The Book of Household Management, by Isabella Beeton

Chapter XIX.

Recipes.

Baked Veal (Cold Meat Cookery).

856. INGREDIENTS. — 1/2 lb. of cold roast veal, a few slices of bacon, 1 pint of bread crumbs, 1/2 pint of good veal gravy, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 blade of pounded mace, cayenne and salt to taste, 4 eggs.

Mode. — Mince finely the veal and bacon; add the bread crumbs, gravy, and seasoning, and stir these ingredients well together. Beat up the eggs thoroughly; add these, mix the whole well together, put into a dish, and bake from 3/4 to 1 hour. When liked, a little good gravy may be served in a tureen as an accompaniment.

Time. — From 3/4 to 1 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Roast Breast of Veal.

857. INGREDIENTS. — Veal; a little flour.

Mode. — Wash the veal, well wipe it, and dredge it with flour; put it down to a bright fire, not too near, as it should not be scorched. Baste it plentifully until done; dish it, pour over the meat some good melted butter, and send to table with it a piece of boiled bacon and a cut lemon.

Time. — From 1–1/2 to 2 hours.

Average cost, 8–1/2d. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Stewed Breast of Veal and Peas.

858. INGREDIENTS. — Breast of veal, 2 oz. of butter, a bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley; 2 blades of pounded mace, 2 cloves, 5 or 6 young onions, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 6 allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful of salt, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, green peas.

Mode. — Cut the breast in half, after removing the bone underneath, and divide the meat into convenient-sized pieces. Put the butter into a frying-pan, lay in the pieces of veal, and fry until of a nice brown colour. Now place these in a stewpan with the herbs, mace, cloves, onions, lemon-peel, allspice, and seasoning; pour over them just sufficient boiling water to cover the meat; well close the lid, and let the whole simmer very gently for about 2 hours. Strain off as much gravy as is required, thicken it with butter and flour, add the remaining ingredients, skim well, let it simmer for about 10 minutes, then pour it over the meat. Have ready some green peas, boiled separately; sprinkle these over the veal, and serve. It may be garnished with forcemeat balls, or rashers of bacon curled and fried. Instead of cutting up the meat, many persons prefer it dressed whole; — in that case it should be half-roasted before the water, &c. are put to it.

Time. — 2–1/4 hours. Average cost, 8–1/2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

BREEDING OF CALVES. — The forwarding of calves to maturity, whether intended to be reared for stock, or brought to an early market as veal, is always a subject of great importance, and requires a considerable amount of intelligence in the selection of the best course, to adopt for either end. When meant to be reared as stock, the breeding should be so arranged that the cow shall calve about the middle of May. As our subject, however, has more immediate reference to the calf as meat than as stock, we shall confine our remarks to the mode of procedure adopted in the former case; and here, the first process adopted is that of weaning; which consists in separating the calf entirely from the cow, but, at the same time, rearing it on the mother’s milk. As the business of the dairy would be suspended if every cow were allowed to rear its young, and butter, cheese, and cream become desiderata — things to be desired, but not possessed, a system of economical husbandry becomes necessary, so as to retain our dairy produce, and yet, for some weeks at least, nourish the calf on its mother’s milk, but without allowing the animal to draw that supply for itself: this, with the proper substituted food on which to rear the young animal, is called weaning.

Veal Cake (a Convenient Dish for a Picnic).

859. INGREDIENTS. — A few slices of cold roast veal, a few slices of cold ham, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little pepper, good gravy.

Mode. — Cut off all the brown outside from the veal, and cut the eggs into slices. Procure a pretty mould; lay veal, ham, eggs, and parsley in layers, with a little pepper between each, and when the mould is full, get some strong stock, and fill up the shape. Bake for 1/2 hour, and when cold, turn it out.

Time. — 1/2 hour.

Seasonable at any time.

Boiled Calf’s Feet and Parsley and Butter.

860. INGREDIENTS. — 2 calf’s feet, 2 slices of bacon, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, 4 cloves, 1 blade of mace, water, parsley and butter No. 493.

Mode. — Procure 2 white calf’s feet; bone them as far as the first joint, and put them into warm water to soak for 2 hours. Then put the bacon, butter, lemon-juice, onion, herbs, spices, and seasoning into a stewpan; lay in the feet, and pour in just sufficient water to cover the whole. Stew gently for about 3 hours; take out the feet, dish them, and cover with parsley and butter, made by recipe No. 493. The liquor they were boiled in should be strained and put by in a clean basin for use: it will be found very good as an addition to gravies, &c. &c.

Time. — Rather more than 3 hours.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. each. Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

WHEN A CALF SHOULD BE KILLED. — The age at which a calf ought to be killed should not be under four weeks: before that time the flesh is certainly not wholesome, wanting firmness, due development of muscular fibre, and those animal juices on which the flavour and nutritive properties of the flesh depend, whatever the unhealthy palate of epicures may deem to the contrary. In France, a law exists to prevent the slaughtering of calves under six weeks of age. The calf is considered in prime condition at ten weeks, when he will weigh from sixteen to eighteen stone, and sometimes even twenty.

Fricasseed Calf’s Feet.

861. INGREDIENTS. — A set of calf’s feet; for the batter allow for each egg 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of bread crumbs, hot lard or clarified dripping, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — If the feet are purchased uncleaned, dip them into warm water repeatedly, and scrape off the hair, first one foot and then the other, until the skin looks perfectly clean, a saucepan of water being kept by the fire until they are finished. After washing and soaking in cold water, boil them in just sufficient water to cover them, until the bones come easily away. Then pick them out, and after straining the liquor into a clean vessel, put the meat into a pie-dish until the next day. Now cut it down in slices about 1/2 inch thick, lay on them a stiff batter made of egg, flour, and bread crumbs in the above proportion; season with pepper and salt, and plunge them into a pan of boiling lard. Fry the slices a nice brown, dry them before the fire for a minute or two, dish them on a napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. This should be eaten with melted butter, mustard, and vinegar. Be careful to have the lard boiling to set the batter, or the pieces of feet will run about the pan. The liquor they were boiled in should be saved, and will be found useful for enriching gravies, making jellies, &e. &e.

Time. — About 3 hours to stew the feet, 10 or 15 minutes to fry them.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. each.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — This dish can be highly recommended to delicate persons.

COLOUR OF VEAL. — As whiteness of flesh is considered a great advantage in veal, butchers, in the selection of their calves, are in the habit of examining the inside of its mouth, and noting the colour of the calf’s eyes; alleging that, from the signs they there see, they can prognosticate whether the veal will be white or florid.

Collared Calf’s Head.

862. INGREDIENTS. — A calf’s head, 4 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, 4 blades of pounded mace, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, white pepper to taste, a few thick slices of ham, the yolks of 6 eggs boiled hard.

Mode. — Scald the head for a few minutes; take it out of the water, and with a blunt knife scrape off all the hair. Clean it nicely, divide the head and remove the brains. Boil it tender enough to take out the bones, which will be in about 2 hours. When the head is boned, flatten it on the table, sprinkle over it a thick layer of parsley, then a layer of ham, and then the yolks of the eggs cut into thin rings and put a seasoning of pounded mace, nutmeg, and white pepper between each layer; roll the head up in a cloth, and tie it up as tightly as possible. Boil it for 4 hours, and when it is taken out of the pot, place a heavy weight on the top, the same as for other collars. Let it remain till cold; then remove the cloth and binding, and it will be ready to serve.

Time. — Altogether 6 hours. Average cost, 5s. to 7s. each.

Seasonable from March to October.

FEEDING A CALF. — The amount of milk necessary for a calf for some time, will be about four quarts a day, though, after the first fortnight, that quantity should be gradually increased, according to its development of body, when, if fed exclusively on milk, as much as three gallons a day will be requisite for the due health and requirements of the animal. If the weather is fine and genial, it should be turned into an orchard or small paddock for a few hours each day, to give it an opportunity to acquire a relish for the fresh pasture, which, by the tenth or twelfth week, it will begin to nibble and enjoy. After a certain time, the quantity of milk may be diminished, and its place supplied by water thickened with meal. Hay-tea and linseed-jelly are also highly nutritious substances, and may be used either as adjuncts or substitutes.

Fricasseed Calf’s Head (an Entree).

863. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of a boiled calf’s head, 1–1/2 pint of the liquor in which the head was boiled, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 onion minced, a bunch of savoury herbs, salt and white pepper to taste, thickening of butter and flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, forcemeat balls.

Mode. — Remove all the bones from the head, and cut the meat into nice square pieces. Put 1–1/2 pint of the liquor it was boiled in into a saucepan, with mace, onion, herbs, and seasoning in the above proportion; let this simmer gently for 3/4 hour, then strain it and put in the meat. When quite hot through, thicken the gravy with a little butter rolled in flour, and, just before dishing the fricassee, put in the beaten yolks of eggs and lemon-juice; but be particular, after these two latter ingredients are added, that the sauce does not boil, or it will curdle. Garnish with forcemeat balls and curled slices of broiled bacon. To insure the sauce being smooth, it is a good plan to dish the meat first, and then to add the eggs to the gravy: when these are set, the sauce may be poured over the meat.

Time. — Altogether, 1–1/4 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

Calf’s Head a la Maitre d’Hotel.

864. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of a cold calf’s head, rather more than 1/2 pint of Maitre d’hôtel sauce No. 466.

Mode. — Make the sauce by recipe No. 466, and have it sufficiently thick that it may nicely cover the meat; remove the bones from the head, and cut the meat into neat slices. When the sauce is ready, lay in the meat; let it gradually warm through, and, after it boils up, let it simmer very gently for 5 minutes, and serve.

Time. — Rather more than 1–1/2 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the meat, 1s. 2d.

Seasonable from March to October.

THE CALF IN AMERICA. — In America, the calf is left with the mother for three or four days, when it is removed, and at once fed on barley and oats ground together and made into a gruel, 1 quart of the meal being boiled for half an hour in 12 quarts of water. One quart of this certainly nutritious gruel, is to be given, lukewarm, morning and evening. In ten days, a bundle of soft hay is put beside the calf, which he soon begins to eat, and, at the same time, some of the dry meal is placed in his manger for him to lick. This process, gradually increasing the quantity of gruel twice a day, is continued for two months, till the calf is fit to go to grass, and, as it is said, with the best possible success. But, in this country, the mode pointed out in No. 862 has received the sanction of the best experience.

Curried Veal (Cold Meat Cookery).

865. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold roast veal, 4 onions, 2 apples sliced, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of broth or water, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode. — Slice the onions and apples, and fry them in a little butter; then take them out, cut the meat into neat cutlets, and fry these of a pale brown; add the curry-powder and flour, put in the onion, apples, and a little broth or water, and stew gently till quite tender; add the lemon-juice, and serve with an edging of boiled rice. The curry may be ornamented with pickles, capsicums, and gherkins arranged prettily on the top.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, exclusive of the meat, 4d. Seasonable from March to October.

Veal Cutlets (an Entree).

866. INGREDIENTS. — About 3 lbs. of the prime part of the leg of veal, egg and bread crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs, salt and popper to taste, a small piece of butter.

Mode. — Have the veal cut into slices about 3/4 of an inch in thickness, and, if not cut perfectly even, level the meat with a cutlet-bat or rolling-pin. Shape and trim the cutlets, and brush them over with egg. Sprinkle with bread crumbs, with which have been mixed minced herbs and a seasoning of pepper and salt, and press the crumbs down. Fry them of a delicate brown in fresh lard or butter, and be careful not to burn them. They should be very thoroughly done, but not dry. If the cutlets be thick, keep the pan covered for a few minutes at a good distance from the fire, after they have acquired a good colour: by this means, the meat will be done through. Lay the cutlets in a dish, keep them hot, and make a gravy in the pan as follows: Dredge in a little flour, add a piece of butter the size of a walnut, brown it, then pour as much boiling water as is required over it, season with pepper and salt, add a little lemon-juice, give one boil, and pour it over the cutlets. They should be garnished with slices of broiled bacon, and a few forcemeat balls will be found a very excellent addition to this dish.

Time. — For cutlets of a moderate thickness, about 12 minutes; if very thick, allow more time.

Average cost, 10d. per lb. Sufficient for 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — Veal cutlets may be merely floured and fried of a nice brown; the gravy and garnishing should be the same as in the preceding recipe. They may also be cut from the loin or neck, as shown in the engraving.

Broiled Veal Cutlets a l’Italienne (an Entree).

867. INGREDIENTS. — Neck of veal, salt and pepper to taste, the yolk of 1 egg, bread crumbs, 1/2 pint of Italian sauce No. 453.

Mode. — Cut the veal into cutlets, flatten and trim them nicely; powder over them a little salt and pepper; brush them over with the yolk of an egg, dip them into bread crumbs, then into clarified butter, and, afterwards, in the bread crumbs again; broil or fry them over a clear fire, that they may acquire a good brown colour. Arrange them in the dish alternately with rashers of broiled ham, and pour the sauce, made by recipe No. 453, in the middle.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes, according to the thickness of the cutlets.

Average cost, 10d. per lb.

Seasonable from March to October.

THE CALF’S-HEAD CLUB. — When the restoration of Charles II. took the strait waistcoat off the minds and morose religion of the Commonwealth period, and gave a loose rein to the long-compressed spirits of the people, there still remained a large section of society wedded to the former state of things. The elders of this party retired from public sight, where, unoffended by the reigning saturnalia, they might dream in seclusion over their departed Utopia. The young bloods of this school, however, who were compelled to mingle in the world, yet detesting the politics which had become the fashion, adopted a novel expedient to keep alive their republican sentiments, and mark their contempt of the reigning family. They accordingly met, in considerable numbers, at some convenient inn, on the 30th of January in each year — the anniversary of Charles’s death, and dined together off a feast prepared from calves’ heads, dressed in every possible variety of way, and with an abundance of wine drank toasts of defiance and hatred to the house of Stuart, and glory to the memory of old Holl Cromwell; and having lighted a large bonfire in the yard, the club of fast young Puritans, with their white handkerchiefs stained red in wine, and one of the party in a mask, bearing an axe, followed by the chairman, carrying a calf’s head pinned up in a napkin, marched in mock procession to the bonfire, into which, with great shouts and uproar, they flung the enveloped head. This odd custom was continued for some time, and even down to the early part of this century it was customary for men of republican politics always to dine off calf’s head on the 30th of January.

Veal Cutlets a la Maintenon (an Entree).

868. INGREDIENTS. — 2 or 3 lbs. of veal cutlets, egg and bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode. — Cut the cutlets about 3/4 inch in thickness, flatten them, and brush them over with the yolk of an egg; dip them into bread crumbs and minced herbs, season with pepper and salt and grated nutmeg, and fold each cutlet in a piece of buttered paper. Broil them, and send them to table with melted butter or a good gravy.

Time. — From 15 to 18 minutes. Average cost, 10d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Veal a La Bourgeoise.

(Excellent.)

869. INGREDIENTS. — 2 to 3 lbs. of the loin or neck of veal, 10 or 12 young carrots, a bunch of green onions, 2 slices of lean bacon, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, a few new potatoes, 1 pint of green peas.

Mode. — Cut the veal into cutlets, trim them, and put the trimmings into a stewpan with a little butter; lay in the cutlets and fry them a nice brown colour on both sides. Add the bacon, carrots, onions, spice, herbs, and seasoning; pour in about a pint of boiling water, and stew gently for 2 hours on a very slow fire. When done, skim off the fat, take out the herbs, and flavour the gravy with a little tomato sauce and ketchup. Have ready the peas and potatoes, boiled separately; put them with the veal, and serve.

Time. — 2 hours. Average cost, 2s. 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from June to August with peas; — rather earlier when these are omitted.

Scotch Collops (Cold Meat Cookery).

870. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold roast veal, a little butter, flour, 1/2 pint of water, 1 onion, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/2 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup.

Mode. — Cut the veal the same thickness as for cutlets, rather larger than a crown-piece; flour the meat well, and fry a light brown in butter; dredge again with flour, and add 1/2 pint of water, pouring it in by degrees; set it on the fire, and when it boils, add the onion and mace, and let it simmer very gently about 3/4 hour; flavour the gravy with lemon-juice, peel, wine, and ketchup, in the above proportion; give one boil, and serve.

Time. — 3/4 hour.

Seasonable from March to October.

Scotch Collops, White (Cold Meat Cookery).

871. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold roast veal, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 2 blades of pounded mace, cayenne and salt to taste, a little butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1/4 pint of water, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of sherry.

