The Book of Household Management, by Isabella Beeton

Chapter XXVII.

Recipes.

Very Good Puff-Paste.

1205. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 1 lb. of butter, and not quite 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Carefully weigh the flour and butter, and have the exact proportion; squeeze the butter well, to extract the water from it, and afterwards wring it in a clean cloth, that no moisture may remain. Sift the flour; see that it is perfectly dry, and proceed in the following manner to make the paste, using a very clean paste-board and rolling-pin:— Supposing the quantity to be 1 lb. of flour, work the whole into a smooth paste, with not quite 1/2 pint of water, using a knife to mix it with: the proportion of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the discretion of the cook; if too much be added, the paste, when baked, will be tough. Roll it out until it is of an equal thickness of about an inch; break 4 oz. of the butter into small pieces; place these on the paste, sift over it a little flour, fold it over, roll out again, and put another 4 oz. of butter. Repeat the rolling and buttering until the paste has been rolled out 4 times, or equal quantities of flour and butter have been used. Do not omit, every time the paste is rolled out, to dredge a little flour over that and the rolling-pin, to prevent both from sticking. Handle the paste as lightly as possible, and do not press heavily upon it with the rolling-pin. The next thing to be considered is the oven, as the baking of pastry requires particular attention. Do not put it into the oven until it is sufficiently hot to raise the paste; for the best-prepared paste, if not properly baked, will be good for nothing. Brushing the paste as often as rolled out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon, with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in leaves or flakes. As this is the great beauty of puff-paste, it is as well to try this method.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per lb.

BUTTER. — About the second century of the Christian era, butter was placed by Galen amongst the useful medical agents; and about a century before him, Dioscorides mentioned that he had noticed that fresh butter, made of ewes’ and goats’ milk, was served at meals instead of oil, and that it took the place of fat in making pastry. Thus we have undoubted authority that, eighteen hundred years ago, there existed a knowledge of the useful qualities of butter. The Romans seem to have set about making it much as we do; for Pliny tells us, “Butter is made from milk; and the use of this element, so much sought after by barbarous nations, distinguished the rich from the common people. It is obtained principally from cows’ milk; that from ewes is the fattest; goats also supply some. It is produced by agitating the milk in long vessels with narrow openings: a little water is added.”

Medium Puff-Paste.

1206. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of lard, not quite 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — This paste may be made by the directions in the preceding recipe, only using less butter and substituting lard for a portion of it. Mix the flour to a smooth paste with not quite 1/2 pint of water; then roll it out 3 times, the first time covering the paste with butter, the second with lard, and the third with butter. Keep the rolling-pin and paste slightly dredged with flour, to prevent them from sticking, and it will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

BUTTER IN HASTE. — In his “History of Food,” Soyer says that to obtain butter instantly, it is only necessary, in summer, to put new milk into a bottle, some hours after it has been taken from the cow, and shake it briskly. The clots which are thus formed should be thrown into a sieve, washed and pressed together, and they constitute the finest and most delicate butter that can possibly be made.

Common Paste, for Family Pies.

1207. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of butter, rather more than 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Rub the butter lightly into the flour, and mix it to a smooth paste with the water; roll it out 2 or 3 times, and it will be ready for use. This paste may be converted into an excellent short crust for sweet tart, by adding to the flour, after the butter is rubbed in, 2 tablespoonfuls of fine-sifted sugar.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

TO KEEP BUTTER FRESH. — One of the best means to preserve butter fresh is, first to completely press out all the buttermilk, then to keep it under water, renewing the water frequently, and to remove it from the influence of heat and air, by wrapping it in a wet cloth.

French Puff-Paste, or Feuilletage.

(Founded on M. Ude’s Recipe.)

1208. INGREDIENTS. — Equal quantities of flour and butter — say 1 lb. of each; 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, the yolks of 2 eggs, rather more than 1/4 pint of water.

Mode. — Weigh the flour; ascertain that it is perfectly dry, and sift it; squeeze all the water from the butter, and wring it in a clean cloth till there is no moisture remaining. Put the flour on the paste-board, work lightly into it 2 oz. of the butter, and then make a hole in the centre; into this well put the yolks of 2 eggs, the salt, and about 1/4 pint of water (the quantity of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the cook, as it is impossible to give the exact proportion of it); knead up the paste quickly and lightly, and, when quite smooth, roll it out square to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Presuming that the butter is perfectly free from moisture, and as cool as possible, roll it into a ball, and place this ball of butter on the paste; fold the paste over the butter all round, and secure it by wrapping it well all over. Flatten the paste by rolling it lightly with the rolling-pin until it is quite thin, but not thin enough to allow the butter to break through, and keep the board and paste dredged lightly with flour during the process of making it. This rolling gives it the first turn. Now fold the paste in three, and roll out again, and, should the weather be very warm, put it in a cold place on the ground to cool between the several turns; for, unless this is particularly attended to, the paste will be spoiled. Roll out the paste again twice, put it by to cool, then roll it out twice more, which will make 6 turnings in all. Now fold the paste in two, and it will be ready for use. If properly baked and well made, this crust will be delicious, and should rise in the oven about 5 or 6 inches. The paste should be made rather firm in the first instance, as the ball of butter is liable to break through. Great attention must also be paid to keeping the butter very cool, as, if this is in a liquid and soft state, the paste will not answer at all. Should the cook be dexterous enough to succeed in making this, the paste will have a much better appearance than that made by the process of dividing the butter into 4 parts, and placing it over the rolled-out paste; but, until experience has been acquired, we recommend puff-paste made by recipe No. 1205. The above paste is used for vols-au-vent, small articles of pastry, and, in fact, everything that requires very light crust.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per lb.

WHAT TO DO WITH RANCID BUTTER. — When butter has become very rancid, it should be melted several times by a moderate heat, with or without the addition of water, and as soon as it has been well kneaded, after the cooling, in order to extract any water it may have retained, it should be put into brown freestone pots, sheltered from the contact of the air. The French often add to it, after it has been melted, a piece of toasted bread, which helps to destroy the tendency of the batter to rancidity.

Soyer’s Recipe for Puff-Paste.

1209. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow the yolk of 1 egg, the juice of 1 lemon, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, cold water, 1 lb. of fresh butter.

Mode. — Put the flour on to the paste-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put the yolk of the egg, the lemon-juice, and salt; mix the whole with cold water (this should be iced in summer, if convenient) into a soft flexible paste, with the right hand, and handle it as little as possible; then squeeze all the buttermilk from the butter, wring it in a cloth, and roll out the paste; place the butter on this, and fold the edges of the paste over, so as to hide it; roll it out again to the thickness of 1/4 inch; fold over one third, over which again pass the rolling-pin; then fold over the other third, thus forming a square; place it with the ends, top, and bottom before you, shaking a little flour both under and over, and repeat the rolls and turns twice again, as before. Flour a baking-sheet, put the paste on this, and let it remain on ice or in some cool place for 1/2 hour; then roll twice more, turning it as before; place it again upon the ice for 1/4 hour, give it 2 more rolls, making 7 in all, and it is ready for use when required.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per lb.

Very Good Short Crust for Fruit Tarts.

1210. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 3/4 lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of sifted sugar, 1/3 pint of water.

Mode. — Rub the butter into the flour, after having ascertained that the latter is perfectly dry; add the sugar, and mix the whole into a stiff paste, with about 1/3 pint of water. Roll it out two or three times, folding the paste over each time, and it will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1s. 1d. per lb.

Another Good Short Crust.

1211. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, about 1/4 pint of milk.

Mode. — Rub the butter into the flour, add the sugar, and mix the whole as lightly as possible to a smooth paste, with the yolks of eggs well beaten, and the milk. The proportion of the latter ingredient must be judged of by the size of the eggs: if these are large, so much will not be required, and more if the eggs are smaller.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

SUGAR AND BEETROOT. — There are two sorts of Beet — white and red; occasionally, in the south, a yellow variety is met with. Beetroot contains twenty parts sugar. Everybody knows that the beet has competed with the sugar-cane, and a great part of the French sugar is manufactured from beet. Beetroot has a refreshing, composing, and slightly purgative quality. The young leaves, when cooked, are a substitute for spinach; they are also useful for mixing with sorrel, to lessen its acidity. The large ribs of the leaves are serviceable in various culinary preparations; the root also may be prepared in several ways, but its most general use is in salad. Some writers upon the subject have expressed their opinion that beetroot is easily digested, but those who have taken pains to carefully analyze its qualities make quite a contrary statement. Youth, of course, can digest it; but to persons of a certain age beet is very indigestible, or rather, it does not digest at all. It is not the sugary pulp which is indigestible, but its fibrous network that resists the action of the gastric organs. Thus, when the root is reduced to a puree, almost any person may eat it.

FRENCH SUGAR. — It had long been thought that tropical heat was not necessary to form sugar, and, about 1740, it was discovered that many plants of the temperate zone, and amongst others the beet, contained it. Towards the beginning of the 19th century, circumstances having, in France, made sugar scarce, and consequently dear, the government caused inquiries to be instituted as to the possibility of finding a substitute for it. Accordingly, it was ascertained that sugar exists in the whole vegetable kingdom; that it is to be found in the grape, chestnut, potato; but that, far above all, the beet contains it in a large proportion. Thus the beet became an object of the most careful culture; and many experiments went to prove that in this respect the old world was independent of the new. Many manufactories came into existence in all parts of France, and the making of sugar became naturalized in that country.

Common Short Crust.

1212. INGREDIENTS. — To every pound of flour allow 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 3 oz. of butter, about 1/2 pint of boiling milk.

Mode. — Crumble the butter into the flour as finely as possible, add the sugar, and work the whole up to a smooth paste with the boiling milk. Roll it out thin, and bake in a moderate oven.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

QUALITIES OF SUGAR. — Sugars obtained from various plants are in fact, of the same nature, and have no intrinsic difference when they have become equally purified by the same processes. Taste, crystallization, colour, weight, are absolutely identical; and the most accurate observer cannot distinguish the one from the other.

Butter Crust, for Boiled Puddings.

1213. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — With a knife, work the flour to a smooth paste with 1/2 pint of water; roll the crust out rather thin; place the butter over it in small pieces; dredge lightly over it some flour, and fold the paste over; repeat the rolling once more, and the crust will be ready for use. It may be enriched by adding another 2 oz. of butter; but, for ordinary purposes, the above quantity will be found quite sufficient.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Dripping Crust, for Kitchen Puddings, Pies, &c.

1214. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of clarified beef dripping, 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — After having clarified the dripping, by either of the recipes No. 621 or 622, weigh it, and to every lb. of flour allow the above proportion of dripping. With a knife, work the flour into a smooth paste with the water, rolling it out 3 times, each time placing on the crust 2 oz. of the dripping, broken into small pieces. If this paste is lightly made, if good dripping is used, and not too much of it, it will be found good; and by the addition of two tablespoonfuls of fine moist sugar, it may be converted into a common short crust for fruit pies.

Average cost, 4d. per pound.

WATER:— WHAT THE ANCIENTS THOUGHT OF IT. — All the nations of antiquity possessed great veneration for water: thus, the Egyptians offered prayers and homage to water, and the Nile was an especial object of their adoration; the Persians would not wash their hands; the Scythians honoured the Danube; the Greeks and Romans erected altars to the fountains and rivers; and some of the architectural embellishments executed for fountains in Greece were remarkable for their beauty and delicacy. The purity of the water was a great object of the care of the ancients; and we learn that the Athenians appointed four officers to keep watch and ward over the water in their city. These men had to keep the fountains in order and clean the reservoirs, so that the water might be preserved pure and limpid. Like officers were appointed in other Greek cities.

Suet Crust, for Pies or Puddings.

1215. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 5 or 6 oz. of beef suet, 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Free the suet from skin and shreds; chop it extremely fine, and rub it well into the flour; work the whole to a smooth paste with the above proportion of water; roll it out, and it is ready for use. This crust is quite rich enough for ordinary purposes, but when a better one is desired, use from 1/2 to 3/4 lb. of suet to every lb. of flour. Some cooks, for rich crusts, pound the suet in a mortar, with a small quantity of butter. It should then be laid on the paste in small pieces, the same as for puff-crust, and will be found exceedingly nice for hot tarts. 5 oz. of suet to every lb. of flour will make a very good crust; and even 1/4 lb. will answer very well for children, or where the crust is wanted very plain.

Average cost, 5d. per lb.

Pate Brisee, or French Crust, for Raised Pies.

1216. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, 1/3 pint of water, 6 oz. of butter.

Mode. — Spread the flour, which should be sifted and thoroughly dry, on the paste-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put the butter; work it lightly into the flour, and when quite fine, add the salt; work the whole into a smooth paste with the eggs (yolks and whites) and water, and make it very firm. Knead the paste well, and let it be rather stiff, that the sides of the pie may be easily raised, and that they do not afterwards tumble or shrink.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

Note. — This paste may be very much enriched by making it with equal quantities of flour and butter; but then it is not so easily raised as when made plainer.

WATER SUPPLY IN ROME. — Nothing in Italy is more extraordinary than the remains of the ancient aqueducts. At first, the Romans were contented with the water from the Tiber. Ancus Martius was the first to commence the building of aqueducts destined to convey the water of the fountain of Piconia from Tibur to Rome, a distance of some 33,000 paces. Appius Claudius continued the good work, and to him is due the completion of the celebrated Appian Way. In time, the gigantic waterways greatly multiplied, and, by the reign of Nero, there were constructed nine principal aqueducts, the pipes of which were of bricks, baked tiles, stone, lead, or wood. According to the calculation of Vigenerus, half a million hogsheads of water were conveyed into Rome every day, by upwards of 10,000 small pipes not one-third of an inch in diameter. The water was received in large closed basins, above which rose splendid monuments: these basins supplied other subterranean conduits, connected with various quarters of the city, and these conveyed water to small reservoirs furnished with taps for the exclusive use of certain streets. The water which was not drinkable ran out, by means of large pipes, into extensive inclosures, where it served to water cattle. At these places the people wished their linen; and here, too, was a supply of the necessary element in case of fire.

Common Crust Foe Raised Pies.

1217. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 1/2 pint of water, 1–1/2 oz. of butter, 1–1/2 oz. of lard, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Put into a saucepan the water; when it boils, add the butter and lard; and when these are melted, make a hole in the middle of the flour; pour in the water gradually; beat it well with a wooden spoon, and be particular in not making the paste too soft. When it is well mixed, knead it with the hands until quite stiff, dredging a little flour over the paste and board, to prevent them from sticking. When it is well kneaded, place it before the fire, with a cloth covered over it, for a few minutes; it will then be more easily worked into shape. This paste does not taste so nicely as the preceding one, but is worked with greater facility, and answers just as well for raised pies, for the crust is seldom eaten.

Average cost, 5d, per lb.

Lard or Flead Crust.

1218. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 1/2 lb. of lard or flead, 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Clear the flead free from skin, and slice it into thin flakes; rub it into the flour, add the salt, and work the whole into a smooth paste, with the above proportion of water; fold the paste over two or three times, beat it well with the rolling-pin, roll it out, and it will be ready for use. The crust made from this will be found extremely light, and may be made into cakes or tarts; it may also be very much enriched by adding more flead to the same proportion of flour.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

NUTRITIOUS QUALITIES OF FLOUR. — The gluten of grain and the albumen of vegetable juices are identical in composition with the albumen of blood. Vegetable caseine has also the composition of animal caseine. The finest wheat flour contains more starch than the coarser; the bran of wheat is proportionably richer in gluten. Rye and rye-bread contain a substance resembling starch-gum (or dextrine, as it is called) in its properties, which is very easily converted into sugar. The starch of barley approaches in many properties to cellulose, and is, therefore, less digestible. Oats are particularly rich in plastic substances; Scotch oats are richer than those grown in England or in Germany. This kind of grain contains in its ashes, after deduction of the silica of the husks, very nearly the same ingredients as are found in the ashes of the juice of flesh. Fine American flour is one of the varieties which is richest in gluten, and is consequently one of the most nutritious.

Almond Cheesecakes.

1219. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter ones, 3 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, the rind of 1/4 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 oz. of sugar.

Mode. — Blanch and pound the almonds smoothly in a mortar, with a little rose — or spring-water; stir in the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter, which should be warmed; add the grated lemon-peel and — juice, sweeten, and stir well until the whole is thoroughly mixed. Line some pattypans with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for 20 minutes, or rather less in a quick oven.

Time. — 20 minutes, or rather less.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for about 12 cheesecakes.

Seasonable at any time.

ALMONDS. — Almonds are the fruit of the Amygdalus commenis, and are cultivated throughout the whole of the south of Europe, Syria, Persia, and Northern Africa; but England is mostly supplied with those which are grown in Spain and the south of France. They are distinguished into Sweet and Bitter, the produce of different varieties. Of the sweet, there are two varieties, distinguished in commerce by the names of Jordan and Valentia almonds. The former are imported from Malaga, and are longer, narrower, more pointed, and more highly esteemed than the latter, which are imported from Valentia. Bitter almonds are principally obtained from Morocco, and are exported from Mogador.

Almond Paste, for Second–Course Dishes.

1220. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, 1 lb. of very finely sifted sugar, the whites of 2 eggs.

Mode. — Blanch the almonds, and dry them thoroughly; put them into a mortar, and pound them well, wetting them gradually with the whites of 2 eggs. When well pounded, put them into a small preserving-pan, add the sugar, and place the pan on a small but clear fire (a hot-plate is better); keep stirring until the paste is dry, then take it out of the pan, put it between two dishes, and, when cold, make it into any shape that fancy may dictate.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, 2s. for the above quantity.

Sufficient for 3 small dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

BITTER ALMONDS. — The Bitter Almond is a variety of the common almond, and is injurious to animal life, on account of the great quantity of hydrocyanic acid it contains, and is consequently seldom used in domestic economy, unless it be to give flavour to confectionery; and even then it should he used with great caution. A single drop of the essential oil of bitter almonds is sufficient to destroy a bird, and four drops have caused the death of a middle-sized dog.

Baked Almond Pudding.

(Very rich.)

1221. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of almonds, 4 bitter ditto, 1 glass of sherry, 4 eggs, the rind and juice of 1/2 lemon, 3 oz. of butter, 1 pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Mode. — Blanch and pound the almonds to a smooth paste with the water; mix these with the butter, which should be melted; beat up the eggs, grate the lemon-rind, and strain the juice; add these, with the cream, sugar, and wine, to the other ingredients, and stir them well together. When well mixed, put it into a pie-dish lined with puff-paste, and bake for 1/2 hour.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — To make this pudding more economically, substitute milk for the cream; but then add rather more than 1 oz. of finely grated bread.

USES OF THE SWEET ALMOND. — The kernels of the sweet almond are used either in a green or ripe state, and as an article in the dessert. Into cookery, confectionery, perfumery, and medicine, they largely enter, and in domestic economy, should always be used in preference to bitter almonds. The reason for advising this, is because the kernels do not contain any hydrocyanic or prussic acid, although it is found in the leaves, flowers, and bark of the tree. When young and green, they are preserved in sugar, like green apricots. They furnish the almond-oil; and the farinaceous matter which is left after the oil is expressed, forms the pâte d’amandes of perfumers. In the arts, the oil is employed for the same purposes as the olive-oil, and forms the basis of kalydor, macassar oil, Gowland’s lotion, and many other articles of that kind vended by perfumers. In medicine, it is considered a nutritive, laxative, and an emollient.

Small Almond Puddings.

1222. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, 1/4 lb. of butter, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

Mode. — Blanch and pound the almonds to a smooth paste with a spoonful of water; warm the butter, mix the almonds with this, and add the other ingredients, leaving out the whites of 2 eggs, and be particular that these are well beaten. Mix well, butter some cups, half fill them, and bake the puddings from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Turn them out on a dish, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

THE HUSKS OF ALMONDS. — In the environs of Alicante, the husks of almonds are ground to a powder, and enter into the composition of common soap, the large quantity of alkaline principle they contain rendering them suitable for this purpose. It is said that in some parts of the south of France, where they are extensively grown, horses and mules are fed on the green and dry husks; but, to prevent any evil consequences arising from this practice, they are mixed with chopped straw or oats.

