The Land of Midian, by Richard F. Burton

Appendix IV.

Botany and list of insects.

SECTION I.

PROFESSOR D. OLIVER’S LIST OF DRIED PLANTS presented by Captain Burton to the Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew, September, 1878.

                               Núman North   Middle  South
                               Isle.  Midian. Midian. Midian.

Anastatica hierochuntina, L.
  Kaff maryam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -      I       -       -
Morettia parviflora, Boiss.
  Eaten by cattle. Thagar;
  Gaf'aa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   -      -       I   I
Matthiola oxyceras, DC.
  forma gracilis. Animals
  eat. Hazá; Muhawwil    . . . . .    -      -       I       -
Malcolmia aegyptiaca, Spr.
  Animals eat.      Tarbeh. . . . ..  -      I       -       -
Zilla myagroides, F. Silla.
  Camels eat. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -      I       -       -
Biscutella Columnae, Ten. . . .     -      -       I       -
Diplotaxis Harra? Hárrah.
  Eaten by cattle. . . . . . . . . ..    -      -       I       -
Diplotaxis acris, Boiss.
  (Moricandia crassifolia,
  Gay) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..    -      I       -       -
Sisymbrium erysimoides, Desf.
  Salih. Eaten by camels
  and sheep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -      I       I       I
Farsetia Burtonae, Oliv.
  sp. nov. Ghurayrá . . . . . . . .      -      I       I       -
Schimpera arabica, H. and
  St. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -      I       -       -
Enarthrocarpus lyratus, F.,
  vel E. strangulatus,
  Boiss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -      I       -       -
Capparis Sodada, Br. (Sodada
  decidua, Forsk.). Tanzub.
  Red berries eaten. . . . . . . . .     -      -       -       I
Cleome chrysantha, Dcne.
  Mashteh. Pounded and
  drank for worms, etc  . . .    . . .    -      -       -       I
Cleome arabica, L. 'Ubaysd.
  Eaten by animals . . .  . . . .    . . .    -      -       -       I
Papaver Decaisnei, H. and St.    -      -       I       -
Ochradenus baccatus, Del.
  Gurzi. A large tree;
  eaten by cattle. . . . . . . .     . . .     -      I       -       I
Reseda (Caylusea) canescens,
  L. Zanabán. Eaten by
  cattle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     -      I       I       -
Reseda, an R. stenostachya(?),
  Boiss. Khizám. Eaten by
  animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -      I       -       -
Helianthemum Lippii, Pers.
  Kazim. Cattle eat. . . . . . . . .     -      -       I       -
Silene villosa, Forsk.
  'Abaysá. Too much coated
  with sand to serve as
  food for animals. . . . . . . . ..    -      I       -       -
Gypsophila Rokejeka, Del.     . . .     -      -       I       -
Polycarpaea fragilis, Del.
  Makr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..    I      -       -       -
Portulaca oleracea, L. . . . . ..    -      -       -       I
Hibiscus micranthus, L. fil.
  forma. Khusiyat Ráshid.
  Eaten by animals . . .  . . . .    . . .    -      -       I       I
Abutilon fruticosum, G. and
  P. (Sida denticulata,
  Fres.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -      -       -       I
Abutilon muticum, Don. . . .     . . .     -      -       -       I
Erodium laciniatum, Cav.
  Garná. Eaten by cattle    . . .      -      I       I       I
Monsonia nivea, Gay. . . . . . . . .    -      I       -       -
Geranium mascatense, Boiss.
  Hiláwá. Eaten by man and
  beast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     -      -       I       -
Erodium cicutarium, L. . . . . ..    -      I       -       -
Tribulus terrestris, L.
  Katbeh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     -      I       I       I
Zygophyllum simplex, L  . . .    . . .    -      -       I       -
Zygophyllum album, L.
  Gallúm. Camels eat. . . . . ..     I      -       -       -
Zygophyllum coccineum, L.
  forma (Z. propinqiuum,
  Dcne.). Muráká.
  Animals eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..    -      I       -       -
Fagonia cretica, L. van
  (F. glutinosa, Del.).
  Shikáá (North Midian);
  Darmeh (Núman) . . . . . . . .     . . .      I       I      -       -
Fagonia mollis, Del.
  Warágá; and young plant
  of same = Zarag. Animals
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..    -       I      I       -
Fagonia Bruguieri, DC.
  Jamdeh. Animals eat. . . . . ..    -       I      -       -
Dodonmaea viscosa, L. var.
