The Book of Household Management, by Isabella Beeton

Chapter XXXI.

Recipes.

To Make Syrup for Compotes, &c.

1512. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1–1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Boil the sugar and water together for 1/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises: the syrup is then ready for the fruit. The articles boiled in this syrup will not keep for any length of time, it being suitable only for dishes intended to be eaten immediately. A larger proportion of sugar must be added for a syrup intended to keep.

Time. — 1/4 hour.

To Clarify Sugar or Syrup.

1513. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water and 1/2 the white of an egg.

Mode. — Put the sugar, water, and the white of the egg, which should, be well beaten, into a preserving-pan or lined saucepan; and do not put it on the fire till the sugar is dissolved. Then place it on the fire, and when it boils, throw in a teacupful of cold water, and do not stir the sugar after this is added. Bring it to the boiling-point again, and then place the pan by the side of the fire, for the preparation to settle. Remove all the scum, and the sugar will be ready for use. The scum should be placed on a sieve, so that what syrup runs from it may be boiled up again: this must also be well skimmed.

Time. — 20 minutes for the sugar to dissolve; 5 minutes to boil.

Note. — The above two recipes are those used in the preparation of dishes usually made at home. There are many degrees of boiling sugar, which process requires great care, attention, and experience. Caramel sugar, which makes an elegant cover for sweetmeats, is difficult to prepare, and is best left to an experienced confectioner. We give the recipe, for those of our readers who care to attempt the operation.

To Boil Sugar to Caramel.

1514. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of lump sugar allow 1 gill of spring water.

Mode. — Boil the sugar and water together very quickly over a clear fire, skimming it very carefully as soon as it boils. Keep it boiling until the sugar snaps when a little of it is dropped in a pan of cold water. If it remains hard, the sugar has attained the right degree; then squeeze in a little lemon-juice, and let it remain an instant on the fire. Set the pan into another of cold water, and the caramel is then ready for use. The insides of well-oiled moulds are often ornamented with this sugar, which with a fork should be spread over them in fine threads or network. A dish of light pastry, tastefully arranged, looks very prettily with this sugar spun lightly over it. The sugar must be carefully watched, and taken up the instant it is done. Unless the cook is very experienced and thoroughly understands her business, it is scarcely worth while to attempt to make this elaborate ornament, as it may be purchased quite as economically at a confectioner’s, if the failures in the preparation are taken into consideration.

Compote of Apples.

(Soyer’s Recipe — a Dessert Dish.)

1515. INGREDIENTS. — 6 ripe apples, 1 lemon, 1/2 lb. of lump sugar, 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Select the apples of a moderate size, peel them, cut them in halves, remove the cores, and rub each piece over with a little lemon. Put the sugar and water together into a lined saucepan, and let them boil until forming a thickish syrup, when lay in the apples with the rind of the lemon cut thin, and the juice of the same. Let the apples simmer till tender; then take them out very carefully, drain them on a sieve, and reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for a few minutes. When both are cold, arrange the apples neatly on a glass dish, pour over the syrup, and garnish with strips of green angelica or candied citron. Smaller apples may be dressed in the same manner: they should not be divided in half, but peeled and the cores pushed out with a vegetable-cutter.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the sugar and water together; from 15 to 25 minutes to simmer the apples.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from July to March.

Apple Ginger.

(A Dessert Dish.)

1516. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of any kind of hard apples, 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1–1/2 pint of water, 1 oz. of tincture of ginger.

Mode. — Boil the sugar and water until they form a rich syrup, adding the ginger when it boils up. Pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces; dip them in cold water to preserve the colour, and boil them in the syrup until transparent; but be careful not to let them break. Put the pieces of apple into jars, pour over the syrup, and carefully exclude the air, by well covering them. It will remain good some time, if kept in a dry place.

Time. — From 5 to 10 minutes to boil the syrup; about 1/2 hour to simmer the apples.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable. — Make this in September, October, or November.

Apple Jam.

1517. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit weighed after being pared, cored, and sliced, allow 3/4 lb. of preserving-sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Peel the apples, core and slice them very thin, and be particular that they are all the same sort. Put them into a jar, stand this in a saucepan of boiling water, and let the apples stew until quite tender. Previously to putting the fruit into the jar, weigh it, to ascertain the proportion of sugar that may be required. Put the apples into a preserving-pan, crush the sugar to small lumps, and add it, with the grated lemon-rind and juice, to the apples. Simmer these over the fire for 1/2 hour, reckoning from the time the jam begins to simmer properly; remove the scum as it rises, and when the jam is done, put it into pots for use. Place a piece of oiled paper over the jam, and to exclude the air, cover the pots with tissue-paper dipped in the white of an egg, and stretched over the top. This jam will keep good for a long time.

Time. — About 2 hours to stew in the jar; 1/2 hour to boil after the jam begins to simmer.

Average cost, for this quantity, 6s.

Sufficient. — 7 or 8 lbs. of apples for 6 pots of jam.

Seasonable. — Make this in September, October, or November.

Apple Jelly.
I.

1518. INGREDIENTS. — To 6 lbs. of apples allow 3 pints of water; to every quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar; — the juice of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and put them into a jar, with water in the above proportion. Place them in a cool oven, with the jar well covered, and when the juice is thoroughly drawn and the apples are quite soft, strain them through a jelly-bag. To every quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, which should be crushed to small lumps, and put into a preserving-pan with the juice. Boil these together for rather more than 1/2 hour, remove the scum as it rises, add the lemon-juice just before it is done, and put the jelly into pots for use. This preparation is useful for garnishing sweet dishes, and may be turned out for dessert.

Time. — The apples to be put in the oven over-night, and left till morning; rather more than 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

Average cost, for this quantity, 3s.

Sufficient for 6 small pots of jelly.

Seasonable — This should be made in September, October, or November.

II.

1519. INGREDIENTS. — Apples, water: to every pint of syrup allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Pare and cut the apples into pieces, remove the cores, and put them in a preserving-pan with sufficient cold water to cover them. Let them boil for an hour; then drain the syrup from them through a hair sieve or jelly-bag, and measure the juice; to every pint allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, and boil these together for 3/4 hour, removing every particle of scum as it rises, and keeping the jelly well stirred, that it may not burn. A little lemon-rind may be boiled with the apples, and a small quantity of strained lemon-juice may be put in the jelly just before it is done, when the flavour is liked. This jelly may be ornamented with preserved greengages, or any other preserved fruit, and will turn out very prettily for dessert. It should be stored away in small pots.

Time. — 1 hour to boil the fruit and water; 3/4 hour to boil the juice with the sugar.

Average cost, for 6 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in proportion, 3s.

Sufficient for 6 small pots of jelly.

Seasonable. — Make this in September, October, or November.

To Preserve Apples in Quarters, in imitation of Ginger.

1520. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of apples allow 3/4 lb. of sugar, 1–1/2 oz. of the best white ginger; 1 oz. of ginger to every 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Peel, core, and quarter the apples, and put the fruit, sugar, and ginger in layers into a wide-mouthed jar, and let them remain for 2 days; then infuse 1 oz. of ginger in 1/2 pint of boiling water, and cover it closely, and let it remain for 1 day: this quantity of ginger and water is for 3 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in proportion. Put the apples, &c., into a preserving-pan with the water strained from the ginger, and boil till the apples look clear and the syrup is rich, which will be in about an hour. The rind of a lemon may be added just before the apples have finished boiling; and great care must be taken not to break the pieces of apple in putting them into the jars. Serve on glass dishes for dessert.

Time. — 2 days for the apples to remain in the jar with sugar, &c.; 1 day to infuse the ginger; about 1 hour to boil the apples.

Average cost, for 3 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in proportion, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient. — 3 lbs. should fill 3 moderate-sized jars.

Seasonable. — This should be made in September, October, or November.

Compote of Apricots.

(An elegant Dish.)

1521. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of syrup No. 1512, 12 green apricots.

Mode. — Make the syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it is ready, put in the apricots whilst the syrup is boiling. Simmer them very gently until tender, taking care not to let them break; take them out carefully, arrange them on a glass dish, let the syrup cool a little, pour it over the apricots, and, when cold, serve.

Time. — From 15 to 20 minutes to simmer the apricots.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in June and July, with green apricots.

Apricot Jam or Marmalade.

1522. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of ripe apricots, weighed after being skinned and stoned, allow 1 lb. of sugar.

Mode. — Pare the apricots, which should be ripe, as thinly as possible, break them in half, and remove the stones. Weigh the fruit, and to every lb. allow the same proportion of loaf sugar. Pound the sugar very finely in a mortar, strew it over the apricots, which should be placed on dishes, and let them remain for 12 hours. Break the stones, blanch the kernels, and put them with the sugar and fruit into a preserving-pan. Let these simmer very gently until clear; take out the pieces of apricot singly as they become so, and, as fast as the scum rises, carefully remove it. Put the apricots into small jars, pour over them the syrup and kernels, cover the jam with pieces of paper dipped in the purest salad-oil, and stretch over the top of the jars tissue-paper, cut about 2 inches larger and brushed over with the white of an egg: when dry, it will be perfectly hard and air-tight.

Time. — 12 hours sprinkled with sugar; about 3/4 hour to boil the jam.

Average cost. — When cheap, apricots may be purchased for preserving at about 1s. 6d. per gallon.

Sufficient — 10 lbs. of fruit for 12 pots of jam.

Seasonable. — Make this in August or September.

Barberries in Bunches.

1523. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of syrup No. 1513, barberries.

Mode. — Prepare some small pieces of clean white wood, 3 inches long and 1/4 inch wide, and tie the fruit on to these in nice bunches. Have ready some clear syrup, made by recipe No. 1513; put in the barberries, and simmer them in it for 2 successive days, boiling them for nearly 1/2 hour each day, and covering them each time with the syrup when cold. When the fruit looks perfectly clear, it is sufficiently done, and should be stored away in pots, with the syrup poured over, or the fruit may be candied.

Time. — 1/2 hour to simmer each day.

Seasonable in autumn.

Note. — The berries in their natural state make a very pretty garnishing for dishes, and may even be used for the same purpose, preserved as above, and look exceedingly nice on sweet dishes.

To Make Barley-Sugar.

1524. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 the white of an egg.

