The Book of Household Management, by Isabella Beeton

Chapter XXV.

Recipes.

Boiled Artichokes.

1080. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a piece of soda the size of a shilling; artichokes.

Mode. — Wash the artichokes well in several waters; see that no insects remain about them, and trim away the leaves at the bottom. Cut off the stems and put them into boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep the saucepan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender; ascertain when they are done by thrusting a fork in them, or by trying if the leaves can be easily removed. Take them out, let them drain for a minute or two, and serve in a napkin, or with a little white sauce poured over. A tureen of melted butter should accompany them. This vegetable, unlike any other, is considered better for being gathered two or three days; but they must be well soaked and washed previous to dressing.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Sufficient — a dish of 5 or 6 for 4 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

THE COMPOSITAE, OR COMPOSITE FLOWERS. — This family is so extensive, as to contain nearly a twelfth part of the whole of the vegetable kingdom. It embraces about 9,000 species, distributed over almost every country; and new discoveries are constantly being made and added to the number. Towards the poles their numbers diminish, and slightly, also, towards the equator; but they abound in the tropical and sub-tropical islands, and in the tracts of continent not far from the sea-shore. Among esculent vegetables, the Lettuce, Salsify, Scorzonera, Cardoon, and Artichoke belong to the family.

Fried Artichokes.

(Entremets, or Small Dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1081. INGREDIENTS. — 5 or 6 artichokes, salt and water: for the batter — 1/4 lb. of flour, a little salt, the yolk of 1 egg, milk.

Mode. — Trim and boil the artichokes by recipe No. 1080, and rub them over with lemon-juice, to keep them white. When they are quite tender, take them up, remove the chokes, and divide the bottoms; dip each piece into batter, fry them in hot lard or dripping, and garnish the dish with crisped parsley. Serve with plain melted butter.

Time. — 20 minutes to boil the artichokes, 5 to 7 minutes to fry them.

Sufficient — 5 or 6 for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

A French Mode of Cooking Artichokes.

1082. INGREDIENTS. — 5 or 6 artichokes; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 oz. of butter.

Mode. — Cut the ends of the leaves, as also the stems; put the artichokes into boiling water, with the above proportion of salt, pepper, herbs, and butter; let them boil quickly until tender, keeping the lid of the saucepan off, and when the leaves come out easily, they are cooked enough. To keep them a beautiful green, put a large piece of cinder into a muslin bag, and let it boil with them. Serve with plain melted butter.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes.

Sufficient — 5 or 6 sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

Artichokes a L’italienne.

1083. INGREDIENTS. — 4 or 6 artichokes, salt and butter, about 1/2 pint of good gravy.

Mode. — Trim and cut the artichokes into quarters, and boil them until tender in water mixed with a little salt and butter. When done, drain them well, and lay them all round the dish, with the leaves outside. Have ready some good gravy, highly flavoured with mushrooms; reduce it until quite thick, and pour it round the artichokes, and serve.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes to boil the artichokes.

Sufficient for one side-dish.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

CONSTITUENT PROPERTIES OF THE ARTICHOKE. — According to the analysis of Braconnet, the constituent elements of an artichoke are — starch 30, albumen 10, uncrystallizable sugar 148, gum 12, fixed oil 1, woody fibre 12, inorganic matter 27, and water 770.

Boiled Jerusalem Artichokes.

1084. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; artichokes.

Mode. — Wash, peel, and shape the artichokes in a round or oval form, and put them into a saucepan with sufficient cold water to cover them, salted in the above proportion. Let them boil gently until tender; take them up, drain them, and serve them in a napkin, or plain, whichever mode is preferred; send to table with them a tureen of melted butter or cream sauce, a little of which may be poured over the artichokes when they are not served in a napkin.

Time. — About 20 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient — 10 for a dish for 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

USES OF THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. — This being a tuberous-rooted plant, with leafy stems from four to six feet high, it is alleged that its tops will afford as much fodder per acre as a crop of oats, or more, and its roots half as many tubers as an ordinary crop of potatoes. The tubers, being abundant in the market-gardens, are to be had at little more than the price of potatoes. The fibres of the stems may be separated by maceration, and manufactured into cordage or cloth; and this is said to be done in some parts of the north and west of France, as about Hagenau, where this plant, on the poor sandy soils, is an object of field culture.

Mashed Jerusalem Artichokes.

1085. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1 gallon of water allow 1 oz. of salt; 15 or 16 artichokes, 1 oz. butter, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — Boil the artichokes as in the preceding recipe until tender; drain and press the water from them, and beat them up with a fork. When thoroughly mashed and free from lumps, put them into a saucepan with the butter and a seasoning of white pepper and salt; keep stirring over the fire until the artichokes are quite hot, and serve.

Time. — About 20 minutes. Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

Jerusalem Artichokes with White Sauce.

(Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course as a Side-dish.)

1086. INGREDIENTS. — 12 to 15 artichokes, 12 to 15 Brussels sprouts, 1/2 pint of white sauce, No. 538.

Mode. — Peel and cut the artichokes in the shape of a pear; cut a piece off the bottom of each, that they may stand upright in the dish, and boil them in salt and water until tender. Have ready 1/2 pint of white sauce, made by recipe No. 538; dish the artichokes, pour over them the sauce, and place between each a fine Brussels sprout: these should be boiled separately, and not with the artichokes.

Time. — About 20 minutes. Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. — This plant is well known, being, for its tubers, cultivated not only as a garden vegetable, but also as an agricultural crop. By many it is much esteemed as an esculent, when cooked in various ways; and the domesticated animals eat both the fresh foliage, and the tubers with great relish. By some, they are not only considered nourishing, but even fattening.

Boiled Asparagus.

1087. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; asparagus.

Mode. — Asparagus should be dressed as soon as possible after it is cut, although it may be kept for a day or two by putting the stalks into cold water; yet, to be good, like every other vegetable, it cannot be cooked too fresh. Scrape the white part of the stems, beginning from the head, and throw them into cold water; then tie them into bundles of about 20 each, keeping the heads all one way, and cut the stalks evenly, that they may all be the same length; put them into boiling water, with salt in the above proportion; keep them boiling quickly until tender, with the saucepan uncovered. When the asparagus is done, dish it upon toast, which should be dipped in the water it was cooked in, and leave the white ends outwards each war, with the points meeting in the middle. Serve with a tureen of melted butter.

Time. — 15 to 18 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, in full season, 2s. 6d. the 100 heads.

Sufficient. — Allow about 50 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable. — May be had, forced, from January but cheapest in May, June, and July.

ASPARAGUS. — This plant belongs to the variously-featured family of the order Liliaceae, which, in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, are most abundant, and, between the tropics, gigantic in size and arborescent in form. Asparagus is a native of Great Britain, and is found on various parts of the seacoast, and in the fens of Lincolnshire. At Kynarve Cove, in Cornwall, there is an island called “Asparagus Island,” from the abundance in which it is there found. The uses to which the young shoots are applied, and the manure in which they are cultivated in order to bring them to the highest state of excellence, have been a study with many kitchen-gardeners.

Asparagus Peas.

(Entremets, or to be served as a Side-dish with the Second Course.)

1088. INGREDIENTS. — 100 heads of asparagus, 2 oz. of butter, a small bunch of parsley, 2 or 3 green onions, flour, 1 lump of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt.

Mode. — Carefully scrape the asparagus, cut it into pieces of an equal size, avoiding that which is in the least hard or tough, and throw them into cold water. Then boil the asparagus in salt and water until three-parts done; take it out, drain, and place it on a cloth to dry the moisture away from it. Put it into a stewpan with the butter, parsley, and onions, and shake over a brisk fire for 10 minutes. Dredge in a little flour, add the sugar, and moisten with boiling water. When boiled a short time and reduced, take out the parsley and onions, thicken with the yolks of 2 eggs beaten with the cream; add a seasoning of salt, and, when the whole is on the point of simmering, serve. Make the sauce sufficiently thick to adhere to the vegetable.

Time. — Altogether, 1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s. 6d. a pint.

Seasonable in May, June, and July.

MEDICINAL USES OF ASPARAGUS. — This plant not only acts as a wholesome and nutritious vegetable, but also as a diuretic, aperient, and deobstruent. The chemical analysis of its juice discovers its composition to be a peculiar crystallizable principle, called asparagin, albumen, mannite, malic acid, and some salts. Thours says, the cellular tissue contains a substance similar to sage. The berries are capable of undergoing vinous fermentation, and affording alcohol by distillation. In their unripe state they possess the same properties as the roots, and probably in a much higher degree.

Asparagus Pudding.

(A delicious Dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1089. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 pint of asparagus peas, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of very finely minced ham, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, milk.

Mode. — Cut up the nice green tender parts of asparagus, about the size of peas; put them into a basin with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the flour, ham, butter, pepper, and salt. Mix all these ingredients well together, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter; put it into a pint buttered mould, tie it down tightly with a floured cloth, place it in boiling water, and let it boil for 2 hours; turn it out of the mould on to a hot dish, and pour plain melted butter round, but not over, the pudding. Green peas pudding may be made in exactly the same manner, substituting peas for the asparagus.

Time. — 2 hours. Average cost, 1s. 6d. per pint.

Seasonable in May, June, and July.

Boiled French Beans.

1090. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda.

Mode. — This vegetable should always be eaten young, as, when allowed to grow too long, it tastes stringy and tough when cooked. Cut off the heads and tails, and a thin strip on each side of the beans, to remove the strings. Then divide each bean into 4 or 6 pieces, according to size, cutting them lengthways in a slanting direction, and, as they are cut, put them into cold water, with a small quantity of salt dissolved in it. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; put in the beans, keep them boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, and be careful that they do not get smoked. When tender, which may be ascertained by their sinking to the bottom of the saucepan, take them up, throw them into a colander; and when drained, dish and serve with plain melted butter. When very young, beans are sometimes served whole: when they are thus dressed, their colour and flavour are much better preserved; but the more general way of dressing them is to cut them into thin strips.

Time. — Very young beans, 10 to 12 minutes; moderate size, 15 to 20 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. 4d. a peck; but, when forced, very expensive.

Sufficient. — Allow 1/2 peck for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of September; but may be had, forced, from February to the beginning of June.

French Mode of Cooking French Beans.

1091. INGREDIENTS. — A quart of French beans, 3 oz. of fresh butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Cut and boil the beans by the preceding recipe, and when tender, put them into a stewpan, and shake over the fire, to dry away the moisture from the beans. When quite dry and hot, add the butter, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice; keep moving the stewpan, without using a spoon, as that would break the beans; and when the butter is melted, and all is thoroughly hot, serve. If the butter should not mix well, add a tablespoonful of gravy, and serve very quickly.

Time. — About 1/4 hour to boil the beans; 10 minutes to shake them over the fire.

Average cost, in full season, about 1s. 4d. a peck.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of September.

Boiled Broad or Windsor Beans.

1092. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; beans.

Mode. — This is a favourite vegetable with many persons, but to be nice, should be young and freshly gathered. After shelling the beans, put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender. Drain them well in a colander; dish, and serve with them separately a tureen of parsley and butter. Boiled bacon should always accompany this vegetable, but the beans should be cooked separately. It is usually served with the beans laid round, and the parsley and butter in a tureen. Beans also make an excellent garnish to a ham, and when used for this purpose, if very old, should have their skins removed.

Time. — Very young beans, 15 minutes; when of a moderate size, 20 to 25 minutes, or longer.

Average cost, unshelled, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient. — Allow one peck for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in July and August.

NUTRITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE BEAN. — The produce of beans in meal is, like that of peas, more in proportion to the grain than in any of the cereal grasses. A bushel of beans is supposed to yield fourteen pounds more of flour than a bushel of oats; and a bushel of peas eighteen pounds more, or, according to some, twenty pounds. A thousand parts of bean flour were found by Sir II. Davy to yield 570 parts of nutritive matter, of which 426 were mucilage or starch, 103 gluten, and 41 extract, or matter rendered insoluble during the process.

Broad Beans a La Poulette.

1093. INGREDIENTS. — 2 pints of broad beans, 1/2 pint of stock or broth, a small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, a small lump of sugar, the yolk of 1 egg, 1/4 pint of cream, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — Procure some young and freshly-gathered beans, and shell sufficient to make 2 pints; boil them, as in the preceding recipe, until nearly done; then drain them and put them into a stewpan, with the stock, finely-minced herbs, and sugar. Stew the beans until perfectly tender, and the liquor has dried away a little; then beat up the yolk of an egg with the cream, add this to the beans, let the whole get thoroughly hot, and when on the point of simmering, serve. Should the beans be very large, the skin should be removed previously to boiling them.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil the beans, 15 minutes to stew them in the stock.

Average cost, unshelled, 6d. per peck.

Seasonable in July and August.

ORIGIN AND VARIETIES OF THE BEAN. — This valuable plant is said to be a native of Egypt, but, like other plants which have been domesticated, its origin is uncertain. It has been cultivated in Europe and Asia from time immemorial, and has been long known in Britain. Its varieties may be included under two general heads — the white, or garden beans, and the grey, or field beans, of the former, sown in the fields, the mazagan and long-pod are almost the only sorts; of the latter, those known as the horse-bean, the small or ticks, and the prolific of Heligoland, are the principal sorts. New varieties are procured in the same manner as in other plants.

Boiled Beetroot.

1094. INGREDIENTS— Beetroot; boiling water.

Mode. — When large, young, and juicy, this vegetable makes a very excellent addition to winter salads, and may easily be converted into an economical and quickly-made pickle. (See No. 369.) Beetroot is more frequently served cold than hot: when the latter mode is preferred, melted butter should be sent to table with it. It may also be stewed with button onions, or boiled and served with roasted onions. Wash the beets thoroughly; but do not prick or break the skin before they are cooked, or they would lose their beautiful colour in boiling. Put them into boiling water, and let them boil until tender, keeping them well covered. If to be served hot, remove the peel quickly, cut the beetroot into thick slices, and send to table melted butter. For salads, pickle, &c., let the root cool, then peel, and cut it into slices.