Mode. — Cut the veal into thin slices about 3 inches in width; hack them with a knife, and grate on them the nutmeg, mace, cayenne, and salt, and fry them in a little butter. Dish them, and make a gravy in the pan by putting in the remaining ingredients. Give one boil, and pour it over the collops; garnish with lemon and slices of toasted bacon, rolled. Forcemeat balls may be added to this dish. If cream is not at hand, substitute the yolk of an egg beaten up well with a little milk.

Time. — About 5 or 7 minutes.

Seasonable from May to October.

COOKING COLLOPS. — Dean Ramsay, who tells us, in his “Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character,” a number of famous stories of the strong-headed, warm-hearted, and plain-spoken old dames of the north, gives, amongst them, the following:— A strong-minded lady of this class was inquiring the character of a cook she was about to hire. The lady who was giving the character entered a little upon the cook’s moral qualifications, and described her as a very decent woman; to which the astounding reply — this was 60 years ago, and a Dean tells the story —“Oh, d — n her decency; can she make good collops?”

Roast Fillet of Veal.

872. INGREDIENTS. — Veal, forcemeat No. 417, melted butter.

Mode. — Have the fillet cut according to the size required; take out the bone, and after raising the skin from the meat, put under the flap a nice forcemeat, made by recipe No. 417. Prepare sufficient of this, as there should be some left to eat cold, and to season and flavour a mince if required. Skewer and bind the veal up in a round form; dredge well with flour, put it down at some distance from the fire at first, and baste continually. About 1/2 hour before serving, draw it nearer the fire, that it may acquire more colour, as the outside should be of a rich brown, but not burnt. Dish it, remove the skewers, which replace by a silver one; pour over the joint some good melted butter, and serve with either boiled ham, bacon, or pickled pork. Never omit to send a cut lemon to table with roast veal.

Time. — A fillet of veal weighing 12 lbs., about 4 hours.

Average cost, 9d. per lb.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Stewed Fillet of Veal.

873. INGREDIENTS. — A small fillet of veal, forcemeat No. 417, thickening of butter and flour, a few mushrooms, white pepper to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1/2 glass of sherry.

Mode. — If the whole of the leg is purchased, take off the knuckle to stew, and also the square end, which will serve for cutlets or pies. Remove the bone, and fill the space with a forcemeat No. 417. Roll and skewer it up firmly; place a few skewers at the bottom of a stewpan to prevent the meat from sticking, and cover the veal with a little weak stock. Let it simmer very gently until tender, as the more slowly veal is stewed, the better. Strain and thicken the sauce, flavour it with lemon-juice, mace, sherry, and white pepper; give one boil, and pour it over the meat. The skewers should be removed, and replaced by a silver one, and the dish garnished with slices of cut lemon.

Time. — A. fillet of veal weighing 6 lbs., 3 hours’ very gentle stewing.

Average cost, 9d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

THE GOLDEN CALF. — We are told in the book of Genesis, that Aaron, in the lengthened absence of Moses, was constrained by the impatient people to make them an image to worship; and that Aaron, instead of using his delegated power to curb this sinful expression of the tribes, and appease the discontented Jews, at once complied with their demand, and, telling them to bring to him their rings and trinkets, fashioned out of their willing contributions a calf of gold, before which the multitude fell down and worshipped. Whether this image was a solid figure of gold, or a wooden effigy merely, coated with metal, is uncertain. To suppose the former — knowing the size of the image made from such trifling articles as rings, we must presuppose the Israelites to have spoiled the Egyptians most unmercifully: the figure, however, is of more consequence than the weight or size of the idol. That the Israelite brought away more from Goshen than the plunder of the Egyptians, and that they were deeply imbued with Egyptian superstition, the golden calf is only one, out of many instances of proof; for a gilded ox, covered with a pall, was in that country an emblem of Osiris, one of the gods of the Egyptian trinity. Besides having a sacred cow, and many varieties of the holy bull, this priest-ridden people worshipped the ox as a symbol of the sun, and offered to it divine honours, as the emblem of frugality, industry, and husbandry. It is therefore probable that, in borrowing so familiar a type, the Israelites, in their calf-worship, meant, under a well-understood cherubic symbol, to acknowledge the full force of those virtues, under an emblem of divine power and goodness. The prophet Hosea is full of denunciations against calf-worship in Israel, and alludes to the custom of kissing these idols, Hosea, viii, 4–6.

Fricandeau of Veal (an Entree).

874. INGREDIENTS. — A piece of the fat side of a leg of veal (about 3 lbs.), lardoons, 2 carrots, 2 large onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, 6 whole allspice, 2 bay-leaves, pepper to taste, a few slices of fat bacon, 1 pint of stock No. 107.

Mode. — The veal for a fricandeau should be of the best quality, or it will not be good. It may be known by the meat being white and not thready. Take off the skin, flatten the veal on the table, then at one stroke of the knife, cut off as much as is required, for a fricandeau with an uneven surface never looks well. Trim it, and with a sharp knife make two or three slits in the middle, that it may taste more of the seasoning. Now lard it thickly with fat bacon, as lean gives a red colour to the fricandeau. Slice the vegetables, and put these, with the herbs and spices, in the middle of a stewpan, with a few slices of bacon at the top: these should form a sort of mound in the centre for the veal to rest upon. Lay the fricandeau over the bacon, sprinkle over it a little salt, and pour in just sufficient stock to cover the bacon, &c., without touching the veal. Let it gradually come to a boil; then put it over a slow and equal fire, and let it simmer very gently for about 2–1/2 hours, or longer should it be very large. Baste it frequently with the liquor, and a short time before serving, put it into a brisk oven, to make the bacon firm, which otherwise would break when it was glazed. Dish the fricandeau, keep it hot, skim off the fat from the liquor, and reduce it quickly to a glaze, with which glaze the fricandeau, and serve with a purée of whatever vegetable happens to be in season — spinach, sorrel, asparagus, cucumbers, peas, &c.

Time. — 2–1/2 hours. If very large, allow more time.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable from March to October.

Fricandeau of Veal (More economical.)

875. INGREDIENTS. — The best end of a neck of veal (about 2–1/2 lbs.), lardoons, 2 carrots, 2 onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 2 bay-leaves, a little whole white pepper, a few slices of fat bacon.

Mode. — Cut away the lean part of the best end of a neck of veal with a sharp knife, scooping it from the bones. Put the bones in with a little water, which will serve to moisten the fricandeau: they should stew about 1–1/2 hour. Lard the veal, proceed in the same way as in the preceding recipe, and be careful that the gravy does not touch the fricandeau. Stew very gently for 3 hours; glaze, and serve it on sorrel, spinach, or with a little gravy in the dish.

Time. — 3 hours.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — When the prime part of the leg is cut off, it spoils the whole; consequently, to use this for a fricandeau is rather extravagant. The best end of the neck answers the purpose nearly or quite as well.

Boiled Calf’s Head (with the Skin on).

876. INGREDIENTS. — Calf’s head, boiling water, bread crumbs, 1 large bunch of parsley, butter, white pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 or 3 grains of cayenne.

Mode. — Put the head into boiling water, and let it remain by the side of the fire for 3 or 4 minutes; take it out, hold it by the ear, and with the back of a knife, scrape off the hair (should it not come off easily, dip the head again into boiling water). When perfectly clean, take the eyes out, cut off the ears, and remove the brain, which soak for an hour in warm water. Put the head into hot water to soak for a few minutes, to make it look white, and then have ready a stewpan, into which lay the head; cover it with cold water, and bring it gradually to boil. Remove the scum, and add a little salt, which assists to throw it up. Simmer it very gently from 2–1/2 to 3 hours, and when nearly done, boil the brains for 1/4 hour; skin and chop them, not too finely, and add a tablespoonful of minced parsley which has been previously scalded. Season with pepper and salt, and stir the brains, parsley, &c., into about 4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter; add the lemon-juice and cayenne, and keep these hot by the side of the fire. Take up the head, cut out the tongue, skin it, put it on a small dish with the brains round it; sprinkle over the head a few bread crumbs mixed with a little minced parsley; brown these before the fire, and serve with a tureen of parsley and butter, and either boiled bacon, ham, or pickled pork as an accompaniment.

Time. — 2–1/2 to 3 hours.

