starved for company, as Poverty declared at large in Aristophanes' Plutus, and sue at last to be as we were at first. And therefore God hath appointed this inequality of states, orders, and degrees, a subordination, as in all other things. The earth yields nourishment to vegetables, sensible creatures feed on vegetables, both are substitutes to reasonable souls, and men are subject amongst themselves, and all to higher powers, so God would have it. All things then being rightly examined and duly considered as they ought, there is no such cause of so general discontent, 'tis not in the matter itself, but in our mind, as we moderate our passions and esteem of things. Nihil aliud necessarium ut sis miser (saith 3836Cardan) quam ut te miserum credas, let thy fortune be what it will, 'tis thy mind alone that makes thee poor or rich, miserable or happy. Vidi ego (saith divine Seneca) in villa hilari et amaena maestos, et media solitudine occupatos; non locus, sed animus facit ad tranquillitatem. I have seen men miserably dejected in a pleasant village, and some again well occupied and at good ease in a solitary desert. 'Tis the mind not the place causeth tranquillity, and that gives true content. I will yet add a word or two for a corollary. Many rich men, I dare boldly say it, that lie on down beds, with delicacies pampered every day, in their well-furnished houses, live at less heart's ease, with more anguish, more bodily pain, and through their intemperance, more bitter hours, than many a prisoner or galley-slave; 3837Maecenas in pluma aeque vigilat ac Regulus in dolio: those poor starved Hollanders, whom 3838Bartison their captain left in Nova Zembla, anno 1596, or those 3839eight miserable Englishmen that were lately left behind, to winter in a stove in Greenland, in 77 deg. of lat., 1630, so pitifully forsaken, and forced to shift for themselves in a vast, dark, and desert place, to strive and struggle with hunger, cold, desperation, and death itself. 'Tis a patient and quiet mind (I say it again and again) gives true peace and content. So for all other things, they are, as old 3840Chremes told us, as we use them.

Parentes, patriam, amicos, genus, cognates, divitias,

Haec perinde sunt ac illius animus qui ea possidet;

Qui uti scit, ei bona; qui utitur non recte, mala.

“Parents, friends, fortunes, country, birth, alliance, &c., ebb and flow with our conceit; please or displease, as we accept and construe them, or apply them to ourselves.” Faber quisque fortunae suae, and in some sort I may truly say, prosperity and adversity are in our own hands. Nemo laeditur nisi a seipso, and which Seneca confirms out of his judgment and experience. 3841“Every man's mind is stronger than fortune, and leads him to what side he will; a cause to himself each one is of his good or bad life.” But will we, or nill we, make the worst of it, and suppose a man in the greatest extremity, 'tis a fortune which some indefinitely prefer before prosperity; of two extremes it is the best. Luxuriant animi rebus plerumque secundis, men in 3842prosperity forget God and themselves, they are besotted with their wealth, as birds with henbane: 3843 miserable if fortune forsake them, but more miserable if she tarry and overwhelm them: for when they come to be in great place, rich, they that were most temperate, sober, and discreet in their private fortunes, as Nero, Otho, Vitellius, Heliogabalus (optimi imperatores nisi imperassent) degenerate on a sudden into brute beasts, so prodigious in lust, such tyrannical oppressors, &c., they cannot moderate themselves, they become monsters, odious, harpies, what not? Cum triumphos, opes, honores adepti sunt, ad voluptatem et otium deinceps se convertunt: 'twas 3844Cato's note, “they cannot contain.” For that cause belike

3845Eutrapilus cuicunque nocere volebat,

Vestimenta dabat pretiosa: beatus enim jam,

Cum pulchris tunicis sumet nova consilia et spes,

Dormiet in lucem scorto, postponet honestum

Officium ———

Eutrapilus when he would hurt a knave,

Gave him gay clothes and wealth to make him brave:

Because now rich he would quite change his mind,

Keep whores, fly out, set honesty behind.

