The Land of Midian, by Richard F. Burton

Appendix V.

Meteorological Journal (December 19, 1877, to April 17, 1878).

METEOROLOGICAL NOTES ON TRAVELLING IN MIDIAN.

Midian follows the rule of Syria — travel in the spring. The best time on the seaboard is during the months of March, April, and May. In the mountains and the Hismá plateau, April, May, and June are the most favourable. In Syria (Damascus) the autumn is dangerous: the finest travelling weather is in March to May. The second best season is between October and December.

January and February are cold; the latter also (sometimes) rainy.

March is stormy at first (El-‘Uwweh), but afterwards gets warmer (El–Ni’ám). Dews now begin, and last some three months: they wet everything like a sharp shower, and make the air feel soppy.

In July the first dates come in. Fevers are prevalent during this month, and also during August and September.

October is a month of heat and drought.

In November the first cold occurs.

December is the coldest month.

NOTES on TRAVELLING IN LOWER EGYPT.

September is very bad — all should escape who can. Fruits everywhere; sun hot; air damp with irrigation water, white fogs and other horrors.

October is a good month, the weather being neither too hot nor too cold.

November is the month of the “second water” irrigation about Cairo.

December is pleasant.

January is cold and sometimes wet.

February is stormy, and even foggy with sand-mist.

March is windy, but on the whole a good month, except for Khamsin, which begins about March 20th.

April begins to feel warm (April 29, 1878, Shamm el-Nasim).

The winter presents a marvellous contrast to that of England, which can often show one hour and five minutes’ sunlight in the twenty-four, or 2.8 per cent. of its possible duration.

THE TIDES

In El-‘Akabah are like Suez: first of month, flood, 6 — 12 a.m. and p.m.; ebb, the rest. But at Suez the tides rise one metre, and at times two metres; at El-‘Akabah (February 7), one foot.

For the instruments NOT used in this Expedition, see Chap. I. p. 11.

The barometre aneroid sold by M. Ebner was partially repaired by M. Lacaze, and served for Mr. David Duguid’s observations.

My pocket set by Casella (maker to the Admiralty and Ordnance) consisted of —

One watch aneroid (compensated, 1182).
Two sets wet and dry bulb thermometers (one broken).
One set maxima and minima thermometers, Nos. 12,877 and 12,906.
Two pocket hygrometers not numbered.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING FIRST MARCH BETWEEN DECEMBER 19, 1877, AND FEBRUARY 18, 1878

December 19, 1877, compared ship’s (Mukhbir) mercurial barometer, 758 millimetres, with my aneroid by Casella (29.85) = 765 millimetres; difference in ship’s, + 007 millimetre.

January 31, 1878, returned on board Mukhbir at Makná. Ship’s mercurial barometer, 773 millimetres; my aneroid by Casella, 764 millimetres; difference in ship’s, + 009 millimetre.

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Aneroid Ther. Dry   Wet  Hygr. Remarks.
               Inches. Milli.  (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Dec. 19. 7a.m.    29.85 765    76    -     -    58     On deck of gunboat
                                                       Mukhbir, at Sharm
                                                       Yahárr, steaming to El-Muwaylah. Morning ugly.

                                                       Strong land-breeze,
                                                       turned to Azyab ("south-easter"). Waves rising.

                                                       Dark-blue clouds to
                                                       windward.

         Noon.    29.80 757    77    -     -    54     In big tent on shore,
                                                       open east and west. Wind
                                                       high. Everything feels
                                                       damp; looks gloomy;
                                                       mountains almost hidden
                                                       by clouds. Landscape
                                                       that of Europe. No sun
                                                       nor sunshine all day.

         3p.m.    29.09 -      86    -     -    51     In my small tent.
                                                       Clearing to windward
                                                       (north). Wind veering to
                                                       north. Moon nearly full.
                                                       High fleecy clouds. Sea
                                                       high. No sun all day.


Azyab (the wet wind) generally lasts two or three days; veers round by west to north. Much rain has already fallen (Arab lies). Land green (all brown); grass plentiful (not a blade to be seen). Rains here December 15th to February 15th; downfall one hour to four hours, then clears. On December 8th, violent rain for one hour; filled all the torrents (Sayl).

Dec. 20. 7a.m.    29.80 758    63    -     -    40     In small tent open to
                                                       east. Morning clear. Few
                                                       fleecy clouds: cool and
                                                       bright. "Misri" from
                                                       north-west; cold and
                                                       rain.

         3p.m.    29.92 759    78    -     -    32     Hot in tents, cool in
                                                       breeze. "Misri" high and
                                                       strong sea. At 1.10 p.m.
                                                       heavy clouds; expected
                                                       rain--few heavy drops.


AT EL-MUWAYLAH AND RAS WADY TIRYAM.

Dec. 21. 6.35a.m. 30.02 763    71    -     -    35     Inside tent. Full moon
                                                       and clear. Dawn, 6 a.m.;
                                                       night, 6.30. Speckled
                                                       clouds.

         Noon.    30.48 764    76    -     -    48     Under umbrella. Air
                                                       clear. Mottled clouds on
                                                       mountains. Sea horizon.
                                                       Low white bank of
                                                       clouds.

         3p.m.    30.05 763    77    -     -    39     "Misri." High cirri from
                                                       west. Big black cloud
                                                       over sea. Suspected
                                                       rain: Arabs said no.
                                                       Cloud dispersed.


AT RAS WADY TIRYAM.

Dec. 22. 7a.m.    30.01 760    57    -     -    32     Cold night. Clear
                                                       morning. Cold sunrise.
                                                       Dry north-wester.
                                                       Instruments on paper,
                                                       resting on the sand.
                                                       Very dry.

         Noon.    30.14 -      82    -     -    22     Very dry. Straight
                                                       streaks of cirri
                                                       everywhere.

         4p.m.    30.00 763    72    -     -    17     At Wady Sharmá, on sand
                                                       protected from west
                                                       wind. Bright moon,
                                                       showed halo.


Kayhak 14 begins the Coptic winter, properly speaking evening of 13th; after sunset 1 hour 51 minutes. Sea-breeze and land-winds regular today and throughout the month.

AT WADY SHARMÁ.

Dec. 23. 7a.m.    29.90 760    58    -     -    19     Instruments on box
                                                       standing on sand. Moon
                                                       with halo at night. Red
                                                       sunrise, grey clouds.
                                                       Mountains blue-grey,
                                                       brightly defined. Before
                                                       dawn moon two halos,
                                                       large and small. Fleecy
                                                       clouds. Nine a.m. clear,
                                                       sun hot.

         2.30p.m. 29.15 740    78    -     -    25     Under rock in upper Wady
                                                       Sharmá. Streaky cirri.
                                                       Sun hot; air cool.
                                                       Little sea-breeze, kept
                                                       off by hills.


Arrived at the “White Mountain,” and stayed there a week.

         4p.m.    29.12 740    75    -     -    28     At Jebel el-Abyaz, on
                                                       box behind tent
                                                       sheltered from wind. Air
                                                       quite still; streaky
                                                       cirri. Camp Jebel el-Abyaz, say, 800 feet

                                                       above sea. Felt very
                                                       dry.


AT JEBEL EL-ABYAZ.

Dec. 24  7a.m.    29.10 738    61    -     -    29     In mess tent on mess
                                                       table. Cold. Mottled
                                                       clouds east and zenith.
                                                       Grey bank to sea
                                                       reddened by sunrise,
                                                       like storm clouds. Rain
                                                       here from Azyab ("south-east"). Sunrise at

                                                       Cairo, 6.55 a.m.

         Noon.    29.00 737    64    63    55   33     Suspended instruments.
                                                       Grey day: cold breeze
                                                       from east. Cold comes
                                                       only from wind; when no
                                                       breeze, very mild.
                                                       Getting greyer and
                                                       colder. Very like rain--
                                                       heavey clouds.

         3.10p.m. 29.00 737    64    64    52   28     Wind west, cold and raw.
                                                       Air grey and cold.
                                                       Evening cold; clouds
                                                       dispersed, sun came out.
                                                       Wind to west, inclining
                                                       to north.


Small thermometer shows higher than Casellás because in brass case; not so well exposed to air.

Dec. 25. 7a.m.    29.10 739    50    50    45   29    Morning cool and clear.

         Noon.    29.20 -      72    68    55   21     Very clear, still, and
                                                       hot. Slight breeze from
                                                       sea (west). Sun strong.
                                                       Swarms of flies. Dry
                                                       bulb in sun, 73 degrees;
                                                       wet, 60 degrees.

         3p.m.    29.16 741    72    69    54   15     Cool and gentle breeze
                                                       from sea, dispersing the
                                                       swarms of flies. At
                                                       times "sand-devil" from
                                                       north-west.


All this day’s observations taken on writing table in large tent. Night cold: cold severest after two a.m. and before sunrise. Sky at night perfectly clear. Wind from north turning to east, a Barri (“land-breeze”). Height of Jebel el-Abyaz above tents, by aneroid = 350 feet (29.20 — 28.85 = 0.35).

Dec. 26. 7.15a.m. 29.21 743    48    46    43   22     In tent. Sky perfectly
                                                       clear.

         Noon.    29.26 -      76    77    55   6      Sun very hot. Air quite
                                                       still. Fleecy clouds
                                                       from west over the sun.

         4.45p.m. 29.23 743    73    69    55   8      Sun cooler. Air
                                                       perfectly clear.

Dec. 27. 7a.m.    29.16 740    50    49    43 5 3      In tent. Morning cold
                                                       and clear: few flecks of
                                                       cloud to east. Air feels
                                                       intensely dry.

         12.30p.m.29.23 743    77    74    58   9      Fine cirri high up. Sky
                                                       blue. Sun veiled at
                                                       times. Very little wind,
                                                       a breath from north.

         3.20p.m. 59.16 742    80    77    56   6      Sky with filmy white
                                                       clouds, thicker at west.
                                                       Sun hidden; very hot at
                                                       noon (rain-sun?). Not a
                                                       breath of air. Sense of
                                                       intense dryness. Ink
                                                       evaporates at once. Cool
                                                       breeze started up
                                                       shortly after 3.30 p.m.
                                                       from west, then clouds
                                                       thickened. Thermometer
                                                       fell 4 degrees.


Cool evening; quite clear. Fevers and feverish colds begin to show themselves in camp. Minimum thermometer during night — No. 1, 45 degrees; No. 2, 46 degrees; French, 15–1/2 degrees (Centigrade).

Dec. 28  7a.m.    29.10 739    55    53    46   10     In tent. Still. Neither
                                                       warm nor cold. Mottled
                                                       clouds.

         Noon.    29.13 740    78    72    58   4      Clouds thin. Sun very
                                                       hot (rain-sun?). Light
                                                       breeze from north-west.

         3p.m.    29.10 739    79    72    58   -      Feels intensely dry.
                                                       Hot, close. Heavy
                                                       clouds, and purple to
                                                       west. Gusts from west.


No wind. Morning and evening very mild. At eight p.m. dark cloud moving from south-west to mountains. Drops of rain; then stars. Minimum thermometers during night, both 48 degrees. None of the maximum will act.

Dec. 29. 7a.m.    29.10 738    58    58    54   9      In tent. Cool, clear.
                                                       Blue-pink in west. Light
                                                       sea-breezes from west.
                                                       Must be awfully hot in
                                                       summer. In closed tent
                                                       at eleven a.m., 92
                                                       degrees.

         Noon.    29.13 -      77    75    60   10     Nice breeze from sea
                                                       (west), bending to
                                                       north.

         4p.m.    29.00 739    82    79    59   5     Warm and quite still.


Mean of nineteen aneroid observations at Jebel el-Abyaz = 29.13.

MARCH FROM JEBEL EL-ABYAZ TO WADY SHARMÁ.