Almond Puffs.

1223. INGREDIENTS. — 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter almonds.

Mode. — Blanch and pound the almonds in a mortar to a smooth paste; melt the butter, dredge in the flour, and add the sugar and pounded almonds. Beat the mixture well, and put it into cups or very tiny jelly-pots, which should be well buttered, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes, or longer should the puffs be large. Turn them out on a dish, the bottom of the puff upper-most, and serve.

Time. — 20 minutes. Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Aunt Nelly’s Pudding.

1224. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of treacle, 1/2 lb. of suet, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, a few strips of candied lemon-peel, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 eggs.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, treacle, lemon-peel minced, and candied lemon-peel; add the cream, lemon-juice, and 2 well-beaten eggs; beat the pudding well, put it into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil from 3–1/2 to 4 hours.

Time. — 3–1/2 to 4 hours. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time, but more suitable for a winter pudding.

TREACLE, OR MOLASSES. — Treacle is the uncrystallizable part of the saccharine juice drained from the Muscovado sugar, and is either naturally so or rendered uncrystallizable through some defect in the process of boiling. As it contains a large quantity of sweet or saccharine principle and is cheap, it is of great use as an article of domestic economy. Children are especially fond of it; and it is accounted wholesome. It is also useful for making beer, rum, and the very dark syrups.

Baked Apple Dumplings (a Plain Family Dish).

1225. INGREDIENTS. — 6 apples, 3/4 lb.. of suet-crust No. 1215, sugar to taste.

Mode. — Pare and take out the cores of the apples without dividing them, and make 1/2 lb. of suet-crust by recipe No. 1215; roll the apples in the crust, previously sweetening them with moist sugar, and taking care to join the paste nicely. When they are formed into round balls, put them on a tin, and bake them for about 1/2 hour, or longer should the apples be very large; arrange them pyramidically on a dish, and sift over them some pounded white sugar. These may be made richer by using one of the puff-pastes instead of suet.

Time. — From 1/2 to 3/4 hour, or longer. Average cost, 1–1/2d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from August to March, but flavourless after the end of January.

USES OF THE APPLE. — It is well known that this fruit forms a very important article of food, in the form of pies and puddings, and furnishes several delicacies, such as sauces, marmalades, and jellies, and is much esteemed as a dessert fruit. When flattened in the form of round cakes, and baked in ovens, they are called beefings; and large quantities are annually dried in the sun in America, as well as in Normandy, and stored for use during winter, when they may be stewed or made into pies. In a roasted state they are remarkably wholesome, and, it is said, strengthening to a weak stomach. In putrid and malignant fevers, when used with the juice of lemons and currants, they are considered highly efficacious.

Apple Cheesecakes.

1226. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of apple pulp, 1/4 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter, 4 eggs, the rind and juice of 1 lemon.

Mode. — Pare, core, and boil sufficient apples to make 1/2 lb. when cooked; add to these the sugar, the butter, which should be melted; the eggs, leaving out 2 of the whites, and take grated rind and juice of 1 lemon; stir the mixture well; line some patty-pans with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake about 20 minutes.

Time. — About 20 minutes.

Average cost, for the above quantity, with the paste, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for about 18 or 20 cheesecakes.

Seasonable from August to March.

THE APPLE. — The most useful of all the British fruits is the apple, which is a native of Britain, and may be found in woods and hedges, in the form of the common wild crab, of which all our best apples are merely seminal varieties, produced by culture or particular circumstances. In most temperate climates it is very extensively cultivated, and in England, both as regards variety and quantity, it is excellent and abundant. Immense supplies are also imported from the United States and from France. The apples grown in the vicinity of New York are universally admitted to be the finest of any; but unless selected and packed with great care, they are apt to spoil before reaching England.

Boiled Apple Dumplings.

1227. INGREDIENTS. — 6 apples, 3/4 lb. of suet-crust No. 1215, sugar to taste.

Mode. — Pare and take out the cores of the apples without dividing them; sweeten, and roll each apple in a piece of crust, made by recipe No. 1211; be particular that the paste is nicely joined; put the dumplings into floured cloths, tie them securely, and put them into boiling water. Keep them boiling from 1/2 to 3/4 hour; remove the cloths, and send them hot and quickly to table. Dumplings boiled in knitted cloths have a very pretty appearance when they come to table. The cloths should be made square, just large enough to hold one dumpling, and should be knitted in plain knitting, with very coarse cotton.

Time. — 3/4 to 1 hour, or longer should the dumplings be very large.

Average cost, 11/2d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from August to March, but flavourless after the end of January.

LAMBSWOOL, or LAMASOOL. — This old English beverage is composed of apples mixed with ale, and seasoned with sugar and spice. It takes its name from Lamaes abhal, which, in ancient British, signifies the day of apple fruit, from being drunk on the apple feast in autumn. In France, a beverage, called by the Parisians raisinée, is made by boiling any given quantity of new wine, skimming it as often as fresh scum rises, and, when it is boiled to half its bulk, straining it. To this apples, pared and cut into quarters, are added; the whole is then allowed to simmer gently, stirring it all the time with a long wooden spoon, till the apples are thoroughly mixed with the liquor, and the whole forms a species of marmalade, which is extremely agreeable to the taste, having a slight flavour of acidity, like lemon mixed with honey.

Rich Baked Apple Pudding.
I.

1228. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of the pulp of apples, 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 oz. of butter, the rind of 1 lemon, 6 eggs, puff-paste.

Mode. — Peel, core, and cut the apples, as for sauce; put them into a stewpan, with only just sufficient water to prevent them from burning, and let them stew until reduced to a pulp. Weigh the pulp, and to every 1/2 lb. add sifted sugar, grated lemon-rind, and 6 well-beaten eggs. Beat these ingredients well together; then melt the butter, stir it to the other things, put a border of puff-paste round the dish, and bake for rather more than 1/2 hour. The butter should not be added until the pudding is ready for the oven.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

II.

(More Economical.)

1229. INGREDIENTS. — 12 large apples, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter, 4 eggs, 1 pint of bread crumbs.

Mode. — Pare, core, and cut the apples, as for sauce, and boil them until reduced to a pulp; then add the butter, melted, and the eggs, which should be well whisked. Beat up the pudding for 2 or 3 minutes; butter a pie-dish; put in a layer of bread crumbs, then the apple, and then another layer of bread crumbs; flake over these a few tiny pieces of butter, and bake for about 1/2 hour.

Time. — About 1/2 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

Note. — A very good economical pudding may be made merely with apples, boiled and sweetened, with the addition of a few strips of lemon-peel. A layer of bread crumbs should be placed above and below the apples, and the pudding baked for 1/2 hour.

CONSTITUENTS OF THE APPLE. — All apples contain sugar, malic acid, or the acid of apples; mucilage, or gum; woody fibre, and water; together with some aroma, on which their peculiar flavour depends. The hard acid kinds are unwholesome if eaten raw; but by the process of cooking, a great deal of this acid is decomposed and converted into sugar. The sweet and mellow kinds form a valuable addition to the dessert. A great part of the acid juice is converted into sugar as the fruit ripens, and even after it is gathered, by natural process, termed maturation; but, when apples decay, the sugar is changed into a bitter principle, and the mucilage becomes mouldy and offensive. Old cheese has a remarkable effect in meliorating the apple when eaten; probably from the volatile alkali or ammonia of the cheese neutralizing its acid.

Rich Sweet Apple Pudding.

1230. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of apples, 1/2 lb. of moist sugar, 6 eggs, 12 sweet almonds, 1/2 saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 wineglassful of brandy.

Mode. — Chop the suet very fine; wash the currants, dry them, and pick away the stalks and pieces of grit; pare, core, and chop the apple, and grate the bread into fine crumbs, and mince the almonds. Mix all these ingredients together, adding the sugar and nutmeg; beat up the eggs, omitting the whites of three; stir these to the pudding, and when all is well mixed, add the brandy, and put the pudding into a buttered mould; tie down with a cloth, put it into boiling water, and let it boil for 3 hours.

Time. — 3 hours.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

TO PRESERVE APPLES. — The best mode of preserving apples is to carry them at once to the fruit-room, where they should be put upon shelves, covered with white paper, after gently wiping each of the fruit. The room should be dry, and well aired, but should not admit the sun. The finer and larger kinds of fruit should not be allowed to touch each other, but should be kept separate. For this purpose, a number of shallow trays should be provided, supported by racks or stands above each other. In very cold frosty weather, means should be adopted for warming the room.

Baked Apple Pudding.

(Very Good.)

1231. INGREDIENTS. — 5 moderate-sized apples, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, 3 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 pint of milk, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Mix the flour to a smooth batter with the milk; add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and put this batter into a well-buttered pie-dish. Wipe the apples clean, but do not pare them; cut them in halves, and take out the cores; lay them in the batter, rind uppermost; shake the suet on the top, over which, also grate a little nutmeg; bake in a moderate oven for an hour, and cover, when served, with sifted loaf sugar. This pudding is also very good with the apples pared, sliced, and mixed with the batter.

Time. — 1 hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Boiled Apple Pudding.

1232. INGREDIENTS. — Crust No. 1215, apples, sugar to taste, 1 small teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Make a butter-crust by recipe No. 1213, or a suet one by recipe No. 1215, using for a moderate-sized pudding from 3/4 to 1 lb. of flour, with the other ingredients in proportion. Butter a basin; line it with some of the paste; pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and fill the basin with these; add the sugar, the lemon-peel and juice, and cover with crust; pinch the edges together, flour the cloth, place it over the pudding, tie it securely, and put it into plenty of fast-boiling water. Let it boil from 1–1/2 to 2–1/2 hours, according to the size; then turn it out of the basin and send to table quickly. Apple puddings may also be boiled in a cloth without a basin; but, when made in this way, must be served without the least delay, as the crust so soon becomes heavy. Apple pudding is a very convenient dish to have when the dinner-hour is rather uncertain, as it does not spoil by being boiled an extra hour; care, however, must be taken to keep it well covered with the water all the time, and not to allow it to stop boiling.

Time. — From 1–1/2 to 2–1/2 hours, according to the size of the pudding and the quality of the apples.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient, made with 1 lb. of flour, for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from August to March; but the apples become flavourless and scarce after February.

Apple Tart or Pie.

1233. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste No. 1205 or 1206, apples; to every lb. of unpared apples allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Make 1/2 lb. of puff-paste by either of the above-named recipes, place a border of it round the edge of a pie-dish, and fill it with apples pared, cored, and cut into slices; sweeten with moist sugar, add the lemon-peel and juice, and 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of water; cover with crust, cut it evenly round close to the edge of the pie-dish, and bake in a hot oven from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, or rather longer, should the pie be very large. When it is three-parts done, take it out of the oven, put the white of an egg on a plate, and, with the blade of a knife, whisk it to a froth; brush the pie over with this, then sprinkle upon it some sifted sugar, and then a few drops of water. Put the pie back into the oven, and finish baking, and be particularly careful that it does not catch or burn, which it is very liable to do after the crust is iced. If made with a plain crust, the icing may be omitted.

Time. — 1/2 hour before the crust is iced; 10 to 15 minutes afterwards.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient. — Allow 2 lbs. of apples for a tart for 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March; but the apples become flavourless after February.

Note. — Many things are suggested for the flavouring of apple pie; some say 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of beer, others the same quantity of sherry, which very much improve the taste; whilst the old-fashioned addition of a few cloves is, by many persons, preferred to anything else, as also a few slices of quince.

QUINCES. — The environs of Corinth originally produced the most beautiful quinces, but the plant was subsequently introduced into Gaul with the most perfect success. The ancients preserved the fruit by placing it, with its branches and leaves, in a vessel filled with honey or sweet wine, which was reduced to half the quantity by ebullition. Quinces may be profitably cultivated in this country as a variety with other fruit-trees, and may be planted in espaliers or as standards. A very fine-flavoured marmalade may be prepared from quinces, and a small portion of quince in apple pie much improves its flavour. The French use quinces for flavouring many sauces. This fruit has the remarkable peculiarity of exhaling an agreeable odour, taken singly; but when in any quantity, or when they are stowed away in a drawer or close room, the pleasant aroma becomes an intolerable stench, although the fruit may be perfectly sound; it is therefore desirable that, as but a few quinces are required for keeping, they should be kept in a high and dry loft, and out of the way of the rooms used by the family.

Creamed Apple Tart.

1234. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-crust No. 1205 or 1206, apples; to every lb. of pared and cored apples, allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/2 pint of boiled custard.

Mode. — Make an apple tart by the preceding recipe, with the exception of omitting the icing. When the tart is baked, cut out the middle of the lid or crust, leaving a border all round the dish. Fill up with a nicely-made boiled custard, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and the pie is ready for table. This tart is usually eaten cold; is rather an old-fashioned dish, but, at the same time, extremely nice.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

Apple Snowballs.

1235. INGREDIENTS. — 2 teacupfuls of rice, apples, moist sugar, cloves.

Mode. — Boil the rice in milk until three-parts done; then strain it off, and pare and core the apples without dividing them. Put a small quantity of sugar and a clove into each apple, put the rice round them, and tie each ball separately in a cloth. Boil until the apples are tender; then take them up, remove the cloths, and serve.

Time. — 1/2 hour to boil the rice separately; 1/2 to 1 hour with the apple.

Seasonable from August to March.

Apple Tourte or Cake.

(German Recipe.)

1236. INGREDIENTS. — 10 or 12 apples, sugar to taste, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs, 1/4 pint of cream or milk, 1/4 lb. of butter, 3/4 lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 3 oz. of sweet almonds.

Mode. — Pare, core, and cut the apples into small pieces; put sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them into a basin; add the lemon-peel, which should be finely minced, and the cream; stir these ingredients well, whisk the eggs, and melt the butter; mix altogether, add the sliced apple, and let these be well stirred into the mixture. Line a large round plate with the paste, place a narrow rim of the same round the outer edge, and lay the apples thickly in the middle. Blanch the almonds, cut them into long shreds, and strew over the top of the apples, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, taking care that the almonds do not get burnt: when done, strew some sifted sugar over the top, and serve. This tourte may be eaten either hot or cold, and is sufficient to fill 2 large-sized plates.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 2s. 2d.

Sufficient for 2 large-sized tourtes.

Seasonable from August to March.

APPLES. — No fruit is so universally popular as the apple. It is grown extensively for cider, but many sorts are cultivated for the table. The apple, uncooked, is less digestible than the pear; the degree of digestibility varying according to the firmness of its texture and flavour. Very wholesome and delicious jellies, marmalades, and sweetmeats are prepared from it. Entremets of apples are made in great variety. Apples, when peeled, cored, and well cooked, are a most grateful food for the dyspeptic.

Alma Pudding.

1237. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of fresh butter, 1/2 lb. of powdered sugar, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of currants, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Beat the butter to a thick cream, strew in, by degrees, the sugar, and mix both these well together; then dredge the flour in gradually, add the currants, and moisten with the eggs, which should be well beaten. When all the ingredients are well stirred and mixed, butter a mould that will hold the mixture exactly, tie it down with a cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 5 hours; when turned out, strew some powdered sugar over it, and serve.

Time. — 6 hours. Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Baked Apricot Pudding.

1238. INGREDIENTS. — 12 large apricots, 3/4 pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 glass of sherry.

Mode. — Make the milk boiling hot, and pour it on to the bread crumbs; when half cold, add the sugar, the well-whisked yolks of the eggs, and the sherry. Divide the apricots in half, scald them until they are soft, and break them up with a spoon, adding a few of the kernels, which should be well pounded in a mortar; then mix the fruit and other ingredients together, put a border of paste round the dish, fill with the mixture, and bake the pudding from 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour. Average cost, in full season, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October.

Apricot Tart.

1239. INGREDIENTS. — 12 or 14 apricots, sugar to taste, puff-paste or short crust.

Mode. — Break the apricots in half, take out the stones, and put them into a pie-dish, in the centre of which place a very small cup or jar, bottom uppermost; sweeten with good moist sugar, but add no water. Line the edge of the dish with paste, put on the cover, and ornament the pie in any of the usual modes. Bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, according to size; and if puff-paste is used, glaze it about 10 minutes before the pie is done, and put it into the oven again to set the glaze. Short crust merely requires a little sifted sugar sprinkled over it before being sent to table.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour. Average cost, in full season, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October; green ones rather earlier.

Note. — Green apricots make very good tarts, but they should be boiled with a little sugar and water before they are covered with the crust.

APRICOTS. — The apricot is indigenous to the plains of Armenia, but is now cultivated in almost every climate, temperate or tropical. There are several varieties. The skin of this fruit has a perfumed flavour, highly esteemed. A good apricot, when perfectly ripe, is an excellent fruit. It has been somewhat condemned for its laxative qualities, but this has possibly arisen from the fruit having been eaten unripe, or in too great excess. Delicate persons should not eat the apricot uncooked, without a liberal allowance of powdered sugar. The apricot makes excellent jam and marmalade, and there are several foreign preparations of it which are considered great luxuries.

Baked or Boiled Arrowroot Pudding.

1240. INGREDIENTS. — 2 tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 1 oz. of butter, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Mix the arrowroot with as much cold milk as will make it into a smooth batter, moderately thick; put the remainder of the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-peel, and let it infuse for about 1/2 hour; when it boils, strain it gently to the batter, stirring it all the time to keep it smooth; then add the butter; beat this well in until thoroughly mixed, and sweeten with moist sugar. Put the mixture into a pie-dish, round which has been placed a border of paste, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the pudding from 1 to 1–1/4 hour, in a moderate oven, or boil it the same length of time in a well-buttered basin. To enrich this pudding, stir to the other ingredients, just before it is put in the oven, 3 well-whisked eggs, and add a tablespoonful of brandy. For a nursery pudding, the addition of the latter ingredients will be found quite superfluous, as also the paste round the edge of the dish.

Time. — 1 to 1–1/4 hour, baked or boiled. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

ARROWROOT. — In India, and in the colonies, by the process of rasping, they extract from a vegetable (Maranta arundinacea) a sediment nearly resembling tapioca. The grated pulp is sifted into a quantity of water, from which it is afterwards strained and dried, and the sediment thus produced is called arrowroot. Its qualities closely resemble those of tapioca.

A Bachelor’s Pudding.

1241. INGREDIENTS. — 4 oz. of grated bread, 4 oz. of currants, 4 oz. of apples, 2 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, a few drops of essence of lemon, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Pare, core, and mince the apples very finely, sufficient, when minced, to make 4 oz.; add to these the currants, which should be well washed, the grated bread, and sugar; whisk the eggs, beat these up with the remaining ingredients, and, when all is thoroughly mixed, put the pudding into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours.

Time. — 3 hours. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Bakewell Pudding.

(Very Rich.)

I.

1242. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of puff-paste, 5 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 oz. of almonds, jam.

Mode. — Cover a dish with thin paste, and put over this a layer of any kind of jam, 1/2 inch thick; put the yolks of 5 eggs into a basin with the white of 1, and beat these well; add the sifted sugar, the butter, which should be melted, and the almonds, which should be well pounded; beat all together until well mixed, then pour it into the dish over the jam, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

II.

1243. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, jam.

Mode. — Put the bread crumbs at the bottom of a pie-dish, then over them a layer of jam of any kind that may be preferred; mix the milk and eggs together; add the sugar, butter, and pounded almonds; beat fill well together; pour it into the dish, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost. 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Baroness Pudding.

(Author’s Recipe.)