Time. — Small beetroot, 1–1/2 to 2 hours; large, 2–1/2 to 3 hours.

Average cost, in full season, 2d. each.

Seasonable. — May be had at any time.

BEETROOT. — The geographical distribution of the order Saltworts (Salxolaceae), to which beetroot belongs, is most common in extra-tropical and temperate regions, where they are common weeds, frequenting waste places, among rubbish, and on marshes by the seashore. In the tropics they are rare. They are characterized by the large quantities of mucilage, sugar, starch, and alkaline salts which are found in them. Many of them are used as potherbs, and some are emetic and vermifuge in their medicinal properties. The root of garden or red beet is exceedingly wholesome and nutritious, and Dr. Lyon Playfair has recommended that a good brown bread may be made by rasping down this root with an equal quantity of flour. He says that the average quality of flour contains about 12 per cent. of azotized principles adapted for the formation of flesh, and the average quality of beet contains about 2 per cent. of the same materials.

Boiled Brocoli.

1095. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; brocoli.

Mode. — Strip off the dead outside leaves, and the inside ones cut off level with the flower; cut off the stalk close at the bottom, and put the brocoli into cold salt and water, with the heads downwards. When they have remained in this for about 3/4 hour, and they are perfectly free from insects, put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and keep them boiling quickly over a brisk fire, with the saucepan uncovered. Take them up with a slice the moment they are done; drain them well, and serve with a tureen of melted butter, a little of which should be poured over the brocoli. If left in the water after it is done, it will break, its colour will be spoiled, and its crispness gone.

Time. — Small brocoli, 10 to 15 minutes; large one, 20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, 2d. each.

Sufficient — 2 for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from October to March; plentiful in February and March.

THE KOHL-RABI, OR TURNIP-CABBAGE. — This variety presents a singular development, inasmuch as the stem swells out like a large turnip on the surface of the ground, the leaves shooting from it all round, and the top being surmounted by a cluster of leaves issuing from it. Although not generally grown as a garden vegetable, if used when young and tender, it is wholesome, nutritious, and very palatable.

Boiled Brussels Sprouts.

1096. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda.

Mode. — Clean the sprouts from insects, nicely wash them, and pick off any dead or discoloured leaves from the outsides; put them into a saucepan of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly over a brisk fire until tender; drain, dish, and serve with a tureen of melted butter, or with a maître d’hôtel sauce poured over them. Another mode of serving is, when they are dished, to stir in about 1–1/2 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. They must, however, be sent to table very quickly, as, being so very small, this vegetable soon cools. Where the cook is very expeditious, this vegetable, when cooked, may be arranged on the dish in the form of a pineapple, and, so served, has a very pretty appearance.

Time. — From 9 to 12 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per peck.

Sufficient. — Allow between 40 and 50 for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

SAVOYS AND BRUSSELS SPROUTS. — When the Green Kale, or Borecole, has been advanced a step further in the path of improvement, it assumes the headed or hearting character, with blistered leaves; it is then known by the name of Savoys and Brussels Sprouts. Another of its headed forms, but with smooth glaucous leaves, is the cultivated Cabbage of our gardens (the Borecole oleracea capitula of science); and all its varieties of green, red, dwarf, tall, early, late, round, conical, flat, and all the forms into which it is possible to put it.

To Boil Young Greens or Sprouts.

1097. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda.

Mode. — Pick away all the dead leaves, and wash the greens well in cold water; drain them in a colander, and put them into fast-boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep them boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, until tender; and the moment they are done, take them up, or their colour will be spoiled; when well drained, serve. The great art in cooking greens properly, and to have them a good colour, is to put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to let them boil very quickly, and to take them up the moment they become tender.

Time. — Brocoli sprouts, 10 to 12 minutes; young greens, 10 to 12 minutes; sprouts, 12 minutes, after the water boils.

Seasonable. — Sprouts of various kinds may be had all the year.

GREEN KALE, OR BORECOLE. — When Colewort, or Wild Cabbage, is brought into a state of cultivation, its character becomes greatly improved, although it still retains the loose open leaves, and in this form it is called Green Kale, or Borecole. The scientific name is Borecole oleracea acephala, and of it there are many varieties, both as regards the form and colour of the leaves, as well as the height which the plants attain. We may observe, that among them, are included the Thousand-headed, and the Cow or Tree Cabbage.

Boiled Cabbage.

1098. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda. Mode. — Pick off all the dead outside leaves, cut off as much of the stalk as possible, and cut the cabbages across twice, at the stalk end; if they should be very large, quarter them. Wash them well in cold water, place them in a colander, and drain; then put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportions. Stir them down once or twice in the water, keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender. The instant they are done, take them up into a colander, place a plate over them, let them thoroughly drain, dish, and serve.

Time. — Large cabbages, or savoys, 1/3 to 3/4 hour, young summer cabbage, 10 to 12 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. each in full season.

Sufficient — 2 large ones for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable. — Cabbages and sprouts of various kinds at any time.

THE CABBAGE TRIBE: THEIR ORIGIN. — Of all the tribes of the Cruciferae this is by far the most important. Its scientific name is Brassiceae, and it contains a collection of plants which, both in themselves and their products, occupy a prominent position in agriculture, commerce, and domestic economy. On the cliffs of Dover, and in many places on the coasts of Dorsetshire, Cornwall, and Yorkshire, there grows a wild plant, with variously-indented, much-waved, and loose spreading leaves, of a sea-green colour, and large yellow flowers. In spring, the leaves of this plant are collected by the inhabitants, who, after boiling them in two waters, to remove the saltness, use them as a vegetable along with their meat. This is the Brassica oleracea of science, the Wild Cabbage, or Colewort, from which have originated all the varieties of Cabbage, Cauliflower, Greens, and Brocoli.

Stewed Red Cabbage.

1099. INGREDIENTS. — 1 red cabbage, a small slice of ham, 1/2 oz. of fresh butter, 1 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 gill of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar.

Mode. — Cut the cabbage into very thin slices, put it into a stewpan, with the ham cut in dice, the butter, 1/2 pint of stock, and the vinegar; cover the pan closely, and let it stew for 1 hour. When it is very tender, add the remainder of the stock, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and the pounded sugar; mix all well together, stir over the fire until nearly all the liquor is dried away, and serve. Fried sausages are usually sent to table with this dish: they should be laid round and on the cabbage, as a garnish.

Time. — Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

THE WILD CABBAGE, OR COLEWORT. — This plant, as it is found on the sea-cliffs of England, presents us with the origin of the cabbage tribe in its simplest and normal form. In this state it is the true Collet, or Colewort, although the name is now applied to any young cabbage which has a loose and open heart.

Boiled Carrots.

1100. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; carrots.

Mode. — Cut off the green tops, wash and scrape the carrots, and should there be any black specks, remove them. If very large, cut them in halves, divide them lengthwise into four pieces, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion; let them boil until tender, which may be ascertained by thrusting a fork into them: dish, and serve very hot. This vegetable is an indispensable accompaniment to boiled beef. When thus served, it is usually boiled with the beef; a few carrots are placed round the dish as a garnish, and the remainder sent to table in a vegetable-dish. Young carrots do not require nearly so much boiling, nor should they be divided: these make a nice addition to stewed veal, &c.

Time. — Large carrots, 1–3/4 to 2–1/4 hours; young ones, about 1/2 hour.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d, per bunch of 18.

Sufficient — 4 large carrots for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

ORIGIN OF THE CARROT. — In its wild state, this vegetable is found plentifully in Britain, both in cultivated lands and by waysides, and is known by the name of birds-nest, from its umbels of fruit becoming incurved from a hollow cup, like a birds-nest. In this state its root is whitish, slender, and hard, with an acrid, disagreeable taste, and a strong aromatic smell, and was formerly used as an aperient. When cultivated, it is reddish, thick, fleshy, with a pleasant odour, and a peculiar, sweet, mucilaginous taste. The carrot is said by naturalists not to contain much nourishing matter, and, generally speaking, is somewhat difficult of digestion.

To Dress Carrots in the German Way.

1101. INGREDIENTS. — 8 large carrots, 3 oz. of butter, salt to taste, a very little grated nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of finely-minced parsley, 1 dessertspoonful of minced onion, rather more than 1 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 tablespoonful of flour.

Mode. — Wash and scrape the carrots, and cut them into rings of about 1/4 inch in thickness. Put the butter into a stewpan; when it is melted, lay in the carrots, with salt, nutmeg, parsley, and onion in the above proportions. Toss the stewpan over the fire for a few minutes, and when the carrots are well saturated with the butter, pour in the stock, and simmer gently until they are nearly tender. Then put into another stewpan a small piece of butter; dredge in about a tablespoonful of flour; stir this over the fire, and when of a nice brown colour, add the liquor that the carrots have been boiling in; let this just boil up, pour it over the carrots in the other stewpan, and let them finish simmering until quite tender. Serve very hot.

This vegetable, dressed as above, is a favourite accompaniment of roast pork, sausages, &c. &c.

Time. — About 3/4 hour. Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable. — Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

CONSTITUENTS OF THE CARROT. — These are crystallizable and uncrystallizable sugar, a little starch, extractive, gluten, albumen, volatile oil, vegetable jelly, or pectin, saline matter, malic acid, and a peculiar crystallizable ruby-red neuter principle, without odour or taste, called carotin. This vegetable jelly, or pectin, so named from its singular property of gelatinizing, is considered by some as another form of gum or mucilage, combined with vegetable acid. It exists more or less in all vegetables, and is especially abundant in those roots and fruits from which jellies are prepared.

Stewed Carrots.

1102. INGREDIENTS. — 7 or 8 large carrots, 1 teacupful of broth, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 teacupful of cream, thickening of butter and flour.

Mode. — Scrape the carrots nicely; half-boil, and slice them into a stewpan; add the broth, pepper and salt, and cream; simmer till tender, and be careful the carrots are not broken. A few minutes before serving, mix a little flour with about 1 oz. of butter; thicken the gravy with this; let it just boil up, and serve.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to parboil the carrots, about 20 minutes to cook them after they are sliced.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

NUTRITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE CARROT. — Sir H. Davy ascertained the nutritive matter of the carrot to amount to ninety-eight parts in one thousand; of which ninety-five are sugar and three are starch. It is used in winter and spring in the dairy to give colour and flavour to butter; and it is excellent in stews, haricots, soups, and, when boiled whole, with salt beef. In the distillery, owing to the great proportion of sugar in its composition, it yields more spirit than the potato. The usual quantity is twelve gallons per ton.

Sliced Carrots.

(Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course, as a Side-dish.)

1103. INGREDIENTS. — 5 or 6 large carrots, a large lump of sugar, 1 pint of weak stock, 3 oz. of fresh butter, salt to taste.

Mode. — Scrape and wash the carrots, cut them into slices of an equal size, and boil them in salt and water, until half done; drain them well, put them into a stewpan with the sugar and stock, and let them boil over a brisk fire. When reduced to a glaze, add the fresh butter and a seasoning of salt; shake the stewpan about well, and when the butter is well mixed with the carrots, serve. There should be no sauce in the dish when it comes to table, but it should all adhere to the carrots.

Time. — Altogether, 3/4 hour.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 1 dish.

Seasonable. — Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

THE SEED OF THE CARROT. — In order to save the seed of carrots, the plan is, to select annually the most perfect and best-shaped roots in the taking-up season, and either preserve them in sand in a cellar till spring, or plant them immediately in an open airy part of the garden, protecting them with litter during severe frost, or earthing them over, and uncovering them in March following. The seed is in no danger from being injured by any other plant. In August it is fit to gather, and is best preserved on the stalks till wanted.

Boiled Cauliflowers.

1104. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Choose cauliflowers that are close and white; trim off the decayed outside leaves, and cut the stalk off flat at the bottom. Open the flower a little in places to remove the insects, which generally are found about the stalk, and let the cauliflowers lie in salt and water for an hour previous to dressing them, with their heads downwards: this will effectually draw out all the vermin. Then put them into fast-boiling water, with the addition of salt in the above proportion, and let them boil briskly over a good fire, keeping the saucepan uncovered. The water should be well skimmed; and, when the cauliflowers are tender, take them up with a slice; let them drain, and, if large enough, place them upright in the dish. Serve with plain melted butter, a little of which may be poured over the flower.

Time. — Small cauliflower, 12 to 15 minutes, large one, 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, for large cauliflowers, 6d. each.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 large cauliflower for 3 persons.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

Cauliflowers a La Sauce Blanche.

(Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1105. INGREDIENTS. — 3 cauliflowers, 1/2 pint of sauce blanche, or French melted butter, No. 378; 3 oz. of butter; salt and water.

Mode. — Cleanse the cauliflowers as in the preceding recipe, and cut the stalks off flat at the bottom; boil them until tender in salt and water, to which the above proportion of butter has been added, and be careful to take them up the moment they are done, or they will break, and the appearance of the dish will be spoiled. Drain them well, and dish them in the shape of a large cauliflower. Have ready 1/2 pint of sauce, made by recipe No. 378, pour it over the flowers, and serve hot and quickly.

Time. — Small cauliflowers, 12 to 15 minutes, large ones, 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost — large cauliflowers, in full season, 6d. each.

Sufficient — 1 large cauliflower for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

CAULIFLOWER AND BROCOLI. — These are only forms of the wild Cabbage in its cultivated state. They are both well known; but we may observe, that the purple and white Brocoli are only varieties of the Cauliflower.