Average cost, according to the season, from 3s. to 7s. 6d.

Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Boiled Calf’s Head (without the Skin).

877. INGREDIENTS. — Calf’s head, water, a little salt, 4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode. — After the head has been thoroughly cleaned, and the brains removed, soak it in warm water to blanch it. Lay the brains also into warm water to soak, and let them remain for about an hour. Put the head into a stewpan, with sufficient cold water to cover it, and when it boils, add a little salt; take off every particle of scum as it rises, and boil the head until perfectly tender. Boil the brains, chop them, and mix with them melted butter, minced parsley, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice in the above proportion. Take up the head, skin the tongue, and put it on a small dish with the brains round it. Have ready some parsley and butter, smother the head with it, and the remainder send to table in a tureen. Bacon, ham, pickled pork, or a pig’s cheek, are indispensable with calf’s head. The brains are sometimes chopped with hard-boiled eggs, and mixed with a little Béchamel or white sauce.

Time. — From 1–1/2 to 2–1/4 hours.

Average cost, according to the season, from 3s. to 5s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — The liquor in which the head was boiled should be saved: it makes excellent soup, and will be found a nice addition to gravies, &c. Half a calf’s head is as frequently served as a whole one, it being a more convenient-sized joint for a small family. It is cooked in the same manner, and served with the same sauces, as in the preceding recipe.

Hashed Calf’s Head (Cold Meat Cookery).

878. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of a cold boiled calf’s head, 1 quart of the liquor in which it was boiled, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a strip of lemon-peel, 2 blades of pounded mace, salt and white pepper to taste, a very little cayenne, rather more than 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, forcemeat balls.

Mode. — Cut the meat into neat slices, and put the bones and trimmings into a stewpan with the above proportion of liquor that the head was boiled in. Add a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a strip of lemon-peel, and 2 blades of pounded mace, and let these boil for 1 hour, or until the gravy is reduced nearly half. Strain it into a clean stewpan, thicken it with a little butter and flour, and add a flavouring of sherry, lemon-juice, and ketchup, in the above proportion; season with pepper, salt, and a little cayenne; put in the meat, let it gradually warm through, but not boil more than two or three minutes. Garnish the dish with forcemeat balls and pieces of bacon rolled and toasted, placed alternately, and send it to table very hot.

Time. — Altogether 1–1/2 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the remains of the head, 6d.

Seasonable from March to October.

Veal Collops (an Entree).

879. INGREDIENTS. — About 2 lbs. of the prime part of the leg of veal, a few slices of bacon, forcemeat No. 417, cayenne to taste, egg and bread crumbs, gravy.

Mode. — Cut the veal into long thin collops, flatten them, and lay on each a piece of thin bacon of the same size; have ready some forcemeat, made by recipe No. 417, which spread over the bacon, sprinkle over all a little cayenne, roll them up tightly, and do not let them be more than 2 inches long. Skewer each one firmly, egg and bread crumb them, and fry them a nice brown in a little butter, turning them occasionally, and shaking the pan about. When done, place them on a dish before the fire; put a small piece of butter in the pan, dredge in a little flour, add 1/4 pint of water, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, a seasoning of salt, pepper, and pounded mace; let the whole boil up, and pour it over the collops.

Time. — From 10 to 15 minutes.

Average cost, 10d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Calf’s Liver Aux Fines Herbes & Sauce Piquante.

880. INGREDIENTS. — A calf’s liver, flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley; when liked, 2 minced shalots; 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, pepper and salt to taste, 1/4 pint water.

Mode. — Procure a calf’s liver as white as possible, and cut it into slices of a good and equal shape. Dip them in flour, and fry them of a good colour in a little butter. When they are done, put them on a dish, which keep hot before the fire. Mince the herbs very fine, put them in the frying-pan with a little more butter; add the remaining ingredients, simmer gently until the herbs are done, and pour over the liver.

Time. — According to the thickness of the slices, from 5 to 10 minutes.

Average cost, 10d. per lb. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Calf’s Liver and Bacon.

881. INGREDIENTS. — 2 or 3 lbs. of liver, bacon, pepper and salt to taste, a small piece of butter, flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, 1/4 pint of water.

Mode. — Cut the liver in thin slices, and cut as many slices of bacon as there are of liver; fry the bacon first, and put that on a hot dish before the fire. Fry the liver in the fat which comes from the bacon, after seasoning it with pepper and salt and dredging over it a very little flour. Turn the liver occasionally to prevent its burning, and when done, lay it round the dish with a piece of bacon between each. Pour away the bacon fat, put in a small piece of butter, dredge in a little flour, add the lemon-juice and water, give one boil, and pour it in the middle of the dish. It may be garnished with slices of cut lemon, or forcemeat balls.

Time. — According to the thickness of the slices, from 5 to 10 minutes.

Average cost, 10d. per lb. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Calf’s Liver Larded and Roasted (an Entree).

882. INGREDIENTS. — A calf’s liver, vinegar, 1 onion, 3 or 4 sprigs of parsley and thyme, salt and pepper to taste, 1 bay-leaf, lardoons, brown gravy.

Mode. — Take a fine white liver, and lard it the same as a fricandeau; put it into vinegar with an onion cut in slices, parsley, thyme, bay-leaf, and seasoning in the above proportion. Let it remain in this pickle for 24 hours, then roast and baste it frequently with the vinegar, &c.; glaze it, serve under it a good brown gravy, or sauce piquante, and send it to table very hot.

Time. — Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 10d. per lb.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — Calf’s liver stuffed with forcemeat No. 417, to which has been added a little fat bacon, will be found a very savoury dish. It should be larded or wrapped in buttered paper, and roasted before a clear fire. Brown gravy and currant jelly should be served with it.

Fillet of Veal Au Bechamel (Cold Meat Cookery).

883. INGREDIENTS. — A small fillet of veal, 1 pint of Béchamel sauce No. 367, a few bread crumbs, clarified butter.

Mode. — A fillet of real that has been roasted the preceding day will answer very well for this dish. Cut the middle out rather deep, leaving a good margin round, from which to cut nice slices, and if there should be any cracks in the veal, fill them up with forcemeat. Mince finely the meat that was taken out, mixing with it a little of the forcemeat to flavour, and stir to it sufficient Béchamel to make it of a proper consistency. Warm the veal in the oven for about an hour, taking care to baste it well, that it may not be dry; put the mince in the place where the meat was taken out, sprinkle a few bread crumbs over it, and drop a little clarified butter on the bread crumbs; put it into the oven for 1/4 hour to brown, and pour Béchamel round the sides of the dish.

Time. — Altogether 1–1/2 hour.

Seasonable from March to October.

To Ragout a Knuckle of Veal.

884. INGREDIENTS. — Knuckle of veal, pepper and salt to taste, flour, 1 onion, 1 head of celery, or a little celery-seed, a faggot of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, thickening of butter and flour, a few young carrots, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of tomato sauce, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, the juice of 1/4 lemon.

Mode. — Cut the meat from a knuckle of veal into neat slices, season with pepper and salt, and dredge them with flour. Fry them in a little butter of a pale brown, and put them into a stewpan with the bone (which should be chopped in several places); add the celery, herbs, mace, and carrots; pour over all about 1 pint of hot water, and let it simmer very gently for 2 hours, over a slow but clear fire. Take out the slices of meat and carrots, strain and thicken the gravy with a little butter rolled in flour; add the remaining ingredients, give one boil, put back the meat and carrots, let these get hot through, and serve. When in season, a few green peas, boiled separately, and added to this dish at the moment of serving, would be found a very agreeable addition.

Time. — 2 hours. Average cost, 5d. to 6d. per lb.

Sufficient for 4 or 6 persons.

Stewed Knuckle of Veal and Rice.

885. INGREDIENTS. — Knuckle of veal, 1 onion, 2 blades of mace, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 lb. of rice.

Mode. — Have the knuckle cut small, or cut some cutlets from it, that it may be just large enough to be eaten the same day it is dressed, as cold boiled veal is not a particularly tempting dish. Break the shank-bone, wash it clean, and put the meat into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it. Let it gradually come to a boil, put in the salt, and remove the scum as fast as it rises. When it has simmered gently for about 3/4 hour, add the remaining ingredients, and stew the whole gently for 2–1/4 hours. Put the meat into a deep dish, pour over it the rice, &c., and send boiled bacon, and a tureen of parsley and butter to table with it.