1244. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of suet, 3/4 lb. of raisins weighed after being stoned, 3/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Prepare the suet, by carefully freeing it from skin, and chop it finely; stone the raisins, and cut them in halves, and mix both these ingredients with the salt and flour; moisten the whole with the above proportion of milk, stir the mixture well, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth, which has been previously wrung out in boiling water. Put the pudding into a saucepan of boiling water, and let it boil, without ceasing, 4–1/2 hours. Serve merely with plain sifted sugar, a little of which may be sprinkled over the pudding.

Time. — 4–1/2 hours. Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable.

Note. — This pudding the editress cannot too highly recommend. The recipe was kindly given to her family by a lady who bore the title here prefixed to it; and with all who have partaken of it, it is an especial favourite. Nothing is of greater consequence, in the above directions, than attention to the time of boiling, which should never be less than that mentioned.

Barberry Tart.

1245. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of barberries allow 3/4 lb. of lump sugar; paste.

Mode. — Pick the barberries from the stalks, and put the fruit into a stone jar; place this jar in boiling water, and let it simmer very slowly until the fruit is soft; then put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and boil gently for 15 minutes; line a tartlet-pan with paste, bake it, and, when the paste is cold, fill with the barberries, and ornament the tart with a few baked leaves of paste, cut out, as shown in the engraving.

Time. — 1/4 hour to bake the tart.

Average cost, 4d. per pint.

Seasonable in autumn.

BARBERRIES (Berberris vulgaris.)— A fruit of such great acidity, that even birds refuse to eat it. In this respect, it nearly approaches the tamarind. When boiled with sugar, it makes a very agreeable preserve or jelly, according to the different modes of preparing it. Barberries are also used as a dry sweetmeat, and in sugarplums or comfits; are pickled with vinegar, and are used for various culinary purposes. They are well calculated to allay heat and thirst in persons afflicted with fevers. The berries, arranged on bunches of nice curled parsley, make an exceedingly pretty garnish for supper-dishes, particularly for white meats, like boiled fowl à la Béchamel, the three colours, scarlet, green, and white, contrasting so well, and producing a very good effect.

Baked Batter Pudding.

1246. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/4 pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4 eggs, a little salt.

Mode. — Mix the flour with a small quantity of cold milk; make the remainder hot, and pour it on to the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; add the butter, eggs, and salt; beat the whole well, and put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish; bake for 3/4 hour, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, or stewed fruit. Baked in small cups, this makes very pretty little puddings, and should be eaten with the same accompaniments as above.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Baked Batter Pudding, with Dried or Fresh Fruit.

1247. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/4 pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 eggs, 2 oz. of finely-shredded suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, a pinch of salt.

Mode. — Mix the milk, flour, and eggs to a smooth batter; add a little salt, the suet, and the currants, which should be well washed, picked, and dried; put the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for 1–1/4 hour. When fresh fruits are in season, this pudding is exceedingly nice, with damsons, plums, red currants, gooseberries, or apples; when made with these, the pudding must be thickly sprinkled over with sifted sugar. Boiled batter pudding, with fruit, is made in the same manner, by putting the fruit into a buttered basin, and filling it up with batter made in the above proportion, but omitting the suet. It must be sent quickly to table, and covered plentifully with sifted sugar.

Time. — Baked batter pudding, with fruit, 1–1/4 to 1–1/2 hour; boiled ditto, 1–1/2 to 1–3/4 hour, allowing that both are made with the above proportion of batter. Smaller puddings will be done enough in 3/4 or 1 hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time, with dried fruits.

Boiled Batter Pudding.

1248. INGREDIENTS. — 3 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 1 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt.

Mode. — Put the flour into a basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it; carefully rub down all the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the remainder of the milk, and stir in the butter, which should be previously melted; keep beating the mixture, add the eggs and a pinch of salt, and when the batter is quite smooth, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down very tightly, and put it into boiling water; move the basin about for a few minutes after it is put into the water, to prevent the flour settling in any part, and boil for 1–1/4 hour. This pudding may also be boiled in a floured cloth that has been wetted in hot water; it will then take a few minutes less than when boiled in a basin. Send these puddings very quickly to table, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, stewed fruit, or jam of any kind: when the latter is used, a little of it may be placed round the dish in small quantities, as a garnish.

Time. — 1–1/4 hour in a basin, 1 hour in a cloth. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Orange Batter Pudding.

1249. INGREDIENTS. — 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1–1/4 oz. of loaf sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour.

Mode. — Make the batter with the above ingredients, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 1 hour. As soon as it is turned out of the basin, put a small jar of orange marmalade all over the top, and send the pudding very quickly to table.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost, with the marmalade, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time; but more suitable for a winter pudding.

Baked Bread Pudding.

1250. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of grated bread, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of candied peel, 6 bitter almonds, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

Mode. — Put the milk into a stewpan, with the bitter almonds; let it infuse for 1/4 hour; bring it to the boiling point; strain it on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain till cold; then add the eggs, which should be well whisked, the butter, sugar, and brandy, and beat the pudding well until all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed; line the bottom of a pie-dish with the candied peel sliced thin, put in the mixture, and bake for nearly 3/4 hour.

Time. — Nearly 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — A few currants may be substituted for the candied peel, and will be found an excellent addition to this pudding: they should be beaten in with the mixture, and not laid at the bottom of the pie-dish.

Very Plain Bread Pudding.

1251. INGREDIENTS. — Odd pieces of crust or crumb of bread; to every quart allow 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 3 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1–1/4 oz. of butter.

Mode. — Break the bread into small pieces, and pour on them as much boiling water as will soak them well. Let these stand till the water is cool; then press it out, and mash the bread with a fork until it is quite free from lumps. Measure this pulp, and to every quart stir in salt, nutmeg, sugar, and currants in the above proportion; mix all well together, and put it into a well-buttered pie-dish. Smooth the surface with the back of a spoon, and place the butter in small pieces over the top; bake in a moderate oven for 1–1/2 hour, and serve very hot. Boiling milk substituted for the boiling water would very much improve this pudding.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 6d., exclusive of the bread.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Boiled Bread Pudding.

1252. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of milk, 3/4 pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of currants, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Make the milk boiling, and pour it on the bread crumbs; let these remain till cold; then add the other ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well beaten and the currants well washed, picked, and dried. Beat the pudding well, and put it into a buttered basin; tie it down tightly with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1–1/4 hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve with sifted sugar. Any odd pieces or scraps of bread answer for this pudding; but they should be soaked overnight, and, when wanted for use, should have the water well squeezed from them.

Time. — 1–1/4 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time.

BREAD. — Bread contains, in its composition, in the form of vegetable albumen and vegetable fibrine, two of the chief constituents of flesh, and, in its incombustible constituents, the salts which are indispensable for sanguification, of the same quality and in the same proportion as flesh. But flesh contains, besides these, a number of substances which are entirely wanting in vegetable food; and on these peculiar constituents of flesh depend certain effects, by which it is essentially distinguished from other articles of food.

Brown-Bread Pudding.

1253. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of brown-bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Grate 3/4 lb. of crumbs from a stale brown loaf; add to these the currants and suet, and be particular that the latter is finely chopped. Put in the remaining ingredients; beat the pudding well for a few minutes; put it into a buttered basin or mould; tie it down tightly, and boil for nearly 4 hours. Send sweet sauce to table with it.

Time. — Nearly 4 hours. Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time; but more suitable for a winter pudding.

Miniature Bread Puddings.

1254. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of milk, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 1 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel.

Mode. — Make the milk boiling, pour it on to the bread crumbs, and let them soak for about 1/2 hour. Beat the eggs, mix these with the bread crumbs, add the remaining ingredients, and stir well until all is thoroughly mixed. Butter some small cups; rather more than half fill them with the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, and serve with sweet sauce. A few currants may be added to these puddings: about 3 oz. will be found sufficient for the above quantity.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 small puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

Baked Bread-And-Butter Pudding.

1255. INGREDIENTS. — 9 thin slices of bread and butter, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 4 eggs, sugar to taste, 1/4 lb. of currants, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-peel or nutmeg.

Mode. — Cut 9 slices of bread and butter not very thick, and put them into a pie-dish, with currants between each layer and on the top. Sweeten and flavour the milk, either by infusing a little lemon-peel in it, or by adding a few drops of essence of vanilla; well whisk the eggs, and stir these to the milk. Strain this over the bread and butter, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour, or rather longer. This pudding may be very much enriched by adding cream, candied peel, or more eggs than stated above. It should not be turned out, but sent to table in the pie-dish, and is better for being made about 2 hours before it is baked.

Time. — 1 hour, or rather longer. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BUTTER. — Butter is indispensable in almost all culinary preparations. Good fresh butter, used in moderation, is easily digested; it is softening, nutritious, and fattening, and is far more easily digested than any other of the oleaginous substances sometimes used in its place.

Cabinet or Chancellor’s Pudding.

1256. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 oz. of candied peel, 4 oz. of currants, 4 dozen sultanas, a few slices of Savoy cake, sponge cake, a French roll, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, grated lemon-rind, 1/4 nutmeg, 3 table-spoonfuls of sugar.

Mode. — Melt some butter to a paste, and with it, well grease the mould or basin in which the pudding is to be boiled, taking care that it is buttered in every part. Cut the peel into thin slices, and place these in a fanciful device at the bottom of the mould, and fill in the spaces between with currants and sultanas; then add a few slices of sponge cake or French roll; drop a few drops of melted butter on these, and between each layer sprinkle a few currants. Proceed in this manner until the mould is nearly full; then flavour the milk with nutmeg and grated lemon-rind; add the sugar, and stir to this the eggs, which should be well beaten. Beat this mixture for a few minutes; then strain it into the mould, which should be quite full; tie a piece of buttered paper over it, and let it stand for 2 hours; then tie it down with a cloth, put it into boiling water, and let it boil slowly for 1 hour. In taking it up, let it stand for a minute or two before the cloth is removed; then quickly turn it out of the mould or basin, and serve with sweet sauce separately. The flavouring of this pudding may be varied by substituting for the lemon-rind essence of vanilla or bitter almonds; and it may be made much richer by using cream; but this is not at all necessary.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

A PLAIN CABINET or BOILED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.

1257. INGREDIENTS. — 2 oz. of raisins, a few thin slices of bread and butter, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 1/4 nutmeg.

Mode. — Butter a pudding-basin, and line the inside with a layer of raisins that have been previously stoned; then nearly fill the basin with slices of bread and butter with the crust cut off, and, in another basin, beat the eggs; add to them the milk, sugar, and grated nutmeg; mix all well together, and pour the whole on to the bread and butter; let it stand 1/2 hour, then tie a floured cloth over it; boil for 1 hour, and serve with sweet sauce. Care must be taken that the basin is quite full before the cloth is tied over.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Canary Pudding.

1258. INGREDIENTS. — The weight of 3 eggs in sugar and butter, the weight of 2 eggs in flour, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs.

Mode. — Melt the butter to a liquid state, but do not allow it to oil; stir to this the sugar and finely-minced lemon-peel, and gradually dredge in the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; whisk the eggs; add these to the pudding; beat all the ingredients until thoroughly blended, and put them into a buttered mould or basin; boil for 2 hours, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time. — 2 hours. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Baked or Boiled Carrot Pudding.

1259. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of suet, 1/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 3/4 lb. of carrot, 1/4 lb. of currants, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, milk, 1/4 nutmeg.

Mode. — Boil the carrots until tender enough to mash to a pulp; add the remaining ingredients, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter. If to be boiled, put the mixture into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 2–1/2 hours: if to be baked, put it into a pie-dish, and bake for nearly an hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over it, and serve.

Time. — 2–1/2 hours to boil; 1 hour to bake. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to March.

CARROTS, says Liebig, contain the same kind of sugar as the juice of the sugar-cane.

Royal Coburg Pudding.

1260. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of new milk, 6 oz. of flour, 6 oz. of sugar, 6 oz. of butter, 6 oz. of currants, 6 eggs, brandy and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Mix the flour to a smooth batter with the milk, add the remaining ingredients gradually, and when well mixed, put it into four basins or moulds half full; bake for 3/4 hour, turn the puddings out on a dish, and serve with wine sauce.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Cherry Tart.

1261. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of cherries, 2 small tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short crust, No. 1210 or 1211.

Mode. — Pick the stalks from the cherries, put them, with the sugar, into a deep pie-dish just capable of holding them, with a small cup placed upside down in the midst of them. Make a short crust with 1/2 lb. of flour, by either of the recipes 1210 or 1211; lay a border round the edge of the dish; put on the cover, and ornament the edges; bake in a brisk oven from 1/2 hour to 40 minutes; strew finely-sifted sugar over, and serve hot or cold, although the latter is the more usual mode. It is more economical to make two or three tarts at one time, as the trimmings from one tart answer for lining the edges of the dish for another, and so much paste is not required as when they are made singly. Unless for family use, never make fruit pies in very large dishes; select them, however, as deep as possible.

Time. — 1/2 hour to 40 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Note. — A few currants added to the cherries will be found to impart a nice piquant taste to them.

CHERRIES. — According to Lucullus, the cherry-tree was known in Asia in the year of Rome 680. Seventy different species of cherries, wild and cultivated, exist, which are distinguishable from each other by the difference of their form, size, and colour. The French distil from cherries a liqueur Darned kirsch-waser (eau de cérises); the Italians prepare, from a cherry called marusca, the liqueur named marasquin, sweeter and more agreeable than the former. The most wholesome cherries have a tender and delicate skin; those with a hard skin should be very carefully masticated. Sweetmeats, syrups, tarts, entremets, &c., of cherries, are universally approved.

Cold Pudding.

1262. INGREDIENTS. — 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, a little grated lemon-rind, 2 oz. of raisins, 4 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, a few slices of sponge cake.

Mode. — Sweeten the milk with lump sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, and stir to this the eggs, which should be well whisked; line a buttered mould with the raisins, stoned and cut in half; spread the slices of cake with the marmalade, and place them in the mould; then pour in the custard, tie the pudding down with paper and a cloth, and boil gently for 1 hour: when cold, turn it out, and serve.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

College Puddings.

1263. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of bread crumbs, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, a few thin slices of candied peel, 3 oz. of sugar, 1/4 nutmeg, 3 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Put the bread crumbs into a basin; add the suet, currants, candied peel, sugar, and nutmeg, grated, and stir these ingredients until they are thoroughly mixed. Beat up the eggs, moisten the pudding with these, and put in the brandy; beat well for a few minutes, then form the mixture into round balls or egg-shaped pieces; fry these in hot butter or lard, letting them stew in it until thoroughly done, and turn them two or three times, till of a fine light brown; drain them on a piece of blotting-paper before the fire; dish, and serve with wine sauce.

Time. — 15 to 20 minutes. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 puddings. Seasonable at any time.

Currant Dumplings.

1264. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of suet, 1/2 lb. of currants, rather more than 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely, mix it with the flour, and add the currants, which should be nicely washed, picked, and dried; mix the whole to a limp paste with the water (if wanted very nice, use milk); divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; tie them in cloths, and boil for 1–1/4 hour. They may be boiled without a cloth: they should then be made into round balls, and dropped into boiling water, and should be moved about at first, to prevent them from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan. Serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted sugar.

Time. — In a cloth, 1–1/4 hour; without, 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 9 d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

ZANTE CURRANTS. — The dried fruit which goes by the name of currants in grocers’ shops is not a currant really, but a small kind of grape, chiefly cultivated in the Morea and the Ionian Islands, Corfu, Zante, &c. Those of Zante are cultivated in an immense plain, under the shelter of mountains, on the shore of the island, where the sun has great power, and brings them to maturity. When gathered and dried by the sun and air, on mats, they are conveyed to magazines, heaped together, and left to cake, until ready for shipping. They are then dug out by iron crowbars, trodden into casks, and exported. The fertile vale of “Zante the woody” produces about 9,000,000 lbs. of currants annually. In cakes and puddings this delicious little grape is most extensively used; in fact, we could not make a plum pudding without the currant.

Boiled Currant Pudding.

(Plain and Economical.)

1265. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of currants, milk.

Mode. — Wash the currants, dry them thoroughly, and pick away any stalks or grit; chop the suet finely; mix all the ingredients together, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding into a stiff batter; tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for 3–1/2 hours; serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted sugar.

Time. — 3–1/2 hours. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Black or Red Currant Pudding.

1266. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of red or black currants, measured with the stalks, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, suet crust No. 1215, or butter crust No. 1213.

Mode. — Make, with 3/4 lb. of flour, either a suet crust or butter crust (the former is usually made); butter a basin, and line it with part of the crust; put in the currants, which should be stripped from the stalks, and sprinkle the sugar over them; put the cover of the pudding on; make the edges very secure, that the juice does not escape; tie it down with a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2–1/2 to 3 hours. Boiled without a basin, allow 1/2 hour less. We have allowed rather a large proportion of sugar; but we find fruit puddings are so much more juicy and palatable when well sweetened before they are boiled, besides being more economical. A few raspberries added to red-currant pudding are a very nice addition: about 1/2 pint would be sufficient for the above quantity of fruit. Fruit puddings are very delicious if, when they are turned out of the basin, the crust is browned with a salamander, or put into a very hot oven for a few minutes to colour it: this makes it crisp on the surface.

Time. — 2–1/2 to 3 hours; without a basin, 2 to 2–1/2 hours.

Average cost, in full season, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

CURRANTS. — The utility of currants, red, black, or white, has long been established in domestic economy. The juice of the red species, if boiled with an equal weight of loaf sugar, forms an agreeable substance called currant jelly, much employed in sauces, and very valuable in the cure of sore throats and colds. The French mix it with sugar and water, and thus form an agreeable beverage. The juice of currants is a valuable remedy in obstructions of the bowels; and, in febrile complaints, it is useful on account of its readily quenching thirst, and for its cooling effect on the stomach. White and flesh-coloured currants have, with the exception of the fullness of flavour, in every respect, the same qualities as the red species. Both white and red currants are pleasant additions to the dessert, but the black variety is mostly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, especially in the form of jelly for quinsies. The leaves of the black currant make a pleasant tea.

Red-Currant and Raspberry Tart.

1267. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of picked currants, 1/2 pint of raspberries, 3 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short crust.

Mode. — Strip the currants from the stalks, and put them into a deep pie-dish, with a small cup placed in the midst, bottom upwards; add the raspberries and sugar; place a border of paste round the edge of the dish, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour: strew some sifted sugar over before being sent to table. This tart is more generally served cold than hot.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

RASPBERRIES. — There are two sorts of raspberries, the red and the white. Both the scent and flavour of this fruit are very refreshing, and the berry itself is exceedingly wholesome, and invaluable to people of a nervous or bilious temperament. We are not aware, however, of its being cultivated with the same amount of care which is bestowed upon some other of the berry tribe, although it is far from improbable that a more careful cultivation would not be repaid by a considerable improvement in the size and flavour of the berry; neither, as an eating fruit, is it so universally esteemed as the strawberry, with whose lusciousness and peculiarly agreeable flavour it can bear no comparison. In Scotland, it is found in large quantities, growing wild, and is eagerly sought after, in the woods, by children. Its juice is rich and abundant, and to many, extremely agreeable.

Baked Custard Pudding.

1268. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of milk, the rind of 1/4 lemon, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Put the milk into a saucepan with the sugar and lemon-rind, and let this infuse for about 4 hour, or until the milk is well flavoured; whisk the eggs, yolks and whites; pour the milk to them, stirring all the while; then have ready a pie-dish, lined at the edge with paste ready baked; strain the custard into the dish, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a very slow oven for about 1/2 hour, or rather longer. The flavour of this pudding may be varied by substituting bitter almonds for the lemon-rind; and it may be very much enriched by using half cream and half milk, and doubling the quantity of eggs.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — This pudding is usually served cold with fruit tarts.

Boiled Custard Pudding.

1269. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, flavouring to taste.