Cauliflowers with Parmesan Cheese.

(Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1106. INGREDIENTS. — 2 or 3 cauliflowers, rather more than 1/2 pint of white sauce No. 378, 2 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs.

Mode. — Cleanse and boil the cauliflowers by recipe No. 1104, and drain them and dish them with the flowers standing upright. Have ready the above proportion of white sauce; pour sufficient of it over the cauliflowers just to cover the top; sprinkle over this some rasped Parmesan cheese and bread crumbs, and drop on these the butter, which should be melted, but not oiled. Brown with a salamander, or before the fire, and pour round, but not over, the flowers the remainder of the sauce, with which should be mixed a small quantity of grated Parmesan cheese.

Time. — Altogether, 1/2 hour. Average cost, for large cauliflowers, 6d. each.

Sufficient — 3 small cauliflowers for 1 dish.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

Celery.

1107. With a good heart, and nicely blanched, this vegetable is generally eaten raw, and is usually served with the cheese. Let the roots be washed free from dirt, all the decayed and outside leaves being cut off, preserving as much of the stalk as possible, and all specks or blemishes being carefully removed. Should the celery be large, divide it lengthwise into quarters, and place it, root downwards, in a celery-glass, which should be rather more than half filled with water. The top leaves may be curled, by shredding them in narrow strips with the point of a clean skewer, at a distance of about 4 inches from the top.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient. — Allow 2 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Note. — This vegetable is exceedingly useful for flavouring soups, sauces, &c., and makes a very nice addition to winter salad.

Stewed Celery a La Creme.

1108. INGREDIENTS. — 6 heads of celery; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1/3 pint of cream.

Mode. — Wash the celery thoroughly; trim, and boil it in salt and water until tender. Put the cream and pounded mace into a stewpan; shake it over the fire until the cream thickens, dish the celery, pour over the sauce, and serve.

Time. — Large heads of celery, 25 minutes; small ones, 15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost. 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

ALEXANDERS. — This plant is the Smyrnium olustratum of science, and is used in this country in the same way in which celery is. It is a native of Great Britain, and is found in its wild state near the seacoast. It received its name from the Italian “herba Alexandrina,” and is supposed to have been originally brought from Alexandria; but, be this as it may, its cultivation is now almost entirely abandoned.

Stewed Celery (with White Sauce).
I.

1109. INGREDIENTS. — 6 heads of celery, 1 oz. of butter; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1/2 pint of white sauce, No. 537 or 538.

Mode. — Have ready sufficient boiling water just to cover the celery, with salt and butter in the above proportion. Wash the celery well; cut off the decayed outside leaves, trim away the green tops, and shape the root into a point; put it into the boiling water; let it boil rapidly until tender; then take it out, drain well, place it upon a dish, and pour over about 1/2 pint of white sauce, made by either of the recipes No. 537 or 538. It may also be plainly boiled as above, placed on toast, and melted butter poured over, the same as asparagus is dished.

Time. — Large heads of celery, 25 minutes, small ones, 15 to 20 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

ORIGIN OF CELERY. — In the marshes and ditches of this country there is to be found a very common plant, known by the name of Smallage. This is the wild form of celery; but, by being subjected to cultivation, it loses its acrid nature, and becomes mild and sweet. In its natural state, it has a peculiar rank, coarse taste and smell, and its root was reckoned by the ancients as one of the “five greater aperient roots.” There is a variety of this in which the root becomes turnip-shaped and large. It is called Celeriae, and is extensively used by the Germans, and preferred by them to celery. In a raw state, this plant does not suit weak stomachs; cooked, it is less difficult of digestion, although a large quantity should not he taken.

.
II.

1110. INGREDIENTS. — 6 heads of celery, 1/2 pint of white stock or weak broth, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, thickening of butter and flour, 1 blade of pounded mace, a very little grated nutmeg; pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — Wash the celery, strip off the outer leaves, and cut it into lengths of about 4 inches. Put these into a saucepan, with the broth, and stew till tender, which will be in from 20 to 25 minutes; then add the remaining ingredients, simmer altogether for 4 or 5 minutes, pour into a dish, and serve. It may be garnished with sippets of toasted bread.

Time. — Altogether, 1/2 hour. Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Note. — By cutting the celery into smaller pieces, by stewing it a little longer, and, when done, by pressing it through a sieve, the above stew may be converted into a puree of celery.

To Dress Cucumbers.

1111. INGREDIENTS. — 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste; cucumber.

Mode. — Pare the cucumber, cut it equally into very thin slices, and commence cutting from the thick end; if commenced at the stalk, the cucumber will most likely have an exceedingly bitter taste, far from agreeable. Put the slices into a dish, sprinkle over salt and pepper, and pour over oil and vinegar in the above proportion; turn the cucumber about, and it is ready to serve. This is a favourite accompaniment to boiled salmon, is a nice addition to all descriptions of salads, and makes a pretty garnish to lobster salad.

Average cost, when scarce, 1s. to 2s. 6d.; when cheapest, may be had for 4d. each.

Seasonable. — Forced from the beginning of March to the end of June; in full season in July, August, and September.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CUCUMBERS. — This family is not known in the frigid zone, is somewhat rare in the temperate, but in the tropical and warmer regions throughout the world they are abundant. They are most plentiful in the continent of Hindostan; but in America are not near so plentiful. Many of the kinds supply useful articles of consumption for food, and others are actively medicinal in their virtues. Generally speaking, delicate stomachs should avoid this plant, for it is cold and indigestible.

Cucumbers a La Poulette.

1112. INGREDIENTS. — 2 or 3 cucumbers, salt and vinegar, 2 oz. of butter, flour, 1/2 pint of broth, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, a lump of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper to taste.

Mode. — Pare and cut the cucumbers into slices of an equal thickness, and let them remain in a pickle of salt and vinegar for 1/2 hour; then drain them in a cloth, and put them into a stewpan with the butter. Fry them over a brisk fire, but do not brown them, and then dredge over them a little flour; add the broth, skim off all the fat, which will rise to the surface, and boil gently until the gravy is somewhat reduced; but the cucumber should not be broken. Stir in the yolks of the eggs, add the parsley, sugar, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; bring the whole to the point of boiling, and serve.

Time. — Altogether, 1 hour.

Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

Fried Cucumbers.

1113. INGREDIENTS. — 2 or 3 cucumbers, pepper and salt to taste, flour, oil or butter.

Mode. — Pare the cucumbers and cut them into slices of an equal thickness, commencing to slice from the thick, and not the stalk end of the cucumber. Wipe the slices dry with a cloth, dredge them with flour, and put them into a pan of boiling oil or butter; Keep turning them about until brown; lift them out of the pan, let them drain, and serve, piled lightly in a dish. These will be found a great improvement to rump-steak: they should be placed on a dish with the steak on the top.

Time. — 5 minutes. Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable. — Forced from the beginning of March to the end of June; in full season in July and August.

PROPERTIES AND USES OF THE CUCURBITS. — The common cucumber is the C. sativus of science, and although the whole of the family have a similar action in the animal economy, yet there are some which present us with great anomalies. The roots of those which are perennial contain, besides fecula, which is their base, a resinous, acrid, and bitter principle. The fruits of this family, however, have in general a sugary taste, and are more or less dissolving and perfumed, as we find in the melons, gourds, cucumbers, vegetable-marrows, and squashes. But these are slightly laxative if partaken of largely. In tropical countries, this order furnishes the inhabitants with a large portion of their food, which, even in the most arid deserts and most barren islands, is of the finest quality. In China, Cashmere, and Persia, they are cultivated on the lakes on the floating collections of weeds common in these localities. In India they are everywhere abundant, either in a cultivated or wild state, and the seeds of all the family are sweet and mucilaginous.

Stewed Cucumbers.

1114. INGREDIENTS. — 3 large cucumbers, flour, butter, rather more than 1/2 pint of good brown gravy.

Mode. — Cut the cucumbers lengthwise the size of the dish they are intended to be served in; empty them of the seeds, and put them into boiling water with a little salt, and let them simmer for 5 minutes; then take them out, place them in another stewpan, with the gravy, and let them boil over a brisk fire until the cucumbers are tender. Should these be bitter, add a lump of sugar; carefully dish them, skim the sauce, pour over the cucumbers, and serve.

Time. — Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost, when cheapest, 1d. each.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

THE CHATE. — This cucumber is a native of Egypt and Arabia, and produces a fruit of almost the same substance as that of the Melon. In Egypt it is esteemed by the upper class natives, as well as by Europeans, as the most pleasant fruit they have.

Stewed Cucumbers with Onions.

1115. INGREDIENTS. — 6 cucumbers, 3 moderate-sized onions, not quite 1 pint of white stock, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Pare and slice the cucumbers, take out the seeds, and cut the onions into thin slices; put these both into a stewpan, with the stock, and let them boil for 1/4 hour or longer, should the cucumbers be very large. Beat up the yolks of 2 eggs; stir these into the sauce; add the cayenne, salt, and grated nutmeg; bring it to the point of boiling, and serve. Do not allow the sauce to boil, or it will curdle. This is a favourite dish with lamb or mutton chops, rump-steaks, &c.

Time. — Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

THE MELON. — This is another species of the cucumber, and is highly esteemed for its rich and delicious fruit. It was introduced to this country from Jamaica, in 1570; since which period it has continued to be cultivated. It was formerly called the Musk Melon.

Endive.

1116. This vegetable, so beautiful in appearance, makes an excellent addition to winter salad, when lettuces and other salad herbs are not obtainable. It is usually placed in the centre of the dish, and looks remarkably pretty with slices of beetroot, hard-boiled eggs, and curled celery placed round it, so that the colours contrast nicely. In preparing it, carefully wash and cleanse it free from insects, which are generally found near the heart; remove any decayed or dead leaves, and dry it thoroughly by shaking in a cloth. This vegetable may also be served hot, stewed in cream, brown gravy, or butter; but when dressed thus, the sauce it is stewed in should not be very highly seasoned, as that would destroy and overpower the flavour of the vegetable.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient — 1 head for a salad for 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

ENDIVE. — This is the C. endivium of science, and is much used as a salad. It belongs to the family of the Compositae, with Chicory, common Goats-beard, and others of the same genus. Withering states, that before the stems of the common Goats-beard shoot up the roots, boiled like asparagus, have the same flavour, and are nearly as nutritious. We are also informed by Villars that the children in Dauphiné universally eat the stems and leaves of the young plant before the flowers appear, with great avidity. The fresh juice of these tender herbs is said to be the best solvent of bile.

Stewed Endive.

1117. INGREDIENTS. — 6 heads of endive, salt and water, 1 pint of broth, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a small lump of sugar.

Mode. — Wash and free the endive thoroughly from insects, remove the green part of the leaves, and put it into boiling water, slightly salted. Let it remain for 10 minutes; then take it out, drain it till there is no water remaining, and chop it very fine. Put it into a stewpan with the broth; add a little salt and a lump of sugar, and boil until the endive is perfectly tender. When done, which may be ascertained by squeezing a piece between the thumb and finger, add a thickening of butter and flour and the lemon-juice: let the sauce boil up, and serve.

Time. — 10 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to simmer in the broth.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

Endive a La Francaise.

1118. INGREDIENTS. — 6 heads of endive, 1 pint of broth, 3 oz. of fresh butter; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode. — Wash and boil the endive as in the preceding recipe; chop it rather fine, and put into a stewpan with the broth; boil over a brisk fire until the sauce is all reduced; then put in the butter, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg (the latter must be very sparingly used); mix all well together, bring it to the boiling point, and serve very hot.

Time — 10 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to simmer in the broth.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

To Boil Haricots Blancs, or White Haricot Beans.

1119. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of white haricot beans, 2 quarts of soft water, 1 oz. of butter, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Put the beans into cold water, and let them soak from 2 to 4 hours, according to their age; then put them into cold water, salted in the above proportion, bring them to boil, and let them simmer very slowly until tender; pour the water away from them, let them stand by the side of the fire, with the lid of the saucepan partially off, to allow the beans to dry; then add 1 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Shake the beans about for a minute or two, and serve: do not stir them with a spoon, for fear of breaking them to pieces.

Time. — After the water boils, from 2 to 2–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter, when other vegetables are scarce.

Note. — Haricots blancs, when new and fresh, should be put into boiling water, and do not require any soaking previous to dressing.

HARICOTS AND LENTILS. — Although these vegetables are not much used in this country, yet in France, and other Catholic countries, from their peculiar constituent properties, they form an excellent substitute for animal food during Lent and maigre days. At the time of the prevalence of the Roman religion in this country, they were probably much more generally used than at present. As reformations are often carried beyond necessity, possibly lentils may have fallen into disuse, as an article of diet amongst Protestants, for fear the use of them might be considered a sign of popery.

Haricots Blancs a La Maitre D’hotel.

1120. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of white haricot beans, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1/2 lemon.

Mode. — Should the beans be very dry, soak them for an hour or two in cold water, and boil them until perfectly tender, as in the preceding recipe. If the water should boil away, replenish it with a little more cold, which makes the skin of the beans tender. Let them be very thoroughly done; drain them well; then add to them the butter, minced parsley, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Keep moving the stewpan over the fire without using a spoon, as this would break the beans; and, when the various ingredients are well mixed with them, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve very hot.