Time. — A knuckle of veal weighing 6 lbs., 3 hours’ gentle stewing.

Average cost, 5d. to 6d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — Macaroni, instead of rice, boiled with the veal, will be found good; or the rice and macaroni may be omitted, and the veal sent to table smothered in parsley and butter.

Roast Loin of Veal.

886. INGREDIENTS. — Veal; melted butter.

Mode. — Paper the kidney fat; roll in and skewer the flap, which makes the joint a good shape; dredge it well with flour, and put it down to a bright fire. Should the loin be very large, skewer the kidney back for a time to roast thoroughly. Keep it well basted, and a short time before serving, remove the paper from the kidney, and allow it to acquire a nice brown colour, but it should not be burnt. Have ready some melted butter, put it into the dripping-pan after it is emptied of its contents, pour it over the veal, and serve. Garnish the dish with slices of lemon and forcemeat balls, and send to table with it, boiled bacon, ham, pickled pork, or pig’s cheek.

Time. — A large loin, 3 hours.

Average cost, 9–1/2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — A piece of toast should be placed under the kidney when the veal is dished.

Loin of Veal Au Bechamel (Cold Meat Cookery).

887. INGREDIENTS. — Loin of veal, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, rather more than 1/2 pint of Béchamel or white sauce.

Mode. — A loin of veal which has come from table with very little taken off, answers very well for this dish. Cut off the meat from the inside, mince it, and mix with it some minced lemon-peel; put it into sufficient Béchamel to warm through. In the mean time, wrap the joint in buttered paper, and place it in the oven to warm. When thoroughly hot, dish the mince, place the loin above it, and pour over the remainder of the Béchamel.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour to warm the meat in the oven.

Seasonable from March to October.

Loin of Veal, a la Daube.

888. INGREDIENTS. — The chump end of a loin of veal, forcemeat No. 417, a few slices of bacon, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 pint of veal stock or water, 5 or 6 green onions.

Mode. — Cut off the chump from a loin of veal, and take out the bone; fill the cavity with forcemeat No. 417, tie it up tightly, and lay it in a stewpan with the bones and trimmings, and cover the veal with a few slices of bacon. Add the herbs, mace, pepper, and onions, and stock or water; cover the pan with a closely-fitting lid, and simmer for 2 hours, shaking the stewpan occasionally. Take out the bacon, herbs, and onions; reduce the gravy, if not already thick enough, to a glaze, with which glaze the meat, and serve with tomato, mushroom, or sorrel sauce.

Time. — 2 hours.

Average cost, 9d. per lb.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Minced Veal, with Béchamel Sauce (Cold Meat Cookery).

(Very Good.)

889. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of a fillet of veal, 1 pint of Béchamel sauce No. 367, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, forcemeat balls.

Mode. — Cut — but do not chop — a few slices of cold roast veal as finely as possible, sufficient to make rather more than 1 lb., weighed after being minced. Make the above proportion of Béchamel, by recipe No. 367; add the lemon-peel, put in the veal, and let the whole gradually warm through. When it is at the point of simmering, dish it, and garnish with forcemeat balls and fried sippets of bread.

Time. — To simmer 1 minute.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Minced Veal.

(More Economical.)

890. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold roast fillet or loin of veal, rather more than 1 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, salt and white pepper to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 or 3 young carrots, a faggot of sweet herbs, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream or milk.

Mode. — Take about 1 lb. of veal, and should there be any bones, dredge them with flour, and put them into a stewpan with the brown outside, and a few meat trimmings; add rather more than a pint of water, the onion cut in slices, lemon-peel, seasoning, mace, carrots, and herbs; simmer these well for rather more than 1 hour, and strain the liquor. Rub a little flour into some butter; add this to the gravy, set it on the fire, and, when it boils, skim well. Mince the veal finely by cutting, and not chopping it; put it in the gravy; let it get warmed through gradually; add the lemon-juice and cream, and, when it is on the point of boiling, serve. Garnish the dish with sippets of toasted bread and slices of bacon rolled and toasted. Forcemeat balls may also be added. If more lemon-peel is liked than is stated above, put a little very finely minced to the veal, after it is warmed in the gravy.

Time. — 1 hour to make the gravy.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d.

Seasonable from March to October.

THE CALF A SYMBOL OF DIVINE POWER. — A singular symbolical ceremony existed among the Hebrews, in which the calf performed a most important part. The calf being a type or symbol of Divine power, or what was called the Elohim — the Almighty intelligence that brought them out of Egypt — was looked upon much in the same light by the Jews, as the cross subsequently was by the Christians, a mystical emblem of the Divine passion and goodness. Consequently, an oath taken on either the calf or the cross was considered equally solemn and sacred by Jew or Nazarene, and the breaking of it a soul-staining perjury on themselves, and an insult and profanation directly offered to the Almighty. To render the oath more impressive and solemn, it was customary to slaughter a dedicated calf in the temple, when, the priests having divided the carcase into a certain number of parts, and with intervening spaces, arranged the severed limbs on the marble pavement, the one, or all the party, if there were many individuals, to be bound by the oath, repeating the words of the compact, threaded their way in and out through the different spaces, till they had taken the circuit of each portion of the divided calf, when the ceremony was concluded. To avert the anger of the Lord, when Jerusalem was threatened by Nebuchadnezzar and his Babylonian host, the Jews had made a solemn to God, ratified by the ceremony of the calf, if He released them from their dreaded foe, to cancel the servitude of their Hebrew brethren. After investing the city for some time, and reducing the inhabitants to dreadful suffering and privation, the Babylonians, hearing that Pharaoh, whom the Jews had solicited for aid, was rapidly approaching with a powerful army, hastily raised the siege, and, removing to a distance, took up a position where they could intercept the Egyptians, and still cover the city. No sooner did the Jews behold the retreat of the enemy, than they believed all danger was past, and, with their usual turpitude, they repudiated their oath, and refused to liberate their oppressed countrymen. For this violation of their covenant with the Lord, they were given over to all the horrors of the sword, pestilence, and famine — Jeremiah, xxxiv. 15–17.

Minced Veal and Macaroni.

(A pretty side or corner dish.)

891. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of minced cold roast veal, 3 oz. of ham, 1 tablespoonful of gravy, pepper and salt to taste, 3 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of macaroni, 1 or 2 eggs to bind, a small piece of butter.

Mode. — Cut some nice slices from a cold fillet of veal, trim off the brown outside, and mince the meat finely with the above proportion of ham: should the meat be very dry, add a spoonful of good gravy. Season highly with pepper and salt, add the grated nutmeg and bread crumbs, and mix these ingredients with 1 or 2 eggs well beaten, which should bind the mixture and make it like forcemeat. In the mean time, boil the macaroni in salt and water, and drain it; butter a mould, put some of the macaroni at the bottom and sides of it, in whatever form is liked; mix the remainder with the forcemeat, fill the mould up to the top, put a plate or small dish on it, and steam for 1/2 hour. Turn it out carefully, and serve with good gravy poured round, but not over, the meat.

Time. — 1/2 hour. Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 10d.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — To make a variety, boil some carrots and turnips separately in a little salt and water; when done, cut them into pieces about 1/8 inch in thickness; butter an oval mould, and place these in it, in white and red stripes alternately, at the bottom and sides. Proceed as in the foregoing recipe, and be very careful in turning it out of the mould.

Moulded Minced Veal (Cold Meat Cookery).

892. INGREDIENTS. — 3/4 lb. of cold roast veal, a small slice of bacon, 1/4 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1/2 onion chopped fine, salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste, a slice of toast soaked in milk, 1 egg.

Mode. — Mince the meat very fine, after removing from it all skin and outside pieces, and chop the bacon; mix these well together, adding the lemon-peel, onion, seasoning, mace, and toast. When all the ingredients are thoroughly incorporated, heat up an egg, with which bind the mixture. Butter a shape, put in the meat, and hake for 3/4 hour; turn it out of the mould carefully, and pour round it a good brown gravy. A sheep’s head dressed in this manner is an economical and savoury dish.

Time. — 3/4 hour. Average cost, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

Seasonable from March to October.

Braised Neck of Veal.