Mode. — Flavour the milk by infusing in it a little lemon-rind or cinnamon; whisk the eggs, stir the flour gradually to these, and pour over them the milk, and stir the mixture well. Butter a basin that will exactly hold it; put in the custard, and tie a floured cloth over; plunge it into boiling water, and turn it about for a few minutes, to prevent the flour from settling in one part. Boil it slowly for 1/2 hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve. The pudding may be garnished with red-currant jelly, and sweet sauce may be sent to table with it.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Damson Tart.

1270. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/4 pint of damsons, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short or puff crust.

Mode. — Put the damsons, with the sugar between them, into a deep pie-dish, in the midst of which, place a small cup or jar turned upside down; pile the fruit high in the middle, line the edges of the dish with short or puff crust, whichever may be preferred; put on the cover, ornament the edges, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour in a good oven. If puff-crust is used, about 10 minutes before the pie is done, take it out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a froth with the blade of a knife; strew some sifted sugar over, and a few drops of water, and put the tart back to finish baking: with short crust, a little plain sifted sugar, sprinkled over, is all that will be required.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in September and October.

DAMSONS. — Whether for jam, jelly, pie, pudding, water, ice, wine, dried fruit or preserved, the damson, or damascene (for it was originally brought from Damascus, whence its name), is invaluable. It combines sugary and acid qualities in happy proportions, when full ripe. It is a fruit easily cultivated; and, if budded nine inches from the ground on vigorous stocks, it will grow several feet high in the first year, and make fine standards the year following. Amongst the list of the best sorts of baking plums, the damson stands first, not only on account of the abundance of its juice, but also on account of its soon softening. Because of the roughness of its flavour, it requires a large quantity of sugar.

Damson Pudding.

1271. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of damsons, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of suet or butter crust.

Mode. — Make a suet crust with 3/4 lb. of flour by recipe No. 1215; line a buttered pudding-basin with a portion of it; fill the basin with the damsons, sweeten them, and put on the lid; pinch the edges of the crust together, that the juice does not escape; tie over a floured cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2–1/2 to 3 hours.

Time. — 2–1/2 to 3 hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in September and October.

Delhi Pudding.

1272. INGREDIENTS. — 4 large apples, a little grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 large tablespoonfuls of sugar, 6 oz. of currants, 3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215.

Mode. — Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices; put them into a saucepan, with the nutmeg, lemon-peel, and sugar; stir them over the fire until soft; then have ready the above proportion of crust, roll it out thin, spread the apples over the paste, sprinkle over the currants, roll the pudding up, closing the ends properly, tie it in a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours.

Time. — 2 hours.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

Empress Pudding.

1273. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of rice, 2 oz. of butter, 3 eggs, jam, sufficient milk to soften the rice.

Mode. — Boil the rice in the milk until very soft; then add the butter boil it for a few minutes after the latter ingredient is put in, and set it by to cool. Well beat the eggs, stir these in, and line a dish with puff-paste; put over this a layer of rice, then a thin layer of any kind of jam, then another layer of rice, and proceed in this manner until the dish is full; and bake in a moderate oven for 3/4 hour. This pudding may be eaten hot or cold; if the latter, it will be much improved by having a boiled custard poured over it.

Time. — 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Exeter Pudding.

(Very rich.)

1274. INGREDIENTS. — 10 oz. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of sago, 7 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 pint of rum, 7 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 4 small sponge cakes, 2 oz. of ratafias, 1/2 lb. of jam.

Mode. — Put the bread crumbs into a basin with the sago, suet, sugar, minced lemon-peel, rum, and 4 eggs; stir these ingredients well together, then add 3 more eggs and the cream, and let the mixture be well beaten. Then butter a mould, strew in a few bread crumbs, and cover the bottom with a layer of ratafias; then put in a layer of the mixture, then a layer of sliced sponge cake spread thickly with any kind of jam; then add some ratafias, then some of the mixture and sponge cake, and so on until the mould is full, taking care that a layer of the mixture is on the top of the pudding. Bake in a good oven from 3/4 to 1 hour, and serve with the following sauce:— Put 3 tablespoonfuls of black-currant jelly into a stewpan, add 2 glasses of sherry, and, when warm, turn the pudding out of the mould, pour the sauce over it, and serve hot.

Time. — From 1 to 1–1/4 hour. Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Fig Pudding.
I.

1275. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of figs, 1 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs, milk.

Mode. — Cut the figs into small pieces, grate the bread finely, and chop the suet very small; mix these well together, add the flour, the eggs, which should be well beaten, and sufficient milk to form the whole into a stiff paste; butter a mould or basin, press the pudding into it very closely, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours, or rather longer; turn it out of the mould, and serve with melted butter, wine-sauce, or cream.

Time. — 3 hours, or longer. Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable. — Suitable for a winter pudding.

II.

(Staffordshire Recipe.)

1276. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of figs, 6 oz. of suet, 3/4 lb. of flour, milk.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely, mix with it the flour, and make these into a smooth paste with milk; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch, cut the figs in small pieces, and strew them over the paste; roll it up, make the ends secure, tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil it from 1–1/2 to 2 hours.

Time. — 1–1/2 to 2 hours. Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Folkestone Pudding-Pies.

1277. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of ground rice, 3 oz. of butter, 1/4 lb. of sugar, flavouring of lemon-peel or bay-leaf, 6 eggs, puff-paste, currants.

Mode. — Infuse 2 laurel or bay leaves, or the rind of 1/2 lemon, in the milk, and when it is well flavoured, strain it, and add the rice; boil these for 1/4 hour, stirring all the time; then take them off the fire, stir in the butter, sugar, and eggs, and let these latter be well beaten before they are added to the other ingredients; when nearly cold, line some patty-pans with puff-paste, fill with the custard, strew over each a few currants, and bake from 20 to 25 minutes in a moderate oven.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes. Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient to fill a dozen patty-pans.

Seasonable at any time.

Fruit Turnovers (suitable for Pic–Nics).

1278. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste No. 1206, any kind of fruit, sugar to taste.

Mode. — Make some puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and cut it out in pieces of a circular form; pile the fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet the edges and turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament them, and brush the turnovers over with the white of an egg; sprinkle over sifted sugar, and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about 20 minutes. Instead of putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with a little sugar first, and then inclosed in the crust; or jam, of any kind, may be substituted for fresh fruit.

-Time. — 20 minutes.

Sufficient — 1/2 lb. of puff-paste will make a dozen turnovers.

Seasonable at any time.

German Pudding.

1279. INGREDIENTS. — 2 teaspoonfuls of flour, 1 teaspoonful of arrowroot, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Boil the milk with the lemon-rind until well flavoured; then strain it, and mix with it the flour, arrowroot, butter, and sugar. Boil these ingredients for a few minutes, keeping them well stirred; then take them off the fire and mix with them the eggs, yolks and whites, beaten separately and added separately. Boil some sugar to candy; line a mould with this, put in the brandy, then the mixture; tie down with a cloth, and boil for rather more than 1 hour. When turned out, the brandy and sugar make a nice sauce.

Time. — Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Dampfnudeln, or German Puddings.

1280. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of butter, 5 eggs, 2 small tablespoonfuls of yeast, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-pounded sugar, milk, a very little salt.

Mode. — Put the flour into a basin, make a hole in the centre, into which put the yeast, and rather more than 1/4 pint of warm milk; make this into a batter with the middle of the flour, and let the sponge rise in a warm temperature. When sufficiently risen, mix the eggs, butter, sugar, and salt with a little more warm milk, and knead the whole well together with the hands, beating the dough until it is perfectly smooth, and it drops from the fingers. Then cover the basin with a cloth, put it in a warm place, and when the dough has nicely risen, knead it into small balls; butter the bottom of a deep sauté-pan, strew over some pounded sugar, and let the dampfnudeln be laid in, but do not let them touch one another; then pour over sufficient milk to cover them, put on the lid, and let them rise to twice their original size by the side of the fire. Now place them in the oven for a few minutes, to acquire a nice brown colour, and serve them on a napkin, with custard sauce flavoured with vanilla, or a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour for the sponge to rise; 10 to 15 minutes for the puddings to rise; 10 minutes to bake them in a brisk oven.

Sufficient for 10 or 12 dampfnudeln.

Seasonable at any time.

Ginger Pudding.

1281. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 2 large teaspoonfuls of grated ginger.

Mode. — Shred the suet very fine, mix it with the flour, sugar, and ginger; stir all well together; butter a basin, and put the mixture in dry; tie a cloth over, and boil for 3 hours.

Time. — 3 hours. Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Golden Pudding.

1282. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of marmalade, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Put the bread crumbs into a basin; mix with them the suet, which should be finely minced, the marmalade, and the sugar; stir all these ingredients well together, beat the eggs to a froth, moisten the pudding with these, and when well mixed, put it into a mould or buttered basin; tie down with a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours. When turned out, strew a little fine-sifted sugar over the top, and serve.

Time. — 2 hours. Average cost, 11d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note. — The mould may be ornamented with stoned raisins, arranged in any fanciful pattern, before the mixture is poured in, which would add very much to the appearance of the pudding. For a plainer pudding, double the quantities of the bread crumbs, and if the eggs do not moisten it sufficiently, use a little milk.

Baked Gooseberry Pudding.

1283. INGREDIENTS. — Gooseberries, 3 eggs, 1–1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste.

Mode. — Put the gooseberries into a jar, previously cutting off the tops and tails; place this jar in boiling water, and let it boil until the gooseberries are soft enough to pulp; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and to every pint of pulp add 3 well-whisked eggs, 1–1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, and sugar to taste; beat the mixture well, put a border of puff-paste round the edge of a pie-dish, put in the pudding, bake for about 40 minutes, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time. — About 40 minutes. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from May to July.

Boiled Gooseberry Pudding.

1284. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1–1/2 pint of green gooseberries, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

Mode. — Line a pudding-basin with suet crust no. 1215, rolled out to about 1/2 inch in thickness, and, with a pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2–1/2 to 3 hours; turn it out of the basin, and serve with a jug of cream.

Time. — 2–1/2 to 3 hours. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from May to July.

Gooseberry Tart.

1285. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of gooseberries, 1/2 lb. of short crust No. 1211, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

Mode. — With a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; put them into a deep pie-dish, pile the fruit high in the centre, and put in the sugar; line the edge of the dish with short crust, put on the cover, and ornament the edges of the tart; bake in a good oven for about 3/4 hour, and before being sent to table, strew over it some fine-sifted sugar. A jug of cream, or a dish of boiled or baked custards, should always accompany this dish.

Time. — 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from May to July.

GOOSEBERRIES. — The red and the white are the two principal varieties of gooseberries. The red are rather the more acid; but, when covered with white sugar, are most wholesome, because the sugar neutralizes their acidity. Red gooseberries make an excellent jelly, which is light and refreshing, but not very nourishing. It is good for bilious and plethoric persons, and to invalids generally who need light and digestible food. It is a fruit from which many dishes might be made. All sorts of gooseberries are agreeable when stewed, and, in this country especially, there is no fruit so universally in favour. In Scotland, there is scarcely a cottage-garden without its gooseberry-bush. Several of the species are cultivated with the nicest care.

Half-Pay Pudding.

1286. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, 1/4 lb. of raisins, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of treacle, 1/2 pint of milk.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely; mix with it the currants, which should be nicely washed and dried, the raisins, which should be stoned, the flour, bread crumbs, and treacle; moisten with the milk, beat up the ingredients until all are thoroughly mixed, put them into a buttered basin, and boil the pudding for 3–1/2 hours.

Time. — 3–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Herodotus Pudding.

1287. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of good figs, 6 oz. of suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 3 eggs, nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Mince the suet and figs very finely; add the remaining ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well whisked; beat the mixture for a few minutes, put it into a buttered mould, tie it down with a floured cloth, and boil the pudding for 5 hours. Serve with wine sauce.

Time. — 5 hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Hunter’s Pudding.

1288. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 lb. of moist sugar, 8 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 3 lb. of mixed candied peel, 1 glass of brandy, 10 drops of essence of lemon, 10 drops of essence of almonds, 1/2 nutmeg, 2 blades of mace, 6 cloves.

Mode. — Stone and shred the raisins rather small, chop the suet finely, and rub the bread until all lumps are well broken; pound the spice to powder, cut the candied peel into thin shreds, and mix all these ingredients well together, adding the sugar. Beat the eggs to a strong froth, and as they are beaten, drop into them the essence of lemon and essence of almonds; stir these to the dry ingredients, mix well, and add the brandy. Tie the pudding firmly in a cloth, and boil it for 6 hours at the least: 7 or 8 hours would be still better for it. Serve with boiled custard, or red-currant jelly, or brandy sauce.

Time. — 6 to 8 hours.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Iced Pudding.

(Parisian Recipe.)

1289. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 2 oz. of bitter ones, 3/4 lb. of sugar, 8 eggs, 1–1/2 pint of milk.

Mode. — Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly in a cloth, then pound them in a mortar until reduced to a smooth paste; add to these the well-beaten eggs, the sugar, and milk; stir these ingredients over the fire until they thicken, but do not allow them to boil; then strain and put the mixture into the freezing-pot; surround it with ice, and freeze it as directed in recipe 1290. When quite frozen, fill an iced-pudding mould, put on the lid, and keep the pudding in ice until required for table; then turn it out on the dish, and garnish it with a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred, pouring a little over the top of the pudding. This pudding may be flavoured with vanilla, Curaçoa, or Maraschino.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable. — Served all the year round.

Iced Apple Pudding. (French Recipe, after Carême.)

1290. INGREDIENTS. — 2 dozen apples, a small pot of apricot-jam, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 1 Seville orange, 1/4 pint of preserved cherries, 1/4 lb. of raisins, 1 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of almonds, 1 gill of Curaçoa, 1 gill of Maraschino, 1 pint of cream.

Mode. — Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and simmer them over the fire until soft; then mix with them the apricot-jam and the sugar, on which the rind of the orange should be previously rubbed; work all these ingredients through a sieve, and put them into the freezing-pot. Stone the raisins, and simmer them in a little syrup for a few minutes; add these, with the sliced citron, the almonds cut in dice, and the cherries drained from their syrup, to the ingredients in the freezing-pot; put in the Curaçoa and Maraschino, and freeze again; add as much whipped cream as will be required, freeze again, and fill the mould. Put the lid on, and plunge the mould into the ice-pot; cover it with a wet cloth and pounded ice and saltpetre, where it should remain until wanted for table. Turn the pudding out of the mould on to a clean and neatly-folded napkin, and serve, as sauce, a little iced whipped cream, in a sauce-tureen or glass dish.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable from August to March.

Method of working the freezing Apparatus. — Put into the outer pail some pounded ice, upon which strew some saltpetre; then fix the pewter freezing-pot upon this, and surround it entirely with ice and saltpetre. Wipe the cover and edges of the pot, pour in the preparation, and close the lid; a quarter of an hour after, begin turning the freezing-pan from right to left, and when the mixture begins to be firm round the sides of the pot, stir it about with the slice or spattle, that the preparation may be equally congealed. Close the lid again, keep working from right to left, and, from time to time, remove the mixture from the sides, that it may be smooth; and when perfectly frozen, it is ready to put in the mould; the mould should then be placed in the ice again, where it should remain until wanted for table.

Roly-Poly Jam Pudding.

1291. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb of suet-crust No. 1215, 3/4 lb. of any kind of jam.

Mode. — Make a nice light suet-crust by recipe No. 1215, and roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Spread the jam equally over it, leaving a small margin of paste without any, where the pudding joins. Roll it up, fasten the ends securely, and tie it in a floured cloth; put the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. Mincemeat or marmalade may be substituted for the jam, and makes excellent puddings.

Time. — 2 hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Suitable for winter puddings, when fresh fruit is not obtainable.

Lemon Cheesecakes.

1292. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 eggs, the rind of 2 lemons and the juice of 3.

Mode. — Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully grating the lemon-rind and straining the juice. Keep stirring the mixture over the fire until the sugar is dissolved, and it begins to thicken: when of the consistency of honey, it is done; then put it into small jars, and keep in a dry place. This mixture will remain good 3 or 4 months. When made into cheesecakes, add a few pounded almonds, or candied peel, or grated sweet biscuit; line some patty-pans with good puff-paste, rather more than half fill them with the mixture, and bake for about 1/4 hour in a good brisk oven.

Time. — 1/4 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 24 cheesecakes.

Seasonable at any time.

Lemon Mincemeat.

1293. INGREDIENTS. — 2 large lemons, 6 large apples, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of citron, mixed spice to taste.

Mode. — Pare the lemons, squeeze them, and boil the peel until tender enough to mash. Add to the mashed lemon-peel the apples, which should be pared, cored, and minced; the chopped suet, currants, sugar, sliced peel, and spice. Strain the lemon-juice to these ingredients, stir the mixture well, and put it in a jar with a closely-fitting lid. Stir occasionally, and in a week or 10 days the mincemeat will be ready for use.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 18 large or 24 small pies.

Seasonable. — Make this about the beginning of December.

Lemon Dumplings.

1294. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of grated bread, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 2 eggs, 1 large lemon.

Mode. — Mix the bread, suet, and moist sugar well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced. Moisten with the eggs and strained lemon-juice; stir well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups. Tie them down and boil for 3/4 hour. Turn them out on a dish, strew sifted sugar over them, and serve with wine sauce.

Time. — 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 6 dumplings.

Seasonable at any time.

Baked Lemon Pudding.
I.

1295. INGREDIENTS. — The yolks of 4 eggs, 4 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 lemon, 1/4 lb. of butter, puff-crust.

Mode. — Beat the eggs to a froth; mix with them the sugar and warmed butter; stir these ingredients well together, putting in the grated rind and strained juice of the lemon-peel. Line a shallow dish with puff-paste; put in the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven for 40 minutes; turn the pudding out of the dish, strew over it sifted sugar, and serve.

Time. — 40 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

II.

1296. INGREDIENTS. — 10 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 pints of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 1 lemon, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

Mode. — Bring the milk to the boiling point, stir in the butter, and pour these hot over the bread crumbs; add the sugar and very finely-minced lemon-peel; beat the eggs, and stir these in with the brandy to the other ingredients; put a paste round the dish, and bake for 3/4 hour.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON. — The lemon is a variety of the citron. The juice of this fruit makes one of our most popular and refreshing beverages — lemonade, which is gently stimulating and cooling, and soon quenches the thirst. It may he freely partaken by bilious and sanguine temperaments; but persons with irritable stomachs should avoid it, on account of its acid qualities. The fresh rind of the lemon is a gentle tonic, and, when dried and grated, is used in flavouring a variety of culinary preparations. Lemons appear in company with the orange in most orange-growing countries. They were only known to the Romans at a very late period, and, at first, were used only to keep the moths from their garments: their acidity was unpleasant to them. In the time of Pliny, the lemon was hardly known otherwise than as an excellent counter-poison.

III.

(Very rich.)

1297. INGREDIENTS. — The rind and juice of 2 large lemons, 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 1/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 8 eggs, 2 oz. of almonds, 1/2 lb. of butter, melted.

Mode. — Mix the pounded sugar with the cream, and add the yolks of eggs and the butter, which should be previously warmed. Blanch and pound the almonds, and put these, with the grated rind and strained juice of the lemons, to the other ingredients. Stir all well together; line a dish with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for 1 hour.

Time. — 1 hour.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Boiled Lemon Pudding.

1298. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of chopped suet, 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 small lemons, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/4 lb. of flour, 2 eggs, milk.

Mode. — Mix the suet, bread crumbs, sugar, and flour well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced, and the juice, which should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed, moisten with the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter; put it into a well-buttered mould, and boil for 3–1/2 hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve with wine sauce, or not, at pleasure.

Time. — 3–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note. — This pudding may also be baked, and will be found very good. It will take about 2 hours.

Plain Lemon Pudding.