Mode. — Put the sugar into a well-tinned saucepan, with the water, and, when the former is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, adding the well-beaten egg before the mixture gets warm, and stir it well together. When it boils, remove the scum as it rises, and keep it boiling until no more appears, and the syrup looks perfectly clear; then strain it through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and put it back into the saucepan. Boil it again like caramel, until it is brittle, when a little is dropped in a basin of cold water: it is then sufficiently boiled. Add a little lemon-juice and a few drops of essence of lemon, and let it stand for a minute or two. Have ready a marble slab or large dish, rubbed over with salad-oil; pour on it the sugar, and cut it into strips with a pair of scissors: these strips should then be twisted, and the barley-sugar stored away in a very dry place. It may be formed into lozenges or drops, by dropping the sugar in a very small quantity at a time on to the oiled slab or dish.

Time. — 1/4 hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 sticks.

Carrot Jam to Imitate Apricot Preserve.

1525. INGREDIENTS. — Carrots; to every lb. of carrot pulp allow 1 lb. of pounded sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the strained juice of 2, 6 chopped bitter almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Select young carrots; wash and scrape them clean, cut them into round pieces, put them into a saucepan with sufficient water to cover them, and let them simmer until perfectly soft; then beat them through a sieve. Weigh the pulp, and to every lb. allow the above ingredients. Put the pulp into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and let this boil for 5 minutes, stirring and skimming all the time. When cold, add the lemon-rind and juice, almonds and brandy; mix these well with the jam; then put it into pots, which must be well covered and kept in a dry place. The brandy may be omitted, but the preserve will then not keep: with the brandy it will remain good for months.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to boil the carrots; 5 minutes to simmer the pulp.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. for 1 lb. of pulp, with the other ingredients in proportion.

Sufficient to fill 3 pots.

Seasonable from July to December.

To Make Cherry Brandy.

1526. INGREDIENTS. — Morella cherries, good brandy; to every lb. of cherries allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar.

Mode. — Have ready some glass bottles, which must be perfectly dry. Ascertain that the cherries are not too ripe and are freshly gathered, and cut off about half of the stalks. Put them into the bottles, with the above proportion of sugar to every lb. of fruit; strew this in between the cherries, and, when the bottles are nearly full, pour in sufficient brandy to reach just below the cork. A few peach or apricot kernels will add much to their flavour, or a few blanched bitter almonds. Put corks or bungs into the bottles, tie over them a piece of bladder, and store away in a dry place. The cherries will be fit to eat in 2 or 3 months, and will remain good for years. They are liable to shrivel and become tough if too much sugar be added to them.

Average cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

Sufficient. — 1 lb. of cherries and about 1/4 pint of brandy for a quart bottle. Seasonable in August and September.

Dried Cherries.

1527. CHERRIES may be put in a slow oven and thoroughly dried before they begin to change colour. They should then be taken out of the oven, tied in bunches, and stored away in a dry place. In the winter, they may be cooked with sugar for dessert, the same as Normandy pippins. Particular care must be taken that the oven be not too hot. Another method of drying cherries is to stone them, and to put them into a preserving-pan, with plenty of loaf sugar strewed amongst them. They should be simmered till the fruit shrivels, when they should be strained from the juice. The cherries should then be placed in an oven, cool enough to dry without baking them. About 5 oz. of sugar would be required for 1 lb. of cherries, and the same syrup may be used again to do another quantity of fruit.

Cherry Jam.

1528. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit, weighed before stoning, allow 1/2 lb. of sugar; to every 6 lbs. of fruit allow 1 pint of red-currant juice, and to every pint of juice 1 lb. of sugar.

Mode. — Weigh the fruit before stoning, and allow half the weight of sugar; stone the cherries, and boil them in a preserving-pan until nearly all the juice is dried up; then add the sugar, which should be crushed to powder, and the currant-juice, allowing 1 pint to every 6 lbs. of cherries (original weight), and 1 lb. of sugar to every pint of juice. Boil all together until it jellies, which will be in from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; skim the jam well, keep it well stirred, and, a few minutes before it is done, crack some of the stones, and add the kernels: these impart a very delicious flavour to the jam.

Time. — According to the quality of the cherries, from 3/4 to 1 hour to boil them; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour with the sugar.

Average cost, from 7d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — 1 pint of fruit for a lb. pot of jam.

Seasonable. — Make this in July or August.

To Preserve Cherries in Syrup.

(Very delicious.)

1529. INGREDIENTS. — 4 lbs. of cherries, 3 lbs. of sugar, 1 pint of white-currant juice.

Mode. — Let the cherries be as clear and as transparent as possible, and perfectly ripe; pick off the stalks, and remove the stones, damaging the fruit as little as you can. Make a syrup with the above proportion of sugar, by recipe No. 1512; mix the cherries with it, and boil them for about 15 minutes, carefully skimming them; turn them gently into a pan, and let them remain till the next day; then drain the cherries on a sieve, and put the syrup and white-currant juice into the preserving-pan again. Boil these together until the syrup is somewhat reduced and rather thick; then put in the cherries, and let them boil for about 5 minutes; take them off the fire, skim the syrup, put the cherries into small pots or wide-mouthed bottles; pour the syrup over, and when quite cold, tie them down carefully, so that the air is quite excluded.

Time. — 15 minutes to boil the cherries in the syrup; 10 minutes to boil the syrup and currant-juice; 6 minutes to boil the cherries the second time.

Average cost for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

Seasonable. — Make this in July or August.

Black-Currant Jam.

1530. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stripped from the stalks, allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 gill of water.

Mode. — Let the fruit be very ripe, and gathered on a dry day. Strip it from the stalks, and put it into a preserving-pan, with a gill of water to each lb. of fruit; boil these together for 10 minutes; then add the sugar, and boil the jam again for 30 minutes, reckoning from the time when the jam simmers equally all over, or longer, should it not appear to set nicely when a little is poured on to a plate. Keep stirring it to prevent it from burning, carefully remove all the scum, and when done, pour it into pots. Let it cool, cover the top of the jam with oiled paper, and the top of the jars with a piece of tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg: this, when cold, forms a hard stiff cover, and perfectly excludes the air. Great attention must be paid to the stirring of this jam, as it is very liable to burn, on account of the thickness of the juice.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the fruit and water; 30 minutes with the sugar, or longer.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. for a pot capable of holding 1 lb.

Sufficient. — Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to make 1 dozen pots of jam, each pot to hold 1 lb.

Seasonable. — Make this in July.

Black-Currant Jelly.

1531. INGREDIENTS. — Black currants; to every pint of juice allow 1/4 pint of water, 1 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Strip the currants from the stalks, which may be done in an expeditious manner, by holding the bunch in one hand, and passing a small silver fork down the currants: they will then readily fall from the stalks. Put them into a jar, place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer them until their juice is extracted; then strain them, and to every pint of juice allow the above proportion of sugar and water; stir these ingredients together cold until the sugar is dissolved; place the preserving-pan on the fire, and boil the jelly for about 1/2 hour, reckoning from the time it commences to boil all over, and carefully remove the scum as it rises. If the jelly becomes firm when a little is put on a plate, it is done; it should then be put into small pots, and covered the same as the jam in the preceding recipe. If the jelly is wanted very clear, the fruit should not be squeezed dry; but, of course, so much juice will not be obtained. If the fruit is not much squeezed, it may be converted into a jam for immediate eating, by boiling it with a little common sugar: this answers very well for a nursery preserve.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to extract the juice; 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

Sufficient. — From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit should yield a pint of juice.

Seasonable. — Make this in July.

Red-Currant Jam.

1532. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Let the fruit be gathered on a fine day; weigh it, and then strip the currants from the stalks; put them into a preserving-pan with sugar in the above proportion; stir them, and boil them for about 3/4 hour. Carefully remove the scum as it rises. Put the jam into pots, and, when cold, cover with oiled papers; over these put a piece of tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg; press the paper round the top of the pot, and, when dry, the covering will be quite hard and air-tight.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour, reckoning from the time the jam boils all over.

Average cost, for a lb. pot, from 6d. to 8d.

Sufficient. — Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to make 12 1-lb, pots of jam.

Seasonable. — Make this in July.

Red-Currant Jelly.

1533. INGREDIENTS. — Red currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Have the fruit gathered in fine weather; pick it from the stalks, put it into a jar, and place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and let it simmer gently until the juice is well drawn from the currants; then strain them through a jelly-bag or fine cloth, and, if the jelly is wished very clear, do not squeeze them too much, as the skin and pulp from the fruit will be pressed through with the juice, and so make the jelly muddy. Measure the juice, and to each pint allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar; put these into a preserving-pan, set it over the fire, and keep stirring the jelly until it is done, carefully removing every particle of scum as it rises, using a wooden or silver spoon for the purpose, as metal or iron ones would spoil the colour of the jelly when it has boiled from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, put a little of the jelly on a plate, and if firm when cool, it is done. Take it off the fire, pour it into small gallipots, cover each of the pots with an oiled paper, and then with a piece of tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. Label the pots, adding the year when the jelly was made, and store it away in a dry place. A jam may be made with the currants, if they are not squeezed too dry, by adding a few fresh raspberries, and boiling all together, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. As this preserve is not worth storing away, but is only for immediate eating, a smaller proportion of sugar than usual will be found enough: it answers very well for children’s puddings, or for a nursery preserve.

Time. — From 3/4 to 1 hour to extract the juice; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot. Sufficient. — 8 quarts of currants will make from 10 to 12 pots of jelly. Seasonable. — Make this in July. Note. — Should the above proportion of sugar not be found sufficient for some tastes, add an extra 1/4 lb. to every pint of juice, making altogether 1 lb.

White-Currant Jelly.

1534. INGREDIENTS. — White currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of good loaf sugar.

Mode. — Pick the currants from the stalks, and put them into a jar; place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until the juice is well drawn from the fruit, which will be in from 3/4 to 1 hour. Then strain the currants through a fine cloth or jelly-bag; do not squeeze them too much, or the jelly will not be clear, and put the juice into a very clean preserving-pan, with the sugar. Let this simmer gently over a clear fire until it is firm, and keep stirring and skimming until it is done; then pour it into small pots, cover them, and store away in a dry place.

Time. — 3/4 hour to draw the juice; 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

Sufficient. — From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit should yield 1 pint of juice.

Seasonable in July and August.

Baked Damsons for Winter Use.

1535. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 6 oz. of pounded sugar; melted mutton suet.

Mode. — Choose sound fruit, not too ripe; pick off the stalks, weigh it, and to every lb. allow the above proportion of pounded sugar. Put the fruit into large dry stone jars, sprinkling the sugar amongst it; cover the jars with saucers, place them in a rather cool oven, and bake the fruit until it is quite tender. When cold, cover the top of the fruit with a piece of white paper cut to the size of the jar; pour over this melted mutton suet about an inch thick, and cover the tops of the jars with thick brown paper, well tied down. Keep the jars in a cool dry place, and the fruit will remain good till the following Christmas, but not much longer.