On the other side, in adversity many mutter and repine, despair, &c., both bad, I confess,

3846 ——— ut calceus olim

Si pede major erit, subvertet: si minor, uret.

“As a shoe too big or too little, one pincheth, the other sets the foot awry,” sed e malis minimum. If adversity hath killed his thousand, prosperity hath killed his ten thousand: therefore adversity is to be preferred; 3847haec froeno indiget, illa solatio: illa fallit, haec instruit: the one deceives, the other instructs; the one miserably happy, the other happily miserable; and therefore many philosophers have voluntarily sought adversity, and so much commend it in their precepts. Demetrius, in Seneca, esteemed it a great infelicity, that in his lifetime he had no misfortune, miserum cui nihil unquam accidisset, adversi. Adversity then is not so heavily to be taken, and we ought not in such cases so much to macerate ourselves: there is no such odds in poverty and riches. To conclude in 3848Hierom's words, “I will ask our magnificoes that build with marble, and bestow a whole manor on a thread, what difference between them and Paul the Eremite, that bare old man? They drink in jewels, he in his hand: he is poor and goes to heaven, they are rich and go to hell.”

3701. Florid. lib. 4. Dives ille cibo interdicitur, et in omni copia sua cibum non accipit, cum interea totum ejus servitium hilare sit, atque epuletur.

3702. Epist. 115.

3703. Hor. et mihi curto Ire licet mulo vel si libet usque Tarentum.

3704. Brisonius.

3705. Si modum excesseris, suavissima sunt molesta.

3706. Et in cupidiis gulae, coquus et pueri illotis manibus ab exoneratione ventris omnia tractant, &c. Cardan. l. 8. cap. 46. de rerum varielate.

3707. Epist.

3708. Plin. lib. 57. cap. 6.

3709. Zonaras 3. annal.

3710. Plutarch. vit. ejus.

3711. Hor Ser. lib. 1. Sat. 2.

3712. Cap. 30. nullam vestem his induit.

3713. Ad generum Cereris sine caede et sanguine pauci descendunt reges, et sicca morte tyranni.

3714. “God shall deliver his soul from the power of the grave,” Psal. xlix. 15.

3715. Contempl. Idiot. Cap. 37. divitiarum acquisitio magni laboris, possessio magni timoris, arnissio magni doloris.

3716. Boethius de consol. phil. l. 3. “How contemptible stolid minds! They covet riches and titles, and when they have obtained these commodities of false weight and measures, then, and not before, they understand what is truly valuable.”

3717. Austin in Ps. lxxvi. omnis Philosophiae magistra, ad coelum via.

3718. Bonaae mentis soror paupertas.

3719. Paedagoga pietatis sobria, pia mater, cultu simplex, habitu secura, consilio benesuada. Apul.

3720. Cardan. Opprobrium non est paupertas: quod latro eripit, aut pater non reliquit, cur mihi vitio daretur, si fortuna divitias invidit? non aquilae, non, &c.

3721. Tully.

3722. Epist. 74. servus summe homo; servus sum, immo contubernalis, servus sum, at humilis amicus, immo conservus si cogitaveris.

3723. Epist. 66 et 90.

3724. Panormitan. rebus gestis Alph.

3725. Lib. 4. num. 218. quidam deprehensus quod sederet loco nobilium, mea nobilitas, ait, est circa caput, vestra declinat ad caudam.

3726. Tanto beatior es, quanto collectior.

3727. Non amoribus inservit, non appetit honores, et qualitercunque relictus satis habet, hominem se esse meminit, invidet nemini, neminem despicit, neminem miratur, sermonibus malignis non attendit aut alitur. Plinius.

3728. Politianus in Rustico.

3729. Gyges regno Lydiae inflatus sciscitatum misit Apollinem an quis mortalium se felicior esset. Aglaium Areadum pauperrimum Apollo praetulit, qui terminos agri sui nunquam excesserat, rure suo contentus. Val. lib. 1. c. 7.