1299. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of lard or dripping, the juice of 1 large lemon, 1 teaspoonful of flour, sugar.

Mode. — Make the above proportions of flour and lard into a smooth paste, and roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Squeeze the lemon-juice, strain it into a cup, stir the flour into it, and as much moist sugar as will make it into a stiff and thick paste; spread this mixture over the paste, roll it up, secure the ends, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth. Boil for 2 hours.

Time. — 2 hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Manchester Pudding (to eat Cold).

1300. INGREDIENTS. — 3 oz. of grated bread, 1/2 pint of milk, a strip of lemon-peel, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, puff-paste, jam, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Flavour the milk with lemon-peel, by infusing it in the milk for 1/2 hour; then strain it on to the bread crumbs, and boil it for 2 or 3 minutes; add the eggs, leaving out the whites of 2, the butter, sugar, and brandy; stir all these ingredients well together; cover a pie-dish with puff-paste, and at the bottom put a thick layer of any kind of jam; pour the above mixture, cold, on the jam, and bake the pudding for an hour. Serve cold, with a little sifted sugar sprinkled over.

Time. — 1 hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Sweet Macaroni Pudding.

1301. INGREDIENTS. — 2–1/2 oz. of macaroni, 2 pints of milk, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 eggs, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Put the macaroni, with a pint of the milk, into a saucepan with the lemon-peel, and let it simmer gently until the macaroni is tender; then put it into a pie-dish without the peel; mix the other pint of milk with the eggs; stir these well together, adding the sugar and brandy, and pour the mixture over the macaroni. Grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a moderate oven for 1/2 hour. To make this pudding look nice, a paste should be laid round the edges of the dish, and, for variety, a layer of preserve or marmalade may be placed on the macaroni: in this case omit the brandy.

Time. — 3/4 hour to simmer the macaroni; 1/2 hour to bake the pudding.

Average cost, 11d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MACARONI is composed of wheaten flour, flavoured with other articles, and worked up with water into a paste, to which, by a peculiar process, a tubular or pipe form is given, in order that it may cook more readily in hot water. That of smaller diameter than macaroni (which is about the thickness of a goose-quill) is called vermicelli; and when smaller still, fidelini. The finest is made from the flour of the hard-grained Black–Sea wheat. Macaroni is the principal article of food in many parts of Italy, particularly Naples, where the best is manufactured, and from whence, also, it is exported in considerable quantities. In this country, macaroni and vermicelli are frequently used in soups.

Manna Kroup Pudding.

1302. INGREDIENTS. — 3 tablespoonfuls of manna kroup, 12 bitter almonds, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 3 eggs.

Mode. — Blanch and pound the almonds in a mortar; mix them with the manna kroup; pour over these a pint of boiling milk, and let them steep for about 1/4 hour. When nearly cold, add sugar and the well-beaten eggs; mix all well together; put the pudding into a buttered dish, and bake for 1/2 hour.

Time. — 1/2 hour.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

MANNA KROUP, SEMORA, or SEMOLINA, are three names given to a flour made from ground wheat and rice. The preparation is white when it is made only of these materials; the yellow colour which it usually has, is produced by a portion of saffron and yolks of eggs. Next to vermicelli, this preparation is the most useful for thickening either meat or vegetable soups. As a food, it is light, nutritious, wholesome, and easily digested. The best preparation is brought from Arabia, and, next to that, from Italy.

Mansfield Pudding.

1303. INGREDIENTS. — The crumb of 2 rolls, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 6 oz. of chopped suet, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode. — Slice the roll very thin, and pour upon it a pint of boiling milk; let it remain covered close for 1/4 hour, then beat it up with a fork, and sweeten with moist sugar; stir in the chopped suet, flour, currants, and nutmeg. Mix these ingredients well together, moisten with the eggs, brandy, and cream; beat the mixture for 2 or 3 minutes, put it into a buttered dish or mould, and bake in a moderate oven for 1–1/4 hour. Turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time. — 1–1/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Marlborough Pudding.

1304. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of powdered lump sugar, 4 eggs, puff-paste, a layer of any kind of jam.

Mode. — Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the powdered sugar, whisk the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When these are well mixed, line a dish with puff-paste, spread over a layer of any kind of jam that may be preferred, pour in the mixture, and bake the pudding for rather more than 1/2 hour.

Time. — Rather more than 1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Marmalade and Vermicelli Pudding.

1305. INGREDIENTS. — 1 breakfastcupful of vermicelli, 2 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, 1/4 lb. of raisins, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, milk.

Mode. — Pour some boiling milk on the vermicelli, and let it remain covered for 10 minutes; then mix with it the marmalade, stoned raisins, sugar, and beaten eggs. Stir all well together, put the mixture into a buttered mould, boil for 1–1/2 hour, and serve with custard sauce.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost. 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

MARROW DUMPLINGS, to serve with Roast Meat, in Soup, with Salad, &c.

(German Recipe.)

1306. INGREDIENTS. — 1 oz. of beef marrow, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2 penny rolls, 1 teaspoonful of minced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, salt and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Beat the marrow and butter together to a cream; well whisk the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When they are well stirred, put in the rolls, which should previously be well soaked in boiling milk, strained, and beaten up with a fork. Add the remaining ingredients, omitting the minced onion where the flavour is very much disliked, and form the mixture into small round dumplings. Drop these into boiling broth, and let them simmer for about 20 minutes or 1/2 hour. They may be served in soup, with roast meat, or with salad, as in Germany, where they are more frequently sent to table than in this country. They are very good.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 dumplings. Seasonable at any time.

Baked Ob Boiled Marrow Pudding.

1307. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 6 oz. of marrow, 4 eggs, 1/4 lb. of raisins or currants, or 2 oz. of each; sugar and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Make the milk boiling, pour it hot on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain covered for about 1/2 hour; shred the marrow, beat up the eggs, and mix these with the bread crumbs; add the remaining ingredients, beat the mixture well, and either put it into a buttered mould and boil it for 2–1/2 hours, or put it into a pie-dish edged with puff-paste, and bake for rather more than 3/4 hour. Before sending it to table, sift a little pounded sugar over, after being turned out of the mould or basin.

Time. — 2–1/2 hours to boil, 3/4 hour to bake. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Military Puddings.

1308. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of moist sugar, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely, mix it with the bread crumbs and sugar, and mince the lemon-rind and strain the juice; stir these into the other ingredients, mix well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups, and bake for rather more than 1/2 hour; turn them out on the dish, and serve with lemon-sauce. The above ingredients may be made into small balls, and boiled for about 1/2 hour; they should then be served with the same sauce as when baked.

Time. — Rather more than 1/2 hour. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient to fill 6 or 7 moderate-sized cups. Seasonable at any time.

Mincemeat.

1309. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of raisins, 3 lbs. of currants, 1–1/2 lb. of lean beef, 3 lbs. of beef suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 2 oz. of candied orange-peel, 1 small nutmeg, 1 pottle of apples, the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, 1/2 pint of brandy.

Mode. — Stone and cut the raisins once or twice across, but do not chop them; wash, dry, and pick the currants free from stalks and grit, and mince the beef and suet, taking care that the latter is chopped very fine; slice the citron and candied peel, grate the nutmeg, and pare, core, and mince the apples; mince the lemon-peel, strain the juice, and when all the ingredients are thus prepared, mix them well together, adding the brandy when the other things are well blended; press the whole into a jar, carefully exclude the air, and the mincemeat will be ready for use in a fortnight.

Average cost for this quantity, 8s.

Seasonable. — Make this about the beginning of December.

Excellent Mincemeat.

1310. INGREDIENTS. — 3 large lemons, 3 large apples, 1 lb. of stoned raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of sliced candied citron, 1 oz. of sliced candied orange-peel, and the same quantity of lemon-peel, 1 teacupful of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of orange marmalade.

Mode. — Grate the rinds of the lemons; squeeze out the juice, strain it, and boil the remainder of the lemons until tender enough to pulp or chop very finely. Then add to this pulp the apples, which should be baked, and their skins and cores removed; put in the remaining ingredients one by one, and, as they are added, mix everything very thoroughly together. Put the mincemeat into a stone jar with a closely-fitting lid, and in a fortnight it will be ready for use.

Seasonable. — This should be made the first or second week in December.

Mince Pies.

1311. INGREDIENTS. — Good puff-paste No. 1205, mincemeat No. 1309.

Mode. — Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and line some good-sized pattypans with it; fill them with mincemeat, cover with the paste, and cut it off all round close to the edge of the tin. Put the pies into a brisk oven, to draw the paste up, and bake for 25 minutes, or longer, should the pies be very large; brush them over with the white of an egg, beaten with the blade of a knife to a stiff froth; sprinkle over pounded sugar, and put them into the oven for a minute or two, to dry the egg; dish the pies on a white d’oyley, and serve hot. They may be merely sprinkled with pounded sugar instead of being glazed, when that mode is preferred. To re-warm them, put the pies on the pattypans, and let them remain in the oven for 10 minutes or 1/4 hour, and they will be almost as good as if freshly made.

Time. — 25 to 30 minutes; 10 minutes to re-warm them.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Sufficient — 1/2 lb. of paste for 4 pies. Seasonable at Christmas time.

Monday’s Pudding.

1312. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold plum-pudding, brandy, custard made with 5 eggs to every pint of milk.

Mode. — Cut the remains of a good cold plum-pudding into finger-pieces, soak them in a little brandy, and lay them cross-barred in a mould until full. Make a custard with the above proportion of milk and eggs, flavouring it with nutmeg or lemon-rind; fill up the mould with it; tie it down with a cloth, and boil or steam it for an hour. Serve with a little of the custard poured over, to which has been added a tablespoonful of brandy.

Time. — 1 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the pudding, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

NESSELRODE PUDDING. (A fashionable iced pudding — Carême’s Recipe.)

1313. INGREDIENTS. — 40 chestnuts, 1 lb. of sugar, flavouring of vanilla, 1 pint of cream, the yolks of 12 eggs, 1 glass of Maraschino, 1 oz. of candied citron, 2 oz. of currants, 2 oz. of stoned raisins, 1/2 pint of whipped cream, 3 eggs.

Mode. — Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water, remove the husks, and pound them in a mortar until perfectly smooth, adding a few spoonfuls of syrup. Then rub them through a fine sieve, and mix them in a basin with a pint of syrup made from 1 lb. of sugar, clarified, and flavoured with vanilla, 1 pint of cream, and the yolks of 12 eggs. Set this mixture over a slow fire, stirring it without ceasing, and just as it begins to boil, take it off and pass it through a tammy. When it is cold, put it into a freezing-pot, adding the Maraschino, and make the mixture set; then add the sliced citron, the currants, and stoned raisins (these two latter should be soaked the day previously in Maraschino and sugar pounded with vanilla); the whole thus mingled, add a plateful of whipped cream mixed with the whites of 3 eggs, beaten to a froth with a little syrup. When the pudding is perfectly frozen, put it into a pineapple-shaped mould; close the lid, place it again in the freezing-pan, covered over with pounded ice and saltpetre, and let it remain until required for table; then turn the pudding out, and serve.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable from October to February.

Baked Orange Pudding.

1314. INGREDIENTS. — 6 oz. of stale sponge cake or bruised ratafias, 6 oranges, 1 pint of milk, 6 eggs, 1/2 lb. of sugar.

Mode. — Bruise the sponge cake or ratafias into fine crumbs, and pour upon them the milk, which should be boiling. Rub the rinds of 2 of the oranges on sugar, and add this, with the juice of the remainder, to the other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, stir them in, sweeten to taste, and put the mixture into a pie-dish previously lined with puff-paste. Bake for rather more than 1/2 hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time. — Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 1s, 6d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from November to May.

ORANGE (Citrus Aurantium). — The principal varieties are the sweet, or China orange, and the bitter, or Seville orange; the Maltese is also worthy of notice, from its red blood-like pulp. The orange is extensively cultivated in the south of Europe, and in Devonshire, on walls with a south aspect, it bears an abundance of fruit. So great is the increase in the demand for the orange, and so ample the supply, that it promises to rival the apple in its popularity. The orange-tree is considered young at the age of a hundred years. The pulp of the orange consists of a collection of oblong vesicles filled with a sugary and refreshing juice. The orange blossom is proverbially chosen for the bridal wreath, and, from the same flower, an essential oil is extracted hardly less esteemed than the celebrated ottar of roses. Of all marmalades, that made from the Seville orange is the best. The peel and juice of the orange are much used in culinary preparations. From oranges are made preserves, comfitures, jellies, glacés, sherbet, liqueurs, and syrups. The juice of the orange in a glass d’eau sucrée makes a refreshing and wholesome drink. From the clarified pulp of the orange the French make a delicious jelly, which they serve in small pots, and call crême. The rasped peel of the orange is used in several sweet entremets, to which it communicates its perfume. The confectioner manufactures a variety of dainties from all parts of the orange. Confections of orange-peel are excellent tonics and stomachics. Persons with delicate stomachs should abstain from oranges at dessert, because their acidity is likely to derange the digestive organs.

Small Dishes of Pastry Foe Entremets, Supper-Dishes, &c.
Fanchonnettes, or Custard Tartlets.

1315. INGREDIENTS. — For the custard, 4 eggs, 3/4 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 3 dessertspoonfuls of flour, flavouring to taste; the whites of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar.

Mode. — Well beat the eggs; stir to them the milk, the butter, which should be beaten to a cream, the sugar, and flour; mix these ingredients well together, put them into a very clean saucepan, and bring them to the simmering point, but do not allow them to boil. Flavour with essence of vanilla, bitter almonds, lemon, grated chocolate, or any flavouring ingredient that may be preferred. Line some round tartlet-pans with good puff-paste; fill them with the custard, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes; then take them out of the pans; let them cool, and in the mean time whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth; stir into this the pounded sugar, and spread smoothly over the tartlets a little of this mixture. Put them in the oven again to set the icing, but be particular that they do not scorch: when the icing looks crisp, they are done. Arrange them, piled high in the centre, on a white napkin, and garnish the dish, and in between the tartlets, with strips of bright jelly, or very firmly-made preserve.

Time. — 20 minutes to bake the tartlets; 5 minutes after being iced.

Average cost, exclusive of the paste, 1s.

Sufficient to fill 10 or 12 tartlets.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — The icing may be omitted on the top of the tartlets, and a spoonful of any kind of preserve put at the bottom of the custard instead: this varies both the flavour and appearance of this dish.

Almond Flowers.

1316. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste No. 1205; to every 1/2 lb. of paste allow 3 oz. of almonds, sifted sugar, the white of an egg.

Mode. — Roll the paste out to the thickness of 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required. Work the paste up again, roll it out, and, with a smaller cutter, stamp out some pieces the size of a shilling. Brush the larger pieces over with the white of an egg, and place one of the smaller pieces on each. Blanch and cut the almonds into strips lengthwise; press them slanting into the paste closely round the rings; and when they are all completed, sift over some pounded sugar, and bake for about 1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Garnish between the almonds with strips of apple jelly, and place in the centre of the ring a small quantity of strawberry jam; pile them high on the dish, and serve.

Time. — 1/4 hour or 20 minutes.

Sufficient. — 18 or 20 for a dish.

Seasonable at any time.

Fluted Rolls.

1317. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste, the white of an egg, sifted sugar, jelly or preserve.

Mode. — Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205 (trimmings answer very well for little dishes of this sort); roll it out to the thickness of 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many round pieces as may be required; brush over the upper side with the white of an egg; roll up the pieces, pressing the paste lightly together where it joins; place the rolls on a baking-sheet, and bake for about 1/4 hour. A few minutes before they are done, brush them over with the white of an egg; strew over sifted sugar, put them back in the oven; and when the icing is firm and of a pale brown colour, they are done. Place a strip of jelly or preserve across each roll, dish them high on a napkin, and serve cold.

Time. — 1/4 hour before being iced; 5 to 10 minutes after.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient. — 1/2 lb. of puff-paste for 2 dishes.

Seasonable at any time.

Pastry Sandwiches.

1318. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg, sifted sugar.

Mode. — Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a baking-sheet or tin, and spread equally over it apricot, greengage, or any preserve that may be preferred. Lay over this preserve another thin paste; press the edges together all round; and mark the paste in lines with a knife on the surface, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; and, a short time before being done, take the pastry out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg, sift over pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to colour. When cold, cut it into strips; pile these on a dish pyramidically, and serve. These strips, cut about 2 inches long, piled in circular rows, and a plateful of flavoured whipped cream poured in the middle, make a very pretty dish.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1 hour. Average cost, with 1/2 lb. of paste, 1s.

Sufficient. — 1/2 lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of sandwiches.

Seasonable at any time.

Petites Bouchees.

1319. INGREDIENTS. — 6 oz. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of sifted sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon, the white of 1 egg, puff-paste.

Mode. — Blanch the almonds, and chop them fine; rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound it in a mortar; mix this with the almonds and the white of the egg. Roll some puff-paste out; cut it in any shape that may be preferred, such as diamonds, rings, ovals, &c., and spread the above mixture over the paste. Bake the bouchées in an oven, not too hot, and serve cold.

Time. — 1/4 hour, or rather more. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 1/2 lb. of puff-paste. Seasonable at any time.

Polish Tartlets.

1320. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste, the white of an egg, pounded sugar.

Mode. — Roll some good puff-paste out thin, and cut it into 2–1/2-inch squares; brush each square over with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, so that they all meet in the middle of each piece of paste; slightly press the two pieces together, brush them over with the egg, sift over sugar, and bake in a nice quick oven for about 1/4 hour. When they are done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste, and fill it up with apricot jam, marmalade, or red-currant jelly. Pile them high in the centre of a dish, on a napkin, and garnish with the same preserve the tartlets are filled with.

Time. — 1/4 hour or 20 minutes.

Average cost, with 1/2 lb. of puff-paste, 1s.

Sufficient for 2 dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — It should be borne in mind, that, for all dishes of small pastry, such as the preceding, trimmings of puff-pasty, left from larger tarts, answer as well as making the paste expressly.

Puits d’Amour, or Puff-Paste Rings.

1321. INGREDIENTS. — Puff-paste No. 1205, the white of an egg, sifted loaf sugar.

Mode. — Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required; then work the paste up again, and roll it out to the same thickness, and with a smaller cutter, stamp out sufficient pieces to correspond with the larger ones. Again stamp out the centre of these smaller rings; brush over the others with the white of an egg, place a small ring on the top of every large circular piece of paste, egg over the tops, and bake from 15 to 20 minutes. Sift over sugar, put them back in the oven to colour them; then fill the rings with preserve of any bright colour. Dish them high on a napkin, and serve. So many pretty dishes of pastry may be made by stamping puff-paste out with fancy cutters, and filling the pieces, when baked, with jelly or preserve, that our space will not allow us to give a separate recipe for each of them; but, as they are all made from one paste, and only the shape and garnishing varied, perhaps it is not necessary, and by exercising a little ingenuity, variety may always be obtained. Half-moons, leaves, diamonds, stars, shamrocks, rings, etc., are the most appropriate shapes for fancy pastry.

Time. — 15 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, with 1/2 lb. of paste, 1s.

Sufficient for 2 dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

Paradise Pudding.

1322. INGREDIENTS. — 3 eggs, 3 apples, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of currants, salt and grated nutmeg to taste, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/2 wineglassful of brandy.

Mode. — Pare, core, and mince the apples into small pieces, and mix them with the other dry ingredients; beat up the eggs, moisten the mixture with these, and beat it well; stir in the brandy, and put the pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down with a cloth, boil for 1–1/2 hour, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Pease Pudding.