Time. — From 2 to 2–1/2 hours to boil the beans.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

HARICOT BEANS. — This is the haricot blanc of the French, and is a native of India. It ripens readily, in dry summers, in most parts of Britain, but its culture has hitherto been confined to gardens in England; but in Germany and Switzerland it is grown in fields. It is usually harvested by pulling up the plants, which, being dried, are stacked and thrashed. The haulm is both of little bulk and little use, but the seed is used in making the esteemed French dish called haricot, with which it were well if the working classes of this country were acquainted. There is, perhaps, no other vegetable dish so cheap and easily cooked, and, at the same time, so agreeable and nourishing. The beans are boiled, and then mixed with a little fat or salt butter, and a little milk or water and flour. From 3,840 parts of kidney-bean Einholff obtained 1,805 parts of matter analogous to starch, 351 of vegeto-animal matter, and 799 parts of mucilage.

Haricot Beans and Minced Onions.

1121. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of white haricot beans, 4 middling-sized onions, 1/4 pint of good brown gravy, pepper and salt to taste, a little flour.

Mode. — Peel and mince the onions not too finely, and fry them in butter of a light brown colour; dredge over them a little flour, and add the gravy and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Have ready a pint of haricot beans well boiled and drained; put them with the onions and gravy, mix all well together, and serve very hot.

Time. — From 2 to 2–1/2 hours to boil the beans; 5 minutes to fry the onions.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Horseradish.

1122. This root, scraped, is always served with hot roast beef, and is used for garnishing many kinds of boiled fish. Let the horseradish remain in cold water for an hour; wash it well, and with a sharp knife scrape it into very thin shreds, commencing from the thick end of the root. Arrange some of it lightly in a small glass dish, and the remainder use for garnishing the joint: it should be placed in tufts round the border of the dish, with 1 or 2 bunches on the meat.

Average cost, 2d. per stick.

Seasonable from October to June.

THE HORSERADISH. — This belongs to the tribe Alyssidae, and is highly stimulant and exciting to the stomach. It has been recommended in chronic rheumatism, palsy, dropsical complaints, and in cases of enfeebled digestion. Its principal use, however, is as a condiment to promote appetite and excite the digestive organs. The horseradish contains sulphur to the extent of thirty per cent, in the number of its elements; and it is to the presence of this quality that the metal vessels in which the radish is sometimes distilled, are turned into a black colour. It is one of the most powerful excitants and antiscorbutics we have, and forms the basis of several medical preparations, in the form of wines, tinctures, and syrups.

Lettuces.

1123. These form one of the principal ingredients to summer salads; should be nicely blanched, and be eaten young. They are seldom served in any other way, but may be stewed and sent to table in a good brown gravy flavoured with lemon-juice. In preparing them for a salad, carefully wash them free from dirt, pick off all the decayed and outer leaves, and dry them thoroughly by shaking them in a cloth. Cut off the stalks, and either halve or cut the lettuces into small pieces. The manner of cutting them up entirely depends on the salad for which they are intended. In France the lettuces are sometimes merely wiped with a cloth and not washed, the cooks there declaring that the act of washing them injuriously affects the pleasant crispness of the plant: in this case scrupulous attention must be paid to each leaf, and the grit thoroughly wiped away.

Average cost, when cheapest, 1d. each.

Sufficient. — Allow 2 lettuces for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from March to the end of August, but may be had all the year.

THE LETTUCE. — All the varieties of the garden lettuce have originated from the Lactuca sativa of science, which has never yet been found in a wild state. Hence it may be concluded that it is merely another form of some species, changed through the effects of cultivation. In its young state, the lettuce forms a well-known and wholesome salad, containing a bland pellucid juice, with little taste or smell, and having a cooling and soothing influence on the system. This arises from the large quantities of water and mucilage it contains, and not from any narcotic principle which it is supposed to possess. During the period of flowering, it abounds in a peculiar milky juice, which flows from the stem when wounded, and which has been found to be possessed of decided medicinal properties.

Baked Mushrooms.

(A Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish.)

1124. INGREDIENTS. — 16 to 20 mushroom-flaps, butter, pepper to taste.

Mode. — For this mode of cooking, the mushroom flaps are better than the buttons, and should not be too large. Cut off a portion of the stalk, peel the top, and wipe the mushrooms carefully with a piece of flannel and a little fine salt. Put them into a tin baking-dish, with a very small piece of butter placed on each mushroom; sprinkle over a little pepper, and let them bake for about 20 minutes, or longer should the mushrooms be very large. Have ready a very hot dish, pile the mushrooms high in the centre, pour the gravy round, and send them to table quickly, with very hot plates.

Time. — 20 minutes; large mushrooms, 1/2 hour.

Average cost, 1d. each for large mushroom-flaps.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

FUNGI. — These are common parasitical plants, originating in the production of copious filamentous threads, called the mycelium, or spawn. Rounded tubers appear on the mycelium; some of these enlarge rapidly, burst an outer covering, which is left at the base, and protrude a thick stalk, bearing at its summit a rounded body, which in a short time expands into the pileus or cap. The gills, which occupy its lower surface, consist of parallel plates, bearing naked sporules over their whole surface. Some of the cells, which are visible by the microscope, produce four small cells at their free summit, apparently by germination and constriction. These are the sporules, and this is the development of the Agarics.

Broiled Mushrooms.

(A Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish.)

1125. INGREDIENTS. — Mushroom-flaps, pepper and salt to taste, butter, lemon-juice.

Mode. — Cleanse the mushrooms by wiping them with a piece of flannel and a little salt; cut off a portion of the stalk, and peel the tops: broil them over a clear fire, turning them once, and arrange them on a very hot dish. Put a small piece of butter on each mushroom, season with pepper and salt, and squeeze over them a few drops of lemon-juice. Place the dish before the fire, and when the butter is melted, serve very hot and quickly. Moderate-sized flaps are better suited to this mode of cooking than the buttons: the latter are better in stews.

Time. — 10 minutes for medium-sized mushrooms.

Average cost, 1d. each for large mushrooms.

Sufficient. — Allow 3 or 4 mushrooms to each person.

Seasonable. — Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

VARIETIES OF THE MUSHROOM. — The common mushroom found in our pastures is the Agaricus campestris of science, and another edible British species is A. Georgii; but A. primulus is affirmed to be the most delicious mushroom. The morel is Morchella esculenta, and Tuber cibarium is the common truffle. There is in New Zealand a long fungus, which grows from the head of a caterpillar, and which forms a horn, as it were, and is called Sphaeria Robertsii.

To Preserve Mushrooms.

1126. INGREDIENTS. — To each quart of mushrooms, allow 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1 lemon, clarified butter.

Mode. — Peel the mushrooms, put them into cold water, with a little lemon-juice; take them out and dry them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter into a stewpan capable of holding the mushrooms; when it is melted, add the mushrooms, lemon-juice, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; draw them down over a slow fire, and let them remain until their liquor is boiled away, and they have become quite dry, but be careful in not allowing them to stick to the bottom of the stewpan. When done, put them into pots, and pour over the top clarified butter. If wanted for immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being covered over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan, strain the butter from them, and they will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1d. each.

Seasonable. — Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

LOCALITIES OF THE MUSHROOM. — Mushrooms are to be met with in pastures, woods, and marshes, but are very capricious and uncertain in their places of growth, multitudes being obtained in one season where few or none were to be found in the preceding. They sometimes grow solitary, but more frequently they are gregarious, and rise in a regular circular form. Many species are employed by man as food; but, generally speaking, they are difficult of digestion, and by no means very nourishing. Many of them are also of suspicious qualities. Little reliance can be placed either on their taste, smell, or colour, as much depends on the situation in which they vegetate; and even the same plant, it is affirmed, may be innocent when young, but become noxious when advanced in age.

Stewed Mushrooms.

1127. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint mushroom-buttons, 3 oz. of fresh butter, white pepper and salt to taste, lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of flour, cream or milk, 1 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare neatly a pint of mushroom-buttons; put them into a basin of water, with a little lemon-juice, as they are done. When all are prepared, take them from the water with the hands, to avoid the sediment, and put them into a stewpan with the fresh butter, white pepper, salt, and the juice of 1/2 lemon; cover the pan closely, and let the mushrooms stew gently from 20 to 25 minutes; then thicken the butter with the above proportion of flour, add gradually sufficient cream, or cream and milk, to make the sauce of a proper consistency, and put in the grated nutmeg. If the mushrooms are not perfectly tender, stew them for 5 minutes longer, remove every particle of butter which may be floating on the top, and serve.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, from 9d. to 2s. per pint.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Meadow mushrooms in September and October.

TO PROCURE MUSHROOMS. — In order to obtain mushrooms at all seasons, several methods of propagation have been had recourse to. It is said that, in some parts of Italy, a species of stone is used for this purpose, which is described as being of two different kinds; the one is found in the chalk hills near Naples, and has a white, porous, stalactical appearance; the other is a hardened turf from some volcanic mountains near Florence. These stones are kept in cellars, and occasionally moistened with water which has been used in the washing of mushrooms, and are thus supplied with their minute seeds. In this country, gardeners provide themselves with what is called spawn, either from the old manure of cucumber-beds, or purchase it from those whose business it is to propagate it. When thus procured, it is usually made up for sale in quadrils, consisting of numerous white fibrous roots, having a strong smell of mushrooms. This is planted in rows, in a dry situation, and carefully attended to for five or six weeks, when the bed begins to produce, and continues to do so for several months.

Stewed Mushrooms in Gravy.

1128. INGREDIENTS. — 1 pint of mushroom-buttons, 1 pint of brown gravy No. 436, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode. — Make a pint of brown gravy by recipe 436; cut nearly all the stalks away from the mushrooms and peel the tops; put them into a stewpan, with the gravy, and simmer them gently from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Add the nutmeg and a seasoning of cayenne and salt, and serve very hot.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.

Average cost, 9d. to 2s. per pint.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Meadow mushrooms in September and October.

ANALYSIS OF FUNGI. — The fungi have been examined chemically with much care, both by MM. Bracannot and Vauquelin, who designate the insoluble spongy matter by the name of fungin, and the soluble portion is found to contain the bolotic and the fungic acids.

Baked Spanish Onions.

1129. INGREDIENTS. — 4 or 5 Spanish onions, salt, and water.

Mode. — Put the onions, with their skins on, into a saucepan of boiling water slightly salted, and let them boil quickly for an hour. Then take them out, wipe them thoroughly, wrap each one in a piece of paper separately, and bake them in a moderate oven for 2 hours, or longer, should the onions be very large. They may be served in their skins, and eaten with a piece of cold butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt; or they may be peeled, and a good brown gravy poured over them.

Time. — 1 hour to boil, 2 hours to bake.

Average cost, medium-sized, 2d. each.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

THE GENUS ALLIUM. — The Onion, like the Leek, Garlic, and Shalot, belongs to the genus Allium, which is a numerous species of vegetable; and every one of them possesses, more or less, a volatile and acrid penetrating principle, pricking the thin transparent membrane of the eyelids; and all are very similar in their properties. In the whole of them the bulb is the most active part, and any one of them may supply the place of the other; for they are all irritant, excitant, and vesicant. With many, the onion is a very great favourite, and is considered an extremely nutritive vegetable. The Spanish kind is frequently taken for supper, it being simply boiled, and then seasoned with salt, pepper, and butter. Some dredge on a little flour, but many prefer it without this.

Burnt Onions for Gravies.

1130. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of onions, 1/3 pint of water, 1/2 lb. of moist sugar, 1/3 pint of vinegar.

Mode. — Peel and chop the onions fine, and put them into a stewpan (not tinned), with the water; let them boil for 5 minutes, then add the sugar, and simmer gently until the mixture becomes nearly black and throws out bubbles of smoke. Have ready the above proportion of boiling vinegar, strain the liquor gradually to it, and keep stirring with a wooden spoon until it is well incorporated. When cold, bottle for use.

Time. — Altogether, 1 hour.

PROPERTIES OF THE ONION. — The onion is possessed of a white, acrid, volatile oil, holding sulphur in solution, albumen, a good deal of uncrystallizable sugar and mucilage; phosphoric acid, both free and combined with lime; acetic acid, citrate of lime, and lignine. Of all the species of allium, the onion has the volatile principle in the greatest degree; and hence it is impossible to separate the scales of the root without the eyes being affected. The juice is sensibly acid, and is capable of being, by fermentation, converted into vinegar, and, mixed with water or the dregs of beer, yields, by distillation, an alcoholic liquor. Although used as a common esculent, onions are not suited to all stomachs; there are some who cannot eat them either fried or roasted, whilst others prefer them boiled, which is the best way of using them, as, by the process they then undergo, they are deprived of their essential oil. The pulp of roasted onions, with oil, forms an excellent anodyne and emollient poultice to suppurating tumours.

Stewed Spanish Onions.

1131. INGREDIENTS. — 5 or 6 Spanish onions, 1 pint of good broth or gravy.

Mode. — Peel the onions, taking care not to cut away too much of the tops or tails, or they would then fall to pieces; put them into a stewpan capable of holding them at the bottom without piling them one on the top of another; add the broth or gravy, and simmer very gently until the onions are perfectly tender. Dish them, pour the gravy round, and serve. Instead of using broth, Spanish onions may be stewed with a large piece of butter: they must be done very gradually over a slow fire or hot-plate, and will produce plenty of gravy.

Time. — To stew in gravy, 2 hours, or longer if very large.

Average cost. — medium-sized, 2d. each.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

Note. — Stewed Spanish onions are a favourite accompaniment to roast shoulder of mutton.

ORIGIN OF THE ONION. — This vegetable is thought to have originally come from India, through Egypt, where it became an object of worship. Thence it was transmitted to Greece, thence to Italy, and ultimately it was distributed throughout Europe, in almost every part of which it has, from time immemorial, been cultivated. In warm climates it is found to be less acrid and much sweeter than in colder latitudes; and in Spain it is not at all unusual to see a peasant munching an onion, as an Englishman would an apple. Spanish onions, which are imported to this country during the winter months, are, when properly roasted, perfectly sweet, and equal to many preserves.