Dec. 30. 7a.m.    29.10 739    56    -     -    7      Clear, still. No speck
                                                       of cloud. Moon Náim
                                                       (sleeping = *[figure]).

         5p.m.    29.88 758    66    -     -    8      Air quite clear. Camped
                                                       at Sharmá. Change to
                                                       shore pleasant and soft.


Noon on journey; sun very hot. Evening still. Violent weather at night; cold and comfortless. Abated somewhat after sunrise.

AT SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT OPEN NORTH AND SOUTH.

Dec. 31. 7a.m.    29.88 758    59    -     -    7      Wind cold and dusty. Sky
                                                       perfectly clear. A few
                                                       light mist-clouds on
                                                       mountain-wall.

         Noon.    29.94 760    75    73    58   6      Wind still. Sun much
                                                       warmer.

         3p.m.    29.90 -      74    71    58   3     Wind cool; some dust.


Clouds about sunset sailing out of Suez Gulf, forming archipelago of sky islets. Dark bank to south. Minimum thermometer at night = 42 degrees.

AT SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT OPEN NORTH AND SOUTH (about 100 feet above sea-level).

Jan. 1.  7a.m.    29.90 759    53    50    45   10     Clear, fine, quite
                                                       still. Nice breeze began
                                                       about nine a.m.

         Noon.    29.97 -      71    69    57   4      Cold. North wind high.
                                                       Light clouds to west;
                                                       the rest clear.

         3p.m.    29.94 760    73    72    61   4      Clouds to west from Suez
                                                       sea.


High wind fell before midnight. Cold — sat in tent. Flies troublesome everywhere. Minimum at night, 42–43 degrees.

AT WADY SHARMÁ, IN BIG TENT.

Jan 2.   7a.m.    29.98 761    53    -     -    10

         3p.m.    30.00 762    76    72    58   3      Cool breeze from north.
                                                       No signs of clouds. Sun
                                                       hot and air cool.


Evening no wind, no clouds. At night high cold wind from east, seems to pierce clothes. Lasted till morning and sun well up. Minimum thermometer, No. 1 = 45 degrees; No. 2 = 46 degrees.

Jan. 3.  7a.m.    29.92 760    58    57    47   3      Dawn comfortless. Cold.
                                                       Fire in tent. Sand
                                                       blowing. Air highly
                                                       electrical.

         Noon.    29.90 762    77    76    61   2      Wind still. Hot sun.

         3p.m.    29.91 759    76    74    58   4      Hot sun. Gentle breeze.
                                                       Warm in tent.


Night very cold. Minimum thermometers, No. 1 = 40 degrees; No. 2 = 41 degrees.

Jan. 4.  "        29.83 -      52    50    -    5

         Noon.    29.93 760    81    80    60   3      Decidedly hot. No
                                                       breeze.

         3p.m.    29.90 -      78    75    63   0     Very hot and still.


In evening few fleecy clouds to south-west. Appearance of Azyab. Minimum thermometers at night, No. 1 = 36 degrees; No. 2 = 38 degrees.

AT WADY SHARMÁ.

Jan. 5.  7a.m.    29.90 -      48    45    43   6      Pink clouds south-west
                                                       and south-east. Cirri
                                                       everywhere.

         Noon.    29.87 761    79    79    67   3      Hot and still. Clear;
                                                       few cirri.

         3p.m.    29.96 760    74    71    60   0      Cool wind. Cold in
                                                       shade. Cirri to south,
                                                       at times over the sun.


Very cold at night. Saw new moon; set in fire. Planets veiled in mist. Moon Káim (points upwards = *[figure]).

Jan. 6.  7.20a.m. 29.94 760    53    51    46   8      Still, clear. Light
                                                       breeze about 10.30 a.m.

         Noon.    29.80 761    82    -     -    4

         4p.m.    29.96 761    76    -     -    3      Clear and hot. Sunset,
                                                       red cirri. Water very
                                                       cold. Moon clear.

Jan. 7   "        29.98 758    52    -     -    18     At Sharmá. Cool and raw.
                                                       Few clouds to south and
                                                       south-west.

         Noon.    30.08 764    78    -     -    26     At 'Aynúnah, in big
                                                       tent. Fresh wind from
                                                       north. Air much damper;
                                                       more pleasant.


AT ‘AYNÚNAH.

Jan. 8.  7a.m.    30.11 763    55    -     -    22     Morning still--windless
                                                       Breath from east. Warm
                                                       and pleasant.

         Noon.    30.02 767    77    74    61   13     Quite clear and dry.
                                                       Gusts of wind. Flies
                                                       very bad, even in the
                                                       waste.

         3p.m.    30.15 767    77    76    63   7


Cold high wind at night.

LEFT ‘AYNÚNAH.

Jan. 9.  7a.m.    30.04 -      63    -     -    10     Outside tent. Light
                                                       clouds everywhere at
                                                       dawn. Morning warm and
                                                       close.

         Noon.    29.91 759    80    -     -    48     At El-'Usaylah. Sky
                                                       covered with clouds. Sun
                                                       coming out.

         4p.m.    29.87 758    53    -     -    23     In tent at El-'Usaylah.
                                                       No wind.

Cool pleasant night. Rain in Mount Sinai(?).

Jan. 10. 6.45a.m. 29.85 -      56    -     -    15     Observations in open.
                                                       Cold north wind. Clear
                                                       and cirri.

         3p.m.    29.30 745    77    -     -    1      At Magháir Shúayb, under
                                                       a tree.

Night cold. High wind; shook the tents.

AT MAGHÁIR SHÚAYB.

Jan. 11. 7a.m.    29.37 747    60    -     -    20    In open, on box.

         Noon.    29.40 748    82    -     -    8     In tent.

         3p.m.    29.38 747    84    -     -    -4    Still. Air hot.

As a rule, at Magháir Shúayb we had land-breezes; cold from north and east.
Seabreezes during day, after noon.

Jan. 12. 7a.m.    29.35 746    59    -     -    3      In tent. Cool. Cirri. At
                                                       two a.m. cool fresh wind
                                                       from north.

         Noon.    29.46 747    83    -     -    -5     In tent. Hot sun. Light
                                                       clouds.

         3p.m     29.30 746    83    81    64   -9     In tent. No sun, no
                                                       wind. Thin clouds.

Night warm; wind towards morning. Mosquitoes in tamarisks of Wady. Minimum
thermometer, 52 degrees.

Jan. 13. 7a.m.    29.38 745    65    -     -    -4     Outside tent, on box.
                                                       Cloudy; little wind. elt
                                                       warm. Sun came out
                                                       strong at ten a.m.

         Noon.    29.27 744    87    87    67   -9     In big tent. Heat like
                                                       summer. Flies
                                                       troublesome, travel on
                                                       our backs.

         3p.m.    29.20 743    85    85    65   -15    Very hot. Thin clouds.
                                                       Sea-breeze.

Very hot and sultry weather: Arabs say portends rain. Wind (generally) from
north in morning; afternoon from sea.

Jan. 14. 7a.m.    29.01 740    63    63    55   0      In tent. Land-breeze set
                                                       in. Expected heavy rain,
                                                       and pitched camp higher
                                                       up.

         2.30p.m. 29.15 -      81-1/279    68   0     Taken by Mr. Clarke.

Rain began 2.30 a.m. (Jan. 15), small drops, then heavy, lull, and again
heavy; ended about 4.30 a.m. A little wind from south-west rose after rain.

The last rain was on December 7-10, 1877; violent storms accompanied it.

Jan. 15. "        29.00 -      71-1/270    66   30     By Mr. Clarke at Magháir
                                                       Shúayb. Sky all covered
; little clear to west.
                                                       Mist all over north.
                                                       Things feel damp.

         Noon.    29.06 737    76    73    65   30     All cloudy. After rain,
                                                       sultry heat of noon
                                                       quite disappeared.

         3p.m.    29.06 738    75    73    65   25     Still cloudy. Cool.

Cold nights and mornings.

Jan. 16. 7a.m.    29.20 -      48    45    42   18     No rain. Cold. Little
                                                       wind. Cloudy. No wind.

         Noon.    29.05 -      69    65    54   3      Sun hot. Cool breeze
                                                       from north as usual. No
                                                       clouds.

         3p.m.    29.25 -      69    65    52   12

Night fine and clear. Stars and moon very bright.

Jan. 17. 7a.m.    29.30 -      42    42    39   17     Clear morning. Very
                                                       cold. Land breeze.

         Noon.    29.36 745    69    66    54   18     Fine stiff breeze from
                                                       north-east.

         3p.m.    29.34 745    73    70    59   16     Fine breeze falling.

Fine clear night, moon nearly full. No clouds. Not cold. Cool at night and
towards morning. Wind rose about four a.m.

Jan. 18. 7.30a.m. 29.28 745    55    55    50   26     In tent. Cool, clear.
                                                       Gentle land-wind.

         Noon.    29.30 -      79    79    63   16    Same weather.

         3p.m.    29.25 -      81    79    62   8      Night cool. Hardly any
                                                       wind.

Jan. 19. 7a.m.    29.15 -      53    52    45   16     In tent. Cold wind from
                                                       north.

         Noon.    29.17 -      81    79    63   9      Sun hot. Cool breeze
                                                       from north. Sky clear.

         3p.m.    29.15 -      80    77    60   5

Remarkably warm pleasant night.

Jan. 20. 7a.m.    29.05 -      50    48    45   19     In tent. No wind. Air
                                                       sharp.

         Noon.    29.10 -      79    75    63   12     Light wind (south-west).
                                                       Sun hot. Sky clear.

         3p.m.    29.10 -      73    73    60   8     Cool and pleasant.

Curious moonrise. Thin clouds like volcanic smoke, separated into cirri like
sheep-skin: all said sign of heat. Night still and warm. Few stratified clouds
to west.

Jan. 21. 8a.m.    29.13 740    56    54    50   20     In tent. Cold raw wind
                                                       (El-Ayli) from north-east. High clouds. Worse

                                                       near Gulf.

         Noon.    29.20 743    68    66    55   16     High cold wind,
                                                       continuous. Bright sun.
                                                       Sky intensely blue and
                                                       clear.

         4.15p.m. 29.22 744    66    65    53   8      Cool. High wind.

Strong wind at night; fell about midnight; gusts at times. Very cold. Bad
weather at Sharm Yahárr. Fortuna ("strong wind") began January 21st, ended
January 23rd: the next gale was on night of January 28th. As a rule, the
people say; black clouds show that the wind will increase; light clouds the
contrary.

Jan. 22. 7a.m.    29.32 745    50    49    45   15     Cold and cloudy. El-Ayli
                                                       continues.

         Noon.    29.36 748    66    62    52   11     High cold north-easter
                                                       rose about 11.30. Sun
                                                       warm. Air cold.

Heavy purple clouds to north and west. Night still; occasional gusts. Eight
p.m. quite still. Mukhbir delayed by bad weather.

Jan. 23. 7.20a.m. 29.39 748    50    50    45   19     Gusts and calm. Nimbi to
                                                       west. High north wind
                                                       set in.

         Noon.    29.40 747    66    64    54   14     Cold in shade, hot in
                                                       sun. High wind.

         4p.m.    -     -      66    65    52   9      Wind still high. Dust.

Night alternately gusty and still. Warm. Mukhbir steamed back to her
anchorage, Sharm Yáhárr.

Jan 24.  7a.m.    29.29 745    55    52    47   15     Gentle breeze from
                                                       north. No clouds--sign
                                                       of no wind.

         1.30p.m. -     -      83    78    68   10     The normal hot,
                                                       windless, cloudless day.

         3p.m.    -     -      78    74    62   7      Pleasant sea-breeze. Sun
                                                       hot; air coolish.

Night warm and pleasant.

MAGHáIR SHÚAYB TO MAKNÁ (March).

Jan. 25. 7a.m.    29.30 -      61     -     -   15     On box. Fine, and
                                                       perfectly clear.