1323. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of split peas, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — Put the peas to soak over-night, in rain-water, and float off any that are wormeaten or discoloured. Tie them loosely in a clean cloth, leaving a little room for them to swell, and put them on to boil in cold rain-water, allowing 2–1/2 hours after the water has simmered up. When the peas are tender, take them up and drain; rub them through a colander with a wooden spoon; add the butter, eggs, pepper, and salt; beat all well together for a few minutes, until the ingredients are well incorporated; then tie them tightly in a floured cloth; boil the pudding for another hour, turn it on to the dish, and serve very hot. This pudding should always be sent to table with boiled leg of pork, and is an exceedingly nice accompaniment to boiled beef.

Time. — 2–1/2 hours to boil the peas, tied loosely in the cloth; 1 hour for the pudding.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from September to March.

Baked Plum-Pudding.

1324. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of suet, 2 eggs, 1 pint of milk, a few slices of candied peel.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, currants, stoned raisins, and candied peel; moisten with the well-beaten eggs, and add sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of very thick batter. Put it into a buttered dish, and bake in a good oven from 2–1/4 to 2–1/2 hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. For a very plain pudding, use only half the quantity of fruit, omit the eggs, and substitute milk or water for them. The above ingredients make a large family pudding; for a small one, half the quantity would be found ample; but it must be baked quite 1–1/2 hour.

Time. — Large pudding, 2–1/4 to 2–1/2 hours; half the size, 1–1/2 hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

RAISIN GRAPE. — All the kinds of raisins have much the same virtues; they are nutritive and balsamic, but they are very subject to fermentation with juices of any kind; and hence, when eaten immoderately, they often bring on colics. There are many varieties of grape used for raisins; the fruit of Valencia is that mostly dried for culinary purposes, whilst most of the table kinds are grown in Malaga, and called Muscatels. The finest of all table raisins come from Provence or Italy; the most esteemed of all are those of Roquevaire; they are very large and very sweet. This sort is rarely eaten by any but the most wealthy. The dried Malaga, or Muscatel raisins, which come to this country packed in small boxes, and nicely preserved in bunches, are variable in their quality, but mostly of a rich flavour, when new, juicy, and of a deep purple hue.

An Excellent Plum-Pudding, made without Eggs.

1325. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of raisins, 6 oz. of currants, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of brown sugar, 1/4 lb. of mashed carrot, 1/4 lb. of mashed potatoes, 1 tablespoonful of treacle, 1 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of candied citron.

Mode. — Mix the flour, currants, suet, and sugar well together; have ready the above proportions of mashed carrot and potato, which stir into the other ingredients; add the treacle and lemon-peel; but put no liquid in the mixture, or it will be spoiled. Tie it loosely in a cloth, or, if put in a basin, do not quite fill it, as the pudding should have room to swell, and boil it for 4 hours. Serve with brandy-sauce. This pudding is better for being mixed over-night.

Time. — 4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

An Unrivalled Plum-Pudding.

1326. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of muscatel raisins, 1–3/4 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of sultana raisins, 2 lbs. of the finest moist sugar, 2 lbs. of bread crumbs, 16 eggs, 2 lbs. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of mixed candied peel, the rind of 2 lemons, 1 oz. of ground nutmeg, 1 oz. of ground cinnamon, 1/2 oz. of pounded bitter almonds, 1/4 pint of brandy.

Mode. — Stone and cut up the raisins, but do not chop them; wash and dry the currants, and cut the candied peel into thin slices. Mix all the dry ingredients well together, and moisten with the eggs, which should be well beaten and strained, to the pudding; stir in the brandy, and, when all is thoroughly mixed, well butter and flour a stout new pudding-cloth; put in the pudding, tie it down very tightly and closely, boil from 6 to 8 hours, and serve with brandy-sauce. A few sweet almonds, blanched and cut in strips, and stuck on the pudding, ornament it prettily. This quantity may be divided and boiled in buttered moulds. For small families this is the most desirable way, as the above will be found to make a pudding of rather large dimensions.

Time. — 6 to 8 hours. Average cost, 7s. 6d.

Seasonable in winter. Sufficient for 12 or 14 persons.

Note. — The muscatel raisins can be purchased at a cheap rate loose (not in bunches): they are then scarcely higher in price than the ordinary raisins, and impart a much richer flavour to the pudding.

SULTANA GRAPE. — We have elsewhere stated that the small black grape grown in Corinth and the Ionian Isles is, when dried, the common currant of the grocers’ shops; the white or yellow grape, grown in the same places, is somewhat larger than the black variety, and is that which produces the Sultana raisin. It has been called Sultana from its delicate qualities and unique growth: the finest are those of Smyrna. They have not sufficient flavour and sugary properties to serve alone for puddings and cakes, but they are peculiarly valuable for mixing, that is to say, for introducing in company with the richer sorts of Valencias or Muscatels. In white puddings, or cakes, too, where the whiteness must be preserved, the Sultana raisin should be used. But the greatest value of this fruit in the cuisine is that of its saving labour; for it has no stones. Half Muscatels and half Sultanas are an admirable mixture for general purposes.

A Plain Christmas Pudding for Children.

1327. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 3/4 lb. of currants, 3/4 lb. of suet, 3 or 4 eggs, milk, 2 oz. of candied peel, 1 teaspoonful of powdered allspice, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Let the suet be finely chopped, the raisins stoned, and the currants well washed, picked, and dried. Mix these with the other dry ingredients, and stir all well together; beat and strain the eggs to the pudding, stir these in, and add just sufficient milk to make it mix properly. Tie it up in a well-floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for at least 5 hours. Serve with a sprig of holly placed in the middle of the pudding, and a little pounded sugar sprinkled over it.

Time. — 5 hours. Average cost, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 children. Seasonable at Christmas.

RAISINS. — Raisins are grapes, prepared by suffering them to remain on the vine until they are perfectly ripe, and then drying them in the sun or by the heat of an oven. The sun-dried grapes are sweet, the oven-dried of an acid flavour. The common way of drying grapes for raisins is to tie two or three bunches of them together, whilst yet on the vine, and dip them into a hot lixivium of wood-ashes mixed with a little of the oil of olives: this disposes them to shrink and wrinkle, after which they are left on the vine three or four days, separated, on sticks in a horizontal situation, and then dried in the sun at leisure, after being cut from the tree.

Christmas Plum-Pudding.

(Very Good.)

1328. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of raisins, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of mixed peel, 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3/4 lb. of suet, 8 eggs, 1 wineglassful of brandy.

Mode. — Stone and cut the raisins in halves, but do not chop them; wash, pick, and dry the currants, and mince the suet finely; cut the candied peel into thin slices, and grate down the bread into fine crumbs. When all these dry ingredients are prepared, mix them well together; then moisten the mixture with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the brandy; stir well, that everything may be very thoroughly blended, and press the pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down tightly with a floured cloth, and boil for 5 or 6 hours. It may be boiled in a cloth without a mould, and will require the same time allowed for cooking. As Christmas puddings are usually made a few days before they are required for table, when the pudding is taken out of the pot, hang it up immediately, and put a plate or saucer underneath to catch the water that may drain from it. The day it is to be eaten, plunge it into boiling water, and keep it boiling for at least 2 hours; then turn it out of the mould, and serve with brandy-sauce. On Christmas-day a sprig of holly is usually placed in the middle of the pudding, and about a wineglassful of brandy poured round it, which, at the moment of serving, is lighted, and the pudding thus brought to table encircled in flame.

Time. — 5 or 6 hours the first time of boiling; 2 hours the day it is to be served.

Average cost, 4s.

Sufficient for a quart mould for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable on the 25th of December, and on various festive occasions till March.

Note. — Five or six of these puddings should be made at one time, as they will keep good for many weeks, and in cases where unexpected guests arrive, will be found an acceptable, and, as it only requires warming through, a quickly-prepared dish. Moulds of every shape and size are manufactured for these puddings, and may be purchased of Messrs. R. & J. Slack, 336, Strand.

BRANDY is the alcoholic or spirituous portion of wine, separated from the aqueous part, the colouring matter, &c., by distillation. The word is of German origin, and in its German form, brantuein, signifies burnt wine, or wine that has undergone the action of fire; brandies, so called, however, have been made from potatoes, carrots, beetroot, pears, and other vegetable substances; but they are all inferior to true brandy. Brandy is prepared in most wine countries, but that of France is the most esteemed. It is procured not only by distilling the wine itself, but also by fermenting and distilling the marc, or residue of the pressings of the grape. It is procured indifferently from red or white wine, and different wines yield very different proportions of it, the strongest, of course, giving the largest quantity. Brandy obtained from marc has a more acrid taste than that from wine. The celebrated brandy of Cognac, a town in the department of Charente, and that brought from Andraye, seem to owe their excellence from being made from white wine. Like other spirit, brandy is colourless when recently distilled; by mere keeping, however, owing, probably, to some change in the soluble matter contained in it, it acquires a slight colour, which is much increased by keeping in casks, and is made of the required intensity by the addition of burnt sugar or other colouring matter. What is called British brandy is not, in fact, brandy, which is the name, as we have said, of a spirit distilled from wine; but is a spirit made chiefly from malt spirit, with the addition of mineral acids and various flavouring ingredients, the exact composition being kept secret. It is distilled somewhat extensively in this country; real brandy scarcely at all. The brandies imported into England are chiefly from Bordeaux, Rochelle, and Cognac.

A Pound Plum-Pudding.

1329. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of stoned raisins, 8 eggs, 1/2 grated nutmeg, 2 oz. of sliced candied peel, 1 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of milk.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely; mix with it the dry ingredients; stir these well together, and add the well-beaten eggs and milk to moisten with. Beat up the mixture well, and should the above proportion of milk not be found sufficient to make it of the proper consistency, a little more should be added. Press the pudding into a mould, tie it in a floured cloth, and boil for 5 hours, or rather longer, and serve with brandy-sauce.

Time. — 5 hours, or longer. Average cost, 3s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable in winter.

Note. — The above pudding may be baked instead of boiled; it should be put into a buttered mould or tin, and baked for about 2 hours; a smaller one would take about 1–1/4 hour.

CITRON. — The fruit of the citron-tree (Citrus medica) is acidulous, antiseptic, and antiscorbutic: it excites the appetite, and stops vomiting, and, like lemon-juice, has been greatly extolled in chronic rheumatism, gout, and scurvy. Mixed with cordials, it is used as an antidote to the machineel poison. The candied peel is prepared in the same manner as orange or lemon-peel; that is to say, the peel is boiled in water until quite soft, and then suspended in concentrated syrup (in the cold), after which it is either dried in a current of warm air, or in a stove, at a heat not exceeding 120° Fahrenheit. The syrup must be kept fully saturated with sugar by reboiling it once or twice during the process. It may be dusted with powdered lump sugar, if necessary. The citron is supposed to be the Median, Assyrian, or Persian apple of the Greeks. It is described by Risso as having a majestic appearance, its shining leaves and rosy flowers being succeeded by fruit whose beauty and size astonish the observer, whilst their odour gratifies his senses. In China there is an enormous variety, but the citron is cultivated in all orange-growing countries.

Plum-Pudding of Fresh Fruit.

1330. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1–1/2 pint of Orleans or any other kind of plum, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

Mode. — Line a pudding-basin with suet crust rolled out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Fold the edges over, and pinch them together, to prevent the juice escaping. Tie over a floured cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2–1/2 hours. Turn it out of the basin, and serve quickly.

Time. — 2 to 2–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August to the beginning of October.

PLUMS. — Almost all the varieties of the cultivated plum are agreeable and refreshing: it is not a nourishing fruit, and if indulged in to excess, when unripe, is almost certain to cause diarrhoea and cholera. Weak and delicate persons had better abstain from plums altogether. The modes of preparing plums are as numerous as the varieties of the fruit. The objections raised against raw plums do not apply to the cooked fruit, which even the invalid may eat in moderation.

Plum Tart.

1331. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 1–1/2 pint of plums, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

Mode. — Line the edges of a deep tart-dish with crust made by recipe No. 1211; fill the dish with plums, and place a small cup or jar, upside down, in the midst of them. Put in the sugar, cover the pie with crust, ornament the edges, and bake in a good oven from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. When puff-crust is preferred to short crust, use that made by recipe No. 1206, and glaze the top by brushing it over with the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth with a knife; sprinkle over a little sifted sugar, and put the pie in the oven to set the glaze.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August to the beginning of October.

Potato Pasty.

1332. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of rump-steak or mutton cutlets, pepper and salt to taste, 1/3 pint of weak broth or gravy, 1 oz. of butter, mashed potatoes.

Mode. — Place the meat, cut in small pieces, at the bottom of the pan; season it with pepper and salt, and add the gravy and butter broken, into small pieces. Put on the perforated plate, with its valve-pipe screwed on, and fill up the whole space to the top of the tube with nicely-mashed potatoes mixed with a little milk, and finish the surface of them in any ornamental manner. If carefully baked, the potatoes will be covered with a delicate brown crust, retaining all the savoury steam rising from the meat. Send it to table as it comes from the oven, with a napkin folded round it.

Time. — 40 to 60 minutes. Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Potato Pudding.

1333. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of mashed potatoes, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 1/4 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, the juice and rind of 1 small lemon, 2 oz. of sugar.

Mode. — Boil sufficient potatoes to make 1/2 lb. when mashed; add to these the butter, eggs, milk, sherry, lemon-juice, and sugar; mince the lemon-peel very finely, and beat all the ingredients well together. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for rather more than 1/2 hour. To enrich it, add a few pounded almonds, and increase the quantity of eggs and butter.

Time. — 1/2 hour, or rather longer. Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

To Ice or Glaze Pastry.

1334. To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted for meat or raised pies, break an egg, separate the yolk from the white, and beat the former for a short time. Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take it out of the oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze.

1335. To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate, and with the blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly baked, brush it over with this, and sift over some pounded sugar; put it back into the oven to set the glaze, and, in a few minutes, it will be done. Great care should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn in the oven, which it is very liable to do after the icing is laid on.

Sufficient — Allow 1 egg and 1–1/8 oz. of sugar to glaze 3 tarts.

SUGAR has been happily called “the honey of reeds.” The sugar-cane appears to be originally a native of the East Indies. The Chinese have cultivated it for 2,000 years. The Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Jews knew nothing about it. The Greek physicians are the first who speak of it. It was not till the year 1471 that a Venetian discovered the method of purifying brown sugar and making loaf sugar. He gained an immense fortune by this discovery. Our supplies are now obtained from Barbadoes, Jamaica, Mauritius, Ceylon, the East and West Indies generally, and the United States; but the largest supplies come from Cuba. Sugar is divided into the following classes:— Refined sugar, white clayed, brown clayed, brown raw, and molasses. The sugarcane grows to the height of six, twelve, or even sometimes twenty feet. It is propagated from cuttings, requires much hoeing and weeding, giving employment to thousands upon thousands of slaves in the slave countries, and attains maturity in twelve or thirteen months. When ripe, it is cut down close to the stole, the stems are divided into lengths of about three feet, which are made up into bundles, and carried to the mill, to be crushed between rollers. In the process of crushing, the juice runs down into a reservoir, from which, after a while, it is drawn through a siphon; that is to say, the clear fluid is taken from the scum. This fluid undergoes several processes of drying and refining; the methods varying in different manufactories. There are some large establishments engaged in sugar-refining in the neighbourhoods of Blackwall and Bethnal Green, London. The process is mostly in the hands of German workmen. Sugar is adulterated with fine sand and sawdust. Pure sugar is highly nutritious, adding to the fatty tissue of the body; but it is not easy of digestion.

Baked Raisin Pudding.

(Plain and Economical.)

1336. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 1/2 lb. of suet, a pinch of salt, 1 oz. of sugar, a little grated nutmeg, milk.

Mode. — Chop the suet finely; stone the raisins and cut them in halves; mix these with the suet, add the salt, sugar, and grated nutmeg, and moisten the whole with sufficient milk to make it of the consistency of thick batter. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for 1–1/2 hour, or rather longer. Turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. This is a very plain recipe, and suitable where there is a family of children. It, of course, can be much improved by the addition of candied peel, currants, and rather a larger proportion of suet: a few eggs would also make the pudding richer.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons. Seasonable in winter.

INTRODUCTION OF SUGAR. — Sugar was first known as a drug, and used by the apothecaries, and with them was a most important article. At its first appearance, some said it was heating; others, that it injured the chest; others, that it disposed persons to apoplexy; the truth, however, soon conquered these fancies, and the use of sugar has increased every day, and there is no household in the civilized world which can do without it.

Boiled Raisin Pudding.

(Plain and Economical.)

1337. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of stoned raisins, 1/2 lb. of chopped suet, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, milk.

Mode. — After having stoned the raisins and chopped the suet finely, mix them with the flour, add the salt, and when these dry ingredients are thoroughly mixed, moisten the pudding with sufficient milk to make it into rather a stiff paste. Tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for 4 hours: serve with sifted sugar. This pudding may, also, be made in a long shape, the same as a rolled jam-pudding, and will then not require so long boiling; — 2–1/2 hours would then be quite sufficient.

Time. — Made round, 4 hours; in a long shape, 2–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable in winter.

Boiled Rhubarb Pudding.

1338. INGREDIENTS. — 4 or 5 sticks of fine rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of suet-crust No. 1215.

Mode. — Make a suet-crust with 3/4 lb. of flour, by recipe No. 1215, and line a buttered basin with it. Wash and wipe the rhubarb, and, if old, string it — that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Cut it into inch lengths, fill the basin with it, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2–1/2 hours. Turn it out of the basin, and serve with a jug of cream and sifted sugar.

Time. — 2 to 2–1/2 hours. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable in spring.

Rhubarb Tart.

1339. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, about 5 sticks of large rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

Mode. — Make a puff-crust by recipe No. 1206; line the edges of a deep pie-dish with it, and wash, wipe, and cut the rhubarb into pieces about 1 inch long. Should it be old and tough, string it, that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Pile the fruit high in the dish, as it shrinks very much in the cooking; put in the sugar, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake the tart in a well-heated oven from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. If wanted very nice, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth, then sprinkle on it some sifted sugar, and put it in the oven just to set the glaze: this should be done when the tart is nearly baked. A small quantity of lemon-juice, and a little of the peel minced, are by many persons considered an improvement to the flavour of rhubarb tart.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in spring.

RHUBARB. — This is one of the most useful of all garden productions that are put into pies and puddings. It was comparatively little known till within the last twenty or thirty years, but it is now cultivated in almost every British garden. The part used is the footstalks of the leaves, which, peeled and cut into small pieces, are put into tarts, either mixed with apples or alone. When quite young, they are much better not peeled. Rhubarb comes in season when apples are going out. The common rhubarb is a native of Asia; the scarlet variety has the finest flavour. Turkey rhubarb, the well-known medicinal drug, is the root of a very elegant plant (Rheum palmatum), coming to greatest perfection in Tartary. For culinary purposes, all kinds of rhubarb are the better for being blanched.

Raised Pie of Poultry or Game.

1340. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of flour allow 1/2 lb. of butter, 1/2 pint of water, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt (these are for the crust); 1 large fowl or pheasant, a few slices of veal cutlet, a few slices of dressed ham, forcemeat, seasoning of nutmeg, allspice, pepper and salt, gravy.

Mode. — Make a stiff short crust with the above proportion of butter, flour, water, and eggs, and work it up very smoothly; butter a raised-pie mould, as shown in No. 1190, and line it with the paste. Previously to making the crust, bone the fowl, or whatever bird is intended to be used, lay it, breast downwards, upon a cloth, and season the inside well with pounded mace, allspice, pepper, and salt; then spread over it a layer of forcemeat, then a layer of seasoned veal, and then one of ham, and then another layer of forcemeat, and roll the fowl over, making the skin meet at the back. Line the pie with forcemeat, put in the fowl, and fill up the cavities with slices of seasoned veal and ham and forcemeat; wet the edges of the pie, put on the cover, pinch the edges together with the paste-pincers, and decorate it with leaves; brush it over with beaten yolk of egg, and bake in a moderate oven for 4 hours. In the mean time, make a good strong gravy from the bones, pour it through a funnel into the hole at the top; cover this hole with a small leaf, and the pie, when cold, will be ready for use. Let it be remembered that the gravy must be considerably reduced before it is poured into the pie, as, when cold, it should form a firm jelly, and not be the least degree in a liquid state. This recipe is suitable for all kinds of poultry or game, using one or more birds, according to the size of the pie intended to be made; but the birds must always be boned. Truffles, mushrooms, &c., added to this pie, make it much nicer; and, to enrich it, lard the fleshy parts of the poultry or game with thin strips of bacon. This method of forming raised pies in a mould is generally called a timbale, and has the advantage of being more easily made than one where the paste is raised by the hands; the crust, besides, being eatable. (See coloured plate N 1.) Time. — Large pie, 4 hours. Average cost, 6s. 6d.