Boiled Parsnips.

1132. INGREDIENTS. — Parsnips; to each gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Wash the parsnips, scrape them thoroughly, and, with the point of the knife, remove any black specks about them, and, should they be very large, cut the thick part into quarters. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water salted in the above proportion, boil them rapidly until tender, which may be ascertained by thrusting a fork in them; take them up, drain them, and serve in a vegetable-dish. This vegetable is usually served with salt fish, boiled pork, or boiled beef: when sent to table with the latter, a few should be placed alternately with carrots round the dish, as a garnish.

Time. — Large parsnips, 1 to 1–1/2 hour; small ones, 1/2 to 1 hour.

Average cost, 1d. each.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 for each person.

Seasonable from October to May.

THE PARSNIP. — This vegetable is found wild in meadows all over Europe, and, in England, is met with very frequently on dry banks in a chalky soil. In its wild state, the root is white, mucilaginous, aromatic, and sweet, with some degree of acrimony: when old, it has been known to cause vertigo. Willis relates that a whole family fell into delirium from having eaten of its roots, and cattle never touch it in its wild state. In domestic economy the parsnip is much used, and is found to be a highly nutritious vegetable. In times of scarcity, an excellent bread has been made from the roots, and they also furnish an excellent wine, resembling the malmsey of Madeira and the Canaries: a spirit is also obtained from them in as great quantities as from carrots. The composition of the parsnip-root has been found to be 79.4 of water, 0.9 starch and fibre, 6.1 gum, 5.5 sugar, and 2.1 of albumen.

Boiled Green Peas.

1133. INGREDIENTS. — Green peas; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 small teaspoonful of moist sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — This delicious vegetable, to be eaten in perfection, should be young, and not gathered or shelled long before it is dressed. Shell the peas, wash them well in cold water, and drain them; then put them into a saucepan with plenty of fast-boiling water, to which salt and moist sugar have been added in the above proportion; let them boil quickly over a brisk fire, with the lid of the saucepan uncovered, and be careful that the smoke does not draw in. When tender, pour them into a colander; put them into a hot vegetable-dish, and quite in the centre of the peas place a piece of butter, the size of a walnut. Many cooks boil a small bunch of mint with the peas, or garnish them with it, by boiling a few sprigs in a saucepan by themselves. Should the peas be very old, and difficult to boil a good colour, a very tiny piece of soda may be thrown in the water previous to putting them in; but this must be very sparingly used, as it causes the peas, when boiled, to have a smashed and broken appearance. With young peas, there is not the slightest occasion to use it.

Time. — Young peas, 10 to 15 minutes; the large sorts, such as marrowfats, &c., 18 to 24 minutes; old peas, 1/2 hour.

Average cost, when cheapest, 6d. per peck; when first in season, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per peck.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 peck of unshelled peas for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

ORIGIN OF THE PEA. — All the varieties of garden peas which are cultivated have originated from the Pisum sativum, a native of the south of Europe; and field peas are varieties of Pisum arvense. The Everlasting Pea is Lathyrus latifolius, an old favourite in flower-gardens. It is said to yield an abundance of honey to bees, which are remarkably fond of it. In this country the pea has been grown from time immemorial; but its culture seems to have diminished since the more general introduction of herbage, plants, and roots.

Green Peas a La Francaise.

1134. INGREDIENTS. — 2 quarts of green peas, 3 oz. of fresh butter, a bunch of parsley, 6 green onions, flour, a small lump of sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of flour.

Mode. — Shell sufficient fresh-gathered peas to fill 2 quarts; put them into cold water, with the above proportion of butter, and stir them about until they are well covered with the butter; drain them in a colander, and put them in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; dredge over them a little flour, stir the peas well, and moisten them with boiling water; boil them quickly over a large fire for 20 minutes, or until there is no liquor remaining. Dip a small lump of sugar into some water, that it may soon melt; put it with the peas, to which add 1/2 teaspoonful of salt. Take a piece of butter the size of a walnut, work it together with a teaspoonful of flour; and add this to the peas, which should be boiling when it is put in. Keep shaking the stewpan, and, when the peas are nicely thickened, dress them high in the dish, and serve.

Time. — Altogether, 3/4 hour. Average cost, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

VARIETIES OF THE PEA. — The varieties of the Pea are numerous; but they may be divided into two classes — those grown for the ripened seed, and those grown for gathering in a green state. The culture of the latter is chiefly confined to the neighbourhoods of large towns, and may be considered as in part rather to belong to the operations of the gardener than to those of the agriculturist. The grey varieties are the early grey, the late grey, and the purple grey; to which some add the Marlborough grey and the horn grey. The white varieties grown in fields are the pearl, early Charlton, golden hotspur, the common white, or Suffolk, and other Suffolk varieties.

Stewed Green Peas.

1135. INGREDIENTS. — 1 quart of peas, 1 Lettuce, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 1 egg, 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Mode. — Shell the peas, and cut the onion and lettuce into slices; put these into a stewpan, with the butter, pepper, and salt, but with no more water than that which hangs round the lettuce from washing. Stew the whole very gently for rather more than 1 hour; then stir to it a well-beaten egg, and about 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered sugar. When the peas, &c., are nicely thickened, serve but, after the egg is added, do not allow them to boil.

Time. — 1–1/4 hour. Average cost, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

THE SWEET-PEA AND THE HEATH OR WOOD-PEA. — The well-known sweet-pea forms a fine covering to a trellis, or lattice-work in a flower-garden. Its gay and fragrant flowers, with its rambling habit, render it peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. The wood-pea, or heath-pea, is found in the heaths of Scotland, and the Highlanders of that country are extremely partial to them, and dry and chew them to give a greater relish to their whiskey. They also regard them as good against chest complaints, and say that by the use of them they are enabled to withstand hunger and thirst for a long time. The peas have a sweet taste, somewhat like the root of liquorice, and, when boiled, have an agreeable flavour, and are nutritive. In times of scarcity they have served as an article of food. When well boiled, a fork will pass through them; and, slightly dried, they are roasted, and in Holland and Flanders served up like chestnuts.

Baked Potatoes.

1136. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes.

Mode. — Choose large potatoes, as much of a size as possible; wash them in lukewarm water, and scrub them well, for the browned skin of a baked potato is by many persons considered the better part of it. Put them into a moderate oven, and bake them for about 2 hours, turning them three or four times whilst they are cooking. Serve them in a napkin immediately they are done, as, if kept a long time in the oven, they have a shrivelled appearance. Potatoes may also be roasted before the fire, in an American oven; but when thus cooked, they must be done very slowly. Do not forget to send to table with them a piece of cold butter.

Time. — Large potatoes, in a hot oven 1–1/2 hour to 2 hours; in a cool oven, 2 to 2–1/2 hours.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient. — Allow 2 to each person.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

POTATO-SUGAR. — This sugary substance, found in the tubers of potatoes, is obtained in the form of syrup or treacle, and has not yet been crystallized. It resembles the sugar of grapes, has a very sweet taste, and may be used for making sweetmeats, and as a substitute for honey. Sixty pounds of potatoes, yielding eight pounds of dry starch, will produce seven and a half pounds of sugar. In Russia it is extensively made, as good, though of less consistency than the treacle obtained from cane-sugar. A spirit is also distilled from the tubers, which resembles brandy, but is milder, and has a flavour as if it were charged with the odour of violets or raspberries. In France this manufacture is carried on pretty extensively, and five hundred pounds of the tubers will produce twelve quarts of spirit, the pulp being given to cattle.

To Boil Potatoes.

1137. INGREDIENTS. — 10 or 12 potatoes; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Choose potatoes of an equal size, pare them, take out all the eyes and specks, and as they are peeled, throw them into cold water. Put them into a saucepan, with sufficient cold water to cover them, with salt in the above proportion, and let them boil gently until tender. Ascertain when they are done by thrusting a fork in them, and take them up the moment they feel soft through; for if they are left in the water afterwards, they become waxy or watery. Drain away the water, put the saucepan by the side of the fire, with the lid partially uncovered, to allow the steam to escape, and let the potatoes get thoroughly dry, and do not allow them to get burnt. Their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the potatoes, if a good sort, should be perfectly mealy and dry. Potatoes vary so much in quality and size, that it is difficult to give the exact time for boiling; they should be attentively watched, and probed with a fork, to ascertain when they are cooked. Send them to table quickly, and very hot, and with an opening in the cover of the dish, that a portion of the steam may evaporate, and not fall back on the potatoes.

Time. — Moderate-sized old potatoes, 15 to 20 minutes after the water boils; large ones, 1/2 hour to 35 minutes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

Note. — To keep potatoes hot, after draining the water from them, put a folded cloth or flannel (kept for the purpose) on the top of them, keeping the saucepan-lid partially uncovered. This will absorb the moisture, and keep them hot some time without spoiling.

THE POTATO. — The potato belongs to the family of the Solanaceae, the greater number of which inhabit the tropics, and the remainder are distributed over the temperate regions of both hemispheres, but do not extend to the arctic and antarctic zones. The whole of the family are suspicious; a great number are narcotic, and many are deleterious. The roots partake of the properties of the plants, and are sometimes even more active. The tubercles of such as produce them, are amylaceous and nutritive, as in those of the potato. The leaves are generally narcotic; but they lose this principle in boiling, as is the case with the Solanum nigrum, which are used as a vegetable when cooked.

To Boil Potatoes in Their Jackets.

1138. INGREDIENTS. — 10 or 12 potatoes; to each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — To obtain this wholesome and delicious vegetable cooked in perfection, it should be boiled and sent to table with the skin on. In Ireland, where, perhaps, the cooking of potatoes is better understood than in any country, they are always served so. Wash the potatoes well, and if necessary, use a clean scrubbing-brush to remove the dirt from them; and if possible, choose the potatoes so that they may all be as nearly the same size as possible. When thoroughly cleansed, fill the saucepan half full with them, and just cover the potatoes with cold water, salted in the above proportion: they are more quickly boiled with a small quantity of water, and, besides, are more savoury than when drowned in it. Bring them to boil, then draw the pan to the side of the fire, and let them simmer gently until tender. Ascertain when they are done by probing them with a fork; then pour off the water, uncover the saucepan, and let the potatoes dry by the side of the fire, taking care not to let them burn. Peel them quickly, put them in a very hot vegetable-dish, either with or without a napkin, and serve very quickly. After potatoes are cooked, they should never be entirely covered up, as the steam, instead of escaping, falls down on them, and makes them watery and insipid. In Ireland they are usually served up with the skins on, and a small plate is placed by the side of each guest.

Time. — Moderate-sized potatoes, with their skins on, 20 to 25 minutes after the water boils; large potatoes, 25 minutes to 3/4 hour, or longer; 5 minutes to dry them.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel. Sufficient for 6 persons.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

ANALYSIS OF THE POTATO. — Next to the cereals, the potato is the most valuable plant for the production of human food. Its tubers, according to analysis conducted by Mr. Fromberg, in the laboratory of the Agricultural Chemical Association in Scotland, contain the following ingredients:— 75.52 per cent. of water, 15.72 starch, O.55 dextrine, 3.3 of impure saccharine matter, and 3.25 of fibre with coagulated albumen. In a dried state the tuber contains 64.2 per cent, of starch, 2.25 of dextrine, 13.47 of impure saccharine matter, 5.77 of caseine, gluten, and albumen, 1 of fatty matter, and 13.31 of fibre with coagulated albumen.

To Boil New Potatoes.

1139. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Do not have the potatoes dug long before they are dressed, as they are never good when they have been out of the ground some time. Well wash them, rub off the skins with a coarse cloth, and put them into boiling water salted in the above proportion. Let them boil until tender; try them with a fork, and when done, pour the water away from them; let them stand by the side of the fire with the lid of the saucepan partially uncovered, and when the potatoes are thoroughly dry, put them into a hot vegetable-dish, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut; pile the potatoes over this, and serve. If the potatoes are too old to have the skins rubbed off, boil them in their jackets; drain, peel, and serve them as above, with a piece of butter placed in the midst of them.

Time. — 1/4 to 1/2 hour, according to the size.

Average cost, in full season, 1d. per lb.

Sufficient. — Allow 3 lbs. for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in May and June, but may be had, forced, in March.

POTATO STARCH. — This fecula has a beautiful white crystalline appearance, and is inodorous, soft to the touch, insoluble in cold, but readily soluble in boiling water. It is on this starch that the nutritive properties of the tubers depend. As an aliment, it is well adapted for invalids and persons of delicate constitution. It may be used in the form of arrow-root, and eaten with milk or sugar. For pastry of all kinds it is more light and easier of digestion than that made with flour of wheat. In confectionery it serves to form creams and jellies, and in cookery may be used to thicken soups and sauces. It accommodates itself to the chest and stomach of children, for whom it is well adapted; and it is an aliment that cannot be too generally used, as much on account of its wholesomeness as its cheapness, and the ease with which it is kept, which are equal, if not superior, to all the much-vaunted exotic feculae; as, salep, tapioca, sago, and arrow-root.

To Steam Potatoes.

1140. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes; boiling water.

Mode. — This mode of cooking potatoes is now much in vogue, particularly where they are wanted on a large scale, it being so very convenient. Pare the potatoes, throw them into cold water as they are peeled, then put them into a steamer. Place the steamer over a saucepan of boiling water, and steam the potatoes from 20 to 40 minutes, according to the size and sort. When a fork goes easily through them, they are done; then take them up, dish, and serve very quickly.

Time. — 20 to 40 minutes. Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient. — Allow 2 large potatoes to each person.

Seasonable all the year, but not so good whilst new potatoes are in season.