  (D. arabica, H. and
  St.). Athab. . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -       -      I       -
Rhus oxyacanthoides, Dum.
  'Ar'ar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     -       -      I       -
Neurada procumbens, L.
  Sáadán. Eaten by man and
  beast. Mountain region.     . . .     -       I      -       I
Trianthema pentandra, L. . . . .     -       -      -       I
Trianthema(?). (Imperfect
  specimen.) Rumayh. Eaten by
  sheep and cattle . . .  . . . .    . . .    -       -      -       I
Aizoon canariense, L. Dááá.
  Grain pounded and eaten. ..    -       -      -       I
Gisekia pharnaceoides, L.     . . .     -       I      -       -
Cucumis prophetarum, L.
  Locality mislaid . . .  . . . .    . . . Cotyledon umbilicus, L.
  forma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -       -      I       -
Pimpinella arabica, Boiss.
  Rujaylet el-Ghuráb (Little
  Crow's-foot). Sheep eat.
  Locality astray. . . . . . . . . ..
Pimpinella (Tragium
  palmetorum? St. and H.).
  Very young. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -       I      I       -
Ferula (? sp., leaf only).
  Kalkh. Animals eat. High up
  on SHÁRR. . . . . . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . . Grammosciadium scandicinum,
  Boiss. sp. nov. . . . . . . . . . . . .    -       -       I      I
Medicago laciniata, All  . . .    . . .   -       -       I      -
Taverniera aegyptiaca, Boiss.
  (ex descr.). Shibrig. Eaten
  by animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    I       -       -      -
Indigofera spinosa, Forsk.
  Shibrig. Camels eat. Good
  fodder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -       -       -      I
Indigofera paucifolia, D. . . . .    -       I       -      -
Indigofera (stunted specimen,
  may be I. paucifolia).
  'Afar. Animals eat. . . . . . . . .    -       I       -      -
Tephrosia Apollinea, DC.
  Dalsam; Táwil. Animals eat.    -       I       I      I
Genista (Retama) monosperma,
  Del. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .    -       I       -      -
Lotononis Leobordea, Bth.
  Hurbat. Eaten by cattle.     . . .    -       I       I      -
Trigonella stellata, Forsk.
  (T. microcarpa, Fres.) . . . . .   -       I       I      -
Onobrychis(?), possibly
  O. Ptolemaica. (Barren
  specimen). . . . . . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .   -       I       -      -
Astragalus sparsus(?), Dcne. .   -       I       -      -
Astragalus Sieberi, DC.
  Ghákeh. Dry and pounded
  root mixed with clarified
  butter. Drunk as a
  restorative. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .    -       I       -      I
Astragalus Forskahlei, Boiss.
  Kidád. Camels eat. . . . . . . . .     -       I       -      -
Cassia obovata, Coll. Senna..   -       I       I      I
Iphiona scabra, DC. Zafrah.
  Camels eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    -       I       -      -
Pulicaria undulata, DC.
  Rabul. Fine perfume. . . . .     . . .    -       I       -      -
Blumea Bovei, DC.
  (B. abyssinica, Sch.) . . . . ..   -       I       -      I
Ifloga spicata, Forsk.
  Zenaymeh. Animals eat  . . .    . . .   -       -       -      I
Asteriscus pygmaeus, C. and
  Dur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .    -       -       -      I
Anvillaea Garcini, DC.
  (fide Boissier). Nukud.
  Eaten by camels and sheep. .   -       -       I      -
Anthemis, an A. deserti(?),
  Boiss. Gahwán. Camels
  eat: also called Gurrays,
  pounded and eaten with
  dates. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .   -       I       I      I
Matricaria (Chamaemelum)
  auriculata (Boiss.) . . . . . . . .    -       -       I      -
Senecio Decaisnei, DC.
  Umm lewinayn. . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .    -       -       I      I
Senecio coronopifolius, Desf.    -       I       I      -
Calendula aegyptiaca, Desf. .    -       -       I      -
Calendula aegyptiaca(?) . . . . .    -       I       -      -
Calendula, an var.
  aegyptiacae(?) . . . . . . . . . . . .     -       -       -      I
Echinops spinosus, L.
  Akhshir. Eaten by camels,
  sheep, and asses . . .  . . . .    . . .    -       -       I      I
Zoegea purpurea, Fres.
  Rubayyán. Cattle eat. . . . .      -       -       I      -
Centaurea sinaica, DC.
  Yemrár. Eaten by sheep,
  asses, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     -       I       -      I
Picridium tingitanum, Desf.
  forma. Huwwá; Tiz
  el-Kalbeh; El-Haudán.