Seasonable, with poultry, all the year; with game, from September to March.

Raised Pie of Veal and Ham.

1341. INGREDIENTS. — 3 or 4 lbs. of veal cutlets, a few slices of bacon or ham, seasoning of pepper, salt, nutmeg, and allspice, forcemeat No. 415, 2 lbs. of hot-water paste No. 1217, 1/2 pint of good strong gravy.

Mode. — To raise the crust for a pie with the hands is a very difficult task, and can only be accomplished by skilled and experienced cooks. The process should be seen to be satisfactorily learnt, and plenty of practice given to the making of raised pies, as by that means only will success be insured. Make a hot-water paste by recipe No. 1217, and from the mass raise the pie with the hands; if this cannot be accomplished, cut out pieces for the top and bottom, and a long piece for the sides; fasten the bottom and side-piece together by means of egg, and pinch the edges well together; then line the pie with forcemeat made by recipe No. 415, put in a layer of veal, and a plentiful seasoning of salt, pepper, nutmeg, and allspice, as, let it be remembered, these pies taste very insipid unless highly seasoned. Over the seasoning place a layer of sliced bacon or cooked ham, and then a layer of forcemeat, veal seasoning, and bacon, and so on until the meat rises to about an inch above the paste; taking care to finish with a layer of forcemeat, to fill all the cavities of the pie, and to lay in the meat firmly and compactly. Brush the top edge of the pie with beaten egg, put on the cover, press the edges, and pinch them round with paste-pincers. Make a hole in the middle of the lid, and ornament the pie with leaves, which should be stuck on with the white of an egg; then brush it all over with the beaten yolk of an egg, and bake the pie in an oven with a soaking heat from 3 to 4 hours. To ascertain when it is done, run a sharp-pointed knife or skewer through the hole at the top into the middle of the pie, and if the meat feels tender, it is sufficiently baked. Have ready about 1/2 pint of very strong gravy, pour it through a funnel into the hole at the top, stop up the hole with a small leaf of baked paste, and put the pie away until wanted for use. Should it acquire too much colour in the baking, cover it with white paper, as the crust should not in the least degree be burnt. Mushrooms, truffles, and many other ingredients, may be added to enrich the flavour of these pies, and the very fleshy parts of the meat may be larded. These pies are more frequently served cold than hot, and form excellent dishes for cold suppers or breakfasts. The cover of the pie is sometimes carefully removed, leaving the perfect edges, and the top decorated with square pieces of very bright aspic jelly: this has an exceedingly pretty effect.

Time. — About 4 hours. Average cost, 6s. 6d.

Sufficient for a very large pie. Seasonable from March to October.

Baked Rice Pudding.
I.

1342. INGREDIENTS. — 1 small teacupful of rice, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 2 oz. of beef marrow, 1/4 lb. of currants, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, nutmeg, 1/4 lb. of sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Put the lemon-rind and milk into a stewpan, and let it infuse till the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; in the mean time, boil the rice until tender in water, with a very small quantity of salt, and, when done, let it be thoroughly drained. Beat the eggs, stir to them the milk, which should be strained, the butter, marrow, currants, and remaining ingredients; add the rice, and mix all well together. Line the edges of the dish with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake for about 3/4 hour in a slow oven. Slices of candied-peel may be added at pleasure, or Sultana raisins may be substituted for the currants.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Suitable for a winter pudding, when fresh fruits are not obtainable.

RICE, with proper management in cooking it, forms a very valuable and cheap addition to our farinaceous food, and, in years of scarcity, has been found eminently useful in lessening the consumption of flour. When boiled, it should be so managed that the grains, though soft, should be as little broken and as dry as possible. The water in which it is dressed should only simmer, and not boil hard. Very little water should be used, as the grains absorb a great deal, and, consequently, swell much; and if they take up too much at first, it is difficult to get rid of it. Baking it in puddings is the best mode of preparing it.

II.

(Plain and Economical; a nice Pudding for Children.)

1343. INGREDIENTS. — 1 teacupful of rice, 2 tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1 quart of milk, 1/2 oz. of butter or 2 small tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Wash the rice, put it into a pie-dish with the sugar, pour in the milk, and stir these ingredients well together; then add the butter cut up into very small pieces, or, instead of this, the above proportion of finely-minced suet; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the pudding, in a moderate oven, from 1–1/2 to 2 hours. As the rice is not previously cooked, care must be taken that the pudding be very slowly baked, to give plenty of time for the rice to swell, and for it to be very thoroughly done.

Time. — 1–1/2 to 2 hours. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 children. Seasonable at any time.

Plain Boiled Rice Pudding.

1344. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of rice.

Mode. — Wash the rice, tie it in a pudding-cloth, allowing room for the rice to swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; boil it gently for 2 hours, and if, after a time, the cloth seems tied too loosely, take the rice up and tighten the cloth. Serve with sweet melted butter, or cold butter and sugar, or stewed fruit, jam, or marmalade; any of which accompaniments are suitable for plain boiled rice.

Time. — 2 hours after the water boils. Average cost, 2d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Boiled Rice Pudding.
I.

1345. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of rice, 1–1/2 pint of new milk, 2 oz. of butter, 4 eggs, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 4 large tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, flavouring to taste.

Mode. — Stew the rice very gently in the above proportion of new milk, and, when it is tender, pour it into a basin; stir in the butter, and let it stand to cool; then beat the eggs, add these to the rice with the sugar, salt, and any flavouring that may be approved, such as nutmeg, powdered cinnamon, grated lemon-peel, essence of bitter almonds, or vanilla. When all is well stirred, put the pudding into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1–1/4 hour.

Time. — 1–1/4 hour. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

VARIETIES OF RICE. — Of the varieties of rice brought to our market, that from Bengal is chiefly of the species denominated cargo rice, and is of a coarse reddish-brown cast, but peculiarly sweet and large-grained; it does not readily separate from the husk, but it is preferred by the natives to all the others. Patua rice is more esteemed in Europe, and is of very superior qualify; it is small-grained, rather long and wiry, and is remarkably white. The Carolina rice is considered as the best, and is likewise the dearest in London.

II.

(With Dried or Fresh fruit; a nice dish for the Nursery.)

1346. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of rice, 1 pint of any kind of fresh fruit that may be preferred, or 1/2 lb. of raisins or currants.

Mode. — Wash the rice, tie it in a cloth, allowing room for it to swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; let it boil for an hour, then take it up, untie the cloth, stir in the fruit, and tie it up again tolerably tight, and put it into the water for the remainder of the time. Boil for another hour, or rather longer, and serve with sweet sauce, if made with dried fruit, and with plain sifted sugar and a little cream or milk, if made with fresh fruit.

Time. — 1 hour to boil the rice without the fruit; 1 hour, or longer, afterwards.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 children. Seasonable at any time.

Note. — This pudding is very good made with apples: they should be pared cored, and cut into thin slices.

Boiled Rice for Curries, &c.

1347. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of rice, water, salt.

Mode. — Pick, wash, and soak the rice in plenty of cold water; then have ready a saucepan of boiling water, drop the rice into it, and keep it boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, until it is tender, but not soft. Take it up, drain it, and put it on a dish before the fire to dry: do not handle it much with a spoon, but shake it about a little with two forks, that it may all be equally dried, and strew over a little salt. It is now ready to serve, and may be heaped lightly on a dish by itself, or be laid round the dish as a border, with a curry or fricassee in the centre. Some cooks smooth the rice with the back of a spoon, and then brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and set it in the oven to colour; but the rice well boiled, white, dry, and with every grain distinct, is by far the more preferable mode of dressing it. During the process of boiling, the rice should be attentively watched, that it be not overdone, as, if this is the case, it will have a mashed and soft appearance.

Time. — 15 to 25 minutes, according to the quality of the rice.

Average cost, 3d.

Sufficient for a large dish of curry.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE, in the native rough state, with the husk on, is called paddy, both in India and America, and it will keep better, and for a much longer time, in this state, than after the husk has been removed; besides which, prepared rice is apt to become dirty from rubbing about in the voyage on board ship, and in the warehouses. It is sometimes brought to England in the shape of paddy, and the husk detached here. Paddy pays less duty than shelled rice.

To Boil Rice for Curries, &c.

(Soyer’s Recipe.)

1348. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of the best Carolina rice, 2 quarts of water, 1–1/2 oz. of butter, a little salt.

Mode. — Wash the rice well in two waters; make 2 quarts of water boiling, and throw the rice into it; boil it until three-parts done, then drain it on a sieve. Butter the bottom and sides of a stewpan, put in the rice, place the lid on tightly, and set it by the side of the fire until the rice is perfectly tender, occasionally shaking the pan to prevent its sticking. Prepared thus, every grain should be separate and white. Either dish it separately, or place it round the curry as a border.

Time. — 15 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 2 moderate-sized curries.

Seasonable at any time.

Buttered Rice.

1349. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of rice, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, grated nutmeg or pounded cinnamon.

Mode. — Wash and pick the rice, drain and put it into a saucepan with the milk; let it swell gradually, and, when tender, pour off the milk; stir in the butter, sugar, and nutmeg or cinnamon, and, when the butter is thoroughly melted, and the whole is quite hot, serve. After the milk is poured off, be particular that the rice does not burn: to prevent this, do not cease stirring it.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to swell the rice.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE was held in great esteem by the ancients: they considered it as a very beneficial food for the chest; therefore it was recommended in cases of consumption, and to persons subject to spitting of blood.

Savoury Casserole of Rice.

Or Rice Border, for Ragouts, Fricassees, &c. (an Entree).

1350. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of rice, 3 pints of weak stock or broth, 2 slices of fat ham, 1 teaspoonful of salt.

Mode. — A casserole of rice, when made in a mould, is not such a difficult operation as when it is moulded by the hand. It is an elegant and inexpensive entrée, as the remains of cold fish, flesh, or fowl may be served as ragoûts, fricassees, &c., inclosed in the casserole. It requires great nicety in its preparation, the principal thing to attend to being the boiling of the rice, as, if this is not sufficiently cooked, the casserole, when moulded, will have a rough appearance, which would entirely spoil it. After having washed the rice in two or three waters, drain it well, and put it into a stewpan with the stock, ham, and salt; cover the pan closely, and let the rice gradually swell over a slow fire, occasionally stirring, to prevent its sticking. When it is quite soft, strain it, pick out the pieces of ham, and, with the back of a large wooden spoon, mash the rice to a perfectly smooth paste. Then well grease a mould (moulds are made purposely for rice borders), and turn it upside down for a minute or two, to drain away the fat, should there be too much; put some rice all round the bottom and sides of it; place a piece of soft bread in the middle, and cover it with rice; press it in equally with the spoon, and let it cool. Then dip the mould into hot water, turn the casserole carefully on to a dish, mark where the lid is to be formed on the top, by making an incision with the point of a knife about an inch from the edge all round, and put it into a very hot oven. Brush it over with a little clarified butter, and bake about 1/2 hour, or rather longer; then carefully remove the lid, which will be formed by the incision having been made all round, and remove the bread, in small pieces, with the point of a penknife, being careful not to injure the casserole. Fill the centre with the ragoût or fricassee, which should be made thick; put on the cover, glaze it, place it in the oven to set the glaze, and serve as hot as possible. The casserole should not be emptied too much, as it is liable to crack from the weight of whatever is put in; and in baking it, let the oven be very hot, or the casserole will probably break.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to swell the rice.

Sufficient for 2 moderate-sized casseroles.

Seasonable at any time.

Sweet Casserole of Rice (an Entremets).

1351. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 lb. of rice, 3 pints of milk, sugar to taste, flavouring of bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs.

Mode. — This is made in precisely the same manner as a savoury casserole, only substituting the milk and sugar for the stock and salt. Put the milk into a stewpan, with sufficient essence of bitter almonds to flavour it well; then add the rice, which should be washed, picked, and drained, and let it swell gradually in the milk over a slow fire. When it is tender, stir in the sugar, butter, and yolks of eggs; butter a mould, press in the rice, and proceed in exactly the same manner as in recipe No. 1350. When the casserole is ready, fill it with a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred, or with melted apricot-jam, and serve.

Time. — From 3/4 to 1 hour to swell the rice, 1/2 to 3/4 hour to bake the casserole.

Average cost, exclusive of the compôte or jam, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 2 casseroles.

Seasonable at any time.

French Rice Pudding, or Gateau De Riz.

1352. INGREDIENTS. — To every 1/4 lb. of rice allow 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1 lemon, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, sugar to taste, 4 oz. of butter, 6 eggs, bread crumbs.

Mode. — Put the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-rind, and let it infuse for 1/2 hour, or until the former is well flavoured; then take out the peel; have ready the rice washed, picked, and drained; put it into the milk, and let it gradually swell over a very slow fire. Stir in the butter, salt, and sugar, and when properly sweetened, add the yolks of the eggs, and then the whites, both of which should be well beaten, and added separately to the rice. Butter a mould, strew in some fine bread crumbs, and let them be spread equally over it; then carefully pour in the rice, and bake the pudding in a slow oven for 1 hour. Turn it out of the mould, and garnish the dish with preserved cherries, or any bright-coloured jelly or jam. This pudding would be exceedingly nice, flavoured with essence of vanilla.

Time. — 3/4 to 1 hour for the rice to swell; to be baked 1 hour in a slow oven.

Average cost, 1s. 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Baked or Boiled Ground Rice Pudding.

1353. INGREDIENTS. — 2 pints of milk, 6 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, flavouring of lemon-rind, nutmeg, bitter almonds or bay-leaf.

Mode. — Put 1–1/2 pint of the milk into a stewpan, with any of the above flavourings, and bring it to the boiling-point, and, with the other 1/2 pint of milk, mix the ground rice to a smooth batter; strain the boiling milk to this, and stir over the fire until the mixture is tolerably thick; then pour it into a basin, leave it uncovered, and when nearly or quite cold, sweeten it to taste, and add the eggs, which should be previously well beaten, with a little salt. Put the pudding into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1–1/2 hour. For a baked pudding, proceed in precisely the same manner, only using half the above proportion of ground rice, with the same quantity of all the other ingredients: an hour will bake the pudding in a moderate oven. Stewed fruit, or preserves, or marmalade, may be served with either the boiled or baked pudding, and will be found an improvement.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour to boil, 1 hour to bake. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Iced Rice Pudding.

1354. INGREDIENTS. — 6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 1/2 lb. of sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 small teaspoonful of essence of vanilla.

Mode. — Put the rice into a stewpan, with the milk and sugar, and let these simmer over a gentle fire until the rice is sufficiently soft to break up into a smooth mass, and should the milk dry away too much, a little more may be added. Stir the rice occasionally, to prevent its burning, then beat it to a smooth mixture; add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well whisked, and the vanilla (should this flavouring not be liked, essence of bitter almonds may be substituted for it); put this rice custard into the freezing-pot, and proceed as directed in recipe No. 1290. When wanted for table, turn the pudding out of the mould, and pour over the top, and round it, a compôte of oranges, or any other fruit that may be preferred, taking care that the flavouring in the pudding harmonizes well with the fruit that is served with it.

Time. — 1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.; exclusive of the compôte, 1s. 4d.

Seasonable. — Served all the year round.

Miniature Rice Puddings.

1355. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of rice, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 4 eggs, sugar to taste; flavouring of lemon-peel, bitter almonds, or vanilla; a few strips of candied peel.

Mode. — Let the rice swell in 1 pint of the milk over a slow fire, putting with it a strip of lemon-peel; stir to it the butter and the other 1/2 pint of milk, and let the mixture cool. Then add the well-beaten eggs, and a few drops of essence of almonds or essence of vanilla, whichever may be preferred; butter well some small cups or moulds, line them with a few pieces of candied peel sliced very thin, fill them three parts full, and bake for about 40 minutes; turn them out of the cups on to a white d’oyley, and serve with sweet sauce. The flavouring and candied peel might be omitted, and stewed fruit or preserve served instead, with these puddings.

Time. — 40 minutes. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 puddings. Seasonable at any time.

Arrowroot Sauce for Puddings.

1356. INGREDIENTS. — 2 small teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 4 dessert-spoonfuls of pounded sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1/2 pint of water.

Mode. — Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the water; put this into a stewpan; add the sugar, strained lemon-juice, and grated nutmeg. Stir these ingredients over the fire until they boil, when the sauce is ready for use. A small quantity of wine, or any liqueur, would very much improve the flavour of this sauce: it is usually served with bread, rice, custard, or any dry pudding that is not very rich.

Time. — Altogether, 15 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Cherry Sauce for Sweet Puddings.

(German Recipe.)

1357. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of cherries, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1 wineglassful of port wine, a little grated lemon-rind, 4 pounded cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, sugar to taste.

Mode. — Stone the cherries, and pound the kernels in a mortar to a smooth paste; put the butter and flour into a saucepan; stir them over the fire until of a pale brown; then add the cherries, the pounded kernels, the wine, and the water. Simmer these gently for 1/4 hour, or until the cherries are quite cooked, and rub the whole through a hair sieve; add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce boil for another 5 minutes, and serve. This is a delicious sauce to serve with boiled batter pudding, and when thus used, should be sent to table poured over the pudding.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Lemon Sauce for Sweet Puddings.

1358. INGREDIENTS. — The rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 large wineglassful of sherry, 1 wineglassful of water, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs.

Mode. — Rub the rind of the lemon on to some lumps of sugar; squeeze out the juice, and strain it; put the butter and flour into a saucepan, stir them over the fire, and when of a pale brown, add the wine, water, and strained lemon-juice. Crush the lumps of sugar that were rubbed on the lemon; stir these into the sauce, which should be very sweet. When these ingredients are well mixed, and the sugar is melted, put in the beaten yolks of 4 eggs; keep stirring the sauce until it thickens, when serve. Do not, on any account, allow it to boil, or it will curdle, and be entirely spoiled.

Time. — Altogether, 15 minutes. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Soyer’s Sauce for Plum-Pudding.

1359. INGREDIENTS. — The yolks of 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of powdered sugar, 1 gill of milk, a very little grated lemon-rind, 2 small wineglassfuls of brandy.

Mode. — Separate the yolks from the whites of 3 eggs, and put the former into a stewpan; add the sugar, milk, and grated lemon-rind, and stir over the fire until the mixture thickens; but do not allow it to boil. Put in the brandy; let the sauce stand by the side of the fire, to get quite hot; keep stirring it, and serve in a boat or tureen separately, or pour it over the pudding.

Time. — Altogether, 10 minutes. Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Sweet Sauce for Puddings.

1360. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of melted butter made with milk, 4 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, flavouring; of grated lemon-rind, or nutmeg, or cinnamon.

Mode. — Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, omitting the salt; stir in the sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, nutmeg, or powdered cinnamon, and serve. Previously to making the melted butter, the milk can be flavoured with bitter almonds, by infusing about half a dozen of them in it for about 1/2 hour; the milk should then be strained before it is added to the other ingredients. This simple sauce may be served for children with rice, batter, or bread pudding.

Time. — Altogether, 15 minutes. Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Vanilla Custard Sauce, to serve with Puddings.