         Noon.    29.45 -      78     -     -   -      On road to Wady Makná,
                                                       riding mule. Sea-breeze
                                                       about noon, strong.
                                                       Shortly after noon heavy
                                                       clouds (from north and
                                                       west) hid the sun.

         3p.m.    30.06 -      71     -     -   23     Arrived at Makná, on
                                                       box.

Warm pleasant night. Appearance of rain. Wind from north. Moon clouded.

AT MAKNÁ.

Land and sea breezes regular. Morning and evening cool. Noon hot. Evaporation
immense. Healthy near shore; feverish up the valley. Damp air from
neighbourhood of Mount Sinai.

Jan. 26. 7a.m.    30.02 -      68    -     -    21     Cloudy. Heavy white
                                                       waves on water. Wind
                                                       west; dangerous for
                                                       ships.

         12.30p.m.30.07 -      80    77    62   21     Sun hot; sky clear.
                                                       Light fleecy clouds on
                                                       Sinai.

         3.30p.m. 30.04 743    82    80    70   18     Air and sun hot. Clear.
                                                       Sea-breeze. No gale.

Rain probably during the day in Sinai. Muttali, or "fort," of Makná showed
aneroid 760 (29).

Jan. 27. 7a.m.    30.02 -      60    59    55   35     In tent. Fine clear;
                                                       nice land-breeze. Rush
                                                       of wind at two a.m. Wind
                                                       at four a.m. Loud noise
                                                       of reef.

         1.30p.m. 30.04 -      80    76    68   28     In big tent, opening to
                                                       south. Quite clear and
                                                       bright. No clouds.
                                                       Slight sea-breeze.

         3p.m.    30.02 -      80    79    70   26    Hot and still.

Night glorious. No wind. Only sigh and sound of reef.

Jan. 28. 7a.m.    29.98 -      58    58    53    30    Perfectly still and
                                                       clear. Light land-breeze.


         12.45p.m.30.00 -      80    78    66    20    Weather breaking. Clouds
                                                       forming everywhere. High
                                                       horizontal cirri. North
                                                       wind, whistling over
                                                       country.

         3p.m.    29.98 -      80    79    67    20    Packed up wet and dry
                                                       bulbs.

At sunset high streaky cirri of red colour: all said wind. Same as at Magháir
Shúayb (January 21-23). At eleven p.m. El-Ayli (north wind from 'Akabat-Aylah?) came down upon us with a rush. Gravel like drops of rain. Tents at

once on the ground. Sky still clear--stars shining.

Jan. 29. 7.15a.m.30.02  -      62    -     -   19      In tent-hut. Wind
                                                       violent. Cold and raw
                                                       between moonrise and
                                                       sunrise.

         Noon.    30.04 -      81    -     -   13      In tent-hut. Wind (El-Ayli) gusty and violent.

                                                       Sky quite clear.

They say this gale denotes end of Zamharir ("great cold"). Wind fell about
three p.m. Mild at sunset. Wind then increased, and became very violent at
night (l0-11 p.m.); seems to beat down from above. Summit of quartz-hills, 2
obs. = 29.40

Jan. 30  7a.m.    30.06 -      62    -     -    19     In tent-hut. Mountains
                                                       perfectly clear. Fleecy
                                                       clouds to north and
                                                       south, sailing from west
                                                       to east.

         3p.m.    30.06 -      72    -     -    15     Clear and fine. Wind
                                                       falling.

Wind fell during afternoon and evening, but rose again at night; was at its
worst about eleven p.m.

Jan. 31. 7a.m.    30.06 -      67    -     -    22     In tent-but. Wind worse;
                                                       signs of blowing
                                                       everywhere. Light clouds
                                                       north and south. Mottled
                                                       clouds (cirri, mackerel-back). Gusts violent

                                                       after sunrise.

         Noon.    30.08 -      73    -     -    19     In cabin on board
                                                       Mukhbir. Wind violent.
                                                       Sky clear. White clouds,
                                                       as yet wind increasing.
                                                       Sand and dust but
                                                       mountains clear.

         3p.m.    30.09 -      78    -     -    22     On board Mukhbir. Wind
                                                       violent. Sky covered
                                                       with grey clouds.

At sunset, gleams to west and round horizon; heavy to north. Hoped for rain,
but none came. Fires alight all night. Very bad night; perhaps the worst yet
seen. Chain dragging. At nine p.m. sky clear, but wind worse.

AT MAKNÁ, ON BOARD "MUKHBIR."

Feb. 1.  7a.m.    30.08 -      70    -     -    21     Wind worse than ever.
                                                       Dark cirri to south.
                                                       Mountains clear on all
                                                       sides.

         Noon.    30.06 -      74    70    63   21     Wind very bad, turning
                                                       to east (?). Cirri
                                                       everywere: to west
                                                       formed ascending rays
                                                       like sun, extending to
                                                       zenith; to east were
                                                       crosses and lozenges.

         3p.m     30.04 -       -    70    65   -      Wind still bad. White
                                                       clouds have thickened to
                                                       south, and thinned to
                                                       north. Bases of
                                                       mountains blurred (by
                                                       dust?); summits clear.

At sunset wind lighter. Dark clouds to south, going westward from Suez. Cirri
overhead, presently disappeared; also about the horizon. At night fine
zodiacal light. Wind increased. Observations in main cabin throughout voyage.

Feb. 2.  7a.m.    30.00 -      69    70    65   22     Perfectly clear. Wind
                                                       worse.

         Noon.    30.00 -      78    -     -    21     Clear sky; only cloud,
                                                       thin white strata to
                                                       north.

         3p.m.    29.04 -      75    73    63   19     No clouds. Wind milder.
                                                       Barometer falling (sign
                                                       of wind ceasing?). Wind
                                                       getting warmer, and
                                                       bending east.

Wind less in evening, and warmer; ceased about midnight; lasted from eleven
p.m., January 28, to midnight, February 2 = five days and five nights.
Zodiacal light.

Feb. 3.  7a.m.    29.93 -      56    65    56   20     On deck (wet and dry
                                                       bulbs in main cabin).
                                                       Fresh breeze from east.
                                                       Fleecy clouds south and
                                                       east.

         Noon.    29.96 -      74    -     -    25     On deck. Fine breeze
                                                       from north.

In evening cirri to west and east. Black dots in regular lines. Night at Minat
Jinái. Very fine and clear; young moon and Venus. Deadly still. Zodiacal light
seen every night in the 'Akabah Gulf: not outside it.

Feb. 4.  7a.m.    29.92 -      74    70    67   24     En route to Nuwaybi',
                                                       along Sinai shore.
                                                       Morning grey; light
                                                       clouds everywhere. Dull
                                                       brassy sunrise. Water
                                                       dark. Wind south, felt
                                                       very damp. Sinai hills
                                                       clouded over: cirri
                                                       strata high up; nimbi in
                                                       fragments below.

         Noon.    29.86 -      74    73    68   28     Under awning on board;
                                                       going north. Sickly sun.
                                                       Cirri to east.

         3p.m.    29.80 -      75    73    66   26     Main cabin South wind
                                                       strong, increased after
                                                       noon. Clear horizon
                                                       then. Sea foaming: wind
                                                       became very strong, and
                                                       raised water about
                                                       sunset, then fell.

A regular day of south wind, blasts, mists, and gusts; calmed down in evening.
Quiet night. All day cirri and strata high up from west. Wásit sand forming
cloud.

Feb. 5.  7a.m.    30.00 -      72    68    60   9      En route to Kaláh
                                                       (Jezirat Faráun of
                                                       maps), in main cabin.
                                                       Wind north. Clouds on
                                                       hill-tops and to north--
                                                       effects of yesterday.
                                                       East mountains misty;
                                                       west clear. Mottle of
                                                       clouds.

         Noon.    29.94 -      73    70    61   7      On deck, steaming north.
                                                       Dry and wet bulbs in
                                                       main cabin. Clouds--
                                                       light cumuli to north,
                                                       east, and west; south
                                                       clear. Wind north,
                                                       light.

         3p.m.    29.97 -      75    70    59   19     In main cabin off island
                                                       El-Kaláh. Violent gusts
                                                       from west, down valleys--deflection of south

                                                       wind, lasted only few
                                                       minutes. Cloudy and
                                                       clear.

Night clear. Violent gusts from south, lasting a few minutes, then still.

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR," OFF ISLAND EL-KALÁH.

Feb. 6.  7a.m.    30.12 -      70    66    59   15     In main cabin. A regular
                                                       raw and gloomy English
                                                       morning. Clouds
                                                       everywhere--drops of
                                                       rain. Wind south,
                                                       deflected west. Gusts at
                                                       times. All felt damp and
                                                       uncomfortable.

         Noon.    30.10 -      70    65    59   26     In main cabin. Sky all
                                                       covered with clouds.
                                                       Wind from north, gusty.
                                                       Barometer rising.

         3p.m.    30.12 -      66    68    60   21     In main cabin. Sky
                                                       covered; gleams of sun.
                                                       Clear to south. Wind
                                                       north, mild.

A few drops of rain morning and evening. Pleasant quiet night.

Feb. 7.  6a.m.    30.13 -      -     62    57   19     In main cabin. Still;
                                                       fresh air; no wind.
                                                       Heavy clouds from west,
                                                       covering east-west
                                                       mountains. West mottled;
                                                       north and south clear.

         3p.m.    30.10 -      71    66    62   25     In main cabin. Cool
                                                       breeze. Hot sun. Cloudy
                                                       and clear.

Drops of rain at sunset. Wind west. Heavy rain twice at night; after midnight
wetted deck. Rain at 'Akabah from west, with clouds and winds.

FROM EL-'AKABAIT, GOING SOUTH.

Rise of tide off El-'Akabah town, one foot.

Feb. 8.  7a.m.    30.20 -      56    63    61   3      On deck. Dry and wet
                                                       bulbs in main cabin. At
                                                       sunrise heavy purple
                                                       clouds drifting over
                                                       plain, covering hills on
                                                       both sides. Cold, raw,
                                                       wet wind. Rain on Sinai
                                                       to north-west and south-west. Saw rainbow. Wind

                                                       gradually turning to
                                                       east (favourable). Play
                                                       of light and shade over
                                                       plains and hills.

         Noon.    30.15 -      65    64    57   22     In main cabin. Glorious
                                                       day. Blue sky; bluer
                                                       sea. Strong breeze.
                                                       Cloudy and clear.

         3p.m.    30.16 -      67    65    58   25     In main cabin. After
                                                       noon wind gradually
                                                       fell, and sky cleared;
                                                       became much warmer.
                                                       Steamer (five and a half
                                                       knots) beat the sailing
                                                       tender. North perfectly
                                                       clear; south and east,
                                                       fleecy clouds. Sun clear
                                                       and warm.

At sunset red cirri. Wind increased greatly. Waves following us, high and
hollow. Bad night. Wind and water high. At midnight(?), rode with head to
gale. February 9th, four a.m., turned south. Six a.m. stood for Makná (right
angles, and nearly "turned turtle").

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR."

Feb. 9.  7a.m.    30.22 -      -     64    26   26     In main cabin, off Sharm
                                                       Dabbah. Sky quite clear.
                                                       North wind colder than
                                                       ever, yet we are going
                                                       south. Beginning of
                                                       dangerous gale which
                                                       lasted till February
                                                       13th. Ugly hollow sea.

         1p.m.    30.15 -      -     66    58   28     In main cabin. Out of
                                                       'Akabah Gulf. Passed
                                                       into a summer sea. Under
                                                       lee of Tirán. On deck 63
                                                       degrees (F.).

         3p.m.    30.11 -      -     69    59   27     In main cabin, rounding
                                                       south of Jezirat Tirán.
                                                       Sky all clear, except
                                                       wind cirri over 'Akabah
                                                       Gulf and to west.