Time. — From 5 to 6 hours to bake the damsons, in a very cool oven.

Seasonable in September and October.

Damson Cheese.

1536. INGREDIENTS. — Damsons; to every lb. of fruit pulp allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Pick the stalks from the damsons, and put them into a preserving-pan; simmer them over the fire until they are soft, occasionally stirring them; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and put the pulp and juice into the preserving-pan, with sugar in the above proportion, having previously carefully weighed them. Stir the sugar well in, and simmer the damsons slowly for 2 hours. Skim well; then boil the preserve quickly for 1/2 hour, or until it looks firm and hard in the spoon; put it quickly into shallow pots, or very tiny earthenware moulds, and, when cold, cover it with oiled papers, and the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. A few of the stones may be cracked, and the kernels boiled with the damsons, which very much improves the flavour of the cheese.

Time. — 1 hour to boil the damsons without the sugar; 2 hours to simmer them slowly, 1/2 hour quickly.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/3 lb. pot.

Sufficient. — 1 pint of damsons to make a very small pot of cheese.

Seasonable. — Make this in September or October.

Compote of Damsons.

1537. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of damsons, 1 pint of syrup No. 1512.

Mode. — Procure sound ripe damsons; pick the stalks from them, and put them into boiling syrup, made by recipe No. 1512. Simmer them gently until the fruit is tender, but not sufficiently soft to break; take them up, boil the syrup for 5 minutes; pour it over the damsons, and serve. This should be sent to table in a glass dish.

Time. — About 1/4 hour to simmer the damsons; 5 minutes to boil the syrup.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable in September and October.

Damson Jam.

1538. INGREDIENTS. — Damsons; to every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Have the fruit gathered in dry weather; pick it over, and reject any that is at all blemished. Stone the damsons, weigh them, and to every lb. allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Put the fruit and sugar into a preserving-pan; keep stirring them gently until the sugar is dissolved, and carefully remove the scum as it rises. Boil the jam for about an hour, reckoning from the time it commences to simmer all over alike: it must be well stirred all the time, or it will be liable to burn and stick to the pan, which will cause the jam to have a very disagreeable flavour. When the jam looks firm, and the juice appears to set, it is done. Then take it off the fire, put into pots, cover it down, when quite cold, with oiled and egged papers, the same as in recipe No. 1530, and store it away in a dry place.

Time. — 1 hour after the jam simmers all over.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — 1–1/2 pint of damsons for a lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in September or October.

A Very Nice Preserve of Damsons.

1539. INGREDIENTS. — To every quart of damsons allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Put the damsons (which should be picked from the stalks and quite free from blemishes) into a jar, with pounded sugar sprinkled amongst them in the above proportion; tie the jar closely down, set it in a saucepan of cold water; bring it gradually to boil, and simmer gently until the damsons are soft, without being broken. Let them stand till cold; then strain the juice from them, boil it up well, strain it through a jelly-bag, and pour it over the fruit. Let it cool, cover with oiled papers, and the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg, and store away in a dry cool place.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to simmer the fruit after the water boils; 1/4 hour to boil the juice.

Seasonable. — Make this in September or October.

To Preserve Damsons, or Any Kind of Plums.

(Useful in Winter.)

1540. INGREDIENTS. — Damsons or plums; boiling water.

Mode. — Pick the fruit into clean dry stone jars, taking care to leave out all that are broken or blemished. When full, pour boiling water on the plums, until it stands one inch above the fruit; cut a piece of paper to fit the inside of the jar, over which pour melted mutton-suet; cover down with brown paper, and keep the jars in a dry cool place. When used, the suet should be removed, the water poured off, and the jelly at the bottom of the jar used and mixed with the fruit.

Seasonable in September and October.

Compote of Green Figs.

1541. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of syrup No. 1512, 1–1/2 pint of green figs, the rind of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, boiling with it the lemon-rind, and carefully remove all the scum as it rises. Put in the figs, and simmer them very slowly until tender; dish them on a glass dish; reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for 5 minutes; take out the lemon-peel, pour the syrup over the figs, and the compote, when cold, will be ready for table. A little port wine, or lemon-juice, added just before the figs are done, will be found an improvement.

Time. — 2 to 3 hours to stew the figs.

Average cost, figs, 2s. to 3s. per dozen.

Seasonable in August and September.

To Bottle Fresh Fruit.

(Very useful in Winter.)

I.

1542. INGREDIENTS. — Fresh fruits, such as currants, raspberries, cherries, gooseberries, plums of all kinds, damsons, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly.

Mode. — Let the fruit be full grown, but not too ripe, and gathered in dry weather. Pick it off the stalks without bruising or breaking the skin, and reject any that is at all blemished: if gathered in the damp, or if the skins are cut at all, the fruit will mould. Have ready some perfectly dry glass bottles, and some nice new soft corks or bungs; burn a match in each bottle, to exhaust the air, and quickly place the fruit in to be preserved; gently cork the bottles, and put them into a very cool oven, where let them remain until the fruit has shrunk away a fourth part. Then take the bottles out; do not open them, but immediately beat the corks in tight, cut off the tops, and cover them with melted resin. If kept in a dry place, the fruit will remain good for months; and on this principally depends the success of the preparation; for if stored away in a place that is in the least damp, the fruit will soon spoil.

Time. — From 5 to 6 hours in a very slow oven.

II.

1543. INGREDIENTS. — Any kind of fresh fruit, such as currants, cherries, gooseberries, all kinds of plums, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly.

Mode. — The fruit must be full-grown, not too ripe, and gathered on a fine day. Let it be carefully picked and put into the bottles, which must be clean and perfectly dry. Tie over the tops of the bottles pieces of bladder; stand the bottles in a large pot, copper, or boiler, with cold water to reach to their necks; kindle a fire under, let the water boil, and as the bladders begin to rise and puff, prick them. As soon as the water boils, extinguish the fire, and let the bottles remain where they are, to become cold. The next day remove the bladders, and strew over the fruit a thick layer of pounded sugar; fit the bottles with corks, and let each cork lie close at hand to its own bottle. Hold for a few moments, in the neck of the bottle, two or three lighted matches, and when they have filled the bottle neck with gas, and before they go out, remove them very quickly; instantly cork the bottle closely, and dip it in bottle cement.

Time. — Altogether about 8 hours.

To Bottle Fresh Fruit with Sugar.

(Very useful in Winter.)

1544. INGREDIENTS. — Any kind of fresh fruit; to each quart bottle allow 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar.

Mode. — Let the fruit be gathered in dry weather. Pick it carefully, and drop it into clean and very dry quart glass bottles, sprinkling over it the above proportion of pounded sugar to each quart. Put the corks in the bottles, and place them in a copper of cold water up to their necks, with small hay-wisps round them, to prevent the bottles from knocking together. Light the fire under, bring the water gradually to boil, and let it simmer gently until the fruit in the bottles is reduced nearly one third. Extinguish the fire, and let the bottles remain in the water until it is perfectly cold; then take them out, make the corks secure, and cover them with melted resin or wax.

Time. — About 1 hour from the time the water commences to boil.

TO FROST HOLLY-LEAVES, for garnishing and decorating Dessert and Supper Dishes.

1545. INGREDIENTS. — Sprigs of holly, oiled butter, coarsely-powdered sugar.

Mode. — Procure some nice sprigs of holly; pick the leaves from the stalks, and wipe them with a clean cloth free from all moisture; then place them on a dish near the fire, to get thoroughly dry, but not too near to shrivel the leaves; dip them into oiled butter, sprinkle over them some coarsely-powdered sugar, and dry them before the fire. They should be kept in a dry place, as the least damp would spoil their appearance.

Time. — About 10 minutes to dry before the fire.

Seasonable. — These may be made at any time; but are more suitable for winter garnishes, when fresh flowers are not easily obtained.

Compote of Gooseberries.

1546. INGREDIENTS. — Syrup made by recipe No. 1512; to 1 pint of syrup allow nearly a quart of gooseberries.

Mode. — Top and tail the gooseberries, which should not be very ripe, and pour over them some boiling water; then take them out, and plunge them into cold water, with which has been mixed a tablespoonful of vinegar, which will assist to keep the fruit a good colour. Make a pint of syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it boils, drain the gooseberries and put them in; simmer them gently until the fruit is nicely pulped and tender, without being broken; then dish the gooseberries on a glass dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3 minutes, pour over the gooseberries, and serve cold.

Time. — About 5 minutes to boil the gooseberries in the syrup; 3 minutes to reduce the syrup.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient — a quart of gooseberries for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June.

Gooseberry Jam.
I.

1547. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar; currant-juice.

Mode. — Select red hairy gooseberries; have them gathered in dry weather, when quite ripe, without being too soft. Weigh them; with a pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails, and to every 6 lbs. of fruit have ready 1/2 pint of red-currant juice, drawn as for jelly. Put the gooseberries and currant-juice into a preserving-pan; let them boil tolerably quickly, keeping them well stirred; when they begin to break, add to them the sugar, and keep simmering until the jam becomes firm, carefully skimming: and stirring it, that it does not burn at the bottom. It should be boiled rather a long time, or it will not keep. Put it into pots (not too large); let it get perfectly cold; then cover the pots down with oiled and egged papers, as directed for red-currant jelly No. 1533.

Time. — About 1 hour to boil the gooseberries in the currant-juice; from 1/2 to 3/4 hour with the sugar.

Average cost, per lb. pot, from 6d. to 8d.

Sufficient. — Allow 1–1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in June or July.

II.

1548. INGREDIENTS. — To every 8 lbs. of red, rough, ripe gooseberries allow 1 quart of red-currant juice, 5 lbs. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Have the fruit gathered in dry weather, and cut off the tops and tails. Prepare 1 quart of red-currant juice, the same as for red-currant jelly No. 1533; put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and keep stirring until the latter is dissolved. Keep it boiling for about 5 minutes; skim well; then put in the gooseberries, and let them boil from 1/2 to 3/4 hour; then turn the whole into an earthen pan, and let it remain for 2 days. Boil the jam up again until it looks clear; put it into pots, and when cold, cover with oiled paper, and over the jars put tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg, and store away in a dry place. Care must be taken, in making this, to keep the jam well stirred and well skimmed, to prevent it burning at the bottom of the pan, and to have it very clear.

Time. — 5 minutes to boil the currant-juice and sugar after the latter is dissolved; from 1/2 to 3/4 hour to simmer the gooseberries the first time, 1/4 hour the second time of boiling.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow 1–1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in June or July.

White or Green Gooseberry Jam.