USES OF THE POTATO. — Potatoes boiled and beaten along with sour milk form a sort of cheese, which is made in Saxony; and, when kept in close vessels, may be preserved for several years. It is generally supposed that the water in which potatoes are boiled is injurious; and as instances are recorded where cattle having drunk it were seriously affected, it may be well to err on the safe side, and avoid its use for any alimentary purpose. Potatoes which have been exposed to the air and become green, are very unwholesome. Cadet de Vaux asserts that potatoes will clean linen as well as soap; and it is well known that the berries of the S. saponaceum are used in Peru for the same purpose.

How to Use Cold Potatoes.

1141. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold potatoes; to every lb. allow 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 ditto of minced onions, 1 oz. of butter, milk.

Mode. — Mash the potatoes with a fork until perfectly free from lumps; stir in the other ingredients, and add sufficient milk to moisten them well; press the potatoes into a mould, and bake in a moderate oven until nicely brown, which will be in from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. Turn them out of the mould, and serve.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.

Seasonable at any time.

POTATO BREAD. — The manner in which this is made is very simple. The adhesive tendency of the flour of the potato acts against its being baked or kneaded without being mixed with wheaten flour or meal; it may, however, be made into cakes in the following manner:— A small wooden frame, nearly square, is laid on a pan like a frying-pan and is grooved, and so constructed that, by means of a presser or lid introduced into the groove, the cake is at once fashioned, according to the dimensions of the mould. The frame containing the farina may be almost immediately withdrawn after the mould is formed upon the pan; because, from the consistency imparted to the incipient cake by the heat, it will speedily admit of being safely handled: it must not, however, be fried too hastily. It will then eat very palatably, and might from time to time be soaked for puddings, like tapioca, or might be used like the cassada-cake, for, when well buttered and toasted, it will be found an excellent accompaniment to breakfast. In Scotland, cold boiled potatoes are frequently squeezed up and mixed with flour or oatmeal, and an excellent cake, or scon, obtained.

Fried Potatoes (French Fashion).

1142. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes, hot butter or clarified dripping, salt.

Mode. — Peel and cut the potatoes into thin slices, as nearly the same size as possible; make some butter or dripping quite hot in a frying-pan; put in the potatoes, and fry them on both sides of a nice brown. When they are crisp and done, take them up, place them on a cloth before the fire to drain the grease from them, and serve very hot, after sprinkling them with salt. These are delicious with rump-steak, and, in France, are frequently served thus as a breakfast dish. The remains of cold potatoes may also be sliced and fried by the above recipe, but the slices must be cut a little thicker.

Time. — Sliced raw potatoes, 5 minutes; cooked potatoes, 5 minutes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient — 6 sliced potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

A German Method of Cooking Potatoes.

1143. INGREDIENTS. — 8 to 10 middling-sized potatoes, 3 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/2 pint of broth, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode. — Put the butter and flour into a stewpan; stir over the fire until the butter is of a nice brown colour, and add the broth and vinegar; peel and cut the potatoes into long thin slices, lay them in the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender, which will be in from 10 to 15 minutes, and serve very hot. A laurel-leaf simmered with the potatoes is an improvement.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes.

Seasonable at any time.

PRESERVING POTATOES. — In general, potatoes are stored or preserved in pits, cellars, pies, or camps; but, whatever mode is adopted, it is essential that the tubers be perfectly dry; otherwise, they will surely rot; and a few rotten potatoes will contaminate a whole mass. The pie, as it is called, consists of a trench, lined and covered with straw; the potatoes in it being piled in the shape of a house roof, to the height of about three feet. The camps are shallow pits, filled and ridged up in a similar manner, covered up with the excavated mould of the pit. In Russia and Canada, the potato is preserved in boxes, in houses or cellars, heated, when necessary, to a temperature one or two degrees above the freezing-point, by stoves. To keep potatoes for a considerable time, the best way is to place them in thin layers on a platform suspended in an ice-cellar: there, the temperature being always below that of active vegetation, they will not sprout; while, not being above one or two degrees below the freezing-point, the tubers will not be frostbitten. Another mode is to scoop out the eyes with a very small scoop, and keep the roots buried in earth; a third mode is to destroy the vital principle, by kiln-drying, steaming, or scalding; a fourth is to bury them so deep in dry soil, that no change of temperature will reach them; and thus, being without air, they will remain upwards of a year without vegetating.

Potatoes a La Maitre D’hotel.

1144. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes, salt and water; to every 6 potatoes allow 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Wash the potatoes clean, and boil them in salt and water by recipe No. 1138; when they are done, drain them, let them cool; then peel and cut the potatoes into thick slices: if these are too thin, they would break in the sauce. Put the butter into a stewpan with the pepper, salt, gravy, and parsley; mix these ingredients well together, put in the potatoes, shake them two or three times, that they may be well covered with the sauce, and, when quite hot through, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour to boil the potatoes; 10 minutes for them to heat in the sauce.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient for 3 persons. Seasonable all the year.

Mashed Potatoes.

1145. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes; to every lb. of mashed potatoes allow 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, salt to taste.

Mode. — Boil the potatoes in their skins; when done, drain them, and let them get thoroughly dry by the side of the fire; then peel them, and, as they are peeled, put them into a clean saucepan, and with a large fork beat them to a light paste; add butter, milk, and salt in the above proportion, and stir all the ingredients well over the fire. When thoroughly hot, dish them lightly, and draw the fork backwards over the potatoes to make the surface rough, and serve. When dressed in this manner, they may be browned at the top with a salamander, or before the fire. Some cooks press the potatoes into moulds, then turn them out, and brown them in the oven: this is a pretty mode of serving, but it makes them heavy. In whatever way they are sent to table, care must be taken to have them quite free from lumps.

Time. — From 1/2 to 3/4 hour to boil the potatoes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient — 1 lb. of mashed potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Puree De Pommes De Terre, or, Very Thin-mashed Potatoes.

1146. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of mashed potatoes allow 1/4 pint of good broth or stock, 2 oz. of butter.

Mode. — Boil the potatoes, well drain them, and pound them smoothly in a mortar, or beat them up with a fork; add the stock or broth, and rub the potatoes through a sieve. Put the puree into a very clean saucepan with the butter; stir it well over the fire until thoroughly hot, and it will then be ready to serve. A puree should be rather thinner than mashed potatoes, and is a delicious accompaniment to delicately broiled mutton cutlets. Cream or milk may be substituted for the broth when the latter is not at hand. A casserole of potatoes, which is often used for ragoûts instead of rice, is made by mashing potatoes rather thickly, placing them on a dish, and making an opening in the centre. After having browned the potatoes in the oven, the dish should be wiped clean, and the ragout or fricassée poured in.

Time. — About 1/2 hour to boil the potatoes; 6 or 7 minutes to warm the purée.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 lb. of cooked potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

VARIETIES OF THE POTATO. — These are very numerous. “They differ,” says an authority, “in their leaves and bulk of haulm; in the colour of the skin of the tubers; in the colour of the interior, compared with that of the skin; in the time of ripening; in being farinaceous, glutinous, or watery; in tasting agreeably or disagreeably; in cooking readily or tediously; in the length of the subterraneous stolones to which the tubers are attached; in blossoming or not blossoming; and finally, in the soil which they prefer.” The earliest varieties grown in fields are — the Early Kidney, the Nonsuch, the Early Shaw, and the Early Champion. This last is the most generally cultivated round London: it is both mealy and hardy. The sweet potato is but rarely eaten in Britain; but in America it is often served at table, and is there very highly esteemed.

Potato Rissoles.

1147. INGREDIENTS. — Mashed potatoes, salt and pepper to taste; when liked, a very little minced parsley, egg, and bread crumbs.

Mode. — Boil and mash the potatoes by recipe No. 1145; add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and, when liked, a little minced parsley. Roll the potatoes into small balls, cover them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot lard for about 10 minutes; let them drain before the fire, dish them on a napkin, and serve.

Time — 10 minutes to fry the rissoles.

Seasonable at any time.

Note. — The flavour of these rissoles may be very much increased by adding finely-minced tongue or ham, or even chopped onions, when these are liked.

QUALITIES OF POTATOES. — In making a choice from the many varieties of potatoes which are everywhere found, the best way is to get a sample and taste them, and then fix upon the kind which best pleases your palate. The Shaw is one of the most esteemed of the early potatoes for field culture; and the Kidney and Bread-fruit are also good sorts. The Lancashire Pink is also a good potato, and is much cultivated in the neighbourhood of Liverpool. As late or long-keeping potatoes, the Tartan or Red-apple stands very high in favour.

Potato Snow.

1148. INGREDIENTS. — Potatoes, salt, and water.

Mode. — Choose large white potatoes, as free from spots as possible; boil them in their skins in salt and water until perfectly tender; drain and dry them thoroughly by the side of the fire, and peel them. Put a hot dish before the fire, rub the potatoes through a coarse sieve on to this dish; do not touch them afterwards, or the flakes will fall, and serve as hot as possible.

Time. — 1/2 to 3/4 hour to boil the potatoes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient — 6 potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

THE POTATO AS AN ARTICLE OF HUMAN FOOD. — This valuable esculent, next to wheat, is of the greatest importance in the eye of the political economist. From no other crop that can be cultivated does the public derive so much benefit; and it has been demonstrated that an acre of potatoes will feed double the number of people that can be fed from an acre of wheat.

To Dress Salsify.

1149. INGREDIENTS. — Salsify; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Scrape the roots gently, so as to strip them only of their outside peel; cut them into pieces about 4 inches long, and, as they are peeled, throw them into water with which has been mixed a little lemon-juice, to prevent their discolouring. Put them into boiling water, with salt, butter, and lemon-juice in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender; try them with a fork; and, when it penetrates easily, they are done. Drain the salsify, and serve with a good white sauce or French melted butter.

Time. — 30 to 50 minutes. Seasonable in winter.

Note. — This vegetable may be also boiled, sliced, and fried in batter of a nice brown. When crisp and a good colour, they should be served with fried parsley in the centre of the dish, and a little fine salt sprinkled over the salsify.

SALSIFY. — This esculent is, for the sake of its roots, cultivated in gardens. It belongs to the Composite class of flowers, which is the most extensive family in the vegetable kingdom. This family is not only one of the most natural and most uniform in structure, but there is also a great similarity existing in the properties of the plants of which it is composed. Generally speaking, all composite flowers are tonic or stimulant in their medical virtues.

Boiled Sea-Kale.

1150. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Well wash the kale, cut away any wormeaten pieces, and tie it into small bunches; put it into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let it boil quickly until tender. Take it out, drain, untie the bunches, and serve with plain melted butter or white sauce, a little of which may be poured over the kale. Sea-kale may also be parboiled and stewed in good brown gravy: it will then take about 1/2 hour altogether.

Time. — 15 minutes; when liked very thoroughly done, allow an extra 5 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient. — Allow 12 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from February to June.

SEA-KALE. — This plant belongs to the Asparagus tribe, and grows on seashores, especially in the West of England, and in the neighbourhood of Dublin. Although it is now in very general use, it did not come into repute till 1794. It is easily cultivated, and is esteemed as one of the most valuable esculents indigenous to Britain. As a vegetable, it is stimulating to the appetite, easily digestible, and nutritious. It is so light that the most delicate organizations may readily eat it. The flowers form a favourite resort for bees, as their petals contain a great amount of saccharine matter.

Boiled Salad.

1151. INGREDIENTS. — 2 heads of celery, 1 pint of French beans, lettuce, and endive.

Mode. — Boil the celery and beans separately until tender, and cut the celery into pieces about 2 inches long. Put these into a salad-bowl or dish; pour over either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508, and garnish the dish with a little lettuce finely chopped, blanched endive, or a few tufts of boiled cauliflower. This composition, if less agreeable than vegetables in their raw state, is more wholesome; for salads, however they may be compounded, when eaten uncooked, prove to some people indigestible. Tarragon, chervil, burnet, and boiled onion, may be added to the above salad with advantage, as also slices of cold meat, poultry, or fish.

Seasonable from July to October.

ACETARIOUS VEGETABLES. — By the term Acetarious vegetables, is expressed a numerous class of plants, of various culture and habit, which are principally used as salads, pickles, and condiments. They are to be considered rather as articles of comparative luxury than as ordinary food, and are more desirable for their coolness, or their agreeable flavour, than for their nutritive powers.

CAULIFLOWER. — The cauliflower is less indigestible than the cabbage; it possesses a most agreeable flavour, and is sufficiently delicate to be served at the tables of the wealthy. It is a wholesome vegetable, but should be eaten moderately, as it induces flatulence. Persons of weak constitutions and delicate stomachs should abstain from cauliflower as much as possible. They may be prepared in a variety of ways; and, in selecting them, the whitest should be chosen; those tinged with green or yellow being of indifferent quality.

Summer Salad.

1152. INGREDIENTS. — 3 lettuces, 2 handfuls of mustard-and-cress, 10 young radishes, a few slices of cucumber.

Mode. — Let the herbs be as fresh as possible for a salad, and, if at all stale or dead-looking, let them lie in water for an hour or two, which will very much refresh them. Wash and carefully pick them over, remove any decayed or wormeaten leaves, and drain them thoroughly by swinging them gently in a clean cloth. With a silver knife, cut the lettuces into small pieces, and the radishes and cucumbers into thin slices; arrange all these ingredients lightly on a dish, with the mustard-and-cress, and pour under, but not over the salad, either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508, and do not stir it up until it is to be eaten. It may be garnished with hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices, sliced cucumbers, nasturtiums, cut vegetable-flowers, and many other things that taste will always suggest to make a pretty and elegant dish. In making a good salad, care must be taken to have the herbs freshly gathered, and thoroughly drained before the sauce is added to them, or it will be watery and thin. Young spring onions, cut small, are by many persons considered an improvement to salads; but, before these are added, the cook should always consult the taste of her employer. Slices of cold meat or poultry added to a salad make a convenient and quickly-made summer luncheon-dish; or cold fish, flaked, will also be found exceedingly nice, mixed with it.