893. INGREDIENTS. — The best end of the neck of veal (from 3 to 4 lbs.), bacon, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste; 1 onion, 2 carrots, a little celery (when this is not obtainable, use the seed), 1/2 glass of sherry, thickening of butter and flour, lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace.

Mode. — Prepare the bacon for larding, and roll it in minced parsley, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg; lard the veal, put it into a stewpan with a few slices of lean bacon or ham, an onion, carrots, and celery; and do not quite cover it with water. Stew it gently for 2 hours, or until it is quite tender; strain off the liquor; stir together over the fire, in a stewpan, a little flour and butter until brown; lay the veal in this, the upper side to the bottom of the pan, and let it remain till of a nice brown colour. Place it in the dish; pour into the stewpan as much gravy as is required, boil it up, skim well, add the wine, pounded mace, and lemon-juice; simmer for 3 minutes, pour it over the meat, and serve.

Time. — Rather more than 2 hours.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

BIRTH OF CALVES. — The cow seldom produces more than a single calf; sometimes, twins, and, very rarely, three. A French newspaper, however — the “Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences,”— gave a trustworthy but extraordinary account of a cow which produced nine calves in all, at three successive births, in three successive years. The first year, four cow calves; the second year, three calves, two of them females; the third year, two calves, both females. With the exception of two belonging to the first birth, all were suckled by the mother.

Roast Neck of Veal.

894. INGREDIENTS. — Veal, melted butter, forcemeat balls.

Mode. — Have the veal cut from the best end of the neck; dredge it with flour, and put it down to a bright clear fire; keep it well basted; dish it, pour over it some melted butter, and garnish the dish with fried forcemeat balls; send to table with a cut lemon. The scrag may be boiled or stewed in various ways, with rice, onion-sauce, or parsley and butter.

Time. — About 2 hours. Average cost, 8d. per lb.

Sufficient. — 4 or 5 lbs. for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

Veal Olive Pie (Cold Meat Cookery).

895. INGREDIENTS. — A few thin slices of cold fillet of veal, a few thin slices of bacon, forcemeat No. 417, a cupful of gravy, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, puff-crust.

Mode. — Cut thin slices from a fillet of veal, place on them thin slices of bacon, and over them a layer of forcemeat, made by recipe No. 417, with an additional seasoning of shalot and cayenne; roll them tightly, and fill up a pie-dish with them; add the gravy and cream, cover with a puff-crust, and bake for 1 to 1–1/2 hour: should the pie be very large, allow 2 hours. The pieces of rolled veal should be about 3 inches in length, and about 3 inches round.

Time. — Moderate-sized pie, 1 to 1–1/2 hour.

Seasonable from March to October.

Fried Patties (Cold Meat Cookery).

896. INGREDIENTS. — Cold roast veal, a few slices of cold ham, 1 egg boiled hard, pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, gravy, cream, 1 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, good puff-paste.

Mode. — Mince a little cold veal and ham, allowing one-third ham to two-thirds veal; add an egg boiled hard and chopped, and a seasoning of pounded mace, salt, pepper, and lemon-peel; moisten with a little gravy and cream. Make a good puff-paste; roll rather thin, and cut it into round or square pieces; put the mince between two of them, pinch the edges to keep in the gravy, and fry a light brown. They may be also baked in patty-pans: in that case, they should be brushed over with the yolk of an egg before they are put in the oven. To make a variety, oysters may be substituted for the ham.

Time. — 15 minutes to fry the patties.

Seasonable from March to October.

Veal Pie.

897. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of veal cutlets, 1 or 2 slices of lean bacon or ham, pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, crust, 1 teacupful of gravy.

Mode. — Cut the cutlets into square pieces, and season them with pepper, salt, and pounded mace; put them in a pie-dish with the savoury herbs sprinkled over, and 1 or 2 slices of lean bacon or ham placed at the top: if possible, this should be previously cooked, as undressed bacon makes the veal red, and spoils its appearance. Pour in a little water, cover with crust, ornament it in any way that is approved; brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and bake in a well-heated oven for about 1–1/2 hour. Pour in a good gravy after baking, which is done by removing the top ornament, and replacing it after the gravy is added.

Time. — About 1–1/2 hour. Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from March to October.

A VERY VEAL DINNER. — At a dinner given by Lord Polkemmet, a Scotch nobleman and judge, his guests saw, when the covers were removed, that the fare consisted of veal broth, a roasted fillet of veal, veal cutlets, a veal pie, a calf’s head, and calf’s-foot jelly. The judge, observing the surprise of his guests, volunteered an explanation. —“Oh, ay, it’s a’ cauf; when we kill a beast, we just eat up ae side, and doun the tither.”

Veal and Ham Pie.

898. INGREDIENTS. — 2 lbs. of veal cutlets, 1/2 lb. of boiled ham, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced savoury herbs, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 2 blades of pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, a strip of lemon-peel finely minced, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 1/2 pint of water, nearly 1/2 pint of good strong gravy, puff-crust.

Mode. — Cut the veal into nice square pieces, and put a layer of them at the bottom of a pie-dish; sprinkle over these a portion of the herbs, spices, seasoning, lemon-peel, and the yolks of the eggs cut in slices; cut the ham very thin, and put a layer of this in. Proceed in this manner until the dish is full, so arranging it that the ham comes at the top. Lay a puff-paste on the edge of the dish, and pour in about 1/2 pint of water; cover with crust, ornament it with leaves, brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and bake in a well-heated oven for 1 to 1–1/2 hour, or longer, should the pie be very large. When it is taken out of the oven, pour in at the top, through a funnel, nearly 1/2 pint of strong gravy: this should be made sufficiently good that, when cold, it may cut in a firm jelly. This pie may be very much enriched by adding a few mushrooms, oysters, or sweetbreads; but it will be found very good without any of the last-named additions.

Time. — 1–1/2 hour, or longer, should the pie be very large. Average cost, 3s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from March to October.

Potted Veal (for Breakfast).

899. INGREDIENTS. — To every lb. of veal allow 1/4 lb. of ham, cayenne and pounded mace to taste, 6 oz. of fresh butter; clarified butter.

Mode. — Mince the veal and ham together as finely as possible, and pound well in a mortar, with cayenne, pounded mace, and fresh butter in the above proportion. When reduced to a perfectly smooth paste, press it into potting-pots, and cover with clarified butter. If kept in a cool place, it will remain good some days.

Seasonable from March to October.

NAMES OF CALVES, &c. — During the time the young male calf is suckled by his mother, he is called a bull-or ox-calf; when turned a year old, he is called a stirk, stot, or yearling; on the completion of his second year, he is called a two-year-old bull or steer (and in some counties a twinter); then, a three-year-old steer; and at four, an ox or a bullock, which latter names are retained till death. It may be here remarked, that the term ox is used as a general or common appellation for neat cattle, in a specific sense, and irrespective of sex; as the British ox, the Indian ox. The female is termed cow, but while sucking the mother, a cow-calf; at the age of a year, she is called a yearling quey; in another year, a heifer, or twinter; then, a three-year-old quey or twinter; and, at four years old, a cow. Other names, to be regarded as provincialisms, may exist in different districts.

Ragout of Cold Veal (Cold Meat Cookery).

900. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of cold veal, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of gravy, thickening of butter and flour, pepper and salt to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, forcemeat balls.

Mode. — Any part of veal will make this dish. Cut the meat into nice-looking pieces, put them in a stewpan with 1 oz. of butter, and fry a light brown; add the gravy (hot water may be substituted for this), thicken with a little butter and flour, and stew gently about 1/4 hour; season with pepper, salt, and pounded mace; add the ketchup, sherry, and lemon-juice; give one boil, and serve. Garnish the dish with forcemeat balls and fried rashers of bacon.

Time. — Altogether 1/2 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d.

Seasonable from March to October.

Note. — The above recipe may be varied, by adding vegetables, such as peas, cucumbers, lettuces, green onions cut in slices, a dozen or two of green gooseberries (not seedy), all of which should be fried a little with the meat, and then stewed in the gravy.

Veal Rissoles (Cold Meat Cookery).

901. INGREDIENTS. — A few slices of cold roast veal, a few slices of ham or bacon, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 tablespoonful of minced savoury herbs, 1 blade of pounded mace, a very little grated nutmeg, cayenne and salt to taste, 2 eggs well beaten, bread crumbs.