At nine p.m. halo round moon, and far from it--bad sign! Before midnight gusts
began. Increased at one a.m. (February 10). At four a.m. very violent north
wind from El-'Akabah.

Feb. 10  7a.m.    30.07 -      -     69    65   30     In cabin of Mukhbir,
                                                       south of Tirán. Water
                                                       ruffled. Clouds
                                                       everywhere. Rain on the
                                                       coast. Felt raw. Mottled
                                                       sky.

         Noon.    30.03 -      -     72    64   38     In cabin at Tirán. Sun
                                                       out at nine a.m. Clouds
                                                       and clear. Windy sky.
                                                       Cirri to west and north-west. Dark clouds to

                                                       leeward.

         3p.m.    29.94 -      -     74    65   25     In cabin at Tirán. Rain-storm to south-west.

                                                       Wind north. Sky cloudy
                                                       and clear. Cool breeze,
                                                       not high.

At four p.m. a few large drops fell. Heavy rain at El-'Akabah and on east
coast. Sand-veil over Sinaitic shore. Six p.m., wind gusty. Rain-clouds all
over coast. Wind becoming warm. At 1.15 a.m. (February 11), terrible rush and
fall of rain. Wind westing. Mild at first. Five a.m., hard Gharbi, threatening
Azyab. All mist--could hardly see the shore.

Feb. 11. 7a.m.    29.82 -      -     71    67   35     To windward of Tirán.
                                                       Howling west wind. Sun
                                                       like pale cheese.
                                                       Aneroid falling. After
                                                       seven a.m. the storm
                                                       broke, and we narrowly
                                                       escaped a wreck in two
                                                       places, Tirán and
                                                       Sináfir. Crisis of gale.

         Noon.    29.80 -      -     70    60   30     In Sináfir port, main
                                                       cabin. Wind west,
                                                       bending to south on
                                                       falling.

         3p.m.    28.20 -      -     72    65   24     In main cabin. Mist and
                                                       sand. English sun. Wind
                                                       west and warm. Sea green
                                                       and breaking.

At five p.m. the sand-mist began to clear off. Wind died away, then turned
north and north-north-east. Light scud over moon, going slowly. Patches of
blue, and stars. Barometer rising fast. Perfectly still night till midnight,
when it began to blow, about the setting of the moon. At Suez, during the
gale, red dust prevented ships seeing one another; and at Cairo trees were
uprooted.

AT SINÁFIR ISLAND.

Feb. 12  "        30.13 -      -     68    62   31     In main cabin. At 3.30
                                                       a.m. a violent Ayli,
                                                       like that of El-'Akabah,
                                                       began to blow. Gusts and
                                                       shivering water. Swept
                                                       off all sand-fog.

         Noon.    30.17 -      -     73    64   27     In main cabin. Howling
                                                       wind. Sea less, because
                                                       of ebb. Breeze fresh.
                                                       Sky clear to south; few
                                                       white clouds to north-east and west. Sun

                                                       bright and warm.

         3p.m.    30.14 -      -     75    65   24     In cabin. Wind violent
                                                       as ever, and cold from
                                                       north.

During the night the wind blew from all possible directions; north-east, and
at one time due west.

LEFT SINÁFIR FOR SOUTH.

Feb. 13. "        30.18 -      -     66    60   36     In main cabin. Howling
                                                       north wind till four
                                                       a.m., then milder.
                                                       Hardly a speck of cloud.
                                                       Fresh cool air from
                                                       north. Sea very blue.
                                                       All sail set. Mist-clouds on tallest peaks

                                                       of coast-range. Wind
                                                       diminished as we went
                                                       south. Cirri everywhere,
                                                       zenith and on horizon.

         Noon.    30.12 -      -     69    59   26     On deck. Soft pleasant
                                                       air; before cold and
                                                       hard. Influence of
                                                       El'Akabah. Thermometer
                                                       on deck 69 degrees (F.).

         3p.m     30.10 -      -     71    62   20     On board. Sky milky
                                                       everywhere with cirri.
                                                       Wind north-west, going
                                                       west.

Red sunset. Distant halo round moon--cleared off soon (a good sign), and not
well marked. Light westerly gale (No. 2).

AT SHARM YÁHÁRR.

Feb. 14. 7a.m.    30.06 -      -     64    58   22     In cabin (open).
                                                       Splendid morning. Wind
                                                       west, set in hard before
                                                       noon. Milk-and-water
                                                       sky. Should have been
                                                       kept at Sináfir.

         Noon.    30.04 -      -     71    60   20     West wind increased. Sky
                                                       clear; but SHÁRR
                                                       Mountains cloudy--
                                                       condensing moisture.

         3p.m.    30.02 -      -     71    60   20     In cabin. North-west
                                                       wind strong. Moved ship.
                                                       Heavy black clouds on
                                                       mountains.

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR" AT SHARM YÁHÁRR.

Feb 15.  "        30.10 -      -     66    58   30    In cabin.

         Noon.    30.13 -      72    -     -    35    In cabin.

         3p.m.    30.14 -      75    -     -    26     On deck. Clouds above
                                                       the mountains.

Cold north-west breeze at five p.m. Sea high. Aneroid observations at Sulphur
Mountain--foot, 30.14; top, 29.90; difference.24 = 250 feet.

Feb. 16. 7.30a.m. 30.23 -      -     63    55   20     In cabin. Aneroid
                                                       unusually high. Clear
                                                       and cloudy at mountains.
                                                       Cool air and light
                                                       breeze.

         12.50p.m. 30.23-      -     64    55   20     Cool. Wind north. In
                                                       cabin.

         3p.m.    30.20 -      -     66    56   18     In cabin. Cool. No
                                                       clouds.

Splendid night. Not a sign of cloud. Cool. White streak on the water (milky
sea, like that of Bombay, caused by fish?). Finest weather yet seen.

ON BOARD "MUKHBIR."

Feb. 17. 6a.m.    30.17 -      66    -     -    15     In cabin. Cool, clear,
                                                       splendid. Forenoon warm
                                                       and still. Sea glassy.

         Noon.    30.16 -      74    -     -    20     In cabin. Sea-breeze
                                                       came up strong at eleven
                                                       a.m.

         3p.m.    30.13 -      -     -     -    23     In cabin. Sky clouded
                                                       all the afternoon--did
                                                       not see the sun. Moon
                                                       veiled--not a nice look.

Night very cold (shivery). Wind Barri ("land-breeze").

IN MESS-TENT, OPEN TO EAST.

Feb. 18. 6.30a.m. 30.00 -      61    -     -    14     Cold and clear. Land-breeze.


         Noon.    30.04 -      78    -     -    33     Sea-breeze setting;
                                                       land-breeze stopped. Sky
                                                       perfectly clear. Sun
                                                       hot. No end of flies.

         3p.m.    30.04 -      78    -     -    22     Fierce and violent west
                                                       wind--a Gharbi, or
                                                       exaggerated sea-breeze?
                                                       Sky quite clear.

Night quite still. Cold wind stopped at nine p.m. rather suddenly.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING SECOND MARCH TO THE HIMSÁ PLATEAU, SOUTH-EASTERN
MIDIAN, BETWEEN FEBRUARY 19 AND MARCH 8, 1878.

The distance traversed comprised 222-1/4 statute miles, mostly through
unexplored country.

On return compared aneroids:--
French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 763 millimetres.
My Casella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 762     "

Difference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .001    "

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Hygr.   Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)(deg.)

Feb. 19. 6.20a.m. 30.07 65     23  In big tent at El-Muwaylah. Cool land-breeze. Sky quite clear.


         Noon.    29.82 74     23  At Wady Surr, under tree in sea-breeze.
                                   Clear sky, few white clouds. Cold land-breeze in Wady Surr at ten a.m.; cold sea-
breeze at eleven a.m.


         3.40p.m. 29.60 76     20  At Safh Wady Malayh (Malih), in big tent.
                                   Feels as if high up.

Night perfectly still, except a gust about midnight.

Feb. 20. 6.25a.m. 29.53 60     21       In big tent at Safh Wady Malayh. Clear and
                                        fine.

         11.20a.m.29.40 73     43  Under tree at base of western Gháts. Fine
                                   cool sea-breeze.

         3p.m.    29.44 78     17  At Sayl Wady el-Jimm ("water-gathering").
                                   Hot sun. Cold sea-breeze.

Night cold, with land-breeze.

Feb. 21. 6.15a.m. 29.38 64     7   In big tent at Sayl Wady el-Jimm. Clouds
                                   to north and east; air damp. High wind and
                                   clouds.

         12.45p.m.28.82 71     25  On march up Wady Sadr, under tree. Cold
                                   sea-breeze. Sky quite clear; sun warm.
                                   Awful east winds down these Wadys form the
                                   Goz or sand-heaps.

         3.30p.m. 28.86 76     7   In small tent at El-Nagwah, in Wady Sadr.
                                   Sun hot; breeze cold.

Night cold, but not so cold as we expected.

Feb. 22. 6a.m.    28.86 56     8   In big tent at El-Nagwah.

         11.50a.m.25.40 65     4   Under tree in Wady Sadr; say, 1600 feet
                                   high. White clouds. West wind (sea-breeze
                                   deflected to north) blowing. Here cold
                                   comes from wind.

         3p.m.    27.80 74     3   In big tent at Amwáh el-Rikáb, Wady Sadr.

At four p.m. cold and clouds; cumuli and cirri. West wind deflected to north.
At five p.m. thermometer in tent 66 degrees. Fire in tent. Night cold, clear,
and still. A few gusts about midnight.

AT HEAD OF WADY SADR.

Feb. 23. 6.30a.m. 27.80 53     5   In big tent foot of Gháts. Weather lovely--clear, fine, and cold. At eight a.m. sun

                                   warm, then cold wind.

         1.30p.m. 26.88 72     5   In big tent. Cold easterly gale.

         4p.m.    26.90 65     2   In small tent, same place.

Violent wind at midnight. Cold; thermometer 38 degrees.

Feb. 24. 6a.m.    26.95 48     0   At head of Wady Sadr.

                  26.15 45     0   To summit of Khuraytat el-Jils (Pass).
                                   Above the Pass, aneroid 26.25; below,
                                   26.70: difference, .55 = 450 feet. Walked
                                   down in twenty-six minutes.

         11.30a.m.26.18 56     0        In the open, under shade. Perfectly clear
                                        of clouds. Sun hot.

         3p.m.    26.26 66     -2  In big tent on Hismá plateau (short
                                   descent to camping-ground). Air clear; sun
                                   hot.

Very cold when sun sets. Gusts from east at night.

ON HIMSÁ PLATEAU.

Feb. 25. 6.30a.m. 26.30 42     3   In big tent.

         12.30p.m.27.84 74     12  At foot of Khuraytat el-Jils. Still, no
                                   wind; no clouds.

         3.30p.m. 27.83 78     17  No wind; no clouds.

Night splendidly clear and still. Felt warm.

Feb. 26. 6a.m.    27.72 64     2   In big tent on Hismá plateau. Glorious
                                   orange-coloured dawn. Mild north wind.
                                   Moon in last quarter. At eight a.m. good
                                   breeze from north; at eleven a.m. cool and
                                   pleasant breeze from east.

         Noon.    28.00 70     -8  On march in Shafah Mountains. Hot sun.
                                   Cold wind.

         3p.m.    28.30 85     -4  Camp Majrá el-Ruways. In small tent.
                                   Strong west breeze in gusts.

Night glorious at foot of the two Passes.

Feb. 27. 6a.m.    28.10 65     -4  On ground outside tent at Majrá el-Ruways.
                                   Sky overhead quite clear; a few flecks to
                                   south, low clouds to east. At 8.30 a.m.
                                   wind south. Sun at first hot; then sky
                                   cloudy.

         11.45a.m.28.48 80     3   At El-Rahabah, head of Wady Dámah, under
                                   tree. Fine sea-breeze. High white strata
                                   to north-east and south. No clouds
                                   elsewhere.