  Eaten by man and animals. .    -       I       I      I
Urospermum picroides, Desf. .    -       I       -      -
Microrhynchus nudicaulis,
  Less. 'Azid. . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .     I       -       I      I
Pterotheca bifida, F. and M.     -       I       I      -
Picris, conf. P. Saha*ae,
  C. and K. . . . . . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .    -       -       -      I
Picris cyanocarpa, Boiss.     . . .     -       -       I      -
Callipeltis cucullaria,
  Stev. 'Ikrish. Cattle eat.
  North or Central Midian.
Crucianella membranacea,
  Boiss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .      -       -       I      -
Galium capillare, Dcne. . . . .     -       -       I      -
Salvadora persica, L.
  El-Arák. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      -       I       -      I
Rhazya stricta, Dcne.
  Harjal. Eaten only by
  mules. Very fragrant. . . . .      -       I       -      -
Daemia cordata, R. Br  . . .    . . .     -       -       I      -
Steinheilia radians, Dcne.
  Faká . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       -      -
Convolvulus Hystrix, V.
  Shibrim. Root used as a
  purgative. Animals eat
  upper part of plant. . . . .       -       -       -      I
Cuscuta, conf.
  C. brevistyla, A. Br.     . . .       -       -       I      -
Withania somnifera, Dun.
  Shajarat el-Dib. . . . . . . . .      -       I       -      -
Lycium europaeum, L.
  'Aushaz. Eaten by
  animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       -       I      I
Solanum coagulans(?),
  Forsk. var. (A small
  fragment only) . . .  . . . .    . . .      -       -       I      -
Hyoscyamus pusillus,
  L. Saykrán. . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       I      -
Heliotropium arbainense,
  Fres. Rahháb. Cattle
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       I      -
Trichodesma africanum,
  R. Br. Ahmim. Camels and
  other animals eat. . . . . ..      -       -       I      -
Echium longifolium(?), Del.
  Kahlá. Animals eat. . . . .        -       -       I      -
Anchusa Milleri, W. . . . .     . . .       -       -       I      -
Anchusa Milleri(?) young
  specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..      -       -       I      -
Anchusa Milleri(?) young
  specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..      -       I       -      -
Gastrocotyle (Anchusa
  hispida, Forsk.). Karir.
  Camels eat. . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .      -       -       -      I
Arnebia hispidissima,
  A. DC. Fayná. Animals
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       I      -
Lithospermum callosum, V. .      -       I       -      -
Lindenbergia sinaica,
  Bth. Mallih. Cattle eat.       -       -       -      I
Verbascum (in bud), an
  V. sinaiticum(?), Bth. .       -       -       -      I
Verbascum, sp. nov. Sammá        -       -       I      -
Herpestis Monniera,
  Kth. Nafal. Animals eat.       -       I       -      -
Veronica Anagallis, L.     . . .        -       -       -      I
Linaria aegyptiaca, Dum. .       -       I       -      -
Linaria macilenta, Dcne.
  Zuraymat el-Himar.
  Eaten by animals. . . . . ..       -       -       I      -
Linaria (*§ Elatinoides),
  sp. imperfect . . .  . . . .    . . .       -       -       I      -
Linaria simplex(?), DC. ..       -       I       I      -
Linaria Haelava Chav.
  (fide Boissier) . . . . . . . .        -       I       -      -
Blepharis edulis, Pers.
  (Acanthodium spicatum,
  Del.). Shauk el-Jemel.
  Camels fond of it  . . .    . . .       -       I       -      I
Lavandula coronopifolia,
  Poir. Zayteh. All
  animals eat. . . . . . . . .     . . .        -       I       I      -
Mentha lavandulacea, W.
  Habag. Animals do not
  eat. Pounded and mixed
  with fresh dates, "good
  for stomach". . . . . . . . . ..       -       I       -      -
Salvia aegyptiaca, L. . . . .        -       I       -      -
Salvia deserti, Dcne. . . . .        -       -       I      -
Salvia, an S. deserti(?).
  Jáadeh. Pounded in
  water and snuffed up
  nose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..       -       -       I      -
Otostegia, var. O.
  scariosae(?), Bth. (vel
  O. repanda, Bth.)
  Ghasseh. Sheep eat. . . . .        -       -       I      I
Statice axillaris, Forsk.
  Annúm. Camels eat. . . . .         -       I       -      I
Plantago Psyllium, L.
  Nez'i'ah. Animals eat. .       -       I       I      -
Plantago amplexicaulis,