Average cost, 9d. for a salad for 5 or 6 persons; but more expensive when the herbs are forced.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from May to September.

CUCUMBERS. — The cucumber is refreshing, but neither nutritious nor digestible, and should be excluded from the regimen of the delicate. There are various modes of preparing cucumbers. When gathered young, they are called gherkins: these, pickled, are much used in seasonings.

RADISHES. — This is the common name given to the root of the Raphanus satious, one of the varieties of the cultivated horseradish. There are red and white radishes; and the French have also what they call violet and black ones, of which the black are the larger. Radishes are composed of nearly the same constituents as turnips, that is to say, mostly fibre and nitrogen; and, being generally eaten raw, it is on the last of these that their flavour depends. They do not agree with people, except those who are in good health, and have active digestive powers; for they are difficult of digestion, and cause flatulency and wind, and are the cause of headaches when eaten to excess. Besides being eaten raw, they are sometimes, but rarely, boiled; and they also serve as a pretty garnish for salads. In China, the radish may be found growing naturally, without cultivation; and may be occasionally met with in England as a weed, in similar places to where the wild turnip grows; it, however, thrives best in the garden, and the ground it likes best is a deep open loam, or a well-manured sandy soil.

Winter Salad.

1153. INGREDIENTS. — Endive, mustard-and-cress, boiled beetroot, 3 or 4 hard-boiled eggs, celery.

Mode. — The above ingredients form the principal constituents of a winter salad, and may be converted into a very pretty dish, by nicely contrasting the various colours, and by tastefully garnishing it. Shred the celery into thin pieces, after having carefully washed and cut away all wormeaten pieces; cleanse the endive and mustard-and-cress free from grit, and arrange these high in the centre of a salad-bowl or dish; garnish with the hard-boiled eggs and beetroot, both of which should be cut in slices; and pour into the dish, but not over the salad, either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508. Never dress a salad long before it is required for table, as, by standing, it loses its freshness and pretty crisp and light appearance; the sauce, however, may always be prepared a few hours beforehand, and when required for use, the herbs laid lightly over it.

Average cost, 9d. for a salad for 5 or 6 persons.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from the end of September to March.

SALADS. — Salads are raw vegetables, of which, among us, the lettuce is the most generally used; several others, however, such as cresses, celery, onions, beetroot, &c., are occasionally employed. As vegetables eaten in a raw state are apt to ferment on the stomach, and as they have very little stimulative power upon that organ, they are usually dressed with some condiments, such as pepper, vinegar, salt, mustard, and oil. Respecting the use of these, medical men disagree, especially in reference to oil, which is condemned by some and recommended by others.

Potato Salad.

1154. INGREDIENTS. — 10 or 12 cold boiled potatoes, 4 tablespoonfuls of tarragon or plain vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, pepper and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Mode. — Cut the potatoes into slices about 1/2 inch in thickness; put these into a salad-bowl with oil and vinegar in the above proportion; season with pepper, salt, and a teaspoonful of minced parsley; stir the salad well, that all the ingredients may be thoroughly incorporated, and it is ready to serve. This should be made two or three hours before it is wanted for table. Anchovies, olives, or pickles may be added to this salad, as also slices of cold beef, fowl, or turkey.

Seasonable at any time.

Chicken Salad. —(See No. 931.)
Grouse Salad. —(See No. 1020.)
Lobster Salad. —(See No. 272.)
To Boil Spinach (English Mode).

1155. INGREDIENTS. — 2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 oz. of butter, pepper to taste.

Mode. — Pick the spinach carefully, and see that no stalks or weeds are left amongst it; wash it in several waters, and, to prevent it being gritty, act in the following manner:— Have ready two large pans or tubs filled with water; put the spinach into one of these, and thoroughly wash it; then, with the hands, take out the spinach, and put it into the other tub of water (by this means all the grit will be left at the bottom of the tub); wash it again, and, should it not be perfectly free from dirt, repeat the process. Put it into a very large saucepan, with about 1/2 pint of water, just sufficient to keep the spinach from burning, and the above proportion of salt. Press it down frequently with a wooden spoon, that it may be done equally; and when it has boiled for rather more than 10 minutes, or until it is perfectly tender, drain it in a colander, squeeze it quite dry, and chop it finely. Put the spinach into a clean stewpan, with the butter and a seasoning of pepper; stir the whole over the fire until quite hot; then put it on a hot dish, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach, 5 minutes to warm with the butter.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from November to March.

Note. — Grated nutmeg, pounded mace, or lemon-juice may also be added to enrich the flavour; and poached eggs are also frequently served with spinach: they should be placed on the top of it, and it should be garnished with sippets of toasted bread. — See coloured plate U.

VARIETIES OF SPINACH. — These comprise the Strawberry spinach, which, under that name, was wont to be grown in our flower-gardens; the Good King Harry, the Garden Oracle, the Prickly, and the Round, are the varieties commonly used. The Oracle is a hardy sort, much esteemed in France, and is a native of Tartary, introduced in 1548. The common spinach has its leaves round, and is softer and more succulent than any of the Brassica tribe.

Spinach Dressed with Cream, a la Francaise.

1156. INGREDIENTS. — 2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 oz. of butter, 8 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 small teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Boil and drain the spinach as in recipe No. 1155; chop it finely, and put it into a stewpan with the butter; stir over a gentle fire, and, when the butter has dried away, add the remaining ingredients, and simmer for about 5 minutes. Previously to adding the cream, boil it first, in case it should curdle. Serve on a hot dish, and garnish either with sippets of toasted bread or leaves of puff-paste.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach; 10 minutes to stew with the cream.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from November to March.

SPINACH. — This is a Persian plant. It has been cultivated in our gardens about two hundred years, and is the most wholesome of vegetables. It is not very nutritious, but is very easily digested. It is very light and laxative. Wonderful properties have been ascribed to spinach. It is an excellent vegetable, and very beneficial to health. Plainly dressed, it is a resource for the poor; prepared luxuriantly, it is a choice dish for the rich.

SPINACH. — This vegetable belongs to a sub-order of the Salsolaceae, or saltworts, and is classified under the head of Spirolobeae, with leaves shaped like worms, and of a succulent kind. In its geographical distribution it is commonly found in extratropical and temperate regions, where they grow as weeds in waste places, and among rubbish, and in marshes by the seashore. In the tropics the order is rarely found. Many of them are used as potherbs, and some of them are emetic and vermifuge in their medicinal properties.

French Mode of Dressing Spinach.

1157. INGREDIENTS. — 2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 8 tablespoonfuls of good gravy; when liked, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Pick, wash, and boil the spinach, as in recipe No. 1155, and when quite tender, drain and squeeze it perfectly dry from the water that hangs about it. Chop it very fine, put the butter into a stewpan, and lay the spinach over that; stir it over a gentle fire, and dredge in the flour. Add the gravy, and let it boil quickly for a few minutes, that it may not discolour. When the flavour of nutmeg is liked, grate some to the spinach, and when thoroughly hot, and the gravy has dried away a little, serve. Garnish the dish with sippets of toasted bread.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach; 10 minutes to simmer in the gravy.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from October to February.

Note. — For an entremets or second-course dish, spinach, dressed by the above recipe may be pressed into a hot mould; it should then be turned out quickly, and served very hot.

Baked Tomatoes.

(Excellent.)

1158. INGREDIENTS. — 8 or 10 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, bread crumbs.

Mode. — Take off the stalks from the tomatoes; cut them into thick slices, and put them into a deep baking-dish; add a plentiful seasoning of pepper and salt, and butter in the above proportion; cover the whole with bread crumbs; drop over these a little clarified butter; bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, and serve very hot. This vegetable, dressed as above, is an exceedingly nice accompaniment to all kinds of roast meat. The tomatoes, instead of being cut in slices, may be baked whole; but they will take rather longer time to cook.

Time. — 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October; but may be had, forced, much earlier.

TOMATOES. — The Tomato is a native of tropical countries, but is now cultivated considerably both in France and England. Its skin is of a brilliant red, and its flavour, which is somewhat sour, has become of immense importance in the culinary art. It is used both fresh and preserved. When eaten fresh, it is served as an entremets; but its principal use is in sauce and gravy; its flavour stimulates the appetite, and is almost universally approved. The Tomato is a wholesome fruit, and digests easily. From July to September, they gather the tomatoes green in France, not breaking them away from the stalk; they are then hung, head downwards, in a dry and not too cold place; and there they ripen.

Hot Tomato Sauce, or Puree of Tomatoes.

(See No. 529.)

Stewed Tomatoes.
I.

1159. INGREDIENTS. — 8 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode. — Slice the tomatoes into a lined saucepan; season them with pepper and salt, and place small pieces of butter on them. Cover the lid down closely, and stew from 20 to 25 minutes, or until the tomatoes are perfectly tender; add the vinegar, stir two or three times, and serve with any kind of roast meat, with which they will be found a delicious accompaniment.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from August to October; but may be had, forced, much earlier.

ANALYSIS OF THE TOMATO. — The fruit of the love-apple is the only part used as an esculent, and it has been found to contain a particular acid, a volatile oil, a brown, very fragrant extracto-resinous matter, a vegeto-mineral matter, muco-saccharine, some salts, and, in all probability, an alkaloid. The whole plant has a disagreeable odour, and its juice, subjected to the action of the fire, emits a vapour so powerful as to cause vertigo and vomiting.

II.

1160. INGREDIENTS. — 8 tomatoes, about 1/2 pint of good gravy, thickening of butter and flour, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode. — Take out the stalks of the tomatoes; put them into a wide stewpan, pour over them the above proportion of good brown gravy, and stew gently until they are tender, occasionally carefully turning them, that they may be equally done. Thicken the gravy with a little butter and flour worked together on a plate; let it just boil up after the thickening is added, and serve. If it be at hand, these should be served on a silver or plated vegetable-dish.

Time. — 20 to 25 minutes, very gentle stewing.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October; but maybe had, forced, much earlier.

THE TOMATO, OR LOVE-APPLE. — This vegetable is a native of Mexico and South America, but is also found in the East Indies, where it is supposed to have been introduced by the Spaniards. In this country it is much more cultivated than it formerly was; and the more the community becomes acquainted with the many agreeable forms in which the fruit can be prepared, the more widely will its cultivation be extended. For ketchup, soups, and sauces, it is equally applicable, and the unripe fruit makes one of the best pickles.

Truffles Au Naturel.

1161. INGREDIENTS. — Truffles, buttered paper.

Mode. — Select some fine truffles; cleanse them, by washing them in several waters with a brush, until not a particle of sand or grit remains on them; wrap each truffle in buttered paper, and bake in a hot oven for quite an hour; take off the paper, wipe the truffles, and serve them in a hot napkin.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost. — Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

THE COMMON TRUFFLE. — This is the Tuber cibarium of science, and belongs to that numerous class of esculent fungi distinguished from other vegetables not only by the singularity of their forms, but by their chemical composition. Upon analysis, they are found not only to contain the usual components of the vegetable kingdom, such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, but likewise a large proportion of nitrogen; from which they approach more nearly to the nature of animal flesh. It was long ago observed by Dr. Darwin, that all the mushrooms cooked at our tables, as well as those used for ketchup, possessed an animal flavour; and soup enriched by mushrooms only has sometimes been supposed to contain meat.

To Dress Truffles with Champagne.

1162. INGREDIENTS. — 12 fine black truffles, a few slices of fat bacon, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 2 onions, a bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1 bay-leaf, 2 cloves, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 glasses of champagne, 1/2 pint of stock.

Mode. — Carefully select the truffles, reject those that have a musty smell, and wash them well with a brush, in cold water only, until perfectly clean. Put the bacon into a stewpan, with the truffles and the remaining ingredients; simmer these gently for an hour, and let the whole cool in the stewpan. When to be served, rewarm them, and drain them on a clean cloth; then arrange them on a delicately white napkin, that it may contrast as strongly as possible with the truffles, and serve. The trimmings of truffles are used to flavour gravies, stock, sauces, &c.; and are an excellent addition to ragouts, made dishes of fowl, &c.

Time. — 1 hour. Average cost. — Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

THE TRUFFLE. — The Truffle belongs to the family of the Mushroom. It is certain that the truffle must possess, equally with other plants, organs of reproduction; yet, notwithstanding all the efforts of art and science, it has been impossible to subject it to a regular culture. Truffles grow at a considerable depth under the earth, never appearing on the surface. They are found in many parts of France: those of Périgord Magny are the most esteemed for their odour. There are three varieties of the species — the black, the red, and the white: the latter are of little value. The red are very rare, and their use is restricted. The black has the highest repute, and its consumption is enormous. When the peasantry go to gather truffles, they take a pig with them to scent out the spot where they grow. When that is found, the pig turns up the surface with his snout, and the men then dig until they find the truffles. Good truffles are easily distinguished by their agreeable perfume; they should be light in proportion to their size, and elastic when pressed by the finger. To have them in perfection, they should be quite fresh, as their aroma is considerably diminished by any conserving process. Truffles are stimulating and beating. Weak stomachs digest them with difficulty. Some of the culinary uses to which they are subjected render them more digestible; but they should always be eaten sparingly. Their chief use is in seasoning and garnitures. In short, a professor has said, “Meats with truffles are the most distinguished dishes that opulence can offer to the epicure.” The Truffle grows in clusters, some inches below the surface of the soil, and is of an irregular globular form. Those which grow wild in England are about the size of a hen’s egg, and have no roots. As there is nothing to indicate the places where they are, dogs have been trained to discriminate their scent, by which they are discovered. Hogs are very fond of them, and frequently lead to their being found, from their rutting up the ground in search of them.