1549. INGREDIENTS. — Equal weight of fruit and sugar.

Mode. — Select the gooseberries not very ripe, either white or green, and top and tail them. Boil the sugar with water (allowing 1/2 pint to every lb.) for about 1/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises; then put in the gooseberries, and simmer gently till clear and firm: try a little of the jam on a plate; if it jellies when cold, it is done, and should then be poured into pots. When cold, cover with oiled paper, and tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the unbeaten white of an egg, and store away in a dry place.

Time. — 1/4 hour to boil the sugar and water, 3/4 hour the jam.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow 1–1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in June.

Gooseberry Jelly.

1550. INGREDIENTS. — Gooseberries; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Put the gooseberries, after cutting off the tops and tails, into a preserving-pan, and stir them over the fire until they are quite soft; then strain them through a sieve, and to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for nearly 3/4 hour, stirring and skimming all the time; and if the jelly appears firm when a little of it is poured on to a plate, it is done, and should then be taken up and put into small pots. Cover the pots with oiled and egged papers, the same as for currant jelly No. 1533, and store away in a dry place.

Time. — 3/4 hour to simmer the gooseberries without the sugar; 3/4 hour to boil the juice.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

Seasonable in July.

Compote of Greengages.

1551. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of syrup made by recipe No. 1512, 1 quart of greengages.

Mode. — Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, skim it well, and put in the greengages when the syrup is boiling, having previously removed the stalks and stones from the fruit. Boil gently for 1/4 hour, or until the fruit is tender; but take care not to let it break, as the appearance of the dish would be spoiled were the fruit reduced to a pulp. Take the greengages carefully out, place them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for another 5 minutes, let it cool a little, pour over the fruit, and, when cold, it will be ready for use.

Time. — 1/4 hour to simmer the fruit, 5 minutes the syrup.

Average cost, in full season, 10d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

Greengage Jam.

1552. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stoned, allow 3/4 lb. of lump sugar.

Mode. — Divide the greengages, take out the stones, and put them into a preserving-pan. Bring the fruit to a boil, then add the sugar, and keep stirring it over a gentle fire until it is melted. Remove all the scum as it rises, and, just before the jam is done, boil it rapidly for 5 minutes. To ascertain when it is sufficiently boiled, pour a little on a plate, and if the syrup thickens and appears firm, it is done. Have ready half the kernels blanched; put them into the jam, give them one boil, and pour the preserve into pots. When cold, cover down with oiled papers, and, over these, tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg.

Time. — 3/4 hour after the sugar is added.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow about 1–1/2 pint of fruit for every lb. pot of jam.

Seasonable. — Make this in August or September.

To Preserve and Dry Greengages.

1553. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1 lb. of fruit, 1/4 pint of water.

Mode. — For this purpose, the fruit must be used before it is quite ripe, and part of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit, rejecting all that is in the least degree blemished, and put it into a lined saucepan with the sugar and water, which should have been previously boiled together to a rich syrup. Boil the fruit in this for 10 minutes, remove it from the fire, and drain the greengages. The next day, boil up the syrup and put in the fruit again, and let it simmer for 3 minutes, and drain the syrup away. Continue this process for 5 or 6 days, and the last time place the greengages, when drained, on a hair sieve, and put them in an oven or warm spot to dry; keep them in a box, with paper between each layer, in a place free from damp.

Time. — 10 minutes the first time of boiling.

Seasonable. — Make this in August or September.

Preserved Greengages in Syrup.

1554. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar 1/4 pint of water.

Mode. — Boil the sugar and water together for about 10 minutes; divide the greengages, take out the stones, put the fruit into the syrup, and let it simmer gently until nearly tender. Take it off the fire, put it into a large pan, and, the next day, boil it up again for about 10 minutes with the kernels from the stones, which should be blanched. Put the fruit carefully into jars, pour over it the syrup, and, when cold, cover down, so that the air is quite excluded. Let the syrup be well skimmed both the first and second day of boiling, otherwise it will not be clear.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the syrup; 1/4 hour to simmer the fruit the first day, 10 minutes the second day.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow about 1 pint of fruit to fill a 1-lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in August or September.

To Make Fruit Ice-Creams.

1555. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of cream; sugar to taste.

Mode. — Let the fruit be well ripened; pick it off the stalks, and put it into a large earthen pan. Stir it about with a wooden spoon, breaking it until it is well mashed; then, with the back of the spoon, rub it through a hair sieve. Sweeten it nicely with pounded sugar; whip the cream for a few minutes, add it to the fruit, and whisk the whole again for another 5 minutes. Put the mixture into the freezing-pot, and freeze in the same manner as directed for Ice Pudding, No. 1290, taking care to stir the cream, &c., two or three times, and to remove it from the sides of the vessel, that the mixture may be equally frozen and smooth. Ices are usually served in glasses, but if moulded, as they sometimes are for dessert, must have a small quantity of melted isinglass added to them, to enable them to keep their shape. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, and all fruit ice-creams, are made in the same manner. A little pounded sugar sprinkled over the fruit before it is mashed assists to extract the juice. In winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable, a little jam may be substituted for it: it should be melted and worked through a sieve before being added to the whipped cream; and if the colour should not be good, a little prepared cochineal or beetroot may be put in to improve its appearance.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 4d. each ice.

Seasonable, with fresh fruit, in June, July, and August.

To Make Fruit-Water Ices.

1556. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of syrup made by recipe No. 1513.

Mode. — Select nice ripe fruit; pick off the stalks, and put it into a large earthen pan, with a little pounded sugar strewed over; stir it about with a wooden spoon until it is well broken, then rub it through a hair sieve. Make the syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of the egg; let it cool, add the fruit-juice, mix well together, and put the mixture into the freezing-pot. Proceed as directed for Ice Puddings, No. 1290, and when the mixture is equally frozen, put it into small glasses. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, and other fresh-fruit-water ices, are made in the same manner.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Average cost, 3d. to 4d. each.

Seasonable, with fresh fruit, in June, July, and August.

Lemon-Water Ice.

1557. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of syrup, made by recipe No. 1513, allow 1/3 pint of lemon-juice; the rind of 4 lemons.

Mode. — Rub the sugar on the rinds of the lemons, and with it make the syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of egg. Strain the lemon-juice, add it to the other ingredients, stir well, and put the mixture into a freezing-pot. Freeze as directed for Ice Pudding, No. 1290, and, when the mixture is thoroughly and equally frozen, put it into ice-glasses.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture. Average cost, 3d. to 4d. each.

Seasonable at any time.

Iced Currants, for Dessert.

1558. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 pint of water, the whites of 2 eggs, currants, pounded sugar.

Mode. — Select very fine bunches of red or white currants, and well beat the whites of the eggs. Mix these with the water; then take the currants, a bunch at a time, and dip them in; let them drain for a minute or two, and roll them in very fine pounded sugar. Lay them to dry on paper, when the sugar will crystallize round each currant, and have a very pretty effect. All fresh fruit may be prepared in the same manner; and a mixture of various fruits iced in this manner, and arranged on one dish, looks very well for a summer dessert.

Time. — 1/4 day to dry the fruit.

Average cost, 8d. for a pint of iced currants. Seasonable in summer.

Melons.

1559. This fruit is rarely preserved or cooked in any way, and should be sent to table on a dish garnished with leaves or flowers, as fancy dictates. A border of any other kind of small fruit, arranged round the melon, has a pretty effect, the colour the former contrasting nicely with the melon. Plenty of pounded sugar should be served with it; and the fruit should be cut lengthwise, in moderate-sized slices. In America, it is frequently eaten with pepper and salt.

Average cost — English, in full season, 3s. 6d. to 5s. each; when scarce, 10s. to 15s.; seasonable, June to August. French, 2s. to 3s. 6d. each; seasonable, June and July. Dutch, 9d. to 2s. each; seasonable, July and August.

MELON. — The melon is a most delicious fruit, succulent, cool, and high-flavoured. With us, it is used only at the dessert, and is generally eaten with sugar, ginger, or pepper; but, in France, it is likewise served up at dinner as a sauce for boiled meats. It grows wild in Tartary, and has been lately found in abundance on the sandy plains of Jeypoor. It was brought originally from Asia by the Romans, and is said to have been common in England in the time of Edward III., though it is supposed that it was lost again, as well as the cucumber, during the wars of York and Lancaster. The best kind, called the Cantaloupe, from the name of a place near Rome where it was first cultivated in Europe, is a native of Armenia, where it grows so plentifully that a horse-load may be bought for a crown.

Preserved Mulberries.

1560. INGREDIENTS. — To 2 lbs. of fruit and 1 pint of juice allow 2–1/2 lbs. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Put some of the fruit into a preserving-pan, and simmer it gently until the juice is well drawn. Strain it through a bag, measure it, and to every pint allow the above proportion of sugar and fruit. Put the sugar into the preserving-pan, moisten it with the juice, boil it up, skim well, and then add the mulberries, which should be ripe, but not soft enough to break to a pulp. Let them stand in the syrup till warm through, then set them on the fire to boil gently; when half done, turn them carefully into an earthen pan, and let them remain till the next day; then boil them as before, and when the syrup is thick, and becomes firm when cold, put the preserve into pots. In making this, care should be taken not to break the mulberries: this may be avoided by very gentle stirring, and by simmering the fruit very slowly.

Time. — 3/4 hour to extract the juice;

1/4 hour to boil the mulberries the first time, 1/4 hour the second time.

Seasonable in August and September.

MULBERRY. — Mulberries are esteemed for their highly aromatic flavour, and their sub-acid nature. They are considered as cooling, laxative, and generally wholesome. This fruit was very highly esteemed by the Romans, who appear to have preferred it to every other. The mulberry-tree is stated to have been introduced into this country in 1548, being first planted at Sion House, where the original trees still thrive. The planting of them was much encouraged by King James I. about 1605; and considerable attempts were made at that time to rear silkworms on a large scale for the purpose of making silk; but these endeavours have always failed, the climate being scarcely warm enough.

To Preserve Morello Cherries.

1561. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of cherries allow 1–1/4 lb. of sugar, 1 gill of water.

Mode. — Select ripe cherries; pick off the stalks, and reject all that have any blemishes. Boil the sugar and water together for 5 minutes; put in the cherries, and boil them for 10 minutes, removing the scum as it rises. Then turn the fruit, &c. into a pan, and let it remain until the next day, when boil it all again for another 10 minutes, and, if necessary, skim well. Put the cherries into small pots; pour over them the syrup, and, when cold, cover down with oiled papers, and the tops of the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg, and keep in a dry place.

Time. — Altogether, 25 minutes to boil.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in July or August.