1361. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 10 drops of essence of vanilla.

Mode. — Beat the eggs, sweeten the milk; stir these ingredients well together, and flavour them with essence of vanilla, regulating the proportion of this latter ingredient by the strength of the essence, the size of the eggs, &c. Put the mixture into a small jug, place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water, and stir the sauce one way until it thickens; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle. Serve in a boat or tureen separately, with plum, bread, or any kind of dry pudding. Essence of bitter almonds or lemon-rind may be substituted for the vanilla, when they are more in accordance with the flavouring of the pudding with which the sauce is intended to be served.

Time. — To be stirred in the jug from 8 to 10 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

An Excellent Wine Sauce for Puddings.

1362. INGREDIENTS. — The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, 1/2 pint of sherry or Madeira.

Mode. — Put the butter and flour into a saucepan, and stir them over the fire until the former thickens; then add the sugar, salt, and wine, and mix these ingredients well together. Separate the yolks from the whites of 4 eggs; beat up the former, and stir them briskly to the sauce; let it remain over the fire until it is on the point of simmering; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle. This sauce is delicious with plum, marrow, or bread puddings; but should be served separately, and not poured over the pudding.

Time. — From 5 to 7 minutes to thicken the butter; about 5 minutes to stir the sauce over the fire.

Average cost, 1s. 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Wine or Brandy Sauce for Puddings.

1363. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of melted butter No. 377, 3 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar; 1 large wineglassful of port or sherry, or 3/4 of a small glassful of brandy.

Mode. — Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 377, omitting the salt; then stir in the sugar and wine or spirit in the above proportion, and bring the sauce to the point of boiling. Serve in a boat or tureen separately, and, if liked, pour a little of it over the pudding. To convert this into punch sauce, add to the sherry and brandy a small wineglassful of rum and the juice and grated rind of 1/2 lemon. Liqueurs, such as Maraschino or Curaçoa substituted for the brandy, make excellent sauces.

Time. — Altogether, 15 minutes. Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Wine Sauce for Puddings.

1364. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of sherry, 1/4 pint of water, the yolks of 6 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, a few pieces of candied citron cut thin.

Mode. — Separate the yolks from the whites of 5 eggs; beat them, and put them into a very clean saucepan (if at hand, a lined one is best); add all the other ingredients, place them over a sharp fire, and keep stirring until the sauce begins to thicken; then take it off and serve. If it is allowed to boil, it will be spoiled, as it will immediately curdle.

Time. — To be stirred over the fire 3 or 4 minutes; but it must not boil.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for a large pudding; allow half this quantity for a moderate-sized one.

Seasonable at any time.

Open Tart of Strawberry or Any Other Kind of Preserve.

1365. INGREDIENTS. — Trimmings of puff-paste, any kind of jam.

Mode. — Butter a tart-pan of the shape shown in the engraving, roll out the paste to the thickness of 1/2 an inch, and line the pan with it; prick a few holes at the bottom with a fork, and bake the tart in a brisk oven from 10 to 15 minutes. Let the paste cool a little; then fill it with preserve, place a few stars or leaves on it, which have been previously cut out of the paste and baked, and the tart is ready for table. By making it in this manner, both the flavour and colour of the jam are preserved, which would otherwise be lost, were it baked in the oven on the paste; and, besides, so much jam is not required.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes. Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient. — 1 tart for 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

STRAWBERRY. — The name of this favourite fruit is said to be derived from an ancient custom of putting straw beneath the fruit when it began to ripen, which is very useful to keep it moist and clean. The strawberry belongs to temperate and rather cold climates; and no fruit of these latitudes, that ripens without the aid of artificial heat, is at all comparable with it in point of flavour. The strawberry is widely diffused, being found in most parts of the world, particularly in Europe and America.

Quickly-Made Puddings.

1366. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/2 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a little grated lemon-rind.

Mode. — Make the milk hot; stir in the butter, and let it cool before the other ingredients are added to it; then stir in the sugar, flour, and eggs, which should be well whisked, and omit the whites of 2; flavour with a little grated lemon-rind, and beat the mixture well. Butter some small cups, rather more than half fill them; bake from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, according to the size of the puddings, and serve with fruit, custard, or wine sauce, a little of which may be poured over them.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 6 puddings. Seasonable at any time.

Sago Pudding.

1367. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sago, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs, 1–1/2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg, puff-paste.

Mode. — Put the milk and lemon-rind into a stewpan, place it by the side of the fire, and let it remain until the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; then strain it, mix with it the sago and sugar, and simmer gently for about 15 minutes. Let the mixture cool a little, and stir to it the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter. Line the edges of a pie-dish with puff-paste, pour in the pudding, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake from 3/4 to 1 hour.

Time. — 3/4 to 1 hour, or longer if the oven is very slow.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note. — The above pudding may be boiled instead of baked; but then allow 2 extra tablespoonfuls of sago, and boil the pudding in a buttered basin from 1–1/4 to 1–3/4 hour.

SAGO. — Sago is the pith of a species of palm (Cycas circinalis). Its form is that of a small round grain. There are two sorts of sago — the white and the yellow; but their properties are the same. Sago absorbs the liquid in which it is cooked, becomes transparent and soft, and retains its original shape. Its alimentary properties are the same as those of tapioca and arrowroot.

Sago Sauce for Sweet Puddings.

1368. INGREDIENTS. — 1 tablespoonful of sago, 1/3 pint of water, 1/4 pint of port or sherry, the rind and juice of 1 small lemon, sugar to taste; when the flavour is liked, a little pounded cinnamon.

Mode. — Wash the sago in two or three waters; then put it into a saucepan, with the water and lemon-peel; let it simmer gently by the side of the fire for 10 minutes; then take out the lemon-peel, add the remaining ingredients, give one boil, and serve. Be particular to strain the lemon-juice before adding it to the sauce. This, on trial, will be found a delicious accompaniment to various boiled puddings, such as those made of bread, raisins, rice, &c.

Time. — 10 minutes. Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Baked Semolina Pudding.

1369. INGREDIENTS. — 3 oz. of semolina, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 12 bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Flavour the milk with the bitter almonds, by infusing them in it by the side of the fire for about 1/2 hour; then strain it, and mix with it the semolina, sugar, and butter. Stir these ingredients over the fire for a few minutes; then take them off, and gradually mix in the eggs, which should be well beaten. Butter a pie-dish, line the edges with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in rather a slow oven from 40 to 50 minutes. Serve with custard sauce or stewed fruit, a little of which may be poured over the pudding.

Time. — 40 to 50 minutes. Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

SEMOLINA. — After vermicelli, semolina is the most useful ingredient that can be used for thickening soups, meat or vegetable, of rich or simple quality. Semolina is softening, light, wholesome, easy of digestion, and adapted to the infant, the aged, and the invalid. That of a clear yellow colour, well dried and newly made, is the fittest for use.

Tapioca Pudding.

1370. INGREDIENTS. — 3 oz. of tapioca, 1 quart of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-rind, or bitter almonds.

Mode. — Wash the tapioca, and let it stew gently in the milk by the side of the fire for 1/4 hour, occasionally stirring it; then let it cool a little; mix with it the butter, sugar, and eggs, which should be well beaten, and flavour with either of the above ingredients, putting in about 12 drops of the essence of almonds or vanilla, whichever is preferred. Butter a pie-dish, and line the edges with puff-paste; put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour. If the pudding is boiled, add a little more tapioca, and boil it in a buttered basin 1–1/2 hour.

Time. — 1 hour to bake, 1–1/2 hour to boil.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

TAPIOCA. — Tapioca is recommended to the convalescent, as being easy of digestion. It may be used in soup or broth, or mixed with milk or water, and butter. It is excellent food for either the healthy or sick, for the reason that it is so quickly digested without fatigue to the stomach.

Tartlets.

1371. INGREDIENTS. — Trimmings of puff-paste, any jam or marmalade that may be preferred.

Mode. — Roll out the paste to the thickness of about 1/2 inch; butter some small round patty-pans, line them with it, and cut off the superfluous paste close to the edge of the pan. Put a small piece of bread into each tartlet (this is to keep them in shape), and bake in a brisk oven for about 10 minutes, or rather longer. When they are done, and are of a nice colour, take the pieces of bread out carefully, and replace them by a spoonful of jam or marmalade. Dish them high on a white d’oyley, piled high in the centre, and serve.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes. Average cost, 1d. each. Sufficient. — 1 lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of tartlets. Seasonable at any time.

Rolled Treacle Pudding.

1372. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1 lb. of treacle, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated ginger.

Mode. — Make, with 1 lb. of flour, a suet crust by recipe No. 1215; roll it out to the thickness of 1/2 inch, and spread the treacle equally over it, leaving a small margin where the paste joins; close the ends securely, tie the pudding in a floured cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. We have inserted this pudding, being economical, and a favourite one with children; it is, of course, only suitable for a nursery, or very plain family dinner. Made with a lard instead of a suet crust, it would be very nice baked, and would be sufficiently done in from 1–1/2 to 2 hours.

Time. — Boiled pudding, 2 hours; baked pudding, 1–1/2 to 2 hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Meat or Sausage Rolls.

1373. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, sausage-meat No. 837, the yolk of 1 egg.

Mode. — Make 1 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch, or rather less, and divide it into 8, 10, or 12 squares, according to the size the rolls are intended to be. Place some sausage-meat on one-half of each square, wet the edges of the paste, and fold it over the meat; slightly press the edges together, and trim them neatly with a knife. Brush the rolls over with the yolk of an egg, and bake them in a well-heated oven for about 1/2 hour, or longer should they be very large. The remains of cold chicken and ham, minced and seasoned, as also cold veal or beef, make very good rolls.

Time. — 1/2 hour, or longer if the rolls are large.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient. — 1 lb. of paste for 10 or 12 rolls.

Seasonable, with sausage-meat, from September to March or April.

Somersetshire Puddings.

1374. INGREDIENTS. — 3 eggs, their weight in flour, pounded sugar and butter, flavouring of grated lemon-rind, bitter almonds, or essence of vanilla.

Mode. — Carefully weigh the various ingredients, by placing on one side of the scales the eggs, and on the other the flour; then the sugar, and then the butter. Warm the butter, and with the hands beat it to a cream; gradually dredge in the flour and pounded sugar, and keep stirring and beating the mixture without ceasing until it is perfectly smooth. Then add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and either of the above flavourings that may be preferred; butter some small cups, rather more than half-fill them, and bake in a brisk oven for about 1/2 hour. Turn them out, dish them on a napkin, and serve custard or wine-sauce with them. A pretty little supper-dish may be made of these puddings cold, by cutting out a portion of the inside with the point of a knife, and putting into the cavity a little whipped cream or delicate preserve, such as apricot, greengage, or very bright marmalade. The paste for these puddings requires a great deal of mixing, as the more it is beaten, the better will the puddings be. When served cold, they are usually called gâteaux à la Madeleine.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 puddings. Seasonable at any time.

Suet Pudding, to serve with Roast Meat.

1375. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 1/2 saltspoonful of pepper, 1/2 pint of milk or water.

Mode. — Chop the suet very finely, after freeing it from skin, and mix it well with the flour; add the salt and pepper (this latter ingredient may be omitted if the flavour is not liked), and make the whole into a smooth paste with the above proportion of milk or water. Tie the pudding in a floured cloth, or put it into a buttered basin, and boil from 2–1/2 to 3 hours. To enrich it, substitute 3 beaten eggs for some of the milk or water, and increase the proportion of suet.

Time. — 2–1/2 to 3 hours. Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note. — When there is a joint roasting or baking, this pudding may be boiled in a long shape, and then cut into slices a few minutes before dinner is served: these slices should be laid in the dripping-pan for a minute or two, and then browned before the fire. Most children like this accompaniment to roast meat. Where there is a large family of children, and the means of keeping them are limited, it is a most economical plan to serve up the pudding before the meat: as, in this case, the consumption of the latter article will be much smaller than it otherwise would be.

Sussex, or Hard Dumplings.

1376. INGREDIENTS. — 1 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Mix the flour and water together to a smooth paste, previously adding a small quantity of salt. Form this into small round dumplings; drop them into boiling water, and boil from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. They may be served with roast or boiled meat; in the latter case they may be cooked with the meat, but should be dropped into the water when it is quite boiling.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Sufficient for 10 or 12 dumplings. Seasonable at any time.

Vermicelli Pudding.

1377. INGREDIENTS. — 4 oz. of vermicelli, 1–1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of cream, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Boil the vermicelli in the milk until it is tender; then stir in the remaining ingredients, omitting the cream, if not obtainable. Flavour the mixture with grated lemon-rind, essence of bitter almonds, or vanilla; butter a pie-dish; line the edges with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for about 3/4 hour.

Time. — 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. without cream.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

VERMICELLI. — The finest vermicelli comes from Marseilles, Nimes, and Montpellier. It is a nourishing food, and owes its name to its peculiar thread-like form. Vermicelli means, little worms.

Vicarage Pudding.

1378. INGREDIENTS. — 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, 1/4 lb. of raisins, 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Put all the ingredients into a basin, having previously stoned the raisins, and washed, picked, and dried the currants; mix well with a clean knife; dip the pudding-cloth into boiling water, wring it out, and put in the mixture. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, plunge in the pudding, and boil for 3 hours. Turn it out on the dish, and serve with sifted sugar.

Time. — 3 hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Suitable for a winter pudding.

Vol-Au-Vent (an Entree).

1379. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 to 1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, fricasseed chickens, rabbits, ragouts, or the remains of cold fish, flaked and warmed in thick white sauce.

Mode. — Make from 3/4 to 1 lb. of puff-paste, by recipe No. 1208, taking care that it is very evenly rolled out each time, to insure its rising properly; and if the paste is not extremely light, and put into a good hot oven, this cannot be accomplished, and the vol-au-vent will look very badly. Roll out the paste to the thickness of about 1–1/2 inch, and, with a fluted cutter, stamp it out to the desired shape, either round or oval, and, with the point of a small knife, make a slight incision in the paste all round the top, about an inch from the edge, which, when baked, forms the lid. Put the vol-au-vent into a good brisk oven, and keep the door shut for a few minutes after it is put in. Particular attention should he paid to the heating of the oven, for the paste cannot rise without a tolerable degree of heat When of a nice colour, without being scorched, withdraw it from the oven, instantly remove the cover where it was marked, and detach all the soft crumb from the centre: in doing this, be careful not to break the edges of the vol-au-vent; but should they look thin in places, stop them with small flakes of the inside paste, stuck on with the white of an egg. This precaution is necessary to prevent the fricassee or ragoût from bursting the case, and so spoiling the appearance of the dish. Fill the vol-au-vent with a rich mince, or fricassee, or ragoût, or the remains of cold fish flaked and warmed in a good white sauce, and do not make them very liquid, for fear of the gravy bursting the crust: replace the lid, and serve. To improve the appearance of the crust, brush it over with the yolk of an egg after it has risen properly. — See coloured plate O1.

Time. — 3/4 hour to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, exclusive of interior, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — Small vol-au-vents may be made like those shown in the engraving, and filled with minced veal, chicken, &c. They should be made of the same paste as the larger ones, and stamped out with a small fluted cutter.

Sweet Vol-Au-Vent of Plums, Apples, or Any Other Fresh Fruit.

1380. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, about 1 pint of fruit compôte.

Mode. — Make 1/2 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1208, taking care to bake it in a good brisk oven, to draw it up nicely and make it look light. Have ready sufficient stewed fruit, the syrup of which must be boiled down until very thick; fill the vol-au-vent with this, and pile it high in the centre; powder a little sugar over it, and put it back in the oven to glaze, or use a salamander for the purpose: the vol-au-vent is then ready to serve. They may be made with any fruit that is in season, such as rhubarb, oranges, gooseberries, currants, cherries, apples, &c.; but care must be taken not to have the syrup too thin, for fear of its breaking through the crust.

Time. — 1/2 hour to 40 minutes to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, exclusive of the compôte, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets.

Vol-Au-Vent of Fresh Strawberries with Whipped Cream.

1381. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, 1 pint of freshly-gathered strawberries, sugar to taste, a plateful of whipped cream.

Mode. — Make a vol-au-vent case by recipe No. 1379, only not quite so large nor so high as for a savoury one. When nearly done, brush the paste over with the white of an egg, then sprinkle on it some pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze. Remove the interior, or soft crumb, and, at the moment of serving, fill it with the strawberries, which should be picked, and broken up with sufficient sugar to sweeten them nicely. Place a few spoonfuls of whipped cream on the top, and serve.

Time. — 1/2 hour to 40 minutes to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient for 1 vol-au-vent.

Seasonable in June and July.

STRAWBERRY. — Among the Greeks, the name of the strawberry indicated its tenuity, this fruit forming hardly a mouthful. With the Latins, the name reminded one of the delicious perfume of this plant. Both nations were equally fond of it, and applied the same care to its cultivation. Virgil appears to place it in the same rank with flowers; and Ovid gives it a tender epithet, which delicate palates would not disavow. Neither does this luxurious poet forget the wild strawberry, which disappears beneath its modest foliage, but whose presence the scented air reveals.

West-Indian Pudding.

1382. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of cream, 1/2 lb. of loaf-sugar, 1/2 lb. of Savoy or sponge-cakes, 8 eggs, 3 oz. of preserved green ginger. Mode. — Crumble down the cakes, put them into a basin, and pour over them the cream, which should be previously sweetened and brought to the boiling-point; cover the basin, well beat the eggs, and when the cream is soaked up, stir them in. Butter a mould, arrange the ginger round it, pour in the pudding carefully, and tie it down with a cloth; steam or boil it slowly for 1–1/2 hour, and serve with the syrup from the ginger, which should be warmed, and poured over the pudding.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 2s. 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Yeast Dumplings.

1383. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 quartern of dough, boiling water.

Mode. — Make a very light dough as for bread, using to mix it, milk, instead of water; divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; plunge them into boiling water, and boil them for 20 minutes. Serve the instant they are taken up, as they spoil directly, by falling and becoming heavy; and in eating them do not touch them with a knife, but tear them apart with two forks. They may be eaten with meat gravy, or cold butter and sugar, and if not convenient to make the dough at home, a little from the baker’s answers as well, only it must be placed for a few minutes near the fire, in a basin with a cloth over it, to let it rise again before it is made into dumplings.

Time. — 20 minutes. Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

YEAST consists principally of a substance very similar in composition, and in many of its sensible properties, to gluten; and, when new or fresh, it is inflated and rendered frothy by a large quantity of carbonic acid. When mixed with wort, this substance acts upon the saccharine matter; the temperature rises, carbonic acid is disengaged, and the result is ale, which always contains a considerable proportion of alcohol, or spirit. The quantity of yeast employed in brewing ale being small, the saccharine matter is but imperfectly decomposed: hence a considerable portion of it remains in the liquor, and gives it that viscid quality and body for which it is remarkable. The fermenting property of yeast is weakened by boiling for ten minutes, and is entirely destroyed by continuing the boiling. Alcohol poured upon it likewise renders it inert; on which account its power lessens as the alcohol is formed during fermentation.

Yorkshire Pudding, to serve with hot Roast Beef.

1384. INGREDIENTS. — 1–1/2 pint of milk, 6 large tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt.

Mode. — Put the flour into a basin with the salt, and stir gradually to this enough milk to make it into a stiff batter. When this is perfectly smooth, and all the lumps are well rubbed down, add the remainder of the milk and the eggs, which should be well beaten. Beat the mixture for a few minutes, and pour it into a shallow tin, which has been previously well rubbed with beef dripping. Put the pudding into the oven, and bake it for an hour; then, for another 1/2 hour, place it under the meat, to catch a little of the gravy that flows from it. Cut the pudding into small square pieces, put them on a hot dish, and serve. If the meat is baked, the pudding may at once be placed under it, resting the former on a small three-cornered stand.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

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Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31