3730. Hor. haec est Vita solutorum misera ambitione, gravique.

3731. Amos. 6.

3732. Praefat. lib. 7. Odit naturam quod infra deos sit; irascitur diis quod quis illi antecedat.

3733. De ira cap. 31. lib. 3. Et si multum acceperit, injuriam putat plura non accepisse; non agit pro tribunatu gratias, sed queritur quod non sit ad praeturam perductus; neque haec grata, si desit consulatus.

3734. Lips. admir.

3735. Of some 90,000 inhabitants now.

3736. Read the story at large in John Fox, his Acts and Monuments.

3737. Hor. Sat. 2. ser. lib. 2.

3738. 5 Florent. hist. virtus quietem parat, quies otium, otium porro luxum generat, luxus interitum, a quo iterum ad saluberrimas, &c.

3739. Guicciard. in Hiponest nulla infelicitas subjectum esse legi naturae &c.

3740. Persius.

3741. Omnes divites qui coelo et terra frui possunt.

3742. Hor. lib. 1. epis. 12.

3743. Seneca epist. 15. panem et aquam natura desiderat, et haec qui habet, ipso cum Jove de felicitate contendat. Cibus simplex famem sedat, vestis tenuis frigius arcet. Senec. epist. 8.

3744. Boethius.

3745. Muffaes et alii.

3746. Brissonius.

3747. Psal. lxxxiv.

3748. Si recte philosophemini, quicquid aptam moderationem supergreditur, oneri potius quam usui est.

3749. Lib. 7. 16. Cereris munus et aquae poculum mortales quaerunt habere, et quorum saties nunquam est, luxus autem, sunt caetera, non epulae.

3750. Satis est dives qui pane non indiget; nimium potens qui servire non cogitur. Ambitiosa non est fames, &c.

3751. Euripides menalip. O fili, mediocres divitiae hominibus conveniunt, nimia vero moles perniciosa.

3752. Hor.

3753. O noctes coenaeque deum.

3754. Per mille fraudes doctosque dolos ejicitur, apud sociam paupertatem ejusque cultores divertens in eorum sinu et tutela deliciatur.

3755. Lucan. “O protecting quality of a poor man's life, frugal means, gifts scarce yet understood by the gods themselves.”

3756. Lip. miscell. ep. 40.

3757. Sat. 6. lib. 2.

3758. Hor. Sat. 4.

3759. Apuleius.

3760. Chytreus in Europae deliciis. Accipite cives Veneti quod est optimum in rebus humanis, res humans contemnere.

3761. Vah, vivere etiam nunc lubet, as Demea said, Adelph. Act. 4. Quam multis non egeo, quam multa non desidero, ut Socrates in pompa, ille in nundinis.

3762. Epictetus 77. cap. quo sum destinatus, et sequar alacriter.

3763. “Let whosoever covets it, occupy the highest pinnacle of fame, sweet tranquillity shall satisfy me.”

3764. Puteanus ep. 62.

3765. Marullus. “The immortal Muses confer imperishable pride of origin.”

3766. Hoc erit in votis, modus agri non ita parvus, Hortus ubi et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fons, et paulum sylvae, &c. Hor. Sat. 6. lib. 2. Ser.

3767. Hieronym.

3768. Seneca consil. ad Albinum c. 11. qui continet se intra naturae limites, paupertatem non sentit; qui excedit, eum in opibus paupertas sequitur.

3769. Hom. 12. pro his quae accepisti gratias age, noli indignare pro his quae non accepisti.

3770. Nat. Chytreus deliciis Europ. Gustonii in aedibus Hubianis in coenaculo e regione mensae. “If your table afford frugal fare with peace, seek not, in strife, to load it lavishly.”