         5p.m.    28.56 76     -5  Under thorn-tree at Wady Dámah. Fleeting
                                   cirro-cumuli.

Night very cold. Not a sign of dew till we returned on board Mukhbir.

Feb. 28. 6a.m.    28.50 44     -5  At Wady Dámah, on box in open. Clouds and
                                   sea-breeze at 8.45 a.m.

         1p.m.    28.29 70     19  Under tree at Shuwák ruin. Thermometer in
                                   sun, 82 degrees. Bits of cumuli from
                                   south. At two p.m. furious wind and dust
                                   (sand-devils) scouring up valley from
                                   south, also deflected to west by Pass
                                   gorge. "Sand-devils" in Wadys Surr, Sadr,
                                   Dámah, Shuwák, and Salmá.

         3p.m.    28.19 71     16       In big tent.

A few gusts during early part of night; the rest very still. Cold and clear.

AT SHUWÁK RUIN.
Mar. 1.  6.45a.m. 25.30 46     10  Very cold; hands chilled. Land-breeze at
                                   eight a.m. At barrage (dam), aneroid
                                   28.36.

         Noon.    28.37 76     17  In small tent. Noon hot. Wind gusty--not
                                   regular and strong as yesterday.

         3p.m.    28.34 77     6   In small tent. Sky clear; air still and
                                   sultry.

Mar. 2.  6a.m.    28.30 58     11  In big tent at Shuwák. Air still. Clouds
                                   to east. Afterwards sky mottled, windy
                                   striae. At seven a.m. rainbow without
                                   rain; thin cloud north of sun;
                                   perpendicular streak, brilliant enough:
                                   lasted twenty minutes.

         9a.m.    28.75 66     -   At Shaghab ruin. Sea-breeze at eleven a.m.
                                   Clear and cool. Day slightly cloudy; sun
                                   partly hidden.

         3p.m.    28.60 86     15  In big tent at Majrá el-Wághir. Mild sea-breeze. Hot sun. High clouds.


Night windless, except few occasional gusts. Stars veiled. Grand zodiacal
light (now the regular thing). Cool and pleasant.

Mar. 3.  6a.m.    28.55 66     14  At Majrá el-Wághir, outside tent. Sky
                                   cloudy; mist to north, "mackerel's back"
                                   to east. Sea-breeze at 9.30 a.m. in Wady
                                   Dámah.

         Noon.    29.13 75     26  Under tree in Wady Dámah. Cool wind from
                                   south-west. A few clouds, getting
                                   gradually darker to west and south-west.

         4p.m.    29.20 78     15  At El-Kutayyifah (camp) under a tree. Cool
                                   south-west wind.

         6a.m.    29.30 63     16  Cold north wind. Sea-breeze at nine a.m,
                                   In big tent at El-Kutayyifab.

Mar. 4. 11.30a.m. 29.33 68     11  In shade of rock, Umm ámil.

         4p.m.    29.63 80     10  In small tent at Má el-Badi'h, Wady Salmá.
                                   Cold, stiff gale: dust-laden sea-breeze up
                                   the ugly gorge.

         5.45a.m. 29.50 60     13  At Má el-Badi'h, on box in open air. Air
                                   clear; thin threads to south.

Mar. 5. 12.30p.m. 30.06 84     -3  At Zibá, in big tent, open east and west,
                                   fronting the bay.

         2.45p.m. 30.00 82     4   At Zibá, in small tent.

AT ZIBÁ, IN CAMP (our second halt).

Mar. 6.  6a.m.    29.92 61     15  In big tent. Rather heavy clouds to east
                                   and elsewhere. Sea-breeze began at ten
                                   a.m.

         Noon.    30.04 86     10  In big tent. Air dull and heavy. "Rain-sun."


         3.45p.m. 30.00 81     3   Sky quite clear.

Storm at sunset. Heavy clouds rising over arch from west to north: all said
meant wind. At seven p.m. violent gusty gale; nearly blew down tents. Rushing
and furious rain from north-west. Gusts lasted long. Fell about eleven p.m.
Rose again very violently at midnight; then blew itself out. Followed by cold
air. Rain lasted about one hour; damped the ground, and left deep puddles in
the rock-hollows.
Never had thunder and lightning in Midian.

Mar. 7.  6a.m.    31.12 58     15  At Zibá, on box. Cold and clear. A few
                                   clouds to west.

         11.30a.m.29.96 74     19  At Jebel el Ghál, in shade in the open.
                                   Fine west wind.

Night and morning cold. On summit of Jebel el-Ghál, aneroid 29.75.

Mar. 8.  6a.m.    30.04 51     11  At Máyat el-Ghál (camp), on box.

March 8th is the 30th (last day of) Imshir (February), 1094.
March 9th is the 1st of Barmáhát (March). See Chap. I. p. 22.
In the early days of Barmáhát they expect the Husum or violent wind which
destroyed the tribe of Ad.
After seven nights and eight days begins the Bard el-Agúz, or "old man's
cold."
On Barmáhát 12 (March 20) is the Intikál el-Shams, or "vernal equinox;" after
which the weather becomes warmer.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD "MUKHBIR" IN SHARM YÁHÁRR, BETWEEN MARCH 8 AND
MARCH 12, 1878.

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Dry   Wet  Hygr. Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 8.  12.40p.m.30.08 74     -     -     18   Main cabin, Mukhbir.

Mar. 9.  7a.m.    30.10 20     69    62    -    In cabin.

         12.30p.m.30.13 73     72    64    -    Quite clear. Fresh sea-breeze.

         3p.m.    30.11 75     74    64    -      Clouds white and streaky
                                                  everywhere.

In the evening clouds on hills and mountains, especially the SHÁRR; elsewhere
clear. Red sunset, grand. At night dew heavy on board Mukhbir; gunwales wet in
morning. Moon with kind of half halo round her. Night very hot--sign of coming
storm.

At noon compared ship's (Mukhbir)
mercurial barometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  773 millimetres.
With my aneroid by Casella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  765 millimetres.
And (Mr. Duguid's) aneroide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  765 millimetres.
Difference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -008 millimetres.
On December 19, 1877, ship's difference. . . . . +007 millimetres.
Difference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. +001 millimetres.

Mar. 10. 6.30p.m. 30.12 73     69    61    -      In cabin. Clouds on SHÁRR like
                                                  flights of birds, low-lying
                                                  banks to south. Morning
                                                  slightly muggy: no breeze.

         Noon.    30.12 76     75    60    -      In cabin. Gentle sea-breeze.
                                                  Sky quite clear.

         3p.m.    30.11 76     76    66    -      Cool, pleasant sea-breeze.

Fine night, pleasant and cool.

Mar. 11. 6a.m.    30.10 73     68    65    -      In cabin. Splendid morning.

         Noon.    30.10 -      80    64    -      In cabin. Glorious day; sea-breeze cool and fresh.


         3.30p.m. 30.05 78     77    65    -      In cabin. Sea-breeze lively
                                                  and strong.

Mar. 12. 7a.m.    30.04 -      67    61    -      In cabin. Warmish. Splendid
                                                  sunrise on SHÁRR; cold to
                                                  north, warmer tints in centre,
                                                  and glowing red-yellow flush
                                                  to south.

         3p.m.    30.03 78     77    70    -      In cabin. Fine cool sea-breeze.


Tides high and low (March) pier shows difference of three feet in rise, about
the midlength of Sharm Yáhárr.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING EXCURSION (SECOND MARCH) ON
AND AROUND THE SHÁRR MOUNTAIN, BETWEEN WEDNESDAY,
MARCH 18, AND MONDAY, MARCH 18, 1878.

The distance traversed comprised 59 miles.

On return compared aneroids:--
French (left on board Mukhbir) . . . .  758 millimetres.
My Casella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  756   "
Difference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  002   "

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Hygr.   Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)(deg.)

Mar. 13. 6.20a.m. 29.96 66     23  On deck of Mukhbir. Cool land-breeze; hot
                                   at nine a.m. Sea-breeze at 10.45. At Wady
                                   Sanawiyyah aneroid 29.60.

         3p.m.    29.26 82     13  Under tree (acacia, but shady). Grand sea-breeze from one to three p.m.


Warm night under the SHÁRR, stones retaining heat. Moon misty. Very heavy dew,
like rain; wetted boxes; saw for the first time inland. Will last for some
three months, and must greatly assist vegetation.

Mar. 14. 6a.m.    29.30 68     28  In big tent. All the sky clouded over as
                                   if rain coming. Sea-breeze 10.30.

         Noon.    29.60 88     28  Camp at Safh Wady Kusayb. Cloudy and
                                   sultry all day. Little sun, except from
                                   nine till eleven a.m. Rain-heat; seems to
                                   threaten rain.

         3p.m.    29.56 86     23  In big tent. Sultry-feels like storm.

At night, violent storm of wind from north-east, with nasty warm gusts. The
people call it Sabáh, probably for Sabá, the "Zephyr"--the Bád-i-Sabá of
poetry; also El-Farawi, because it blows at night. Big tent down in a moment,
as at Makná. N.B.--No windstorm on the coast. At foot of Abú Sháar Pass,
aneroid 28.80; at foot of quartz-vein (wall), 28.50.

Mar. 15. 6a.m.    29.50 76     1   In big tent at Safh Wady Kusayb, north-east wind still blowing. No dew in

                                   morning.

         11.45a.m.29.22 93     -5  In Wady Surr. Curious windy cirri to west.
                                   Wind blew itself out in Wady Surr.
                                   Pleasant sea-breeze from south.

         3p.m.    28.93 100    14  In big tent at Safhat el-Wúayrah, Wady
                                   Surr. Cloudy. Wind from south, a deflected
                                   sea-breeze.

ASCENDING SHÁRR MOUNTAIN.

Mar. 16. 6a.m.    29.86 70     2   On box outside tent. Morning grand; still,
                                   clear, warm, and dry. At seven a.m., going
                                   uphill, aneroid 28.20; at 7.35, half-way
                                   up, 27.70.

         9a.m.    26.83 63     3

         Noon.    26.70 82     -   Under rock. Pleasant sea-breeze from
                                   north-east. Sun hot; day quite clear.

         3p.m.    26.76 86     3   Shade of rock, summit of outlier. Strong
                                   wind from west.

Mean of two observations on summit of outlier, 26.79 = 3,200 feet above sea-level.


EN ROUTE TO THE COAST.

Mar. 17. 9a.m.    28.36 80     3   Under tree. Very hot sun that tired all.
                                   Breeze at 8.30 a.m.

         11a.m.  28.76(?)93    -   Same place. At summit of Pass el-Kuwayd,
                                   aneroid 28.13; in Wady Kuwayd, 28.20. Very
                                   small descent to 28.50, say 400 feet.

         3.40p.m. 28.65 90     -9  In big tent.

ON THE RETURN MARCH TO SHARM YÁHÁRR.

Mar. 18. 4.20am   28.63 73     -4  Complete change of climate. No Khamsin today. Fine sea-breeze in puffes at 9:30

                                   a.m.; came up strong about noon.

         11.45am  29.43 91     5   Under tree in Wady el-Bayzá.

On March 17th began what our Egyptians called the Khamsin, and the Arabs El-Dufún (Bedawin, Dafún) generically; and specifically Dufún el-Suráyyá ("of the

Pleiades""). Sky dark without clouds. At night, yellow clouds over moon. Gusts
alternately hot and cold. Highly electrical; few could sleep at night. Tents
left open. It was followed by damp and gloomy weather, which the Arabs
attribute to the Intikál el-Shams ("vernal equinox"). This began on March
19th, and lasted till the 22nd. Aneroid falls lower than we have yet seen it.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STEAMER "SINNÁR," BETWEEN MARCH 18 AND MARCH
20, 1878.