THE CHERRY-TREE IN ROME. — The Cherry-tree was introduced into Rome by Lucullus about seventy years before the Christian era; but the capital of the world knew not at first how to appreciate this present as it deserved; for the cherry-tree was propagated so slowly in Italy, that more than a century after its introduction it was far from being generally cultivated. The Romans distinguished three principal species of cherries — the Apronian, of a bright red, with a firm and delicate pulp; the Lutatian, very black and sweet; the Caecilian, round and stubby, and much esteemed. The cherry embellished the third course in Rome and the second at Athens.

Preserved Nectarines.

1562. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1/4 pint of water; nectarines.

Mode. — Divide the nectarines in two, take out the stones, and make a strong syrup with sugar and water in the above proportion. Put in the nectarines, and boil them until they have thoroughly imbibed the sugar. Keep the fruit as whole as possible, and turn it carefully into a pan. The next day boil it again for a few minutes, take out the nectarines, put them into jars, boil the syrup quickly for 5 minutes, pour it over the fruit, and, when cold, cover the preserve down. The syrup and preserve must be carefully skimmed, or it will not be clear.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the sugar and water; 20 minutes to boil the fruit the first time, 10 minutes the second time; 5 minutes to boil the syrup.

Seasonable in August and September, but cheapest in September.

Stewed Normandy Pippins.

1563. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of Normandy pippins, 1 quart of water, 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 lemon.

Mode. — Well wash the pippins, and put them into 1 quart of water with the above proportion of cinnamon and ginger, and let them stand 12 hours; then put these all together into a stewpan, with the lemon sliced thinly, and half the moist sugar. Let them boil slowly until the pippins are half done; then add the remainder of the sugar, and simmer until they are quite tender. Serve on glass dishes for dessert.

Time. — 2 to 3 hours. Average cost, 1s. 6d. Seasonable. — Suitable for a winter dish.

Iced Oranges.

1564. INGREDIENTS. — Oranges; to every lb. of pounded loaf sugar allow the whites of 2 eggs.

Mode. — Whisk the whites of the eggs well, stir in the sugar, and beat this mixture for 1/4 hour. Skin the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible without injuring the pulp of the fruit; pass a thread through the centre of each orange, dip them into the sugar, and tie them to a stick. Place this stick across the oven, and let the oranges remain until dry, when they will have the appearance of balls of ice. They make a pretty dessert or supper dish. Care must be taken not to have the oven too fierce, or the oranges would scorch and acquire a brown colour, which would entirely spoil their appearance.

Time. — From 1/2 to 1 hour to dry in a moderate oven.

Average cost, 1–1/2d. each.

Sufficient. — 1/2 lb. of sugar to ice 12 oranges.

Seasonable from November to May.

THE FIRST ORANGE-TREE IN FRANCE. — The first Orange-tree cultivated in the centre of France was to be seen a few years ago at Fontainebleau. It was called Le Connétable (the Constable), because it had belonged to the Connétable de Bourbon, and had been confiscated, together with all property belonging to that prince, after his revolt against his sovereign.

Compote of Oranges.

1565. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of syrup No. 1512, 6 oranges. Mode. — Peel the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into small pieces without breaking the thin skin with which they are surrounded. Make the syrup by recipe No. 1512, adding the rind of the orange cut into thin narrow strips. When the syrup has been well skimmed, and is quite clear, put in the pieces of orange, and simmer them for 5 minutes. Take them out carefully with a spoon without breaking them, and arrange them on a glass dish. Reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly until thick; let it cool a little, pour it over the oranges, and, when cold, they will be ready for table.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the syrup; 5 minutes to simmer the oranges; 5 minutes to reduce the syrup.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from November to May.

THE ORANGE IN PORTUGAL. — The Orange known under the name of “Portugal Orange” comes originally from China. Not more than two centuries ago, the Portuguese brought thence the first scion, which has multiplied so prodigiously that we now see entire forests of orange-trees in Portugal.

ORANGE AND CLOVES. — It appears to have been the custom formerly, in England, to make new year’s presents with oranges stuck full with cloves. We read in one of Ben Jonson’s pieces — the “Christmas Masque,”—“He has an orange and rosemary, but not a clove to stick in it.”

Orange Marmalade.
I.

1566. INGREDIENTS. — Equal weight of fine loaf sugar and Seville oranges; to 12 oranges allow 1 pint of water.

Mode. — Let there be an equal weight of loaf sugar and Seville oranges, and allow the above proportion of water to every dozen oranges. Peel them carefully, remove a little of the white pith, and boil the rinds in water 2 hours, changing the water three times to take off a little of the bitter taste. Break the pulp into small pieces, take out all the pips, and cut the boiled rind into chips. Make a syrup with the sugar and water; boil this well, skim it, and, when clear, put in the pulp and chips. Boil all together from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; pour it into pots, and, when cold, cover down with bladders or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. The juice and grated rind of 2 lemons to every dozen of oranges, added with the pulp and chips to the syrup, are a very great improvement to this marmalade.

Time. — 2 hours to boil the orange-rinds; 10 minutes to boil the syrup; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour to boil the marmalade.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable. — This should be made in March or April, as Seville oranges are then in perfection.

II.

1567. INGREDIENTS. — Equal weight of Seville oranges and sugar; to every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Weigh the sugar and oranges, score the skin across, and take it off in quarters. Boil these quarters in a muslin bag in water until they are quite soft, and they can be pierced easily with the head of a pin; then cut them into chips about 1 inch long, and as thin as possible. Should there be a great deal of white stringy pulp, remove it before cutting the rind into chips. Split open the oranges, scrape out the best part of the pulp, with the juice, rejecting the white pith and pips. Make a syrup with the sugar and water; boil it until clear; then put in the chips, pulp, and juice, and boil the marmalade from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, removing all the scum as it rises. In boiling the syrup, clear it carefully from scum before the oranges are added to it.

Time. — 2 hours to boil the rinds, 10 minutes the syrup, 20 minutes to 1/2 hour the marmalade.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in March or April, when Seville oranges are in perfection.

An Easy Way of Making Orange Marmalade.

1568. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of pulp allow 1–1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Choose some fine Seville oranges; put them whole into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and stew them until they become perfectly tender, changing the water 2 or 3 times; drain them, take off the rind, remove the pips from the pulp, weigh it, and to every lb. allow 1–1/2 of loaf sugar and 1/2 pint of the water the oranges were last boiled in. Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes; put in the pulp, boil for another 10 minutes; then add the peel cut into strips, and boil the marmalade for another 10 minutes, which completes the process. Pour it into jars; let it cool; then cover down with bladders, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg.

Time. — 2 hours to boil the oranges; altogether 1/2 hour to boil the marmalade.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable — Make this in March or April.

Orange Marmalade Made with Honey.

1569. INGREDIENTS. — To 1 quart of the juice and pulp of Seville oranges allow 2 lbs. of honey, 1 lb. of the rind.

Mode. — Peel the oranges and boil the rind in water until tender, and cut it into strips. Take away the pips from the juice and pulp, and put it with the honey and chips into a preserving-pan; boil all together for about 1/2 hour, or until the marmalade is of the proper consistency; put it into pots, and, when cold, cover down with bladders.

Time. — 2 hours to boil the rind, 1/2 hour the marmalade.

Average cost, from 7d. to 9d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Make this in March or April.

To Preserve Oranges.

1570. INGREDIENTS. — Oranges; to every lb. of juice and pulp allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar; to every pint of water 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Wholly grate or peel the oranges, taking off only the thin outside portion of the rind. Make a small incision where the stalk is taken out, squeeze out as much of the juice as can be obtained, and preserve it in a basin with the pulp that accompanies it. Put the oranges into cold water; let them stand for 3 days, changing the water twice; then boil them in fresh water till they are very tender, and put them to drain. Make a syrup with the above proportion of sugar and water, sufficient to cover the oranges; let them stand in it for 2 or 3 days; then drain them well. Weigh the juice and pulp, allow double their weight of sugar, and boil them together until the scum ceases to rise, which must all be carefully removed; put in the oranges, boil them for 10 minutes, place them in jars, pour over them the syrup, and, when cold, cover down. They will be fit for use in a week.

Time. — 3 days for the oranges to remain in water, 3 days in the syrup; 1/2 hour to boil the pulp, 10 minutes the oranges.

Seasonable. — This preserve should be made in February or March, when oranges are plentiful.

Orange Salad.

1571. INGREDIENTS. — 6 oranges, 1/4 lb. of muscatel raisins, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Peel 5 of the oranges; divide them into slices without breaking the pulp, and arrange them on a glass dish. Stone the raisins, mix them with the sugar and brandy, and mingle them with the oranges. Squeeze the juice of the other orange over the whole, and the dish is ready for table. A little pounded spice may be put in when the flavour is liked; but this ingredient must be added very sparingly.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from November to May.

Compote of Peaches.

1572. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of syrup No. 1512, about 15 small peaches.

Mode. — Peaches that are not very large, and that would not look well for dessert, answer very nicely for a compôte. Divide the peaches, take out the stones, and pare the fruit; make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, put in the peaches, and stew them gently for about 10 minutes. Take them out without breaking, arrange them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3 minutes, let it cool, pour it over the fruit, and, when cold, it will be ready for table.

Time. — 10 minutes. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in August and September.

PEACH AND NECTARINE. — The peach and nectarine, which are among the most delicious of our fruits, are considered as varieties of the same species, produced by cultivation. The former is characterized by a very delicate down, while the latter is smooth; but, as a proof of their identity as to species, trees have borne peaches on one part and nectarines on another; and even a single fruit has had down on one side, and on the other none; the trees are almost exactly alike, as well as the blossoms. Pliny states that the peach was originally brought from Persia, where it grows naturally. At Montreuil, a village near Paris, almost the whole population is employed in the cultivation of peaches; and this occupation has maintained the inhabitants for ages, and, in consequence, they raise better peaches than anywhere else in France. In Maryland and Virginia, peaches grow nearly wild in orchards resembling forests; but the fruit is of little value for the table, being employed only in fattening hogs and for the distillation of peach brandy. On the east side of the Andes, peaches grow wild among the cornfields and in the mountains, and are dried as an article of food. The young leaves of the peach are sometimes used in cookery, from their agreeable flavour; and a liqueur resembling the fine noyeau of Martinique may be made by steeping them in brandy sweetened with sugar and fined with milk: gin may also be flavoured in the same manner. The kernels of the fruit have the same flavour. The nectarine is said to have received its name from nectar, the particular drink of the gods. Though it is considered as the same species as the peach, it is not known which of the varieties come from the other; the nectarine, is by some considered as the superior fruit.