Mode. — Mince the veal very finely with a little ham or bacon; add the parsley, herbs, spices, and seasoning; mix into a paste with an egg; form into balls or cones; brush these over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and fry a rich brown. Serve with brown gravy, and garnish the dish with fried parsley.

Time. — About 10 minutes to fry the rissoles.

Seasonable from March to October.

Veal Rolls (Cold Meat Cookery).

902. INGREDIENTS. — The remains of a cold fillet of veal, egg and bread crumbs, a few slices of fat bacon, forcemeat No. 417.

Mode. — Cut a few slices from a cold fillet of veal 1/2 inch thick; rub them over with egg; lay a thin slice of fat bacon over each piece of veal; brush these with the egg, and over this spread the forcemeat thinly; roll up each piece tightly, egg and bread crumb them, and fry them a rich brown. Serve with mushroom sauce or brown gravy.

Time. — 10 to 15 minutes to fry the rolls.

Seasonable from March to October.

Shoulder of Veal, Stuffed and Stewed.

903. INGREDIENTS. — A shoulder of veal, a few slices of ham or bacon, forcemeat No. 417, 3 carrots, 2 onions, salt and pepper to taste, a faggot of savoury herbs, 3 blades of pounded mace, water, thickening of butter and flour.

Mode. — Bone the joint by carefully detaching the meat from the blade-bone on one side, and then on the other, being particular not to pierce the skin; then cut the bone from the knuckle, and take it out. Fill the cavity whence the bone was taken with a forcemeat made by recipe No. 417. Roll and bind the veal up tightly; put it into a stew-pan with the carrots, onions, seasoning, herbs, and mace; pour in just sufficient water to cover it, and let it stew very gently for about 5 hours. Before taking it up, try if it is properly done by thrusting a larding-needle in it: if it penetrates easily, it is sufficiently cooked. Strain and skim the gravy, thicken with butter and flour, give one boil, and pour it round the meat. A few young carrots may be boiled and placed round the dish as a garnish, and, when in season, green peas should always be served with this dish.

Time. — 5 hours. Average cost, 7d. per lb.

Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable from March to October.

THE FATTENING OF CALVES. — The fattening of calves for the market is an important business in Lanarkshire or Clydesdale, and numbers of newly-dropped calves are regularly carried there from the farmers of the adjacent districts, in order to be prepared for the butcher. The mode of feeding them is very simple; milk is the chief article of their diet, and of this the calves require a sufficient supply from first to last. Added to this, they must be kept in a well-aired place, neither too hot nor too cold, and freely supplied with dry litter. It is usual to exclude the light — at all events to a great degree, and to put within their reach a lump of chalk, which they are very fond of licking. Thus fed, calves, at the end of 8 or 9 weeks, often attain a very large size; viz., 18 to 20 stone, exclusive of the offal. Far heavier weights have occurred, and without any deterioration in the delicacy and richness of the flesh. This mode of feeding upon milk alone at first appears to be very expensive, but it is not so, when all things are taken into consideration; for at the age of 9 or 10 weeks a calf, originally purchased for 8 shillings, will realize nearly the same number of pounds. For 4, or even 6 weeks, the milk of one cow is sufficient — indeed half that quantity is enough for the first fortnight; but after the 5th or 6th week it will consume the greater portion of the milk of two moderate cows; but then it requires neither oil-cake nor linseed, nor any other food. Usually, however, the calves are not kept beyond the age of 6 weeks, and will then sell for 5 or 6 pounds each: the milk of the cow is then ready for a successor. In this manner a relay of calves may be prepared for the markets from early spring to the end of summer, a plan more advantageous than that of overfeeding one to a useless degree of corpulency.

Veal Sausages.

904. INGREDIENTS. — Equal quantities of fat bacon and lean veal; to every lb. of meat, allow 1 teaspoonful of minced sage, salt and pepper to taste.

Mode. — Chop the meat and bacon finely, and to every lb. allow the above proportion of very finely-minced sage; add a seasoning of pepper and salt, mix the whole well together, make it into flat cakes, and fry a nice brown.

Seasonable from March to October.

Stewed Veal, with Peas, young Carrots, and new Potatoes.

905. INGREDIENTS. — 3 or 4 lbs. of the loin or neck of veal, 15 young carrots, a few green onions, 1 pint of green peas, 12 new potatoes, a bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup.

Mode. — Dredge the meat with flour, and roast or bake it for about 3/4 hour: it should acquire a nice brown colour. Put the meat into a stewpan with the carrots, onions, potatoes, herbs, pepper, and salt; pour over it sufficient boiling water to cover it, and stew gently for 2 hours. Take out the meat and herbs, put it in a deep dish, skim off all the fat from the gravy, and flavour it with lemon-juice, tomato sauce, and mushroom ketchup in the above proportion. Have ready a pint of green peas boiled; put these with the meat, pour over it the gravy, and serve. The dish may be garnished with a few forcemeat balls. The meat, when preferred, may be cut into chops, and floured and fried instead of being roasted; and any part of veal dressed in this way will be found extremely savoury and good.

Time. — 3 hours. Average cost, 9d. per lb.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable, with peas, from June to August.

Baked Sweetbreads (an Entree).

906. INGREDIENTS. — 3 sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, oiled butter, 3 slices of toast, brown gravy.

Mode. — Choose large white sweetbreads; put them into warm water to draw out the blood, and to improve their colour; let them remain for rather more than 1 hour; then put them into boiling water, and allow them to simmer for about 10 minutes, which renders them firm. Take them up, drain them, brush over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs; dip them in egg again, and then into more bread crumbs. Drop on them a little oiled butter, and put the sweetbreads into a moderately-heated oven, and let them bake for nearly 3/4 hour. Make 3 pieces of toast; place the sweetbreads on the toast, and pour round, but not over them, a good brown gravy.

Time. — To soak 1 hour, to be boiled 10 minutes, baked 40 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. to 5s. Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable. — In full season from May to August.

Fried Sweetbreads a la Maitre d’Hotel (an Entree).

907. INGREDIENTS. — 3 sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, rather more than 1/2 pint of Maître d’hôtel sauce No. 466.

Mode. — Soak the sweetbreads in warm water for an hour; then boil them for 10 minutes; cut them in slices, egg and bread crumb them, season with pepper and salt, and put them into a frying-pan, with the above proportion of butter. Keep turning them until done, which will be in about 10 minutes; dish them, and pour over them a Maître d’hôtel sauce, made by recipe No. 466. The dish may be garnished with slices of cut lemon.

Time. — To soak 1 hour, to be broiled 10 minutes, to be fried about 10 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. to 5s., according to the season.

Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable. — In full season from May to August.

Note. — The egg and bread crumb may be omitted, and the slices of sweetbread dredged with a little flour instead, and a good gravy may be substituted for the maître ’hôtel sauce. This is a very simple method of dressing them.

Stewed Sweetbreads (an Entree).

908. INGREDIENTS. — 3 sweetbreads, 1 pint of white stock No. 107, thickening of butter and flour, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace, white pepper and salt to taste.

Mode. — Soak the sweetbreads in warm water for 1 hour, and boil them for 10 minutes; take them out, put them into cold water for a few minutes; lay them in a stewpan with the stock, and simmer them gently for rather more than 1/2 hour. Dish them; thicken the gravy with a little butter and flour; let it boil up, add the remaining ingredients, allow the sauce to get quite hot, but not boil, and pour it over the sweetbreads.

Time. — To soak 1 hour, to be boiled 10 minutes, stewed rather more than 1/2 hour.

Average cost, from 1s. to 5s., according to the season.

Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable. — In full season from May to August.

Note. — A few mushrooms added to this dish, and stewed with the sweetbreads, will be found an improvement.

SEASON AND CHOICE OF VEAL. — Veal, like all other meats, has its season of plenty. The best veal, and the largest supply, are to be had from March to the end of July. It comes principally from the western counties, and is generally of the Alderney breed. In purchasing veal, its whiteness and fineness of grain should be considered, the colour being especially of the utmost consequence. Veal may be bought at all times of the year and of excellent quality, but is generally very dear, except in the months of plenty.

Stewed Tendrons De Veau (an Entree).

909. INGREDIENTS. — The gristles from 2 breasts of veal, stock No. 107, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, 4 cloves, 2 carrots, 2 onions, a strip of lemon-peel.