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Dry   Wet  Hygr.   Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 18. 3p.m.    29.91 84     -     -     24     In main cabin. A few light
                                                  clouds.

Mar. 19. 7a.m.    29.83 -      70    64    -      Under deck awning. Morning
                                                  still, calm, and muggy. Clouds
                                                  everywhere. Presently cool
                                                  land-breeze came up. Regular
                                                  Khamsin at eight a.m.

         Noon.    29.80 -      79    71    -      In captain's cabin. Cloudy and
                                                  cool.

         3p.m.    29.76 -      79    70    -      In captain's cabin. Afternoon
                                                  sultry. Wind Azyab, and from
                                                  south. Seems to threaten a
                                                  storm. Heavy clouds from west
                                                  and north-west.

Mar. 20. 7a.m.    29.82 -      75    71    -      In captain's cabin. Sultry,
                                                  "juicy" morning.

         Noon.    29.75 -      76    70    -      Dark and cloudy. Cool wind
                                                  from south-west.

         4p.m.    29.80 -      76    68    -      In captain's cabin. Sultry
                                                  air; no breeze; nasty and
                                                  damp. Cloudy all over. A storm
                                                  somewhere (Alexandria? Suez?).
                                                  Swell on sea, breaking on
                                                  south reef; comes from north-west. Weather looks like that

                                                  of Europe.

About eight p.m. a cool draught from north. No moon or stars. Expect it to end
either in a gale or in heavy rain. It ended on morning of March 22nd, with a
fine north wind; and at 9.10 p.m. with slight earthquake.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STEAMER "SINNÁR," DURING VOYAGE FROM SHARM
YÁHÁRR TO EL-WIJH, EL-HAURÁ, ETC., BETWEEN MARCH 21 AND MARCH 29, 1878.

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Dry   Wet  Hydg.   Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

STEAMING SOUTH.

Mar. 21. 7a.m.    29.76 -      75    71    -      In captain's cabin. Aneroid
                                                  very low. Wind south-west.
                                                  Ugly, gloomy weather.
                                                  Mountains misty. Very slight
                                                  roll in sea--became heavy in
                                                  afternoon--mar vecchio (Bahr
                                                  madfún). Bursts of half sun
                                                  after nine a.m.

         12.40p.m.29.84 -      77    71    -      Aneroid rising. At noon sea
                                                  quite calm and oily. Shortly
                                                  after, sea-breeze from west
                                                  set in. About one p.m. made
                                                  sail; rolling began. More sun.
                                                  Sails down. At two p m.
                                                  rolling heavy, cross sea (mar
                                                  vecchio).

         3.30p.m. 29.85 -      76    73    -      Damp increases.

After five p.m. sky clearer and weather finer, but still dark to south. Stars
veiled.

IN MARSÁ DUMAYGHAH.

Mar. 22. 6.15a.m. 29.92 -      73    66    -      In cabin. Morning cool. Wind
                                                  north. Total change of
                                                  weather. Sky clear, except
                                                  cirri, and wind increased.
                                                  White "horses" outside. All
                                                  nature gay.

         Noon.    30.01 -      79    65    -      In cabin. Damp disappeared.

         3p.m.    30.90 -      74    64    -      Fine, strong, bright sea-breeze. North wind,

                                                  threatening to blow hard.
                                                  Cloudy and clear. Windy sky.

At 9.10 p.m. earthquake from north to south; lasted twenty seconds; followed
by strong north wind, which lasted only a short time. So end the Equinoctials.

Mar. 23. 6a.m.    30.00 -      70    61    -      At Dumayghah. In cabin.
                                                  Glorious morning; cool, calm,
                                                  bright. Zephyr from north. At
                                                  noon a few wind-clouds and
                                                  cirri to north and west. Very
                                                  heavy rolling (mar vecchio)
                                                  from north-west. Long waves.

         3p.m.    29.98 -      74    65    -      At El-Wijh. Pleasant, cool
                                                  north wind. Afternoon cloudy
                                                  and cold, as if wind came
                                                  through rain.

Cleared in the evening. Saw stars.

AT EL-WIJH, IN PORT.

Mar. 24. 5.45a.m. 29.94 -      71    68    -      In cabin. Grey, cloudy
                                                  morning. No cold.

         3p.m.    29.98 -      74    65    -      In cabin. Fine north breeze.
                                                  Warm sun. Air cool. Wind-clouds to east; the rest blue.

                                                  Sky wondrous clear.

At 4.30 p.m. left El-Wijh, and steamed nearly due south-west. Fine breeze and
long waves from north-west. Wind and waves fell. Rolled horridly from seven
p.m. to midnight: no ballast; very bad steering: then turned south-east, and
movement somewhat improved. Very heavy dew. Zodiacal light clear.

IN CABIN AT SEA.

Mar. 25. 7.30 a.m.30.04 -      73    68    -      Marvellous fine morning. Wind
                                                  north. Glorious day.

         12.15p.m.30.01 -      75    64    -      Near El-Haurá. Lovely day.
                                                  Steady north breeze.

         4p.m.    29.97 -      77    69    -

NEAR EL-HAURÁ.

Mar. 26  6a.m.    29.94 70     -     -     36     In cabin. Red morning, warm
                                                  and still. Sea oily. Light
                                                  mists. Venus throws shadow.
                                                  Very heavy dew--all wet.

         12.15p.m.29.91 -      74    70    -      Same place. Warm sun; cool
                                                  breeze from north.

         3.20p.m. 29.87 -      78    74    -      At sea. Cirri and wind-clouds
                                                  to east and nearly everywhere.

Weather fine, yet glass falling. Damp air. Hence (possibly) many have colds,
coughs, and hoarseness. Wind-clouds, but clear to north. Dew very heavy.

RETURNING NORTH TO EL-WIJH.

Mar. 27. 7a.m.    29.87 -      73    68    -      In captain's cabin Dew-clouds
                                                  everywhere. Air very damp.

         11.45a.m.29.98 -      78    70    -      Air still and pleasant.

         3p.m.    29.85 -      78    72    -      Day decidedly hot and damp.
                                                  Aneroid very low.

Mar. 28. 6.30a.m. 29.89 -      70-1/2 68   -      In cabin. Dew wetted tents and
                                                  decks like heavy shower. Sky
                                                  all dew; air feels soppy.
                                                  Violent wind from north-west.
                                                  Ship rolling.

         1p.m.    29.97 -      70-1/2 67   -

Mar. 29. 7a.m.    29.97 71     -     -     33     In cabin. Strong, cold north
                                                  wind. Men coughing like cries
                                                  of camels. Sky very clear.
                                                  This kind of storm is called
                                                  Hawwá el-'Uwwah ("last storm
                                                  of March"), and blows fourteen
                                                  days. Followed by El-Ni'ám el-Kabir ("greater"), and El-
Saghir ("less"); continues

                                                  forty days.

         6p.m.    28.78 74     -     -     30     At Fort El-Wijh, two hours'
                                                  journey up the valley.

Fine day on seaboard--not much gale. Wind north-west. Night cool, but no dew.
     Ship's barometer,   6 a.m.,   30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 64 deg.
     Ship's barometer,   noon,     30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 76 deg.
     Ship's barometer,   3 p.m.,   30.7 Wind north-west. Ther. (F.) 76 deg.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING THIRD MARCH, FROM EL-WIJH TO EL-BADÁ AND BACK,
BETWEEN MARCH 30 AND APRIL 11, 1878.

Compared ship's (Sinnár) mercurial barometer, 30.07 (64 deg. F.), with
anerold, 30.01; difference, aneroid,--0.06.

On return compared ship's (Sinnár) mercurial barometer, 29.99, with aneroid,
29.86; difference, aneroid,--0.13.

Date.   Time.  Aneroid Ther. Dry   Wet  Hydg.   Remarks.
               Inches. (deg.)Bulb. Bulb.(deg.)

Mar. 30. 5.30a.m. 29.70 64     -     -     24     At Fort El-Wijh, on box before
                                                  tent. Cold and cloudy morning.
                                                  Moon and stars veiled.

         Noon.    29.55 90     -     -     43     In camp at Umm el-Karáyát--
                                                  deep valley. Puffs of sea-breeze from south. Strong sun.


         3.15p.m. 29.50 86     -     -     29     In big tent at Umm el-Karáyát--lat. 26 deg. 13'. Sun very

                                                  hot. Fresh and strong sea-breeze from east (?).


Cool and pleasant night. No sign of dew. Climate healthy. Garrison at Fort El-Wijh in excellent condition.


Mar. 31. 5a.m.    29.44 45     -     -     19     In big tent at Umm el-Karáyát.
                                                  Very clear, still morning.
                                                  West pink. At sunrise wind,
                                                  and hot and cold puffs (south-east and land-breeze).


         11.10p.m.29.46 90     -     -     -3     At Wady el-Kubbah, under tree.
                                                  Very hot. Wind shifting from
                                                  east to west (sea-breeze).
                                                  Stones in sun so hot that they
                                                  cannot be held. At noon
                                                  regular Khamsin; air sandy.

Top of Jebel el-Kubbah, aneroid 29.34; in valley below, aneroid 29.46 (47?);
height, 120 feet.

         3p.m.    29.30 94     -     -     -20    At Máyat el-Dasnah. Hot west
                                                  wind. Thermometer in big tent,
                                                  unwalled.

Night cool.

April 1.  "       29.30 63     -     -     -12    At Máyat el-Dasnah. Morning
                                                  pleasant, still, and quite
                                                  clear. No sign of dew or
                                                  Khamsin. Hygrometer
                                                  exceedingly dry. Sun rose hot.
                                                  Slight breeze from eight a.m.
                                                  to 8.30 a.m., when the rocks
                                                  and stones have become
                                                  thoroughly heated. Very
                                                  refreshing: cools head; stops
                                                  perspiration.

         9.30a.m. 28.96 83     -     -     -10    At foot of Marú Rábigh, in
                                                  shade of rock.

         12.30p.m.28.92 99     -     -     -8     At Marú Rábigh, under big tent
                                                  awning. About noon a medley of
                                                  winds; hot blasts of Khamsin
                                                  from south-west, suddenly
                                                  changed to north.

         3p.m.    28.88 100    -     -     -25    At Marú Rábigh. Hot sun. Wind
                                                  in puffs, mostly south-west.
                                                  No sand in air. Stones in
                                                  sunshine too hot to hold; yet
                                                  there are flies.

This is second day of Khamsin. Comes up about ten a.m.; wind either too much
or too little. At 2.5 p.m. nearly blew tent down.

April 2. 5.10a.m. 28.98 70     -     -     -6     At foot of Marú Rubayyigh in
                                                  Wady Rábigh. Morning perfectly
                                                  still. All appearance of
                                                  Khamsin. Light horizontal
                                                  striae to north.

         Noon.    29.15 92     -     -     -18    At Abú Gezáz valley, under
                                                  tree. Much bothered by small
                                                  flies.

         3.10p.m. 29.14 100    -     -     -25    In big tent, which was again
                                                  blown down.

Third day of Khamsin. All animals weak and worn out. Wind comes up later--
11.30 a.m. to noon. Gives feeling of faintness and awful thirst. "Devils"
(Zawábah) rose high in valley with electrical whirl. Evening lowering. Wind or
rain clouds from west and north. Night still and cool. Threatening clouds east
and west.

April 3. 5a.m.    29.20 65     -     -     -13    At Abú Gezáz valley. Morning
                                                  cool (sign Khamsin gone). Sun
                                                  pleasant. Red wind-clouds to
                                                  north and east. At six a.m.
                                                  pleasant, cool land-breeze
                                                  from south.

         Noon.    28.80 90     -     -     -16    At El-Badá, under palm-tree.
                                                  Wind west. Milky sky, all
                                                  white.

         3p.m.    28.75 95     -     -     -24    In big tent. Regular Khamsin--
                                                  very nasty. Clouds to west.