Peaches Preserved in Brandy.

1573. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit weighed before being stoned, allow 1/4 lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar; brandy.

Mode. — Let the fruit be gathered in dry weather; wipe and weigh it, and remove the stones as carefully as possible, without injuring the peaches much. Put them into a jar, sprinkle amongst them pounded loaf sugar in the above proportion, and pour brandy over the fruit. Cover the jar down closely, place it in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and bring the brandy to the simmering-point, but do not allow it to boil. Take the fruit out carefully, without breaking it; put it into small jars, pour over it the brandy, and, when cold, exclude the air by covering the jars with bladders, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. Apricots may be done in the same manner, and, if properly prepared, will be found delicious.

Time. — From 10 to 20 minutes to bring the brandy to the simmering-point.

Seasonable in August and September.

Baked Pears.

1574. INGREDIENTS. — 12 pears, the rind of 1 lemon, 6 cloves, 10 whole allspice; to every pint of water allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Pare and cut the pears into halves, and, should they be very large, into quarters; leave the stalks on, and carefully remove the cores. Place them in a clean baking-jar, with a closely-fitting lid; add to them the lemon-rind cut in strips, the juice of 1/2 lemon, the cloves, pounded allspice, and sufficient water just to cover the whole, with sugar in the above proportion. Cover the jar down closely, put it into a very cool oven, and bake the pears from 5 to 6 hours, but be very careful that the oven is not too hot. To improve the colour of the fruit, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added; but this will not be found necessary if the pears are very gently baked.

Time. — Large pears, 5 to 6 hours, in a very slow oven.

Average cost, 1d. to 2d. each.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

PEAR. — The pear, like the apple, is indigenous to this country; but the wild pear is a very unsatisfactory fruit. The best varieties were brought from the East by the Romans, who cultivated them with care, and probably introduced some of their best sorts into this island, to which others were added by the inhabitants of the monasteries. The Dutch and Flemings, as well as the French, have excelled in the cultivation of the pear, and most of the late varieties introduced are from France and Flanders. The pear is a hardy tree, and a longer liver than the apple: it has been known to exist for centuries. There are now about 150 varieties of this fruit. Though perfectly wholesome when ripe, the pear is not so when green; but in this state it is fit for stewing. An agreeable beverage, called perry, is made from pears, and the varieties which are least fit for eating make the best perry.

Preserved Pears.

1575. INGREDIENTS. — Jargonelle pears; to every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Procure some Jargonelle pears, not too ripe; put them into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and simmer them till rather tender, but do not allow them to break; then put them into cold water. Boil the sugar and water together for 5 minutes, skim well, put in the pears, and simmer them gently for 5 minutes. Repeat the simmering for 3 successive days, taking care not to let the fruit break. The last time of boiling, the syrup should be made rather richer, and the fruit boiled for 10 minutes. When the pears are done, drain them from the syrup, and dry them in the sun, or in a cool oven; or they may be kept in the syrup, and dried as they are wanted.

Time. — 1/2 hour to simmer the pears in water, 20 minutes in the syrup.

Average cost, 1d. to 2d. each.

Seasonable. — Most plentiful in September and October.

Stewed Pears.

1576. INGREDIENTS. — 8 large pears, 5 oz. of loaf sugar, 6 cloves, 6 whole allspice, 1/2 pint of water, 1/4 pint of port wine, a few drops of prepared cochineal.

Mode. — Pare the pears, halve them, remove the cores, and leave the stalks on; put them into a lined saucepan with the above ingredients, and let them simmer very gently until tender, which will be in from 3 to 4 hours, according to the quality of the pears. They should be watched, and, when done, carefully lifted out on to a glass dish without breaking them. Boil up the syrup quickly for 2 or 3 minutes; allow it to cool a little, pour it over the pears, and let them get perfectly cold. To improve the colour of the fruit, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added, which rather enhances the beauty of this dish. The fruit must not be boiled fast, but only simmered, and watched that it be not too much done.

Time. — 3 to 4 hours. Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from September to January.

THE BON CHRETIEN PEAR. — The valuable variety of pear called Bon Chrétien, which comes to our tables in winter, either raw or cooked, received its name through the following incident:— Louis XI., king of France, had sent for Saint Francois de Paule from the lower part of Calabria, in the hopes of recovering his health through his intercession. The saint brought with him the seeds of this pear; and, as he was called at court Le Bon Chrétien, this fruit obtained the name of him to whom France owed its introduction.

Pineapple Chips.

1577. INGREDIENTS. — Pineapples; sugar to taste.

Mode. — Pare and slice the fruit thinly, put it on dishes, and strew over it plenty of pounded sugar. Keep it in a hot closet, or very slow oven, 8 or 10 days, and turn the fruit every day until dry; then put the pieces of pine on tins, and place them in a quick oven for 10 minutes. Let them cool, and store them away in dry boxes, with paper between each layer.

Time. — 8 to 10 days.

Seasonable. — Foreign pines, in July and August.

Preserved Pineapple.

1578. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit, weighed after being pared, allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar; 1/4 pint of water.

Mode. — The pines for making this preserve should be perfectly sound but ripe. Cut them into rather thick slices, as the fruit shrinks very much in the boiling. Pare off the rind carefully, that none of the pine be wasted; and, in doing so, notch it in and out, as the edge cannot be smoothly cut without great waste. Dissolve a portion of the sugar in a preserving-pan with 1/4 pint of water; when this is melted, gradually add the remainder of the sugar, and boil it until it forms a clear syrup, skimming well. As soon as this is the case, put in the pieces of pine, and boil well for at least 1/2 hour, or until it looks nearly transparent. Put it into pots, cover down when cold, and store away in a dry place.

Time. — 1/2 hour to boil the fruit. Average cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. pot.

Seasonable. — Foreign pines, in July and August.

THE PINEAPPLE IN HEATHENDOM. — Heathen nations invented protective divinities for their orchards (such as Pomona, Vertumnus, Priapus, &c.), and benevolent patrons for their fruits: thus, the olive-tree grew under the auspices of Minerva; the Muses cherished the palm-tree, Bacchus the fig and grape, and the pine and its cone were consecrated to the great Cyble.

Preserved Pineapple, for Present Use.

1579. INGREDIENTS. — Pineapple, sugar, water.

Mode. — Cut the pine into slices 1/4 inch in thickness; peel them, and remove the hard part from the middle. Put the parings and hard pieces into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and boil for 1/4 hour. Strain the liquor, and put in the slices of pine. Stew them for 10 minutes, add sufficient sugar to sweeten the whole nicely, and boil again for another 1/4 hour; skim well, and the preserve will be ready for use. It must be eaten soon, as it will keep but a very short time.

Time. — 1/4 hour to boil the parings in water; 10 minutes to boil the pine without sugar, 1/4 hour with sugar.

Average cost. — Foreign pines, 1s. to 3s. each; English, from 2s. to 12s. per lb.

Seasonable. — Foreign, in July and August; English, all the year.

Plum Jam.

1580. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of plums, weighed before being stoned, allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — In making plum jam, the quantity of sugar for each lb. of fruit must be regulated by the quality and size of the fruit, some plums requiring much more sugar than others. Divide the plums, take out the stones, and put them on to large dishes, with roughly-pounded sugar sprinkled over them in the above proportion, and let them remain for one day; then put them into a preserving-pan, stand them by the side of the fire to simmer gently for about 1/2 hour, and then boil them rapidly for another 15 minutes. The scum must be carefully removed as it rises, and the jam must be well stirred all the time, or it will burn at the bottom of the pan, and so spoil the colour and flavour of the preserve. Some of the stones may be cracked, and a few kernels added to the jam just before it is done: these impart a very delicious flavour to the plums. The above proportion of sugar would answer for Orleans plums; the Impératrice Magnum-bonum, and Winesour would not require quite so much.

Time. — 1/2 hour to simmer gently, 1/4 hour to boil rapidly.

Best plums for preserving. — Violets, Mussels, Orleans, Impératrice Magnum-bonum, and Winesour.

Seasonable from the end of July to the beginning of October.

PLUMS. — The Damson, or Damascene plum, takes its name from Damascus, where it grows in great quantities, and whence it was brought into Italy about 114 B.C. The Orleans plum is from France. The Greengage is called after the Gage family, who first brought it into England from the monastery of the Chartreuse, at Paris, where it still bears the name of Reine Claude. The Magnum-bonum is our largest plum, and greatly esteemed for preserves and culinary purposes. The best sorts of plums are agreeable at the dessert, and, when perfectly ripe, are wholesome; but some are too astringent. They lose much of their bad qualities by baking, and are extensively used, from their cheapness, when in full season, in tarts and preserves; but they are not a very wholesome fruit, and should be eaten in moderation.

Preserved Plums.

1581. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar; for the thin syrup, 1/4 lb. of sugar to each pint of water.

Mode. — Select large ripe plums; slightly prick them, to prevent them from bursting, and simmer them very gently in a syrup made with the above proportion of sugar and water. Put them carefully into a pan, let the syrup cool, pour it over the plums, and allow them to remain for two days. Having previously weighed the other sugar, dip the lumps quickly into water, and put them into a preserving-pan with no more water than hangs about them; and boil the sugar to a syrup, carefully skimming it. Drain the plums from the first syrup; put them into the fresh syrup, and simmer them very gently until they are clear; lift them out singly into pots, pour the syrup over, and when cold, cover down to exclude the air. This preserve will remain good some time, if kept in a dry place, and makes a very nice addition to a dessert. The magnum-bonum plums answer for this preserve better than any other kind of plum. Greengages are also very delicious done in this manner.

Time. — 1/4 hour to 20 minutes to simmer the plums in the first syrup; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour very gentle simmering in the second.

Seasonable from August to October.

To Preserve Plums Dry.

1582. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of sugar allow 1/4 pint of water. Mode. — Gather the plums when they are full-grown and just turning colour; prick them, put them into a saucepan of cold water, and set them on the fire until the water is on the point of boiling. Then take them out, drain them, and boil them gently in syrup made with the above proportion of sugar and water; and if the plums shrink, and will not take the sugar, prick them as they lie in the pan; give them another boil, skim, and set them by. The next day add some more sugar, boiled almost to candy, to the fruit and syrup; put all together into a wide-mouthed jar, and place them in a cool oven for 2 nights; then drain the plums from the syrup, sprinkle a little powdered sugar over, and dry them in a cool oven.

Time. — 15 to 20 minutes to boil the plums in the syrup. Seasonable from August to October.