Mode. — The tendrons or gristles, which are found round the front of a breast of veal, are now very frequently served as an entrée, and when well dressed, make a nice and favourite dish. Detach the gristles from the bone, and cut them neatly out, so as not to spoil the joint for roasting or stewing. Put them into a stewpan, with sufficient stock, No. 107, to cover them; add the herbs, mace, cloves, carrots, onions, and lemon, and simmer these for nearly, or quite, 4 hours. They should be stewed until a fork will enter the meat easily. Take them up, drain them, strain the gravy, boil it down to a glaze, with which glaze the meat. Dish the tendrons in a circle, with croûtons fried of a nice colour placed between each; and put mushroom sauce, or a purée of green peas or tomatoes, in the middle.

Time. — 4 hours. Sufficient for one entrée.

Seasonable. — With peas, from June to August.

COW-POX, OR VARIOLA. — It is to Dr. Jenner, of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, who died in 1823, that we owe the practice of vaccination, as a preservative from the attack of that destructive scourge of the human race, the small-pox. The experiments of this philosophic man were begun in 1797, and published the next year. He had observed that cows were subject to a certain infectious eruption of the teats, and that those persons who became affected by it, while milking the cattle, escaped the small-pox raging around them. This fact, known to farmers from time immemorial, led him to a course of experiments, the result of which all are acquainted with.

Tendrons De Veau (an Entree).

910. INGREDIENTS. — The gristles from 2 breasts of veal, stock No. 107, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, 1 blade of pounded mace, 4 cloves, 2 carrots, 2 onions, a strip of lemon-peel, egg and bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, salt and pepper to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, the yolk of 1 egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode. — After removing the gristles from a breast of veal, stew them for 4 hours, as in the preceding recipe, with stock, herbs, mace, cloves, carrots, onions, and lemon-peel. When perfectly tender, lift them out and remove any bones or hard parts remaining. Put them between two dishes, with a weight on the top, and when cold, cut them into slices. Brush these over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and fry a pale brown. Take 1/2 pint of the gravy they were boiled in, add 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, a seasoning of salt and pepper, the sherry, and the yolk of an egg beaten with 3 tablespoonfuls of cream. Stir the sauce over the fire until it thickens; when it is on the point of boiling, dish the tendrons in a circle, and pour the sauce in the middle. Tendrons are dressed in a variety of ways — with sauce à l’Espagnole, vegetables of all kinds: when they are served with a purée, they should always be glazed.

Time. — 4–1/2 hours. Average cost. — Usually bought with breast of veal.

Sufficient for an entrée.

Seasonable from March to October.

Tete De Veau En Tortue (an Entree).

911. INGREDIENTS. — Half a calf’s head, or the remains of a cold boiled one; rather more than 1 pint of good white stock, No. 107, 1 glass of sherry or Madeira, cayenne and salt to taste, about 12 mushroom-buttons (when obtainable), 6 hard-boiled eggs, 4 gherkins, 8 quenelles or forcemeat balls, No. 422 or 423, 12 crayfish, 12 croûtons.

Mode. — Half a calf’s head is sufficient to make a good entrée, and if there are any remains of a cold one left from the preceding day, it will answer very well for this dish. After boiling the head until tender, remove the bones, and cut the meat into neat pieces; put the stock into a stewpan, add the wine, and a seasoning of salt and cayenne; fry the mushrooms in butter for 2 or 3 minutes, and add these to the gravy. Boil this quickly until somewhat reduced; then put in the yolks of the hard-boiled eggs whole, the whites cut in small pieces, and the gherkins chopped. Have ready a few veal quenelles, made by recipe No. 422 or 423; add these, with the slices of head, to the other ingredients, and let the whole get thoroughly hot, without boiling. Arrange the pieces of head as high in the centre of the dish as possible; pour over them the ragout, and garnish with the crayfish and croûtons placed alternately. A little of the gravy should also be served in a tureen.

Time. — About 1/2 hour to reduce the stock.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Average cost, exclusive of the calf’s head, 2s. 9d.

Seasonable from March to October.

A FRENCHMAN’S OPINION OF VEAL. — A great authority in his native Paris tells us, that veal, as a meat, is but little nourishing, is relaxing, and sufficiently difficult of digestion. Lending itself, as it does, he says, in all the flowery imagery of the French tongue and manner, “to so many metamorphoses, it may be called, without exaggeration, the chameleon of the kitchen. Who has not eaten calf’s head au naturel, simply boiled with the skin on, its flavour heightened by sauce just a little sharp? It is a dish as wholesome as it is agreeable, and one that the most inexperienced cook may serve with success. Calf’s feet à la poulette, au gratin, fried, &c.; les cervelles, served in the same manner, and under the same names; sweetbreads en fricandeau, piqués en fin — all these offer most satisfactory entrées, which the art of the cook, more or less, varies for the gratification of his glory and the well-being of our appetites. We have not spoken, in the above catalogue, either of the liver, or of the fraise, or of the ears, which also share the honour of appearing at our tables. Where is the man not acquainted with calf’s liver à la bourgeoise, the most frequent and convenient dish at unpretentious tables? The fraise, cooked in water, and eaten with vinegar, is a wholesome and agreeable dish, and contains a mucilage well adapted for delicate persons. Calf’s ears have, in common with the feet and cervelles, the advantage of being able to be eaten either fried or à la poulette; and besides, can be made into a farce, with the addition of peas, onions, cheese, &c. Neither is it confined to the calf’s tongue, or even the eyes, that these shall dispute alone the glory of awakening the taste of man; thus, the fressure (which, as is known, comprises the heart, the mou, and the rate), although not a very recherché dish, lends itself to all the caprices of an expert artist, and may, under various marvellous disguises, deceive, and please, and even awaken our appetite.”— Verily, we might say, after this rhapsody of our neighbour, that his country’s weal will not suffer in him as an able and eloquent exponent and admirer.

Veal Carving.
Breast of Veal.

912. The carving of a breast of veal is not dissimilar to that of a fore-quarter of lamb, when the shoulder has been taken off. The breast of veal consists of two parts — the rib-bones and the gristly brisket. These two parts should first be separated by sharply passing the knife in the direction of the lines 1, 2; when they are entirely divided, the rib-bones should be carved in the direction of the lines 5 to 6; and the brisket can be helped by cutting pieces in the direction 3 to 4. The carver should ask the guests whether they have a preference for the brisket or ribs; and if there be a sweetbread served with the dish, as it often is with roast breast of veal, each person should receive a piece.

Calf’s Head.

913. This is not altogether the most easy-looking dish to cut when it is put before a carver for the first time; there is not much real difficulty in the operation, however, when the head has been attentively examined, and, after the manner of a phrenologist, you get to know its bumps, good and bad. In the first place, inserting the knife quite down to the bone, cut slices in the direction of the line 1 to 2; with each of these should be helped a piece of what is called the throat sweetbread, cut in the direction of from 3 to 4. The eye, and the flesh round, are favourite morsels with many, and should be given to those at the table who are known to be the greatest connoisseurs. The jawbone being removed, there will then be found some nice lean; and the palate, which is reckoned by some a tit-bit, lies under the head. On a separate dish there is always served the tongue and brains, and each guest should be asked to take some of these.

Fillet of Veal.

914. The carving of this joint is similar to that of a round of beef. Slices, not too thick, in the direction of the line 1 to 2 are cut; and the only point to be careful about is, that the veal be evenly carved. Between the flap and the meat the stuffing is inserted, and a small portion of this should be served to every guest. The persons whom the host wishes most to honour should be asked if they like the delicious brown outside slice, as this, by many, is exceedingly relished.

Knuckle of Veal.

915. The engraving, showing the dotted line from 1 to 2, sufficiently indicates the direction which should be given to the knife in carving this dish. The best slices are those from the thickest part of the knuckle, that is, outside the line 1 to 2.

Loin of Veal.

916. As is the case with a loin of mutton, the careful jointing of a loin of veal is more than half the battle in carving it. If the butcher be negligent in this matter, he should be admonished; for there is nothing more annoying or irritating to an inexperienced carver than to be obliged to turn his knife in all directions to find the exact place where it should be inserted in order to divide the bones. When the jointing is properly performed, there is little difficulty in carrying the knife down in the direction of the line 1 to 2. To each guest should be given a piece of the kidney and kidney fat, which lie underneath, and are considered great delicacies.

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Last updated Wednesday, March 12, 2014 at 13:31