Night still. Neither warm nor cool. climate fine. Colds and coughs
disappeared.

AT EL-BADÁ.

April 4. 5.30a.m. 28.70 68     -     -     -7     On box outside tent. Traces of
                                                  dew. White clouds. Looked
                                                  regularly like a Khamsin day.

         Noon.    28.74 90     -     -     2      In big tent. No sun. Air
                                                  muggy. White gleams. View
                                                  poor; like rain. Strong blast
                                                  from south-west. Heavy clouds
                                                  west and north. Drops of rain
                                                  fell three times between one
                                                  p.m. and three p.m.

         3p.m.    28.70 90     -     -     -8

At four p.m. in west a dust like general or prairie fire. A few drops of rain
fell at long intervals--could not catch any for photographs. Broad parallel
veins of white, red, and black cloud rising from east to west. Puffs of cold
wind came on, soon growing to blasts; then storm came down upon us. No thunder
or lightning. Kind of "dust-bow" in west (no rain), half the arc. Wind then
turned north and felt cold and rainy. Heavy cloud-bank to west. Forms of
mountains crept out of the brown and purple mist, half dust, half rain. All
enjoyed storm. No rain for two years has fallen here. Rainbows at El-'Akabah
(double) and at Shuwák (single). Cool and pleasant night, with dew. Mean of
six aneroid observations at El-Badá, 28.78. After leaving El-Badá mornings and
evenings delightful; sun warm in day; nights cool and pleasant. Dust at times.

April 5. 4.30a.m. 28.65 -      -     -     -8     In big tent at Badá. Dust
                                                  "devils." Great change after
                                                  rain. Very damp.

         3p.m.    28.58 86     -     -     -3     At 'Ayn el-Kurr, under shade
                                                  of rock. Strong north wind.

Though all prophesied Azyab or "south-easter," this was perhaps the finest of
all our days. Night cool. Cold wind at one a.m., of which all complained.

April 6. 5.45a.m. 28.59 58     -     -     6      At 'Ayn el-Kurr, on box
                                                  outside tent. White clouds to
                                                  south. No wind. False sea-breeze at seven a.m.; true at

                                                  ten a.m. Cloudy forenoon.

         11.45a.m.28.90 84     -     -     -    In Wady el-Kurr.

         3p.m.    28.87 87     -     -     -3     At Wady Laylah, in big tent.
                                                  Afternoon windy as usual.
                                                  Puffs from west (sea-breeze),
                                                  cold. Sky quite clear.
                                                  Mountains milky.

Night cool, but not cold.

April 7. 4.15a.m. 28.80 60     -     -     +5     In big tent at Wady Laylah.
                                                  Morning especially bright.
                                                  Lucifer like a little moon.
                                                  Breeze at eight a.m.

         Noon.    29.39 54     -     -     +2     Wady Birkat, under rock. Going
                                                  down seawards fast. Cool west
                                                  wind. Good sea-breeze. Sky and
                                                  sun clear--sun not unpleasant.
                                                  Hot in sheltered bends.

         3.10p.m. 29.46 81     -     -      4     At Abál-Ajáj, under tamarisks.

Dew at night.

April 8. 5a.m.    29.55 60     -      -    27     Outside tent at Abál-Ajáj.
                                                  Cool morning; warmer at eight
                                                  a.m. before breeze set in.

         Noon.    29.94 83     -     -     22     At the temple (El-Gasr), Wady
                                                  Hamz. Sand-dust with sea-breeze, terrible at temple and

                                                  around it. Eyes filled,
                                                  clothes covered. Saw mirage--
                                                  well defined for first time.

         3p.m.    29.90 52     -     -     20     At Wady Hamz. Hygrometer damp
                                                  on account of sea-breeze.

April 9. 4a.m.    29.92 70     -     -     25     Still, clear, and beautiful,
                                                  like all these mornings. Hot
                                                  sun. Blue sea, glassy near the
                                                  shore. Puffs of wind from
                                                  east.

         Noon.    29.90 96     -     -     -8     In big tent at Wady Mismáh.
                                                  Cool breeze from north-cast.
                                                  Heat strongly reflected from
                                                  quartz. Vegetation dreadfully
                                                  dry; plants look dead. Two bad
                                                  years.

         3p.m.    29.74 92     -     -     -18    In big tent at Abál-Marú.
                                                  Another nasty afternoon. High
                                                  west wind--sea-breeze, not
                                                  Khamsin; tent almost blown
                                                  down. Dust dreadful.

Evening charming. Night admirably cool.

April 10 4.20a.m. 29.74 -      -     -     0      In big tent at Abál-Marú.
                                                  Splendid morning; few striae
                                                  in east. Will be hot.

         4.30p.m. 29.95 -      76    73    -      On board Sinnár, captain's
                                                  cabin. Pleasant afternoon.
                                                  Cool sea-breeze.

ON BOARD "SINNÁR."

April 11.6a.m.    29.86 -      70    66    -      In captain's cabin. Felt damp
                                                  strongly after the Desert.

         12.30p.m.29.87 -      78    74    -      All complaining of heat (white
                                                  heat); damp is the cause. No
                                                  sea-breeze to speak of.

         3.15p.m. 29.83 -      79    75    -      White clouds everywhere.
                                                  Curious wind-clouds, not a
                                                  little like comets.

Heavy dew. Streets of El-Wijh wet.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STREAMER "SINNÁR," EN ROUTE FROM EL-WIJH TO
SUEZ, FROM APRIL 12 TO APRIL 17, 1878.

Date.     Time.     Aneroid  Dry   Wet    Remarks.
                    Inches.  Bulb. Bulb.

April 12. 6.20 a.m.  29.89   78    73        En route to El-Muwaylah, captain's
                                             cabin. Red sunrise. Clouds thin all
                                             about horizon. Looks like regular
                                             Khamsin day. Feels exceedingly damp.

          12.20 p.m. 20.80   79    70        In dead calm. Sea oily, like mirror.
                                             No winds. Thin white clouds
                                             everywhere.

          3.35 p.m.  29.78   81    76        In captain's cabin. Wretched day at
                                             El-Wijh and ashore. Very muggy.

At night a "bruch" (halo) of clouds round moon, and far from it.  Expect
storm. "Bruchs" round moon on 13th, 14th, and 15th.

April 13. Noon.      29.84   78    70        Anchored before El-Muwaylah. No dew
                                             in morning, and clouds everywhere.
                                             No sun seen. Very hot at noon. White
                                             clouds everywhere. Smoke of steamer
                                             hangs low. Mountains look very high.
                                             Muggy. Fine drinkytite.

          3 p.m.     29.80   83    73        At Sharm Yáhárr. Hot and sweaty.
                                             Light west wind rose after noon;
                                             soon fell.

At night clouds and "bruch."  Clear to north, thick to south.

April 14. 6.30 a.m.  29.82   78    72        At Sharm Yáhárr.  Nasty muggy
                                             morning. Light north breeze set in.

          12.40 p.m. 29.88   82    75

          3 p.m.     29.85   83    76        Warm and cloudy.

Weather threatening. The same storm that found us at Makná last year.

April 15.  "         -       -     -         Water flooded pier, and waves broke
                                             on shore.

April 16.  "         -       -     -         Ran to El-Muwaylah. Had to return to
                                             Sharm Yáhárr. Furious wind from west
                                             (Gharbi) began about nine a.m.

April 17. Noon.      29.98   77    65        In captain's cabin, Sharm Yáhárr.

          3 p.m.     29.92   76    65

Wind changed to north.  Weather became cool and pleasant. Gale still, but
shows signs of abating.

On April 18th weather somewhat abated. Stopped at El-Mawaylah to drop Sayyid
'Abd el-Rahim; and steamed off for Suez, where we arrived on 20th.  Voyage
very slow in teeth of north wind. Yet at Suez had had south wind for some
days, and congratulated us upon the fact.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN BY MR. DAVID DUGUID, BETWEEN JANUARY 8 AND FEBRUARY 1, 1878.

(He used the French aneroide and the Centigrade thermometer bought at Cairo.)

Date.     Time.     Aneroid      Thermometer  Remarks.
                    Millimetres. Centigrade.
                                 (deg.)

Jan. 8.   Noon.     768          25           At Sharmá camp.

Jan. 9.   Noon.     768          25           Ditto.

Jan. 10.  Noon.     761          26           Ditto.

Jan. 11.  Noon.     763          19           Ditto.

Jan. 12.  Noon.     763          19           Ditto.

Jan. 13.  Noon.     760          30           Ditto. Very hot.

Jan. 14.  Daylight  760          20
           (?)      755          25           Very hot.
          8 p.m.    758          23

Jan. 15.   (?)      757          21
           (?)      757          25           Hot.
          Nightfall 759          20

Jan. 16.  Daylight  762          18           Mr. Duguid marched from Sharmá to El-Muwaylah.

Jan. 17.  Sunset.   768          25           On board Mukhbir at Sharm Yáhárr.

Jan. 18.  Sunrise.  766          22           On board Mukhbir.
           (?)      766          23           Ditto.
          Sunset.   764          28           Ditto. Hot.

ON BOARD.

Jan. 19.  Sunrise.  763          21
          Noon.     762          25
          Sunset.   763          25

Jan. 20.  Sunrise.  761          21
          Noon.     762          25
          Nightfall 762          28           Hot

Jan. 21.  Sunrise.  763          23           Bad weather at Sharm Yáhárr.
          Noon.     763          24
          Sunset.   767          25

Jan. 22.  Sunrise.  769          19           Mukhbir delayed by bad weather.
          Noon.     768          24

Jan. 24.  Noon.     767          24

Mr. Duguid steamed out of Yáhárr for Makná. Anchored off Sináfir Island.

Jan. 25.  Sunrise.  767          23           Reached Makná.
          Noon.     766          24
          Sunset.   765          25

Jan. 26.  Sunrise.  764          23           On board Mukhbir.
          Noon.     763          27
          Sunset.   763          29

Jan. 27.  Sunrise.  765          22           Ditto.
          Noon.     763          23
          Sunset.   763          27

Jan. 28.  Sunrise.  763          21           Ditto.
          Noon.     762          24
          Sunset.   762          22

Jan. 29.  Sunrise.  763          20           Ditto.
          Noon.     762          22
          Sunset.   762          23

Jan. 30.  Sunrise.  766          20           Ditto.
          Noon.     764          24
          Sunset.   765          24

Jan. 31.  Sunrise.  765          22           Ditto.
          Noon.     764          23
          Sunset.   764          23

Feb. 1.   Sunrise.  765          21           Ditto.
          Noon.     764          22

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STEAMER "MUKHBIR," BY MR DAVID DUGUID (DURING OUR SECOND
JOURNEY), BETWEEN FEBRUARY 18 AND MARCH 8, 1878.

Date.     Time.     Aneroid      Thermometer   Remarks.
                    Millimetres. Centigrade.
                                 (deg.)

Feb. 18.  7 a.m.     764           18          Clear sky. Light breeze.
          Noon.      763           23          Same weather.
          5 p.m.     764           23          Clear sky. Good breeze.

Feb. 19.  7 a.m.     764           20          Clear sky. Light wind.
          Noon.      764           23          Light wind. Few clouds in east.
          5 p.m.     764           24          Clear sky. Light wind.

Feb. 20.  7 a.m.     765           20          Clear sky. Light east wind.
          Noon.      765           21          Clear sky. Light north-west wind.
          5 p.m.     764           23          Clear sky. Light east wind.

Feb. 21.  7 a.m.     765           20          White clouds all round. Light east wind.
          Noon.      766           23          Few clouds to south. Light north-west wind.

Feb. 22.  7 a.m.     765           20          Few clouds to east. Light west wind.
          Noon.      764           22          Few clouds to east. Good north-west breeze.
          5 p.m.     764           22          Few clouds to west. Light north wind.