PLUMS. — The wild sloe is the parent of the plum, but the acclimated kinds come from the East. The cultivation of this fruit was probably attended to very early in England, as Gerrard informs us that, in 1597, he had in his garden, in Holborn, threescore sorts. The sloe is a shrub common in our hedgerows, and belongs to the natural order Amygdaleae; the fruit is about the size of a large pea, of a black colour, and covered with a bloom of a bright blue. It is one of the few indigenous to our island. The juice is extremely sharp and astringent, and was formerly employed as a medicine, where astringents were necessary. It now assists in the manufacture of a red wine made to imitate port, and also for adulteration. The leaves have been used to adulterate tea; the fruit, when ripe, makes a good preserve.

Stewed French Plums.

(A Dessert Dish.)

1583. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of French plums, 3/4 pint of syrup No. 1512, 1 glass of port wine, the rind and juice of 1 lemon.

Mode. — Stew the plums gently in water for 1 hour; strain the water, and with it make the syrup. When it is clear, put in the plums with the port wine, lemon-juice, and rind, and simmer very gently for 1–1/2 hour. Arrange the plums on a glass dish, take out the lemon-rind, pour the syrup over the plums, and, when cold, they will be ready for table. A little allspice stewed with the fruit is by many persons considered an improvement.

Time. — 1 hour to stew the plums in water, 1–1/2 hour in the syrup.

Average cost — plums sufficiently good for stewing, 1s. per lb.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Preserved Pumpkin.

1584. INGREDIENTS. — To each lb. of pumpkin allow 1 lb. of roughly pounded loaf sugar, 1 gill of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Obtain a good sweet pumpkin; halve it, take out the seeds, and pare off the rind; cut it into neat slices, or into pieces about the size of a five-shilling piece. Weigh the pumpkin, put the slices in a pan or deep dish in layers, with the sugar sprinkled between them; pour the lemon-juice over the top, and let the whole remain for 2 or 3 days. Boil altogether, adding 1/4 pint of water to every 3 lbs. of sugar used until the pumpkin becomes tender; then turn the whole into a pan, where let it remain for a week; then drain off the syrup, boil it until it is quite thick; skim, and pour it, boiling, over the pumpkin. A little bruised ginger and lemon-rind, thinly pared, may be boiled in the syrup to flavour the pumpkin.

Time. — From 1/2 to 3/4 hour to boil the pumpkin tender.

Average cost, 5d. to 7d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable in September and October; but better when made in the latter month, as the pumpkin is then quite ripe.

Note. — Vegetable marrows are very good prepared in the same manner, but are not quite so rich.

Quince Jelly.

1585. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of juice allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Pare and slice the quinces, and put them into a preserving-pan with sufficient water to float them. Boil them until tender, and the fruit is reduced to a pulp; strain off the clear juice, and to each pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for about 3/4 hour; remove all the scum as it rises, and, when the jelly appears firm when a little is poured on a plate, it is done. The residue left on the sieve will answer to make a common marmalade, for immediate use, by boiling it with 1/2 lb. of common sugar to every lb. of pulp.

Time. — 3 hours to boil the quinces in water; 3/4 hour to boil the jelly.

Average cost, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable from August to October.

Quince Marmalade.

1586. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of quince pulp allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Slice the quinces into a preserving-pan, adding sufficient water for them to float; place them on the fire to stew, until reduced to a pulp, keeping them stirred occasionally from the bottom, to prevent their burning; then pass the pulp through a hair sieve, to keep back the skin and seeds. Weigh the pulp, and to each lb. add lump sugar in the above proportion, broken very small. Place the whole on the fire, and keep it well stirred from the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon, until reduced to a marmalade, which may be known by dropping a little on a cold plate, when, if it jellies, it is done. Put it into jars whilst hot; let it cool, and cover with pieces of oiled paper cut to the size of the mouths of the jars. The tops of them may be afterwards covered with pieces of bladder, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg.

Time. — 3 hours to boil the quinces without the sugar; 3/4 hour to boil the pulp with the sugar.

Average cost, from 8d. to 9d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 pint of sliced quinces for a lb. pot.

Seasonable in August, September, and October.

Raisin Cheese.

1587. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of raisins allow a lb. of loaf sugar; pounded cinnamon and cloves to taste.

Mode. — Stone the raisins; put them into a stewpan with the sugar, cinnamon, and cloves, and let them boil for 1–1/2 hour, stirring all the time. Let the preparation cool a little, pour it into a glass dish, and garnish with strips of candied lemon-peel and citron. This will remain good some time, if kept in a dry place.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 9d. Sufficient. — 1 lb. for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Raspberry Jam.

1588. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of raspberries allow 1 lb. of sugar, 1/4 pint of red-currant juice.

Mode. — Let the fruit for this preserve be gathered in fine weather, and used as soon after it is picked as possible. Take off the stalks, put the raspberries into a preserving-pan, break them well with a wooden spoon, and let them boil for 1/4 hour, keeping them well stirred. Then add the currant-juice and sugar, and boil again for 1/2 hour. Skim the jam well after the sugar is added, or the preserve will not be clear. The addition of the currant juice is a very great improvement to this preserve, as it gives it a piquant taste, which the flavour of the raspberries seems to require.

Time. — 1/4 hour to simmer the fruit without the sugar; 1/4 hour after it is added.

Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — Allow about 1 pint of fruit to fill a 1-lb. pot.

Seasonable in July and August.

Raspberry Jelly.

1589. INGREDIENTS. — To each pint of juice allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Let the raspberries be freshly gathered, quite ripe, and picked from the stalks; put them into a large jar, after breaking the fruit a little with a wooden spoon, and place this jar, covered, in a saucepan of boiling water. When the juice is well drawn, which will be in from 3/4 to 1 hour, strain the fruit through a fine hair sieve or cloth; measure the juice, and to every pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar. Put the juice and sugar into a preserving-pan, place it over the fire, and boil gently until the jelly thickens when a little is poured on a plate; carefully remove all the scum as it rises, pour the jelly into small pots, cover down, and keep in a dry place. This jelly answers for making raspberry cream, and for flavouring various sweet dishes, when, in winter, the fresh fruit is not obtainable.

Time. — 3/4 to 1 hour to draw the juice.

Average cost, from 9d. to 1s. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit should yield 1 pint of juice.

Seasonable. — This should be made in July or August.

Rhubarb Jam.

1590. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of rhubarb allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Wipe the rhubarb perfectly dry, take off the string or peel, and weigh it; put it into a preserving-pan, with sugar in the above proportion; mince the lemon-rind very finely, add it to the other ingredients, and place the preserving-pan by the side of the fire; keep stirring to prevent the rhubarb from burning, and when the sugar is well dissolved, put the pan more over the fire, and let the jam boil until it is done, taking care to keep it well skimmed and stirred with a wooden or silver spoon. Pour it into pots, and cover down with oiled and egged papers.

Time. — If the rhubarb is young and tender, 3/4 hour, reckoning from the time it simmers equally; old rhubarb, 1–1/4 to 1–1/2 hour.

Average cost, 5d. to 7d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — About 1 pint of sliced rhubarb to fill a lb. pot.

Seasonable from February to April.

Rhubarb and Orange Jam, to resemble Scotch Marmalade.

1591. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of finely-cut rhubarb, 6 oranges, 1–1/2 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Peel the oranges; remove as much of the white pith as possible, divide them, and take out the pips; slice the pulp into a preserving-pan, add the rind of half the oranges cut into thin strips, and the loaf sugar, which should be broken small. Peel the rhubarb, cut it into thin pieces, put it to the oranges, and stir altogether over a gentle fire until the jam is done. Remove all the scum as it rises, put the preserve into pots, and, when cold, cover down. Should the rhubarb be very old, stew it alone for 1/4 hour before the other ingredients are added.

Time. — 3/4 to 1 hour. Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Seasonable from February to April.

Raspberry and Currant, or any Fresh Fruit Salad.

(A Dessert Dish.)

1592. Mode. — Fruit salads are made by stripping the fruit from the stalks, piling it on a dish, and sprinkling over it finely-pounded sugar. They may be made of strawberries, raspberries, currants, or any of these fruits mixed; peaches also make a very good salad. After the sugar is sprinkled over, about 6 large tablespoonfuls of wine or brandy, or 3 tablespoonfuls of liqueur, should be poured in the middle of the fruit; and, when the flavour is liked, a little pounded cinnamon may be added. In helping the fruit, it should be lightly stirred, that the wine and sugar may be equally distributed.

Sufficient. — 1–1/2 pint of fruit, with 3 oz. of pounded sugar, for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in summer.

Strawberries and Cream.

1593. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of picked strawberries allow 1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of finely-pounded sugar.

Mode. — Pick the stalks from the fruit, place it on a glass dish, sprinkle over it pounded sugar, and slightly stir the strawberries, that they may all be equally sweetened; pour the cream over the top, and serve. Devonshire cream, when it can be obtained, is exceedingly delicious for this dish; and, if very thick indeed, may be diluted with a little thin cream or milk.

Average cost for this quantity, with cream at 1s. per pint, 1s.

Sufficient for 2 persons.

Seasonable in June and July.

Strawberry Jam.

1594. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 1/2 pint of red-currant juice, 1–1/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

Mode. — Strip the currants from the stalks, put them into a jar; place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until the juice is well drawn from the fruit; strain the currants, measure the juice, put it into a preserving-pan, and add the sugar. Select well-ripened but sound strawberries; pick them from the stalks, and when the sugar is dissolved in the currant juice, put in the fruit. Simmer the whole over a moderate fire, from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises. Stir the jam only enough to prevent it from burning at the bottom of the pan, as the fruit should be preserved as whole as possible. Put the jam into jars, and when cold, cover down.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour, reckoning from the time the jam simmers all over.

Average cost, from 7d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

Sufficient. — 12 pints of strawberries will make 12 lb. pots of jam.

Seasonable in June and July.

Preserved Strawberries in Wine.

1595. INGREDIENTS. — To every quart bottle allow 1/4 lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar; sherry or Madeira.

Mode. — Let the fruit be gathered in fine weather, and used as soon as picked. Have ready some perfectly dry glass bottles, and some nice soft corks or bungs. Pick the stalks from the strawberries, drop them into the bottles, sprinkling amongst them pounded sugar in the above proportion, and when the fruit reaches to the neck of the bottle, fill up with sherry or Madeira. Cork the bottles down with new corks, and dip them into melted resin.

Seasonable. — Make this in June or July.

To Preserve Strawberries Whole.

1596. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of fruit allow 1–1/2 lb. of good loaf sugar, 1 pint of red-currant juice.