  Cav. Yanameh. Animals
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .        -       -       I      -
Aerwa javanica, Jass.
  Rayl. Cattle eat. . . . . ..       -       I       -      I
Chenopodium murale, L.? ..       -       I       -      -
Chenopodium murale, L.?
  (Small seedlings.)
  Nafal. Cattle eat  . . .    . . .       -       -       -      I
Atriplex dimorphostegia?
  K. and K. Roghol.
  Animals eat. . . . . . . . .     . . .        -       I       -      -
Echinopsilon lanatum, Moq.
  Garay'á. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .        -       I       -      I
Suaeda sp.(?). (Small
  fragment.) . . . . . . . . . . . . ..      -       I       -      -
Suaeda sp.(?). (Barren
  fragments, insect
  punctured?) 'Aslá.
  Forage plant. . . . . . . . .     . . .       I       -       I      -
Suaeda monoica? Forsk.
  Zuraygá. Forage plant. .       I       -       -      -
Salsola(?), cf. S.
  longifolia, F. Hamz.
  Camels eat. . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .      I       -       -      -
Caroxylon(?) (barren
  specimen), near C.,
  foetidum. Akahrit.
  Animals eat. . . . . . . . . . . . .       I       -       -      -
Rumex vesicarius, L.
  (R. roseus, Del.).
  Hammáz. Animals eat.     . . .        -       -       I      -
Emex spinosus, Camp. . . . . ..      -       I       -      -
Crozophora tinctoria, Juss.
  Hinaydieh. Not eaten.     . . .       -       -       -      I
Euphorbia cornuta, Pers.
  'Atir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .       -       I       -      -
Euphorbia scordifolia,
  Jacq. Gharghir. Animals
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       -      -
Euphorbia (Anisophyllum)
  granulata, Schf.
  Rugaygeh. Animals eat. ..      -       -       -      I
Euphorbia (Anisophyllum)
  granulata, forma(?).
  Lubayneh. Cattle eat.     . . .       -       -       -      I
Juniperus phoenicea, L.
  At four thousand feet on
  Sharr. Trunk thicker
  than a man's body.
  Halibeh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       -       I      -
Parietaria alsinifolia,
  Del. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       -       I      -
Forskahlea tenacissima, L.
  Lissák. Animals eat.     . . .        -       -       I      -
Asphodelus fistulosus, L.
  (var. tenuifolius,
  Bker.). Bo'rak. Only
  eaten by animals when
  very hungry. Asses eat. .      -       I       I      -
Bellevalia flexuosa, Boiss.      -       I       -      -
Dipcadi erythraeum, Webb..      -       I       -      -
Gagea reticulata, R. and S.      -       I       -      -
Juncus maritimus, L. . . . . ..      -       -       -      I
Scirpus Holoschoenus, L.
  Namas. Sent to Egypt for
  mats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .       -       -       -      I
Cyperus conglomeratus,
  Rottb. (Young specimens)       -       I       -      -
Chloris villosa, Pers. . . . .       -       -       I      -
AEluropus repens. . . . . . . . ..      -       I       -      -
Tricholaena micrantha,
  Schrad. Ghazuiar. Eaten
  by camels, etc . . .  . . . .    . . .      -       -       I      I
Panicum turgidum, Forsk.
  Zarram. Good fodder. . . . .       -       I       -      I
Arundo Donax, L. Kasbá     . . .        -       I       -      -
Polypogon monspeliensis,
  Desf. Kháfúr. Sheep
  eat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       -       -      I
Stipa tortilis, Desf.
  Pehmeh. Animals eat. . . . .       -       I       I      I
Aristida caerulescens,
  Desf. Shárib el-Kale.
  Animals eat. . . . . . . . . . . . .       -       I       I      -
Hordeum maritimum, L  . . .    . . .      -       I       -      -
Pappophorum, an P.
  phleoides(?), R. and S.
  Nejil. Sheep eat. . . . .     . . .       -       -       -      I
Barren specimen.
  Indeterminable. Grass    . . .       -       I       -      -
Grass(?). Root and leaves.
  Hashmil. Animals eat.     . . .       I       -       -      -
Typha(?). Root and
  fragments of leaves.
  Birdi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .       -       -       -      I
Grass. Fragmentary. Záeh.
  Cattle eat. . .  . . . .  . . . .    . . .      -       -       -      I
Chara foetida, Braun.
  'Ishnik. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      -       I       -      -
A barren fragment of
  undershrub, with opposite
  fleshy leaves with
  recurved margins. Ajid.
  Eaten by animals.
  Doubtful. . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . .       I       -       -       -