Feb. 23.  7 a.m.     764           19          Clouds to south-west. No wind.
          Noon.      765           21          Clouds to east. Light north-west wind.
          5 p.m.     765           22          Few clouds to east. Light north-west wind.

Feb. 24.  7 a.m.     767           19          Clear sky. No wind.
          Noon.      768           22          Clear sky. Light north wind.
          5 p.m.     768           24          Same weather.

Feb. 25   7 a.m.     769           20          Clear sky. Light east wind.
          Noon.      769           22          Clear sky. Light west wind.
          5 p.m.     768           24          Clear sky. No wind.

Feb. 26.  7 a.m.     766           20          Clear sky. Light east wind.
          5 p.m.     766           20          Same weather.

Feb. 27.  7 a.m.     762           20          Few clouds to south. Light north-east wind.
          Noon.      762           23          Clear sky. Light north wind.
          5 p.m.     761           25          Clear sky. Light west wind.

Feb. 28.  5.p.m.     764           23          Heavy clouds to west. Strong west wind.

Mar. 1.   7 a.m.     767           20          Few clouds in south. Light north wind.
          Noon.      767           23          Clear sky. Good north-west breeze.
          5 p.m.     765           22          Few clouds to west. Light wind from west.

Mar. 2.   7 a.m.     765           20          Clouds all round. Light east wind.
          Noon.      765           23          Clouds all round. Light west wind.
          5 p.m.     764           24          Clouds all round. Light north wind.

Mar. 3.   7 a.m.     762           20          Few clouds to east. No wind.
          Noon.      763           22          Few clouds to south. Good north-west breeze.
          5 p.m.     763           23          Few clouds to north. Good west breeze.

Mar. 4.   7 a.m.     767           21          Clear sky. Light breeze from east.
          Noon.      768           23          Clear sky. Light breeze from west.
          5 p.m.     767           24          Clear sky. Light breeze from north.

Mar. 5.   7 a.m.     764           20          Clear sky. Light east wind.
          Noon.      764           22          Clear sky. Good breeze from east.
          5 p.m.     762           25          Light clouds all round. North-west wind.

Mar. 6.   7 a.m.     763           20          Heavy clouds to east. Light east wind.
          Noon.      763           23          A few clouds to east. Light west wind.
          5 p.m.     762           24             Dark clouds all round.  Strong west wind. At ten
                                        p.m. gale from west, with some flashes of
                                        lightning.

Mar. 7.   7 a.m.     766           19          Clouds to south. Wind north.
          Noon.      767           23          Clear sky. Good breeze from north-west.
          5 p.m.     766           24          Clear sky. Wind north.

Mar. 8.   7 a.m.     763           19          Clear sky. Light east wind.
          Noon.      763           23          Clear sky. Light west wind.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STEAMER "MUKHBIR," BY MR. DAVID DUGUID (DURING OUR WEEK IN EL-SHÁRR), BETWEEN MARCH 13 AND MARCH 19, 1878.


Date.     Time.     Aneroid      Thermometer    Remarks.
                    Millimetres. Centigrade.
                                 (deg.)

Mar. 13.  6 a.m.     762           25           Clear sky. Good breeze. Wind west.
          Noon.      761           26           Clear sky. Light breeze. Wind west.

Mar. 14.  6 a.m.     762           21           Light clouds all over. Wind east. Light breeze.
          Noon.      764           24           Same cloudy weather, but wind from east (?).
          3 p.m.     763           26           Light clouds all round. Wind west and light.

Mar. 15.  6 a.m.     762           21           A few clouds to south. Wind east and light.
          Noon.      761           26             Light clouds all round. Moderate breeze from
                                                  west.
          3 p.m.     760           27-1/2       Same weather.

Mar. 16.  6 a.m.     760           24           A few clouds to south. Light east wind.
          Noon.      760           26           Clear sky. Wind south-west. Light breeze.
          3 p.m.     759           29           Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.

Mar. 17.  6 a.m.     759           24           Clear sky. Light breeze from east.
          Noon.      760           26           Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.
          3 p.m.     760           27           Same weather.

Mar. 18.  6 a.m.     760           23           Same weather, by wind west.
          Noon.       -             -           Clear sky. Wind west. Very light breeze.

Mar. 19.  6 a.m.     759           23           Few clouds to north. Wind east, and very light.
          Noon.      758           19           Clouds to north-west. Good breeze from west.
          3 p.m.     758           29           Clouds all round. Wind south-west. Good breeze.

OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD SCREW-STEAMER "SINNÁR," BY CAPTAIN NÁSIR AHMED, BETWEEN MARCH 29 AND
APRIL 10, 1878.

Date.     Time.   Mercurial    Thermometer.   Remarks.
                  Barometer.   Fahr.

Mar. 29.  6 a.m.   30.7         64
          Noon.    30.7         76
          3 p.m.   30.7         76

Mar. 30.  6 a.m.   30.00        61            White clouds to north-east. Wind north-east.
          Noon.    30.05        77
          3 p.m.   30.00        80            Air very damp from noon to sunset. Wind west.

Mar. 31.  6 a.m.   29.9         63            Wind north-east. Never saw barometer so low.
          Noon.    30.00        80            Dry and fine.
          3 p.m.   29.98        82

April 1.  6 a.m.   29.94        66            Wind east. Fine day.
          Noon.    29.95        83
          3 p.m.   29.92        83            Damp from noon to sunset.

April 2.  6 a.m.   29.90        68            Wind east. Fine day.
          Noon.    30.00        80            Damp.
          3 p.m.   29.90        81            Red clouds at sunset.

Gale of wind at El-Wijh from north-east, began at seven p.m. Ship under shelter. Rain for half
an hour.

April 3.  6 a.m.   30.00        69            Wind north.
          Noon.    30.20        80            Damp.
          3 p.m.   30.00        79            Wind north-west at sunset.

April 4.  6 a.m.   30.00        73            Wind north-west.
          Noon.    30.03        76            Wind north-west all day.
          3 p.m.   30.00        77

Storm on seaboard. Heavy clouds, wind, and gale all day from north-west. Sinnár rolling.

April 5.  6 a.m.   29.93        66            Wind north-west.
          Noon.    30.00        76            Wind north-west.
          3 p.m.   30.00        75            Fine day.

April 6.  6 a.m.   29.93        62            Wind north.
          Noon.    30.00        74            Wind north-west.
          3 p.m.   30.00        74            Same weather.

April 7.  6 a.m.   29.94        64            Wind north.
          Noon.    30.00        79            Fine day.
          3 p.m.   30.00        76            Wind north-west from noon to sunset. Fine weather.

April 8.  6 a.m.   30.02        61            Wind east.
          Noon.    30.04        73            Fine day.
          3 p.m.   30.04        78            From noon to sunset, fine but damp.

April 9.  6 a.m.   30.04        68            Wind east.
          Noon.    30.06        77
          3 p.m.   30.06        81            Damp from noon to sunset.

April 10. 6 a.m.   30.06        64            Wind north. Fine day. Damp and north-west wind
                                       from noon to sunset.

CAIRO.

Reaching Cairo, I found Dr. T. E. Maclean from Thebes, with good instruments. He kindly compared
mine with his, and gave me the following results:--The difference between my aneroid (Casella)
and his is very slight, varying generally from 0.05 to -0.10. He advises me to neglect this
slight difference. The dry bulb is, on the whole, a little higher than his; and we have not
sufficient observations for the wet bulb. The pocket thermometer wants correction; it reads from
+1 deg. to +2 deg. 15'.

LIST OF OBSERVATIONS.

N&Z = Negretti and Zambra
No obs. = No observation.

Date.     Time.     N&Z's    My       Differ-   Casellás  Differ-  N&Z's     Casellás  Differ- N&Z's  Casellás  Differ-(1878)              standard Casella. ence for  portable  ence for dry bulb. dry bulb. ence.   wet    wet       ence for

                    aneroid.          correc-   thermo-   correc-  No.                         bulb.  bulb.     correc-No.1140.          tions.    meter     tions.   39,518.                                      tions.

                                                (deg.).

April 28. 12.30p.m. No obs.  No obs.     -      91        -1.6       89.4      90.0     -0.6   71.75  71.0      +0.75
          3p.m.     No obs.  No obs.     -      84        -2.1       81.9      82.5     -0.6   69.0   69.0       0.0
          6.30p.m.  No obs.  No obs.     -      73        -2.5       70.5      71.0     -0.5   61.0   61.0       0.0

April 29. 9a.m.     No obs.  No obs.     -      69        -2.4       66.6      67.0     -0.4   59.1   59.0      +0.1
          11.30p.m. 29.796   29.850   -.054     77.5      -2.0       75.5      76.0     -0.5   63.5   64.0      -0.5
          3p.m.     29.755   29.752   +.003     77.5      -1.5       76.0      76.0      0.0   62.75  62.0      -0.75

April 30. 9a.m.     29.828   29.850   -.022     67.5      -2.15      65.0      66.0     -1.0   59.5   60.5      -1.0
          12.30p.m. 29.822   29.850   -.028     76        -1.5       74.5      75.0     -0.5   63.75  63.5      +0.25
          3p.m.     29.799   29.802   -.003     77        -2.0       75.0      73.5     -0.5   64.0   58.0      +1.5

May 1.    9a.m.     29.959   30.100   -.141     66.5      -1.75      64.75     65.5     -0.75  57.5   58.0      -0.5
          12.30p.m. 29.945   29.952   -.007     76        -2.5       73.5      74.5     -1.0   61.5   62.0      -0.5
          3p.m.     29.984   29.902   +.082     77.5      -1.75      75.75     76.5     -0.75  61.75  61.5      +0.25

May 2.    9a.m.     30.051   30.102   -.051     66        -1.25      64.75     65.0     -0.25  58.0   58.5      -0.5
          12.30p.m. 29.978   30.000   -.022     78        -2.0       76.0      76.0      0.0   63.0   66.5      -2.5
          3p.m.     29.936   29.950   -.014     78        -1.5       76.5      No obs.   -     63.75  No obs.    -

May 3.    9a.m.     29.961   29.952   +.009     71.5      -1.5       70.0      No obs.   -     58.5   No obs.    -
          12.30p.m. 29.880   29.900   -.020     83        -2.5       80.5      81.0     -0.5   63.23  62.0      +1.25
          3p.m.     29.820   29.850   -.030     83        -1.1       81.9      82.5     -0.6   62.0   62.5      -0.5

May 4.    9a.m.     29.716   29.750   -.024     71.5      -1.25      70.25     71.0     -0.75  63.25  63.0      +0.25
          12.30p.m. 29.679   29.700   -.021     89.5      -1.25      87.75     88.0     -0.25  70.25  69.5      +0.75
          3.30p.m.  29.617   29.650   -.033     89.5      -1.0       88.5      89.0     -0.5   70.0   69.0      +1.0

May 5.    9.30a.m.  29.586   29.600   -.014     76.5      -1.5       75.0      No obs.    -    No obs.No obs.    -
          12.30p.m. No obs.  No obs.   -        83        -2.0       81.0      82.0     -1.0   69.75  68.5      +1.25
          3p.m.     29.603   29.602   -.001     82        -1.5       80.5      81.0     -0.5   69.0   67.0      +2.0

May 6.    9a.m.     29.780   29.800   -.020     70        -1.75      68.25     69.0     -0.75  63.0   63.0       0.0
          12.30p.m. 29.785   29.800   -.015     77        -2.0       75.0      76.0     -1.0   65.25  65.0      +0.25
          3p.m.     29.778   29.800   -.022     79        -2.0       77.0      77.5     -0.5   67.5   66.0      +1.5

May 7.    9a.m.     29.854   29.850   +.004     67        -2.0       65.0      66.0     -1.0   60.75  61.0      -0.25
          12.30p.m. 29.822   29.802   -.020     80.5      -1.5       79.0      79.0      0.0   66.0   65.0      +1.0

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