Italian Mode of Dressing Truffles.

1163. INGREDIENTS. — 10 truffles, 1/4 pint of salad-oil, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, a very little finely-minced garlic, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode. — After cleansing and brushing the truffles, cut them into thin slices, and put them in a baking-dish, on a seasoning of oil, pepper, salt, parsley, garlic, and mace in the above proportion. Bake them for nearly an hour, and, just before serving, add the lemon-juice, and send them to table very hot.

Time. — Nearly 1 hour.

Average cost. — Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

WHERE TRUFFLES ARE FOUND. — In this country, the common truffle is found on the downs of Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Kent; and they abound in dry light soils, and more especially in oak and chestnut forests. In France they are plentiful, and many are imported from the south of that country and Italy, where they are much larger and in greater perfection: they lose, however, much of their flavour by drying. Truffles have in England been tried to be propagated artificially, but without success.

Truffles a L’italienne.

1164. INGREDIENTS. — 10 truffles, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of good brown gravy, the juice of 1/2 lemon, cayenne to taste.

Mode. — Wash the truffles and cut them into slices about the size of a penny-piece; put them into a sauté pan, with the parsley, shalot, salt, pepper, and 1 oz. of butter; stir them over the fire, that they may all be equally done, which will be in about 10 minutes, and drain off some of the butter; then add a little more fresh butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, the juice of 1/2 lemon, and a little cayenne; stir over the fire until the whole is on the point of boiling, when serve.

Time. — Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost. — Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

USES OF THE TRUFFLE. — Like the Morel, truffles are seldom eaten alone, but are much used in gravies, soups, and ragoûts. They are likewise dried for the winter months, and, when reduced to powder, form a useful culinary ingredient; they, however, have many virtues attributed to them which they do not possess. Their wholesomeness is, perhaps, questionable, and they should be eaten with moderation.

Boiled Turnips.

1165. INGREDIENTS. — Turnips; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — Pare the turnips, and, should they be very large, divide them into quarters; but, unless this is the case, let them be cooked whole. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil gently until tender. Try them with a fork, and, when done, take them up in a colander; let them thoroughly drain, and serve. Boiled turnips are usually sent to table with boiled mutton, but are infinitely nicer when mashed than served whole: unless nice and young, they are scarcely worth the trouble of dressing plainly as above.

Time. — Old turnips, 3/4 to 1–1/4 hour; young ones, about 18 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient. — Allow a bunch of 12 turnips for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable. — May be had all the year; but in spring only useful for flavouring gravies, &c.

THE TURNIP. — This vegetable is the Brassica Rapa of science, and grows wild in England, but cannot be brought exactly to resemble what it becomes in a cultivated state. It is said to have been originally introduced from Hanover, and forms an excellent culinary vegetable, much used all over Europe, where it is either eaten alone or mashed and cooked in soups and stews. They do not thrive in a hot climate; for in India they, and many more of our garden vegetables, lose their flavour and become comparatively tasteless. The Swede is the largest variety, but it is too coarse for the table.

Mashed Turnips.

1166. INGREDIENTS. — 10 or 12 large turnips; to each 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 2 oz. of butter, cayenne or white pepper to taste.

Mode. — Pare the turnips, quarter them, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion; boil them until tender; then drain them in a colander, and squeeze them as dry as possible by pressing them with the back of a large plate. When quite free from water, rub the turnips with a wooden spoon through the colander, and put them into a very clean saucepan; add the butter, white pepper, or cayenne, and, if necessary, a little salt. Keep stirring them over the fire until the butter is well mixed with them, and the turnips are thoroughly hot; dish, and serve. A little cream or milk added after the turnips are pressed through the colander, is an improvement to both the colour and flavour of this vegetable.

Time. — From 1/2 to 3/4 hour to boil the turnips; 10 minutes to warm them through.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable. — May be had all the year; but in spring only good for flavouring gravies.

VEGETABLES REDUCED TO PURÉE. — Persons in the flower of youth, having healthy stomachs, and leading active lives, may eat all sorts of vegetables, without inconvenience, save, of course, in excess. The digestive functions possess great energy during the period of youth: the body, to develop itself, needs nourishment. Physical exercise gives an appetite, which it is necessary to satisfy, and vegetables cannot resist the vigorous action of the gastric organs. As old proverb says, “At twenty one can digest iron.” But for aged persons, the sedentary, or the delicate, it is quite otherwise. Then the gastric power has considerably diminished, the digestive organs have lost their energy, the process of digestion is consequently slower, and the least excess at table is followed by derangement of the stomach for several days. Those who generally digest vegetables with difficulty, should eat them reduced to a pulp or purée, that is to say, with their skins and tough fibres removed. Subjected to this process, vegetables which, when entire, would create flatulence and wind, are then comparatively harmless. Experience has established the rule, that nourishment is not complete without the alliance of meat with vegetables. We would also add, that the regime most favourable to health is found in variety: variety pleases the senses, monotony is disagreeable. The eye is fatigued by looking always on one object, the ear by listening to one sound, and the palate by tasting one flavour. It is the same with the stomach: consequently, variety of food is one of the essentials for securing good digestion.

German Mode of Cooking Turnips.

1167. INGREDIENTS. — 8 large turnips, 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, rather more than 1/2 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 tablespoonful of flour.

Mode. — Make the butter hot in a stewpan, lay in the turnips, after having pared and cut them into dice, and season them with pepper and salt. Toss them over the fire for a few minutes, then add the broth, and simmer the whole gently till the turnips are tender. Brown the above proportion of flour with a little butter; add this to the turnips, let them simmer another 5 minutes, and serve. Boiled mutton is usually sent to table with this vegetable, and may be cooked with the turnips by placing it in the midst of them: the meat would then be very delicious, as, there being so little liquid with the turnips, it would almost be steamed, and consequently very tender.

Time. — 20 minutes. Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable. — May be had all the year.

TURNIPS. — Good turnips are delicate in texture, firm, and sweet. The best sorts contain a sweet juicy mucilage, uniting with the aroma a slightly acid quality, which is completely neutralized in cooking. The turnip is prepared in a variety of ways. Ducks stuffed with turnips have been highly appreciated. It is useful in the regimen of persons afflicted with chronic visceral irritations. The turnip only creates flatulency when it is soft, porous, and stringy. It is then, consequently, bad.

Turnips in White Sauce.

(An Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course as a Side-dish.)

1168. INGREDIENTS. — 7 or 8 turnips, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of white sauce, No. 538 or 539.

Mode. — Peel and cut the turnips in the shape of pears or marbles; boil them in salt and water, to which has been added a little butter, until tender; then take them out, drain, arrange them on a dish, and pour over the white sauce made by recipe No. 538 or 539, and to which has been added a small lump of sugar. In winter, when other vegetables are scarce, this will be found a very good and pretty-looking dish: when approved, a little mustard may be added to the sauce.

Time. — About 3/4 hour to boil the turnips.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 1 side-dish. Seasonable in winter.

THE FRENCH NAVET. — This is a variety of the turnip; but, instead of being globular, has more the shape of the carrot. Its flavour being excellent, it is much esteemed on the Continent for soups and made dishes. Two or three of them will impart as much flavour as a dozen of the common turnips will. Accordingly, when stewed in gravy, they are greatly relished. This flavour resides in the rind, which is not cut off, but scraped. This variety was once grown in England, but now it is rarely found in our gardens, though highly deserving of a place there. It is of a yellowish-white colour, and is sometimes imported to the London market.

Boiled Turnip Greens.

1169. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; turnip-greens.

Mode. — Wash the greens well in two or three waters, and pick off all the decayed and dead leaves; tie them in small bunches, and put them into plenty of boiling water, salted in the above proportion. Keep them boiling quickly, with the lid of the saucepan uncovered, and when tender, pour them into a colander; let them drain, arrange them in a vegetable-dish, remove the string that the greens were tied with, and serve.

Time. — 15 to 20 minutes. Average cost, 4d. for a dish for 3 persons.

Seasonable in March, April, and May.

CABBAGE, TURNIP-TOPS, AND GREENS. — All the cabbage tribe, which comprises coleworts, brocoli, cauliflower, sprouts, and turnip-tops, in order to be delicate, should be dressed young, when they have a rapid growth; but, if they have stood the summer, in order to be tender, they should be allowed to have a touch of frost. The cabbage contains much vegetable albumen, and several parts sulphur and nitrate of potass. Cabbage is heavy, and a long time digesting, which has led to a belief that it is very nourishing. It is only fit food for robust and active persons; the sedentary or delicate should carefully avoid it. Cabbage may be prepared in a variety of ways: it serves as a garniture to several recherché dishes — partridge and cabbage for example. Bacon and cabbage is a very favourite dish; but only a good stomach can digest it.

Boiled Vegetable Marrow.

1170. INGREDIENTS. — To each 1/2 gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; vegetable marrows.

Mode. — Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put in the marrows after peeling them, and boil them until quite tender. Take them up with a slice, halve, and, should they be very large, quarter them. Dish them on toast, and send to table with them a tureen of melted butter, or, in lieu of this, a small pat of salt butter. Large vegetable marrows may be preserved throughout the winter by storing them in a dry place; when wanted for use, a few slices should be cut and boiled in the same manner as above; but, when once begun, the marrow must be eaten quickly, as it keeps but a short time after it is cut. Vegetable marrows are also very delicious mashed: they should be boiled, then drained, and mashed smoothly with a wooden spoon. Heat them in a saucepan, add a seasoning of salt and pepper, and a small piece of butter, and dish with a few sippets of toasted bread placed round as a garnish.

Time. — Young vegetable marrows 10 to 20 minutes; old ones, 1/2 to 3/4 hour.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient. — Allow 1 moderate-sized marrow for each person.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be preserved all the winter.

Fried Vegetable Marrow.

1171. INGREDIENTS. — 3 medium-sized vegetable marrows, egg and bread crumbs, hot lard.

Mode. — Peel, and boil the marrows until tender in salt and water; then drain them and cut them in quarters, and take out the seeds. When thoroughly drained, brush the marrows over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs; have ready some hot lard, fry the marrow in this, and, when of a nice brown, dish; sprinkle over a little salt and pepper, and serve.

Time. — About 1/2 hour to boil the marrow, 7 minutes to fry it.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

THE VEGETABLE MARROW. — This vegetable is now extensively used, and belongs to the Cucurbits. It is the C. ovifera of science, and, like the melon, gourd, cucumber, and squash, is widely diffused in the tropical or warmer regions of the globe. Of the nature of this family we have already spoken when treating of the cucumber.

Cut Vegetables for Soups, &c.

1172. The annexed engraving represents a cutter for shaping vegetables for soups, ragouts, stews, &c.; carrots and turnips being the usual vegetables for which this utensil is used. Cut the vegetables into slices about 1/4 inch in thickness, stamp them out with the cutter, and boil them for a few minutes in salt and water, until tender. Turnips should be cut in rather thicker slices than carrots, on account of the former boiling more quickly to a pulp than the latter.

CARROTS. — Several species of carrots are cultivated — the red, the yellow, and the orange. Those known as the Crecy carrots are considered the best, and are very sweet. The carrot has been classed by hygienists among flatulent vegetables, and as difficult of digestion. When the root becomes old, it is almost as hard as wood; but the young carrot, which has not reached its full growth, is tender, relishing, nutritious, and digests well when properly cooked.

Vegetable Marrows in White Sauce.

1173. INGREDIENTS. — 4 or 5 moderate-sized marrows, 1/2 pint of white sauce, No. 539.

Mode. — Pare the marrows; cut them in halves, and shape each half at the top in a point, leaving the bottom end flat for it to stand upright in the dish. Boil the marrows in salt and water until tender; take them up very carefully, and arrange them on a hot dish. Have ready 1/2 pint of white sauce, made by recipe No. 539; pour this over the marrows, and serve.

Time. — From 15 to 20 minutes to boil the marrows.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

Boiled Indian Wheat or Maize.

1174. INGREDIENTS. — The ears of young and green Indian wheat; to every 1/2 gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode. — This vegetable, which makes one of the most delicious dishes brought to table, is unfortunately very rarely seen in Britain; and we wonder that, in the gardens of the wealthy, it is not invariably cultivated. Our sun, it is true, possesses hardly power sufficient to ripen maize; but, with well-prepared ground, and in a favourable position, it might be sufficiently advanced by the beginning of autumn to serve as a vegetable. The outside sheath being taken off and the waving fibres removed, let the ears be placed in boiling water, where they should remain for about 25 minutes (a longer time may be necessary for larger ears than ordinary); and, when sufficiently boiled and well drained, they may be sent to table whole, and with a piece of toast underneath them. Melted butter should be served with them.

Time. — 25 to 35 minutes. Average cost. — Seldom bought.

Sufficient — 1 ear for each person. Seasonable in autumn.

Note. — William Cobbett, the English radical writer and politician, was a great cultivator and admirer of maize, and constantly ate it as a vegetable, boiled. We believe he printed a special recipe for it, but we have been unable to lay our hands on it. Mr. Buchanan, the present president of the United States, was in the habit, when ambassador here, of receiving a supply of Indian corn from America in hermetically-sealed cases; and the publisher of this work remembers, with considerable satisfaction, his introduction to a dish of this vegetable, when in America. He found it to combine the excellences of the young green pea and the finest asparagus; but he felt at first slightly awkward in holding the large ear with one hand, whilst the other had to be employed in cutting off with a knife the delicate green grains.

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Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31