D. OLIVER.

SECTION II.

The spirit-specimens submitted to Mr. William Carruthers, of the British Museum, are described by him as follows:—

1. Phallus impudicus, Linn. (in Arab. Faswat el-‘Ajúz). The common “stinkhorn,” extremely common in some districts of England, and obtruding on the notice of every one from its detestable odour. It is widely distributed over America and Africa, as well as Europe, but I find no record of its occurring in Asia.

2. Tulostoma mammosum, Fr. Also British, but not so common. Widely distributed.

3. Phelipoea lutea, Desf. A dark, fleshy broom-rape, with scaly leaves. We have one species of the same genus in England. They are parasitic on the roots of plants; and the Midianite species, which is found in North Africa, Egypt, and Arabia, grows on the roots of a Chenopodium.

4. Cynomorium coccineum, Mich. A fleshy, leafless plant, also a root-parasite. It was called by old writers Fungus Melitensis, and was of much repute in medicine. It is known from the Himalayas to the Canary Islands, and is said by Webb, in his history of the Canaries, to be eaten in the Island of Lancerotte.

5. Doemia cordata, R. Br. A spiny shrub, with roundish leaves and small sharp-pointed fruit, found in Egypt and Arabia.

6. Capparis galeata, Fres., with large fruit, long and pear-shaped. This caper is well known; from Syria and Egypt.

(Signed) W. CARRUTHERS.

INSECTS COLLECTED IN MIDIAN BY CAPTAIN BURTON. (Identified by Mr. Frederick Smith, of the British Museum.)

COLEOPTERA.

Geodephaga

l. Anthia 12 guttata.

Melolonthidoe.

2. Schizonycha reflexa.

3. Pachydema.

Dynastidoe.

4. Heteronychus.

Curculionidoe.

5. Cleonus arabs.

Heteromera.

6. Mesostenanear punctipennis.

7. Adesmia.

8. Akis Goryi?

9. Mylabris.

Hemiptera.

10. Nepa rubra.

Mantidoe.

11. Eremiaphila arenaria. 12. Blepharis mendica.

Orthoptera.

13. Acocera.

14. Acridium peregrinum. 15. Poecilocera bufonia.

Scorpionidea.

16. Androctonus funestus.

17. “ leptochelys.

18. “ quinquestriatus.

Arachnida.

19. Galeodes arabs, in spirit.

20. Clubiona Listeri, in spirit.

(Signed) FREDK. SMITH.

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