3771. Quid non habet melius pauper quam dives? vitam, valetudinem, cibum, somnum, libertatem, &c. Card.

3772. Martial. l. 10. epig. 47. read it out thyself in the author.

3773. Confess. lib. 6. Transiens per vicum quendam Mediolanensem, animadverti pauperem quendam mendicum, jam credo saturum, jocantem atque ridentem, et ingemui et locutus sum cum amicis qui mecum erant, &c.

3774. Et certe ille laetabatur, ego anxius; securus ille, ego trepidus. Et si percontaretur me quisquam an exultare mallem, an metuere, responderem, exultare: et si rursus interrogaret an ego talis essem, an qualis nunc sum, me ipsis curis confectum eligerem; sed perversitate, non veritate.

3775. Hor.

3776. Hor. ep. lib. 1.

3777. O si nunc morerer, inquit, quanta et qualia mihi imperfecta manerent: sed si mensibus decem vel octo super vixero, omnia redigam ad libellum, ab omni debito creditoque me explicabo; praetereunt interim menses decem, et octo, et cum illis anni, et adhuc restant plura quam prius; quid igitur speras. O insane, finem quem rebus tuis non inveneras in juventa, in senecta impositurum? O dementiam, quum ob curas et negotia tuo judicio sis infelix, quid putas futuram quum plura supererint? Candan lib. 8. cap. 40. de rer. var.

3778. Plutarch.

3779. Lib. de natali. cap. 1.

3780. Apud Stobeum ser. 17.

3781. Hom. 12. in 2.

3782. Non in paupertate, sed in paupere (Senec.) non re, sed opinione labores.

3783. Vobiscus Aureliano, sed si populus famelicus inedia laboret, nec arma, leges, pudor, magistratus, coercere valent.

3784. One of the richest men in Rome.

3785. Serm. Quidam sunt qui pauperes esse volunt ita ut nihil illis desit, sic commendant ut nullam patiantur inopiam; sunt et alii mites, quamdiu dicitur et agitur ad eorum arbitrium, &c.

3786. Nemo paupertatem commendaret nisi pauper.

3787. Petronius Catalec.

3788. Ovid. “There is no space left on our bodies for a fresh stripe.”

3789. Ovid.

3790. Plutarch. vit. Crassi.

3791. Lucan. lib. 9.

3792. An quum super fimo sedit Job, an eum omnia abstulit diabolus, &c. pecuniis privatus fiduciam deo habuit, omni thesauro preciosiorem.

3793. Haec videntes sponte philosophemini, nec insipientum affectibus agitemur.

3794. 1 Sam. i. 8.

3795. James i. 2. “My brethren, count it an exceeding joy, when you fall into divers temptations.”

3796. Afflictio dat intellectum; quos Deus diligit castigat. Deus optimum quemque aut mala valetudine aut luctu afficit. Seneca.

3797. Quam sordet mihi terra quum coelum intueor.

3798. Senec. de providentia cap. 2. Diis ita visum, dii melius norunt quid sit in commodum meum.

3799. Hom. Iliad. 4.

3800. Hom. 9. voluit urbem tyrannus evertere, et Deus non prohibuit; voluit captivos ducere, non impedivit; voluit ligare, concessit, &c.

3801. Psal. cxiii. De terra inopem, de stercore erigit pauperem.

3802. Micah. viii. 7.

3803. Preme, preme, ego cum Pindaro, ἀβάπτιστος ὲιμι ως φελλος ὑπ' ἐλμα immersibillis sum sicut suber super maris septum. Lipsius.

3804. Hic ure, hic seca, ut in aeternum parcas, Austin. Diis fruitur iratis, superat et crescit malis. Mutium ignis, Fabricium paupertas, Regulum tormenta, Socratem venenum superare non potuit.

3805. Hor. epist. 16. lib. 1.

3806. Hom. 5. Auferet pecunias? at habet in coelis: patria dejiciet? at in coelestem civitatem mittet: vincula injiciet? at habet solutam conscientiam: corpus interficiet, at iterum resurget; cum umbra pugnat qui cum justo pugnat.