Mode. — Choose the strawberries not too ripe, of a fine large sort and of a good colour. Pick off the stalks, lay the strawberries in a dish, and sprinkle over them half the quantity of sugar, which must be finely pounded. Shake the dish gently, that the sugar may be equally distributed and touch the under-side of the fruit, and let it remain for 1 day. Then have ready the currant-juice, drawn as for red-currant jelly No. 1533; boil it with the remainder of the sugar until it forms a thin syrup, and in this simmer the strawberries and sugar, until the whole is sufficiently jellied. Great care must be taken not to stir the fruit roughly, as it should be preserved as whole as possible. Strawberries prepared in this manner are very good served in glasses and mixed with thin cream.

Time. — 1/4 hour to 20 minutes to simmer the strawberries in the syrup.

Seasonable in June and July.

To Make Everton Toffee.

1597. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of powdered loaf sugar, 1 teacupful of water, 1/4 lb. of butter, 6 drops of essence of lemon.

Mode. — Put the water and sugar into a brass pan, and beat the butter to a cream. When the sugar is dissolved, add the butter, and keep stirring the mixture over the fire until it sets, when a little is poured on to a buttered dish; and just before the toffee is done, add the essence of lemon. Butter a dish or tin, pour on it the mixture, and when cool, it will easily separate from the dish. Butter–Scotch, an excellent thing for coughs, is made with brown, instead of white sugar, omitting the water, and flavoured with 1/2 oz. of powdered ginger. It is made in the same manner as toffee.

Time. — 18 to 35 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient to make a lb. of toffee.

Dessert Dishes.

1598. The tazza, or dish with stem, the same as that shown in our illustrations, is now the favourite shape for dessert-dishes. The fruit can be arranged and shown to better advantage on these tall high dishes than on the short flat ones. All the dishes are now usually placed down the centre of the table, dried and fresh fruit alternately, the former being arranged on small round or oval glass plates, and the latter on the dishes with stems. The fruit should always be gathered on the same day that it is required for table, and should be tastefully arranged on the dishes, with leaves between and round it. By purchasing fruits that are in season, a dessert can be supplied at a very moderate cost. These, with a few fancy biscuits, crystallized fruit, bon-bons, &c., are sufficient for an ordinary dessert. When fresh fruit cannot be obtained, dried and foreign fruits, compotes, baked pears, stewed Normandy pippins, &c. &c., must supply its place, with the addition of preserves, bon-bons, cakes, biscuits, &c. At fashionable tables, forced fruit is served growing in pots, these pots being hidden in more ornamental ones, and arranged with the other dishes. —(See coloured plate W1.) A few vases of fresh flowers, tastefully arranged, add very much to the appearance of the dessert; and, when these are not obtainable, a few paper ones, mixed with green leaves, answer very well as a substitute. In decorating a table, whether for luncheon, dessert, or supper, a vase or two of flowers should never be forgotten, as they add so much to the elegance of the tout ensemble. In summer and autumn, ladies residing in the country can always manage to have a few freshly-gathered flowers on their tables, and should never be without this inexpensive luxury. On the continent, vases or epergnes filled with flowers are invariably placed down the centre of the dinner-table at regular distances. Ices for dessert are usually moulded: when this is not the case, they are handed round in glasses with wafers to accompany them. Preserved ginger is frequently handed round after ices, to prepare the palate for the delicious dessert wines. A basin or glass of finely-pounded lump sugar must never be omitted at a dessert, as also a glass jug of fresh cold water (iced, if possible), and two goblets by its side. Grape-scissors, a melon-knife and fork, and nutcrackers, should always be put on table, if there are dishes of fruit requiring them. Zests are sometimes served at the close of the dessert; such as anchovy toasts or biscuits. The French often serve plain or grated cheese with a dessert of fresh or dried fruit. At some tables, finger-glasses are placed at the right of each person, nearly half filled with cold spring water, and in winter with tepid water. These precede the dessert. At other tables, a glass or vase is simply handed round, filled with perfumed water, into which each guest dips the corner of his napkin, and, when needful, refreshes his lips and the tips of his fingers.

After the dishes are placed, and every one is provided with plates, glasses, spoons, &c., the wine should be put at each end of the table, cooled or otherwise, according to the season. If the party be small, the wine may be placed only at the top of the table, near the host.

Dish of Nuts.

1599. These are merely arranged piled high in the centre of the dish, as shown in the engraving, with or without leaves round the edge. Filberts should always be served with the outer skin or husk on them; and walnuts should be well wiped with a damp cloth, and then — with a dry one, to remove the unpleasant sticky feeling the shells frequently have.

Seasonable. — Filberts from September to March, good; may be had after that time, but are generally shrivelled and dry. Walnuts from September to January.

HAZEL NUT AND FILBERT. — The common Hazel is the wild, and the Filbert the cultivated state of the same tree. The hazel is found wild, not only in forests and hedges, in dingles and ravines, but occurs in extensive tracts in the more northern and mountainous parts of the country. It was formerly one of the most abundant of those trees which are indigenous in this island. It is seldom cultivated as a fruit-tree, though perhaps its nuts are superior in flavour to the others. The Spanish nuts imported are a superior kind, but they are somewhat oily and rather indigestible. Filberts, both the red and the white, and the cob-nut, are supposed to be merely varieties of the common hazel, which have been produced, partly by the superiority of soil and climate, and partly by culture. They were originally brought out of Greece to Italy, whence they have found their way to Holland, and from that country to England. It is supposed that, within a few miles of Maidstone, in Kent, there are more filberts grown than in all England besides; and it is from that place that the London market is supplied. The filbert is longer than the common nut, though of the same thickness, and has a larger kernel. The cob-nut is a still larger variety, and is roundish. Filberts are more esteemed at the dessert than common nuts, and are generally eaten with salt. They are very free from oil, and disagree with few persons.

WALNUTS. — The Walnut is a native of Persia, the Caucasus, and China, but was introduced to this kingdom from France. The ripe kernel is brought to the dessert on account of its agreeable flavour; and the fruit is also much used in the green state, but before the stone hardens, as a pickle. In Spain, grated walnuts are employed in tarts and other dishes. The Walnut abounds in oil which is expressed and which, being of a highly drying nature, and very limpid, is much employed for delicate painting. This, on the continent, is sometimes used as a substitute for olive-oil in cooking, but is very apt to turn rancid. It is also manufactured into a kind of soap. The mare, or refuse matter after the oil is extracted, proves very nutritious for poultry or other domestic animals. In Switzerland, this is eaten by poor people under the name of pain amer.

Box of French Plums.

1600. If the box which contains them is exceedingly ornamental, it may be placed on the table; if small, on a glass dish; if large, without one, French plums may also be arranged on a glass plate, and garnished with bright-coloured sweetmeats, which make a very good effect. All fancy boxes of preserved and crystallized fruit may be put on the table or not, at pleasure. These little matters of detail must, of course, be left to individual taste.

Seasonable. — May be purchased all the year; but are in greater perfection in the winter, and are more suitable for that season, as fresh fruit cannot be obtained.

Dish of Mixed Fruit.

1601. For a centre dish, a mixture of various fresh fruits has a remarkably good effect, particularly if a pine be added to the list. A high raised appearance should be given to the fruit, which is done in the following manner. Place a tumbler in the centre of the dish, and, in this tumbler, the pine, crown uppermost; round the tumbler put a thick layer of moss, and, over this, apples, pears, plums, peaches, and such fruit as is simultaneously in season. By putting a layer of moss underneath, so much fruit is not required, besides giving a better shape to the dish. Grapes should be placed on the top of the fruit, a portion of some of the bunches hanging over the sides of the dish in a négligé kind of manner, which takes off the formal look of the dish. In arranging the plums, apples, &c., let the colours contrast well.

Seasonable. — Suitable for a dessert in September or October.

GRAPES. — France produces about a thousand varieties of the grape, which is cultivated more extensively in that country than in any other. Hygienists agree in pronouncing grapes as among the best of fruits. The grape possesses several rare qualities: it is nourishing and fattening, and its prolonged use has often overcome the most obstinate cases of constipation. The skins and pips of grapes should not be eaten.

Box of Chocolate.

1602. This is served in an ornamental box, placed on a glass plate or dish.

Seasonable. — May be purchased at any time.

Dish of Apples.

1603. The apples should be nicely wiped with a dry cloth, and arranged on a dish, piled high in the centre, with evergreen leaves between each layer. The inferior apples should form the bottom layer, with the bright-coloured large ones at the top. The leaves of the laurel, bay, holly, or any shrub green in winter, are suitable for garnishing dessert dishes. Oranges may be arranged in the same manner; they should also be wiped with a dry cloth before being sent to table.

Dish of Mixed Summer Fruit.

1604. This dish consists of cherries, raspberries, currants, and strawberries, piled in different layers, with plenty of leaves between each layer; so that each fruit is well separated. The fruit should be arranged with a due regard to colour, so that they contrast nicely one with the other. Our engraving shows a layer of white cherries at the bottom, then one of red raspberries; over that a layer of white currants, and at the top some fine scarlet strawberries.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Almonds and Raisins.

1605. These are usually served on glass dishes, the fruit piled high in the centre, and the almonds blanched, and strewn over. To blanch the almonds, put them into a small mug or teacup, pour over them boiling water, let them remain for 2 or 3 minutes, and the skins may then be easily removed. Figs, dates, French plums, &c., are all served on small glass plates or oval dishes, but without the almonds.

Seasonable at any time, but more suitable in winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable.

DATES. — Dates are imported into Britain, in a dried state, from Barbary and Egypt, and, when in good condition, they are much esteemed. An inferior kind has lately become common, which are dried hard, and have little or no flavour. They should be chosen large, softish, not much wrinkled, of a reddish-yellow colour on the outside, with a whitish membrane between the fruit and the stone.

Dish of Strawberries.

1606. Fine strawberries, arranged in the manner shown in the engraving, look exceedingly well. The inferior ones should be placed at the bottom of the dish, and the others put in rows pyramidically, with the stalks downwards; so that when the whole is completed, nothing but the red part of the fruit is visible. The fruit should be gathered with rather long stalks, as there is then something to support it, and it can be placed more upright in each layer. A few of the finest should be reserved to crown the top.

To have Walnuts Fresh Throughout the Season.

1607. INGREDIENTS. — To every pint of water allow 1 teaspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Place the walnuts in the salt and water for 24 hours at least; then take them out, and rub them dry. Old nuts may be freshened in this manner; or walnuts, when first picked, may be put into an earthen pan with salt sprinkled amongst them, and with damped hay placed on the top of them, and then covered down with a lid. They must be well wiped before they are put on table.

Seasonable. — Should be stored away in September or October.

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Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31