3807. Leonides.

3808. Modo in pressura, in tentationibus, erit postea bonum tuum requies, aeternitas, immortalitas.

3809. Dabit Deus his quoque finem.

3810. Seneca.

3811. Nemo desperet meliora lapsus.

3812. Theocritus. “Hope on, Battus, tomorrow may bring better luck; while there's life there's hope.”

3813. Ovid.

3814. Ovid.

3815. Thales.

3816. Lib. 7. Flor. hist. Omnium felicissimus, et locupletissimus, &c. incarceratus saepe adolescentiam periculo mortis habuit, solicitudinis et discriminis plenam, &c.

3817. Laetior successit securitas quae simul cum divitiis cohabitare nescit. Camden.

3818. Pecuniam perdidisti, fortassis illa te perderet manens. Seneca.

3819. Expeditior es ob pecuniarum jacturam. Fortuna opes auferre, non animum potest. Seneca.

3820. Hor. “Let us cast our jewels and gems, and useless gold, the cause of all vice, into the sea, since we truly repent of our sins.”

3821. Jubet me posthac fortuna expeditius Philosophari.

3822. “I do not desire riches, nor that a price should be set upon me.”

3823. In frag. Quirites, multa mihi pericula domi, militae multa adversa fuere, quorum alia toleravi, alia deorum auxilio repuli et virtute mea; nunquam animus negotio defuit, nec decretis labor; nullae res nec properae nec adversae ingenium mutabant.

3824. Qualis mundi statis supra lunam semper serenus.

3825. Bona meus nullum tristioris fortunae recipit incursum, Val. lib. 4. c. 1. Qui nil potest sperare, desperet nihil.

3826. Hor.

3827. Aequam. memento rebus in arduis servare mentem, lib. 2. Od. 3.

3828. Epict. c. 18.

3829. Ter. Adel. act. 4. Sc. 7.

3830. Unaquaeque res duas habet ansas, alternam quae teneri, alteram quae non potest; in manu nostra quam volumus accipere.

3831. Ter. And. Act. 4. sc. 6.

3832. Epictetus. Invitatus ad convivium, quae apponuntur comedis, non quaeris ultra; in mundo multa rogitas quae dii negant.

3833. Cap. 6. de providentia. Mortales cum sint rerum omnium indigi, ideo deus aliis divitias, aliis paupertatem distribuit, ut qui opibus pollent, materiam subministrent; qui vero inopes, exercitatas artibus manus admoveant.

3834. Si sint omnes equales, necesse est ut omnes fame pereant; quis aratro terram sulcaret, quis sementem faceret, quis plantas sereret, quis vinum exprimeret?

3835. Liv. lib. 1.

3836. Lib. 3. de cons.

3837. Seneca.

3838. Vide Isaacum Pontanum descript. Amsterdam. lib. 2. c. 22.

3839. Vide Ed. Pelham's book edit. 1630.

3840. Heautontim. Act. 1. Sc. 2.

3841. Epist. 98. Omni fortuna valentior ipse animus, in utramque partem res suas ducit, beataeque ac miserae vitae sibi causa est.

3842. Fortuna quem nimium fovet stultum facil. Pub. Mimus.

3843. Seneca de beat. vit. cap. 14. miseri si deserantur ab ea, miseriores si obruantur.

3844. Plutarch, vit. ejus.

3845. Hor. epist. l. 1. ep. 18.

3846. Hor.

3847. Boeth. 2.

3848. Epist. lib. 3. vit. Paul. Ermit. Libet eos nunc interrogare qui domus marmoribus vestiunt, qui uno filo villarum ponunt precia, huic seni modo quid unquam defuit? vos gemma bibitis, ille concavis manibus naturae satisfecit; ille pauper paradisum capit, vos avaros gehenna suscipiet.

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